On the high plateau the larch predominates over all other species of conifers or deciduous trees; the wide, open valleys are thickly planted with Betula nana and B.
to the broad open valleys which form the principal feature of the inner plateau.
For the most part the rivers follow open valleys along belts of weak strata; but they frequently pass through sharp-cut notches in the na1row ridges of the stratified beltthe Delaware water-gap is one of the deepest of these notches; and in the harder rocks of the crystalline belt they have eroded steep-walled gorges, of which the finest is that of the Hudson, because of the greater height and breadth of the crystalline highlands there than at points where the other rivers cross it.
The region was by no means a peneplain before its slanting uplift; its surface then was hilly and in the south mountainous; in its central and still more in its northern part it was overspread with lavas which flowed westward along the broad open valleys from many vents in the eastern part: near the northern end of the range, eruptions have continued in the present cycle, forming many cones and young lava flows.
The open valleys between the spaced ranges offer many tempting sites for settlement, but in the south irrigation is needed for cultivation.
In the south of Scotland the larger streams flow in wide open valleys called dales, as in Clydesdale, Tweeddale, Teviotdale, Liddesdale, Eskdale, Nithsdale.
The greater portion is exceedingly hilly and in parts mountainous, and the interior consists almost entirely of highlands with here and there open valleys and plateaus of 50 to 60 sq.
The Sub-Himalaya, which is " easily defined by the fringing line of hills, more or less broad, and in places very distinctly marked off from the main chain by open valleys (dhuns) or narrow valleys, parallel to the main axis of the chain."
above the sea, 2 and discharged into the wide open valleys or syrts.
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