Oligarchy Sentence Examples
This governing oligarchy was known as " the patricians."
The regal government was at a later time exchanged for an oligarchy or a democracy.
A more important result of Athenian intervention was the substitution of the democratic government for the oligarchy which had succeeded the early monarchy; at any rate forty years later we find that Argos possessed complete democratic institutions.
The municipal boroughs (246 in England and Wales in 1832) were governed by mayor, aldermen, councillors and a close body of burgesses or freemen, a narrow oligarchy.
He was hated and feared by most of the oligarchy.Advertisement
A refuge of Italian pauperism in the time of the Gracchi, after the triumph of the oligarchy the Narbonnaise became a field for shameless exploitation, besides providing, under the proconsulate of Caesar, an excellent point of observation whence to watch the intestine quarrels between the different nations of Gaul.
Until 1916 the country was ruled by an oligarchy of landowners who operated a parliament on a restricted suffrage.
The liberal leadership simply joined the ranks of the existing landed oligarchy.
It will remain literally an oligarchy, a committee of 25 ministers making laws in secret for 450 million people.
Only in this way can the plans of the financial oligarchy be blocked.Advertisement
There is, here, the real risk of a self-perpetuating oligarchy.
So long as the island retained its independence the government was an oligarchy.
The, expansion of commerce which resulted from the Fourth Crusade soon made itself evident in the city by a rapid development in its architecture and by a decided strengthening of the commercial aristocracy, which eventually led to the great constitutional reform - the closing of the Maggior Consiglio in 1296, whereby Venice became a rigid oligarchy.
Caesar at once approached both Pompey and Crassus, who alike detested the existing system of government but were personally at variance, and succeeded in persuading them to forget their quarrel and join him in a coalition which should put an end to the rule of the oligarchy.
The government of the town was vested in the patrician families, who, contrary to the usual course of events in the free towns, succeeded in permanently excluding the civic gilds from all share of municipal power, although in 1347 there was a sharp rising against this oligarchy.Advertisement
In the early part of the 4th century it fell again under Persian influence, and was administered by an oligarchy.
Three years later the Spartan garrison was expelled, and a democratic constitution definitely set up in place of the traditional oligarchy.
Here the object of the insurgents was in most cases to break down the local oligarchy, who engrossed all municipal office and oppressed the meaner citizens; but in less numerous instances their end was to win charters from lords (almost always ecclesiastical lords) who had hitherto refused to grant them.
England has always chafed against a family oligarchy, however well it may do its work.
Nevertheless, the remedy was worse than the disease, for it would have established a close oligarchy, bound sooner or later to come into conflict with the will of the nation, and only to be overthrown by a violent alteration of the constitution.Advertisement
That system placed the government of the country in the hands of a territorial oligarchy, composed of a few families of large possessions, fairly enlightened principles, and shrewd political sense.
He took a leading part in establishing the oligarchy of the Four Hundred at Athens in 411 B.C., and was assassinated in the same year (Thucydides viii.).
The plains, also, were suited to the breeding of horses, and consequently the force in which the Thessalian nation was strong was cavalry, a kind of troops which has usually been associated with oligarchy.
Moreover, she had no share in the expansion of Greek commerce and Greek culture; and, though she bore the reputation of hating tyrants and putting them down where possible, there can be little doubt that this was done in the interests of oligarchy rather than of liberty.
Everywhere democracy was replaced by a philo-Laconian oligarchy, usually consisting of ten men under a harmost or governor pledged to Spartan Empire.Advertisement
Choiseul did not hesitate to attack through lits de justice or by exile a judiciary oligarchy which doubtless rested its pretensions merely on wealth, high birth, or that e!icroaching spirit that was the only counteracting agency to the monarchy.
Having fought the oligarchy of privilege, the monarchy next tried to rally it to its side, and all the springs of the old rgime were strained to the breaking-point.
He deposed the governing oligarchy, changed the constitution of the town, forbade all alliances and laid the foundations of a castle.
While paying lip-service to democracy they perpetuate an unhealthy oligarchy.
If people went around saying we had an electoral oligarchy you would get a blank look from most.
At length the exiles, becoming numerous, returned, and, engaging and defeating the people, established the oligarchy.
It is easy to denounce the dominant Magyar classes as a selfish oligarchy, and to criticize the methods by which they have sought to maintain their power.
In these circumstances the administration of public affairs fell into the hands of an oligarchy, who governed the country to suit their own convenience.
In the interval of twenty years between the death of Timoleon and the rise of Agathocles to power another revolution at Syracuse transferred the government to an oligarchy of 600 leading citizens.
His ideal was a return to a 6th century constitution, which his contemporaries could equally regard as a moderate oligarchy or a restricted democracy.
Marat had seen that England was at this time being ruled by an oligarchy using the forms of liberty, which, while pretending to represent the country, was really being gradually mastered by the royal power.
Marius, however, unlike Caesar, did not attempt to overturn the oligarchy by means of the army; he used rather such expedients as the constitution seemed to allow, though they had to be backed up by riot and violence.
It is probable, again, that party interest was a leading motive in Cleophon's mind, since a peace would have meant the return of the oligarchic exiles and the establishment of a moderate oligarchy.
For supporting the criminal oligarchy in Venezuela, and for its historic interference in the internal affairs of peoples.
It has been argued that the war was ultimately a struggle between the principles of oligarchy and democracy.
These poorer people - who were not, however, "poor whites" - developed an abiding hostility towards the oligarchy.
The electoral body is therefore small, and is under the control of a political oligarchy which practically rules the country, no matter which party is in power.
Nevertheless, we cannot regard Catiline as an honest enemy of the oligarchy, or as a disinterested champion of the provincials.
They swayed backwards and forwards between the power of the people and the power of the few; but democracy and oligarchy passed sooner or later into the hands of a master who veiled his lordship under various titles, and generally at last into the hands of a family.
It seems certain that the drafters of the charter were honest in their intentions, and did not purpose to set up a feudal oligarchy in the place of a royal autocracy.
Behind these structures anonymous monetary aces of the international financial oligarchy hide.
Like most of the new Russian oligarchy there have been some rather murky chapters in Mr Abramovich's past.
How secure was the Whig oligarchy that came to power at the death of Queen Anne in 1714?
Responsible for this situation is a small oligarchy of visible and invisible persons who want to impose their agenda for global domination.
Salazar's economic policies greatly enhanced the wealth of the ruling oligarchy.
Thriving in this system of oligarchy (rule of the few) that we do requires a pragmatic, Machiavellian stratagem.
Its assembly of notables or municipal council forms a sort of oligarchy, the members of which themselves elect individuals from among the more prominent inhabitants to fill vacancies.
The power of the nobles would seem to have been more effectively broken in a war with Athens, in which Megara ultimately lost the island of Salamis (about 570, see SoLoN), for shortly afterwards the constitution was changed to a democracy, and eventually was fixed as an oligarchy of a moderate type.
The comune included the entire citybishop, consuls, oligarchy, councils, handicraftsmen, proletariate.
It was almost inevitable in the transition from feudalism to democracy that this intermediate ground should be traversed; and the peculiar Italian phrases, primo popolo, secondo popolo, terzo pa polo, and so forth, indicate successive changes, whereby the oligarchy passed from one stage to another in its progress toward absorption in democracy or tyranny.
Anne accepted the condition and became empress, but when she discovered that the attempt to limit her powers in favour of a small conservative oligarchy was extremely unpopular among all classes, she submitted the question to an assembly of Boo ecclesiastical and lay dignitaries, and at their request the unlimited autocratic rule was re-established.
Disorders and conspiracies against the merchant oligarchy continued, and although they were unsuccessful party passion was incredibly bitter, and the exiles caused the republic much trouble by intriguing against it in foreign states.
In 390 B.C. Thrasybulus, with the assistance of Heracleides and Archebius, expelled the Lacedaemonian oligarchy, and restored democracy and the Athenian influence.
In 69 B.C. he served as quaestor under Antistius Vetus, governor of Hither Spain, and on his way back to Rome (according to Suetonius) promoted a revolutionary agitation straitest sect of the senatorial oligarchy and, together with his party, placed every form of constitutional obstructionin the path of Caesar's legislation.
The monarchical government introduced by Deiphontes gave way to an oligarchy, and the oligarchy degenerated into a despotism.
But meanwhile the exclusiveness of the single class of citizens from whose ranks the chief magistrates were drawn had converted the government into a close oligarchy and excited the hatred of every other class.
It has its council of notables, forming a sort of oligarchy which, through the medium of a mayor and two subordinates, directs the interior affairs of the community - policing, recruiting, the assignment and collection of taxes, &c. - and has judicial power in less important suits and crimes.
The English church also formed a quasi-official clerical oligarchy, and the land reserved by the Constitutional Act for the support of "a protestant clergy" formed a fruitful source of bitterness.
A common theory is that Sparta fought throughout the war as an advocate of oligarchy, while Athens did not seek to interfere with the constitutional preferences of her allies.
The discontented condition of Upper Canada drew him into politics., and on the 18th of May 1824 he published at Queenston the first number of the Colonial Advocate, in which the ruling oligarchy was attacked with great asperity.
Her commercial policy was one of most irrational and intolerable restriction and repression; and till the end of Spanish rule on the American continent, the whole political power was retained by the court at Madrid, and administered in the colonies by an oligarchy of home-bred Spaniards.
In1763-1765an investigation of the finances of the colony, forced by the up-country party, showed widespread corruption, and resulted in the collapse of the tide-water oligarchy, which had been in power since 1660.
The victory had been won over the archbishop; but a fresh peril had developed in the course of the 13th century in the growth of a patrician class, which, as in so many other cities, threatened to absorb all power into the hands of a close oligarchy.
The value of this latter account is, of course, debatable, but it is at least compatible with the general trend of development from hereditary absolutism, civil, military and religious, in the person of the " king," to a constitutional oligarchy.
This view, however, cannot be taken of the early stages of the war when there was democracy and oligarchy on both sides (see ad fin.); it is only in the later stages that the political difference is prominent.
He succeeded (c. 15-10 B.C.) in setting up a timocratic oligarchy in the imperial interest (see Tarsus).
The hereditary oligarchy of Venice was established by a series of changes which took place between the years 1297 and 1319.
The tyranny was succeeded by an oligarchy based upon a graduated money qualification, which ruled with a consistency equalling that of the Venetian Council, but pursued a policy too purely commercial to the neglect of military efficiency.
Gradually the dispute pervaded all classes of society, and the religious questions became entangled with political issues; the partisans of the house of Orange espoused the cause of the stricter Calvinism, whereas the bourgeois oligarchy of republican tendencies, led by Oldenbarnevelt and Hugo Grotius, stood for Arminianism.
This oligarchy was overthrown again in June, and the new democracy having vainly sought an agreement with Sparta rejoined Athens.
He opened negotiations with the Athenian leaders in Samos and urged them to upset the democracy and establish a philo-Persian oligarchy.
The necessities of war and foreign affairs soon placed Florence in the power of an oligarchy headed by the great Albizzi family.
Those sixty thousand, like the populus of Rome, formed a narrow oligarchy as regarded the rest of the nation, but a wild democracy among themselves.
When Procles the tyrant was carried captive by Periander of Corinth, the oligarchy was restored, and the people of Epidaurus continued ever afterwards close allies of the Spartan power.
It was shortly after this revolution, in 317, that Agathocles with a body of mercenaries from Campania and a host of exiles from the Greek cities, backed up by the Carthaginian Hamilcar, who was in friendly relations with the Syracusan oligarchy, became a tyrant or despot of the city, assuming subsequently, on the strength of his successes against Carthage, the title of king.
But in spite of Savonarola's popularity there was a party called the Bigi (greys) who intrigued secretly in favour of the return of the Medici, while the men of wealth, called the Arrabbiati, although they hated the Medici, were even more openly opposed to the actual regime and desired to set up an aristocratic oligarchy.
The magistracy had been acquiring more and more the character of an oligarchy; all power was practically in the hands of a few closely-related families; and the gravest peculation and malversation took place without hindrance.
The oligarchy composed of the great landowners have always been an important factor in the political life of the republic; when President Balmaceda found that he was not a persona grata to this circle he determined to endeavour to govern without their support, and to bring into the administration a set of men who had no traditions and with whom his personality would be all-powerful.
Up to 1870 the government was in the hands of a small oligarchy of Santiago families, but the president enjoyed large powers of initiative.
It is an oligarchy of patriarchs.
And Venice was ruled by a close oligarchy; Florence was passing from the hands of her oligarchs into the power of the Medicean merchants.
But the particular way in which oligarchy was finally established at Venice had some singular results.
Moreover, borough government in England seems to have been mainly democratic until the r4th or 15th century; there was no oligarchy to be depressed or suppressed.
While many continental municipalities were becoming more democratic in the 14th century, those of England were drifting towards oligarchy, towards government by a close "select body."
Then follows the treatment of oligarchy, democracy, commonwealth and tyranny, and of the various powers of government (0), and independent investigation of revolution, and of the means of preserving states (E), and a further treatment of democracy and oligarchy, and of the different offices of the state (Z), and finally a return to the discussion of the right form of constitution (II, 0).
But though in Bremen the efforts of the craftsmen's "arts" to secure a share of power had been held in check and the gilds never gained any importance, the city government did not, as at Cologne and elsewhere, develop into a close patrician oligarchy.
This brought him into fierce conflict with the reigning oligarchy and with the lieutenantgovernor, Lord Falkland (1803-1884), whom he forced to resign.
Meanwhile the rule of the town was extending over more and more territory, so that finally it governed 52 bailiwicks (acquired between 1324 and 1729), the Bernese patricians being thus extremely powerful and forming an oligarchy that administered affairs like a benevolent and well-ordered despotism.
Taking advantage of an outbreak at Genoa, he overthrew that ancient oligarchy, replaced it by a form of government modelled on that of France (June 6th); and subsequently it adopted the name of the Ligurian Republic.
He published The Oligarchy of Venice (1904).
They forced upon the king the Provisions of Oxford (1258), which placed the govern ment in the hands of a feudal oligarchy; they reduced expenditure, expelled the alien favourites from the kingdom, and insisted upon a final renunciation of the French claims. The king submitted for the moment, but at the first opportunity endeavoured to cancel his concessions.
The sympathies of Dinarchus were in favour of an Athenian oligarchy under Macedonian control; but it should be remembered that he was not an Athenian citizen.
A nobility of this kind often gave way to a democracy which either proved as turbulent as itself, or else grew into an oligarchy ruling under democratic forms. Thus at Florence the old nobles became the opposite to a privileged class.
In the rest of the Midlands and in East Anglia they were only a governing oligarchy of scanty numbers.