How to use Oldest in a sentence
It is the oldest existing.
I'm the oldest male healer in my guild.
She's my oldest daughter.
It was from the healer's guild, one of the oldest guild's in the universe.
The town is one of the oldest in Norway, founded in the 8th or 9th century, but the present town is modern, though narrow, winding streets and wooden houses give it an antique appearance.Advertisement
It's the oldest bond there is, old enough to keep the mating bond from shifting when she wins her deal.
Sasha may not have pulled the trigger on Andre, but someone he knew where to find their oldest brother, who had been protecting Katie when he was rendered dead-dead.
There was valet parking for residents and visitors, and her car was – by far – the oldest and cheapest among those in the drive.
The oldest Egyptian or Hindoo philosopher raised a corner of the veil from the statue of the divinity; and still the trembling robe remains raised, and I gaze upon as fresh a glory as he did, since it was I in him that was then so bold, and it is he in me that now reviews the vision.
Dr. Edward Everett Hale is one of my very oldest friends.Advertisement
The form "Neper" is the oldest, as John, third Napier of Merchiston, so spelt it in the 15th century.
She blinked out of the spell and saw Romas's oldest brother, his eyes glittering with anger.
The four Gothic churches of St Nicholas,' St Mary, with a lofty steeple, St James and The Holy Ghost, and the fine medieval town hall, dating in its oldest part from 1306 and restored in 1882, are among the more striking buildings.
The oldest charter now on record is one belonging to the 6th year of Edward I.; and it refers to previous documents of the time of Edward the Confessor and William the Conqueror.
Proteaceous plants, although not exclusively Australian, are exceedingly characteristic of Australian scenery, and are counted amongst the oldest flowering plants of the world.Advertisement
One of the oldest and most widespread methods of divining the future, both among primitive people and among several of the civilizations of antiquity, was the reading of omens in the signs noted on the liver of the animal offered as a sacrifice to some deity.
The Grand Mosque (Jamaa-el-Kebir) is traditionally said to be the oldest mosque in Algiers.
Indeed, one of the oldest leaders of the school, Diodorus of Tarsus, was himself among the strictest ascetics.
The oldest rocks of Elba consist of schist and serpentine which in the eastern part of the island are overlaid by beds containing Silurian and Devonian fossils.
The oldest of the class (i) is that generically known as a coherer, the construction of which we have already described.Advertisement
Close by are the Steipe or Rotes Haus, formerly the town hall, of the 15th century, and the Frankenturm or propugnaculum, of the 10th century, said to be the oldest stone domestic building in Germany.
Among the other 55 churches may be mentioned that of St Nicholas, an Early Gothic building, the oldest church in date of foundation in Ghent, and that of St Michael, completed in 1480, with an unfinished tower.
The oldest Belgian newspaper, the Gazet van Gent, was founded here in 1667.
The nearest enemy was Bohemia, to whom Poland had lately been compelled to pay tribute for her oldest possession, Silesia.
The Pali books written in Ceylon, Burma and Siam will be our best and oldest, and in many respects our only, authorities for the sociology and politics, the literature and the religion, of their respective countries.Advertisement
The oldest of the vigils is that of Easter Eve, those of Pentecost and Christmas being instituted somewhat later.
Here is situated the Randolph-Macon College (Methodist Episcopal, South), one of the oldest Methodist Episcopal colleges in the United States.
Even the oldest trees put out continually new leaves and twigs.
They then gradually lose the power of growth, the oldest ones or those facthest from the apex parting with it first, and they pass gradually over into the condition of the permanent tissues.
On Congress Street, below the Observatory, is the Eastern Cemetery, the oldest burying ground of the city; in it are the graves of Commodore Edward Preble, and of Captain Samuel Blythe (1784-1813) and Captain William Burroughs (1785-1813), who were killed in the engagement between the British brig "Boxer" and the American brig "Enterprise," their respective ships, off this coast on the 5th of September 1813.
The oldest known bird is theArchaeopteryx, of the upper Oolite in Bavaria.
Here, in fact, lay some of the oldest and wealthiest towns, the sites of which have, however, been removed inland by the silting up of the shore.
The Ahom language is the oldest member of the Tai branch of the Siamese-Chinese linguistic family of which we have any record.
But this is exactly what the original Roman patricians, the settlers on the three oldest hills, were in the beginning.
The oldest tradition they possess refers to a time shortly after the overthrow of the Majapahit dynasty in Java, about the middle of the 15th century; but it has been supposed that there must have been Indian settlers here before the middle of the 1st century, by whom the present name, probably cognate with the Sanskrit balin, strong, was in all likelihood imposed.
Founded in 1519 by Pedro Arias de Avila, Panama is the oldest European town on the mainland of America.
Sweet, Oldest English Texts, p. 171 (London, 1885).
The oldest building in Sofia is the little round chapel of St George in the Jewish quarter - originally, it is said, a Roman temple; then a church, then a mosque, and now a church once more.
The oldest and commonest method of shunting is that known as " push-and-pull," or in America as " link-and-pin " or " tail " shunting.
C. Conybeare, Rituale Armenorum, (Oxford, 1905; it contains the oldest Latin and Greek forms), The Key of Truth (Oxford, 1898), and art.
Those of the Tatar portion, which is the oldest part of the city, are 50 ft.
The oldest of these trunk lines, the Southern Pacific (formerly the Central Pacific), follows the course of the Humboldt and Truckee rivers.
The oldest stone bears the date 1681 many of the stones were made in England, and bear quaint inscriptions.
The city is one of the oldest in Rumania.
The oldest trustworthy sources know nothing of his having exercised the office of Inquisitor during the Albigensian war" (Griitzmacher).
The oldest narratives are not in their original contexts, and they contain features which render it questionable whether a very trustworthy recollection of the period was retained.
In Australia the Jews from the first were welcomed on perfectly equal terms. The oldest congregation is that of Sydney (1817); the Melbourne community dates from 1844.
In the extreme north-east are found the oldest rocks in the state - lower Devonian (the New Scotland beds of New York) and, not so old, an extension of the Lower Carboniferous which underlies the Warrior coalfields of Alabama, and which consists of cherts, limestones, sandstones and shales, with a depth of 800 to 900 ft.
The oldest permanent settlements in the state are (New) Biloxi (c. 1712), situated across the bay from Old Biloxi and nearer to the Gulf, and Natchez or Fort Rosalie (1716).
In the south, in Syria, Arabia and the peninsula of India, none but the oldest rocks are folded, and the Upper Palaeozoic, the Mesozoic and the Tertiary beds lie almost horizontally upon them.
This is the oldest of existing states, though its authentic history does not go back much beyond 1000 B.C. It is generally admitted that there was some connexion between the ancient civilizations of China and Babylonia, but its precise nature is still uncertain.
That the oldest of these three does not contain earlier attempts to idealize him is unlikely.
Below it are covered promenades, and from it steps descend to the lower town, the oldest part of which (the so-called Marina), sloping gradually towards the sea, is probably the nucleus of the Roman municipium, while the quarter of Stampace lies to the west, and beyond it again the suburb of Sant' Avendrace.
Harrodsburg was founded on the 16th of June 1774 by James Harrod (1746-1793) and a few followers, and is the oldest permanent settlement in the state.
The elders are the first or oldest teachers of congregations, for which there is no regular bishop. They have charge of the meetings of such congregations, and participate in excommunication proceedings, besides which they preach, exhort, baptize, and may, when needed, take the offices of the deacons.
The Carboniferous or "Mountain" Limestone is the oldest formation in the county; its thickness is not known, but it is certainly over 2000 ft.; it is well exposed in the numerous narrow gorges cut by the Derwent and its tributaries and by the Dove on the Staffordshire border.
One of the most learned men of his day, he devoted his spare time to history, and discovered that many of the oldest and most cherished Scandinavian MSS.
The Old Stone House (the oldest building in the city) was erected as a residence in 1737, and is now used for a museum.
Masons' Hall, whose corner-stone was laid in 1785, is said to be the oldest exclusively Masonic building in the United States.
Traces of it have been found in the Swiss lake-dwellings; it is mentioned in the oldest Greek writings, and was cultivated by the Romans.
Of these stations the greatest, and the oldest now existing, is that at Rothamsted, Harpenden, Herts, England, which was founded in 1843 by Sir John Bennet Lawes.
The coercion of England's oldest ally had long been one of Napoleon's most cherished aims, and was expressly provided for in that compact.
In the highest hell rules alone the grisly king Sh'dum, "the warrior"; in the storey immediately beneath is Giv, "the great"; and in the lowest is Krun or Karkum, the oldest and most powerful of all, commonly called "the great mountain of flesh" (Third rabba d'besra), but also "the first-born of darkness."
The oldest historical synaxaria apparently go back to the tenth century.
The oldest larva known, Mormolucoides articulatus, is from the New Red Sandstone of Connecticut; it belongs to the Sialidae, one of the lowest forms of Holometabola.
The state includes the oldest settlements in Venezuela, and was once very prosperous, producing cattle and exporting hides, but wars and political disorders have partly destroyed its industries and impeded their development.
Portsmouth and Dover are the oldest permanent settlements in the state.
Among the existing campanili the oldest are San Geremia, dating from the 11th century, San Samuele from the 12th, San Barnaba and San Zaccaria from the 13th.
The Ohio Company founded Marietta at the mouth of the Muskingum in 1788, and this is regarded as the oldest permanent settlement in the state.
The iron mines are among the oldest in the country; mining began probably as early as 1731.
Christ church (1723) is the oldest church of the city; in its tower the signal lanterns were displayed for Paul Revere on the night of the 18th of April 1775.
The new English High and Latin school, founded in 1635, is the oldest school of the country.
Beetles (Scarabaei) are the subjects of some of the oldest sculptured works of the Egyptians, and references to locusts, bees and ants are familiar to all readers of the Hebrew scriptures.
Among the public buildings and places of interest are the three churches on the Green, built in 5854; Center Church (Congregational), in the rear of which is the grave of John Dixwell (1608-1689), one of the regicides; United (formerly known as North) Church (Congregational), and Trinity Church, which belongs to one of the oldest Protestant Episcopal congregations in Connecticut.
Cathbu (Cathbad), the Druid connected with Conchobar, king of Ulster, in the older cycle is accompanied by a number of youths (Ioo according to the oldest version) who are desirous of learning his art, though what this consisted in we are not told.
In the southern region, which is by far the better known, the oldest rocks are granites, crystalline schists and other rocks of Archean aspect.
The chief buildings are the chateau, mainly of the 15th century, of which the massive donjon of the 11th century known as the Tour de Cesar is the oldest portion; and the abbey-church of Notre-Dame, a building in the Romanesque style of architecture, frequently restored.
It might also be anticipated, were the theory of a southward immigration to be sustained, that the Malays would be new-comers in the islands of the archipelago, and have their oldest settlements on the Malayan Peninsula.
Here also are some of the oldest settlements, such as Vianen on the Lek, Leerdam on the Linge, and Woudrichem or Woerkum at the junction of the Maas and Merwede.
Of the first group the most interesting and possibly the oldest is the Book of Crates; it is remarkable for containing some of the signs used for the metals by the Greek alchemists, and for giving figures of four pieces of apparatus which closely resemble those depicted in Greek MSS., the former being never, and the latter rarely, found in other Arabic MSS.
The story of Tantalus is an echo of a semi-Greek kingdom, which had its seat at Sipylus, the oldest and holiest city of Lydia, the remains of which are still visible.
The thirteen words, in a local dialect of Pali, are written in very ancient characters, and are the oldest inscription as yet discovered in India.
The oldest stage-building was erected in the time of Lycurgus; it consisted of a rectangular hall with square projections (1rapauKs vca) on either side; in As= front of this was built in late Greek or early Roman times a stage with a row of columns which intruded upon the orchestra space; a later and larger stage, dating from the time of Nero, advanced still farther into the orchestra, and this was finally faced (probably in the 3rd century A.D.) by the " bema " of Phaedrus, a platform-wall decorated with earlier reliefs, the slabs of which were cut down to suit their new position.
He was the oldest of the four sons of the Rev. David Dudley Field (1781-1867), a well-known American clergyman and author.
The oldest mention of Robin Hood at present known occurs in the second edition - what is called the B text - of Piers the Plowman, the date of which is about 1377.
The Roman Catholic is the predominant church and the bishopric of Porto Rico (1512) is one of the oldest in the New World.
The oldest iron weapon known was hitherto supposed to be an Egyptian halbert-head of the time of Rameses III., but Mr. Randall Maclver has recently discovered in a tomb of the XII.
From 1784 to 1804 Rutland was one of the capitals of Vermont, and the Capitol, built in 1784, is the second oldest building in the state.
The Rutland Herald, one of the oldest newspapers in Vermont still published, was established as a Federalist weekly in 1794--a daily edition first appeared in 1861, and is now Republican.
The more noteworthy are the old government house (now occupied by the school of mines), the legislative chambers, municipal hall and jail - all fronting on the Praga da Independencia - and elsewhere the old Casa dos Contos (afterwards the public treasury), a theatre (the oldest in Brazil, restored in 1861-1862) and a hospital.
The lopeared breed is the oldest English variety, and has been cultivated carefully since about 1785, the aim of the breeder being directed to the development of the size of the ears, and with such success that they sometimes measure more than 23 in.
They contain about 8000 names, with their 1 The oldest MS. of Ptolemy's Geography is found in the Vatopedi monastery of Mt Athos.
The oldest rectangular map of the world is contained in a most valuable work written by Cosmas, an Alexandrian monk, surnamed Indicopleustes, after returning from a voyage to India (535 A.D.), and entitled Christian Topography.
Similar maps illustrating the Commentaries exist at St Sever (1050), Paris (1203), and Tunis; others are rectangular, the oldest being in Lord Ashburnham's library (970).
This is the oldest original of a map in existence, for it dates back to the 6th century.
The oldest of these globes was made at Valentia, and is now in the museum of Florence.
The oldest of these maps which have been preserved, the socalled " Pisan chart," which belongs probably to the middle of the 13th century, and a set of eight charts, known by the name of its former owner, the Cavaliere Tamar Luxoro, of somewhat later date, are both the work of Genoese artists.
With the exception of the crypt, the transepts are the oldest portions of the building now remaining.
Nola (Naa) was one of the oldest cities of Campania, variously said to have been founded by the Ausones, the Chalcidians and the Etruscans.
At the revolution of 1848 Dupont de l'Eure was made president of the provisional assembly as being its oldest member.
Not far off, similar relics were found at Sobunar, Zlatiste and Debelobrdo; iron and bronze ornaments, vessels and weapons, often of elaborate design, occur in the huts and cemeteries of Glasinac, and in the cemetery of Jezerine, where they are associated with objects in silver, tin, amber, glass, &c. Among the numerous finds made in other districts may be mentioned the discovery, at Vrankamer, near Bihac, of 98 African coins, the oldest of which dates from 300 B.C. Many vestiges of Roman rule survive, such as roads, mines, ruins, tombs, coins, frescoes and inscriptions.
In the oldest (Pindar) the "Argo" sailed along the river Phasis into the eastern Oceanus, round Asia to the south coast of Libya, thence to the mythical lake Tritonis, of ter being carried twelve days over land through Libya, and thence again to Iolcus.
Pindar, in the fourth Pythian ode, gives the oldest detailed account of it.
He was not only the oldest native dramatist, but the first author of an epic poem (Bellum Punicum) - which, by combining the representation of actual contemporary history with a mythical background, may be said to have created the Roman type of epic poetry.
They sacrifice the paschal lamb, which is probably the oldest religious rite that has been continuously kept up. In two important points they differ from later Jewish interpretation.
It is possible that some of these rocks are also of Huronian age, but it is doubtful whether the rocks so designated by the geologists of the " Alert " and " Discovery " expedition are really the rocks so known in Canada, or are a continuous portion of the fundamental or oldest gneiss of the north-west of Scotland and the western isles.
Beds of this age, consisting of sandstones and coal, are found on the northern coast of Disco Island and the southern side of the Noursoak Peninsula, the beds in the former locality, " the Kome strata " of Nordenskiold, being the oldest.
In Strabo's time a tribe called Dardanii, then reckoned Illyrian, living next the Thracian Bessi (in whose land was the oldest oracle of Dionysus), were probably as much Thracian as Illyrian.
The St Petrikirche, originally consecrated in the 12th century and rebuilt in the 14th, was the oldest church in Hamburg; it was burnt in 1842 and rebuilt in its old form in 1844-1849.
The Strafford Savings Bank is said to be the largest and oldest savings institution in the state.
Dover is one of the two oldest cities in the state.
The oldest of the plantation trees of Ceylon and Malaya are not much more than twelve years old, whilst it is to.
The V-system is the oldest, but is being largely superseded by the herring-bone; the spiral system is more recent and is still on trial.
Her oldest priestesses, the dew-sisters - Aglauros, Herse, Pandrosos - signify the fertilization of the earth by the dew, and were probably at one time identified with Athena, as surnames of whom both Aglauros and Pandrosos are found.
The original archduchy, which included Upper Austria, is the nucleus of the Austrian empire, and the oldest possession of the house of Habsburg in its present dominions.
In fact, it has been thought that Agade-Akkad was situated opposite Sippar on the left bank of the Euphrates, and was probably the oldest part of the city of Sippar.
The oldest of its churches, St Mexme, is in the Romanesque style, but only the facade and nave are left.
It is all the more remarkable that the scorpion proves to be the oldest animal form of high elaboration which has persisted to the present day.
See Ktientzle, Ober die Sternsagen der Griechen (1897), and his article in Roscher's Lexikon; he shows that in the oldest legend Orion the constellation and Orion the hero are quite distinct, without deciding which was the earlier conception.
The settlement of the place, the oldest in the county, was begun in 1847; it was laid out as a town in 1851, incorporated as a village in 1857, chartered as a city in 1865, and for a short time in 1853 was the county-seat.
In the oldest register of Philip Augustus counts are reckoned with dukes in the first of the five orders into which the nobles are divided, but the list includes, besides such almost sovereign rulers as the counts of Flanders and Champagne, immediate vassals of much less importance - such as the counts of Soissons and Dammartin - and even one mediate vassal, the count of Bar-sur-Seine.
Add to these the eroded river basins of the Xingu, Tapajos and Guapore on the north and west, the Paraguay on the south-west, and the scores of smaller rivers along the Atlantic coast, and we may have some conception of the agencies that have been at work in breaking down and shaping this great table-land, perhaps the oldest part of the continent.
Of the castle, the oldest building is St Margaret's chapel, believed to be the chapel where Queen Margaret, wife of Malcolm Canmore, worshipped, and belonging at latest to the reign of her youngest son, David I.
Its picturesque castle, at least the oldest portion of it, probably dates from the 12th century.
Cricket is played by the university students, at the schools, and by private clubs, of which the Grange is the oldest and best.
Under the protection of the hill-fort, a native settlement was established on the ridge running down to the valley at the foot of Salisbury Crags, and another hamlet, according to William Maitland (1693-1757), the earliest historian of Edinburgh, was founded in the area at the northwestern base of the rock, a district that afterwards became the parish of St Cuthbert, the oldest in the city.
The canons of Hippolytus, which are about 150 years older, and indeed all the oldest forms for celebration, absolutely ignore any such power of sacrifice.
Of the cadet branches of the house, the oldest was that of Powyke and Alcester, which obtained a barony in 1447 and became extinct in 1496; from it sprang the Beauchamps, Lords St Amand from 1448, of whom was Richard, bishop of Salisbury, first chancellor of the order of the Garter, and who became extinct in 1508, being the last known male heirs of the race.
To sum up the history of Scythia, the oldest inhabitants of whom we hear in Scythia were the Cimmerii; the nature of the country makes it probable that some of them were nomads, while others no doubt tilled some land in the river valleys and in the Crimea, where they left their name to ferries, earthworks and the Cimmerian Bosporus.
The Jewish War (I Ept Tou'IovIcdKoli 7ro%Egov), the oldest of Josephus' extant writings, was written towards the end of Vespasian's reign (69-79) The Aramaic original has not been preserved; but the Greek version was prepared by Josephus himself in conjunction with competent Greek scholars.
They may safely be considered to be among the oldest auriferous sediments of the world.
Potchefstroom, in the south near the Vaal (pop. 9348), is the oldest town in the Transvaal.
Our oldest native historical document in Syriac - the account of a severe flood which visited Edessa in Nov.
The Peshitta New Testament - according to the convincing theory which at present holds the field s - is not the oldest form of the Syriac version, at least as regards the Gospels.
In the oldest Roman ferial we already find festivals of Carthaginian martyrs, and similarly, in the Carthaginian calendar, Roman festivals, while Wright's Syriac Martyrology contains numerous traces of this exchange of festivals.
Probably the oldest head-dress is the circular close-fitting cap (plain or braided), which, according to Meyer, is of Sumerian (non-Semitic) origin.
Its public institutions include the MorrissonReeves (public) Library (1864), one of the largest (39,000 volumes in 1909) and oldest in the state, an art gallery, the Reid Memorial Hospital, a Home for Friendless Women, the Margaret Smith Home for Aged Women (1888), the Wernle Orphans' Home (1879; Evangelical Lutheran), and the Eastern Indiana Hospital for the Insane (1890).
The oldest and perhaps most reasonable idea represents guncotton as cellulose trinitrate, but this has been much disputed, and various formulae, some based on cellulose as C, 2 H200 10, others on a still more complex molecule, have been proposed.
The oldest rocks in the country are the granites, gneisses, &c., of the southern massif and the crystalline schists which form the axis of the Cordillera and the Caribbean chain.
In the latter range a few Ordovician fossils have been found, but in general the oldest strata which have yielded organic remains belong to the Cretaceous system.
One of the oldest of Venezuelan industries, the Margarita pearl fisheries, was prohibited in 1909 for an indefinite time because of the threatened extinction of the oyster beds.
Baracoa is the oldest town in Cuba, having been settled by Diego Velazquez in 1512.
Probably this section may be looked upon as the oldest portion of the river course proper, connecting the upper Rhenish lake with the primeval ocean at Bonn.
The Lucretian gens to which he belonged was one of the oldest of the great Roman houses, nor do we hear of the name, as we do of other great family names, as being diffused over other parts of Italy, or as designating men of obscure or servile origin.
The oldest Ordo Romanus, which perhaps takes us back to within a century of Gregory the Great, enjoins that in pontifical masses a subdeacon, with a golden censer, shall go before the bishop as he leaves the secretarium for the choir, and two, with censers, before the deacon gospeller as he proceeds with the gospel to the ambo.
Waterloo Bridge, the oldest now standing within London, is the work of John Rennie, and was opened in 1817.
The oldest portion of the buildings, Ionic in style, was designed by Sir Robert Smirke and erected in 1829.
Cornish pumps are the oldest of the machines for draining mines; in fact, one of the earliest applications of the old Woolf and Newcomen engines in the 18th century was to pumps for deep mines.
Among the finest office buildings are the structures of the Albany City Savings Institution, National Commerical Bank, Union Trust Company, Albany Trust Company, the National Savings Bank, First National Bank, the New York State National Bank (1803, probably the oldest building in the United States used continuously for banking purposes) and the Albany Savings Bank.
The oldest Anglo-Saxon codes, especially the Kentish and the West Saxon ones, disclose a close relationship to the barbaric laws of Lower Germany - those of Saxons, Frisians, Thuringians.
In the case of texts from the oldest historical periods we encounter hundreds of names that are genuinely Sumerian, and here in view of the multiplicity of the phonetic values attaching to the signs used it is frequently difficult definitely to determine the reading of the names.
Their earliest writers regarded the latter as the seat of the oldest and most godlike of mankind.
The oldest portions are in iii., and belong to the 2nd century B.C.
There is a stately parish church, while above the little town is the oldest Capuchin convent in Switzerland (1581).
In Easthampton are a free public library and Williston Seminary; the latter, one of the oldest and largest preparatory schools in New England, was founded in 1841 by the gifts of Samuel Williston (1795-1874) and Emily Graves Williston (1797-1885).
They are important because they form the oldest body of gild ordinances extant in Europe.
In the oldest forms of the legend Hera is not mentioned; but afterwards the wanderings of Leto are ascribed to the jealousy of that goddess, enraged at her amour with Zeus.
The oldest rocks of Barbados, known as the Scotland series, are of shallow water origin, consisting of coarse grits, brown sandstones and sandy clays, in places saturated with petroleum and traversed by veins of manjak.
The oldest rocks consist of granite and schist, penetrated by intrusive dykes, and upon this foundation rest the flat-lying sedimentary deposits, beginning with a sandstone like the Nubian sandstone of Egypt.
Madaini's History of the Caliphs is the best, if not the oldest, published before Tabari; but this book is known only by the excerpts given by later writers, particularly Baladhuri and Tabari.
Here their most collective name was Bugaitae (Bou-yaaaT at), as appears from the Axumite inscription, whence the forms Buja, Beja, which occur in the oldest Arab records, and by which they are still known.
The oldest part of the present edifice dates from the 13th century, and extensive additions have been made since 1887.
Thus it is not surprising that Pisa should already have had its own code of laws (Consuetudini di mare), which in 1075 were approved by Gregory VII., and in 1081 confirmed by a patent from the emperor Henry IV., a document which mentions for the first time the existence of a magistrate analogous to the consuls of the republic, although the latter, according to some writers, already existed in Pisa as early as the year 1080; the point, however, is doubtful, and other writers place the first authentic mention of the consuls in the year 1094.1 The oldest of Pisan statutes still extant is the Breve dei consoli di mare of 1162.
The oldest known copy, in four folio volumes, of which the date and origin are unknown, but which is certainly almost entirely Walafrid's work, gives us his method.
Incidentally he introduces into his explanations the current German expressions for the things he is treating of, with the apology that Solomon had 1 In the oldest MSS.
The oldest strata, consisting of gypsiferous marls, are referred to the Muschelkalk and show an alternation of lagoon with marine conditions.
St Peter's is interesting as the oldest church in Munich (12th century), though no trace of the original basilica remains.
The art union, the oldest and most extensive in Germany, possesses a good collection of modern works.
It is probable that Yahweh was at one time worshipped by various tribes south of Palestine, and that several places in that wide territory (Horeb, Sinai, Kadesh, &c.) were sacred to him; the oldest and most famous of these, the mountain of God, seems to have lain in Arabia, east of the Red Sea.
It consequently rests upon a distinct basis of fact, the saga (in the older and wider sense of any story said or sung) being indeed the oldest form of historical tradition; though this of course does not exclude the probability of the accretion of mythical elements round persons and episodes from the very first.
It is preserved in four versions, the best of which is the oldest, and has an historical foundation.
A much-discussed work is the Tale of Igor, the oldest of the Russian medieval epics.
Mainz, one of the oldest cities in Germany, was originally a Celtic settlement.
That is to say, in tracing back the later acquisitions of civilization to impulses which are as old as the dawn of primitive culture, he did not, as the modern evolutionist does, lay stress on the superiority of the later to the earlier stages of human development, but rather became enamoured of the simplicity and spontaneity of those early impulses which, since they are the oldest, easily come to look like the most real and precious.
Queretaro has one of the oldest and largest cotton factories in Mexico, employing about 2000 operatives, and maintaining a small private military force for protection.
Of the Perceval-Grail romances the oldest from the point of view of manuscript preservation is the Perceval or Conte del Graal of Chretien de Troyes.
Of the Protestant churches the oldest is the Nikolaikirche, which dates from the 13th century; the fine cast-iron spire erected in 1843 had to be taken down in 1901.
This is the oldest building in Frankfort.
The oldest beds which have yielded fossils in any abundance belong to the Carboniferous System.
The oldest existiog work of this period is a mural decoration in the hail of the temple of Horyu-ji, Nara, attributed to a Korean priest named Donchfl, who lived in Japan in the 6th century; and this painting, in spite of the destructive effects of time and exposure, shows traces of the same power of line, color and composition that stamps the best of the later examples of Buddhist art.
This railway, which was completed in 1854, is the oldest of the great continental mountain railways, and is remarkable for its numerous and long tunnels, its viaducts and galleries.
Mont-de-Marsan, the oldest of the bastides, was founded in 1141, and the movement for founding them lasted during the 12th, 13th and 14th centuries, attaining its height between 1250 and 1350.
The British Museum possesses the oldest MSS.
The North American Review, the oldest and most famous of all the American reviews, dates from 1815, and was founded by William Tudor, a member of the previously mentioned Anthology Club.
Georgswalde is one of the oldest industrial places of Bohemia, and together with the neighbouring town of Rumburg is the principal centre of the linen industry.
He still, however, held the accepted view, that the Elohistic narratives formed part of the Grundschrift and therefore belonged to the oldest portions of the Pentateuch.
The word will well bear this sense in the two passages in which Sophocles (Electra, 162, 859) applies it to Orestes; and it is likely enough that after the disappearance of the old Eupatridae as a political corporation, the name was adopted in a different sense, but not without a claim to the distinction inherent in the older sense, by one of the oldest of the clans.
He was not only the first in point of time, and according to ancient testimony one of the first in point of merit, among the comic poets of Rome, and in spirit, though not in form, the earliest of the line of Roman satirists, but he was also the oldest of the national poets.
It is the oldest city in the province.
These are confined to a few localities, the oldest and best known being those of Nagyag and Offenbanya in Transylvania; they have also been found at Red Cloud, Colorado, in Calaveras county, California, and at Perth and Boulder, West Australia.
The oldest are tombe a pozzo, or shaft graves, containing the ashes of the dead in an urn, of the Villanova period, the oldest of them probably pre-Etruscan; in some of these tombs hut urns, like those of Latium, are found.
Caesar describes it as one of the oldest and most important towns in Gaul.
Even conservative students of the Bible urge that its historical passages must be viewed precisely in the light of any other historical writings of antiquity; and the fact that the oldest Hebrew manuscript dates only from the 8th century A.D., and therefore of necessity brings to us the message of antiquity through the fallible medium of many generations of copyists, is far more clearly kept in mind than it formerly was.
In 1779 he was a member of the convention which framed the constitution of Massachusetts that was adopted in 1780, and is still, with some amendments, the organic law of the commonwealth and one of the oldest fundamental laws in existence.
The place is mentioned in documents in 1317, and became a royal free town in 1328, being therefore one of the oldest free towns in Hungary.
It was according to Roman tradition one of the oldest cities of Etruria and indeed of all Italy, and, if Camars (the original name of the town, according to Livy) is rightly connected with the Camertes Umbri, its foundation would go back to pre-Etruscan times.
Campinas is the commercial centre of one of the oldest coffee-producing districts of the state and the outlet for a rich and extensive agricultural region lying farther inland.
Other towns are Castro, the former capital, on the eastern shore of Chiloe, and the oldest town of the island (founded 1566), once the seat of a Jesuit mission, and Melinca on an island of the Guaitecas group.
The oldest public buildings are two churches built in 1800 and 1809 respectively.
The oldest testimony is that of Irenaeus v.
The Coal Measures which form part of the Palaeozoic or oldest of the three great geological divisions are mainly confined to the countries north of the equator.
In the oldest form of this class of working, where the size of the pillar is equal to the width of the stall or excavation, about 4 of the whole seam will be removed, the remainder being left in the pillars.
This method, which is the oldest, is best adapted for ways that are nearly level, or when many branches are intended to be worked from one engine, and can be carried round curves of small radius without deranging the trains; but as it is intermittent in action, considerable engine-power is required in order to get up the required speed, which is from 8 to ro m.
The beautiful cloisters of the ancient abbey, one of the oldest in Germany, are still in fair preservation.
Nennius himself gives us the oldest legends relating to the victories of King Arthur; the value of the Historia from this point of view is admitted by the severest critics.
Of the sister peaks, Kibo and Mawenzi, the latter is far the oldest and has beengreatly denuded, while Kibo retains its crateriform shape intact.
The church dates from 1699 and is the oldest church in South Africa.
Of these prose versions the oldest existing seems to be that known as the "Anonymus Nilanti," so called because first edited by Nilant at Leiden in 1709 from a MS. of the 13th century.
In Boston and in the towns in its environs are various famous schools, among them the boys' classical school in Boston, founded in 1635, one of the oldest secondary schools in the country.
The leading educational institution of the state, as it is the oldest and most famous of the country, is Harvard University (founded 1636) at Cambridge.
The line of the ancient ramparts, demolished in 1830, is now only marked by the Singel, or outer canal, which surrounds the oldest part of the city, with pleasant gardens and promenades laid out on the inside.
His Scholia to ' The stories, including the delightful history of the courting of Rebekah by proxy, are due to the oldest narrators.
The Reformation set up a new idea of faith, or recurred to one of the oldest of all.
In the middle ages it had six churches and four monastic establishments, the oldest a Benedictine nunnery (1170).
Modern writers rather dwell on the perfect organization demanded by his scheme, the training of a nation to combined labour, the level attained here by art and in the fitting of masonry, and finally the fact that the Great Pyramid was the oldest of the seven wonders of the ancient world and now alone of them survives.
Sweet, Oldest English Texts, p. 179 (London, 1885).
A code of laws issued by him which is still extant is probably the oldest document in the English language, and contains a list of money fines for various crimes.
His newspaper purchases included the Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung in Berlin, formerly the organ of Bismarck and then of all succeeding German Governments, the Miinchener Neueste Nachrichten and the Munchen-Augsburger Zeitung, the last-named being one of the oldest newspapers in Germany.
One of the printing establishments has the reputation of being the oldest in the Netherlands, and publishes the oldest Dutch paper, De Opragte Haarlemmer Courant.
But it was pointed out 2 that in the oldest MS. existing in the Cambridge university library the figure 4 had been imperfectly erased before the word "cent," a discovery which harmonized with the results of a criticism of the contents of the poem itself.
In fact the modern equatorial, and the altitude and azimuth circle are astrolabes in the strictest and oldest meaning of the term; and Tycho in one of his astrolabes came so near the modern equatorial that it may be taken as the first of the kind.
One of the oldest of this large family of predictive systems is that of palmistry, whereby the various irregularities and flexion-folds of the skin of the hand are interpreted as being associated with mental or moral dispositions and powers, as well as with the current of future events in the life of the individual.
This is implied in the oldest ordination rules and forms of prayer, such as those underlying the " Canons of Hippolytus " and related collections.
Densham and 1 In Ireland the oldest existing Congregational church (at Cork) dates from 1760; but most belong to the 19th century.
The Channel Islands have 12 churches, the oldest founded in 1803.
The oldest rocks are Archean, represented by the band of gneisses and schists exposed along the western foot of the Southern Alps.
Camden, first known as Pine Tree Hill, is one of the oldest interior towns of the state, having been settled in 1758; in 1768 the present name was adopted in honour of Lord Chancellor Camden.
At this point the oldest track went across Salisbury Plain towards Stonehenge and so on to Cornwall.
The ancient name of the people of Yemen was Saba (Saba' with final hemza); and the oldest notices of them are in the Hebrew Scriptures.
Four princes of the oldest period bear the name Yatha'amar, and one of these may, with the greatest probability, be held to be the " Itamara Sabai " who paid tribute to Sargon of Assyria.
There seems to be a mistake in the first part of this statement; what Eratosthenes will have said is that the oldest prince after the king was the designated successor.
The oldest known pieces are imitations of the Athenian mintage of the 4th century B.C., with the legend AOE and the owl standing on an overturned amphora.
The Bushmen are, presumably, the oldest inhabitants of this, as of many other parts of South Africa.
Eperjes is one of the oldest towns of Hungary, and is still partly surrounded by its old walls.
The northern and oldest portion of the ramparts dates from the 13th century; the single gateway by which they are pierced is on the south and is a good example of the military architecture of the 15th century.
Moreover, just at the end of the year a loss which greatly shocked and grieved the queen was experienced in the sudden death, at Windsor Castle, of the Dowager Lady Churchill, one of her oldest and most intimate friends.
It is famous as the site of what are almost certainly the oldest buildings in India now standing.
He was educated at the gymnasium of Stettin and at the university of Berlin; in 1829 he became a master at the Graue Kloster (or Grey Friars), one of the oldest schools in Berlin; besides his work there he gave lectures at the university, from 1833 as privat-dozent, and from 1835 as professor, without a salary.
The names of the oldest foundations which still survive, such as the Hotel Dieu in Paris, St Thomas's and St Bartholomew's in London, the order of St Augustine, and (in the form of a modern revival) that of St John of Jerusalem, sufficiently indicate the original religious connexion.
It is true that state training schools for male nurses had previously existed in Prussia, the oldest having been founded at Magdeburg in 1799; but the employment of men in hospital wards is a feature of the German system which has not been copied by other advanced countries, and seems to be in process of abandonment in Germany.
Of these municipalities Wyandotte, the oldest, was originally settled by the Wyandotte Indians in 1843; it was platted and settled by whites in 1857; and was incorporated as a town in 1858, and as a city in 1859.
In England, the oldest and one of the most important societies is "The Vegetarian Society," of which the headquarters are at Oxford Street, Manchester.
The Laksana Phra Thamasat, the Phra Tamra, Phra Tamnon, Phra Racha Kamnot and Inthapat are ancient works setting forth the laws of the country in their oldest form, adapted from the Dharmacastra and the Classification of the Law of Manu.
The pagodas at Chidambaram are the oldest in the south of India, and portions of them are gems of art.
The workings at the Ballycastle collieries are probably the oldest in Ireland.
Iglau is situated on the Iglawa, close to the Bohemian frontier, and is one of the oldest towns in Moravia, being the centre of a German-speaking enclave.
This argument leaves no room for a special priesthood in the Christian Church, and in fact nothing of the kind is found in the oldest organization of the new communities of faith.
The church of St Servatius is said to have been founded by Bishop Monulphus in the 6th century, thus being the oldest church in Holland; according to one account it was rebuilt and enlarged as early as the time of Charlemagne.
Posen, one of the oldest towns in Poland and the residence of some of the early Polish princes, including Boleslaus I., provincial colonization " and to prevent German emigration.
The oldest manuscript of this production is dated 1408, and is preserved at Cracow.
In the centre of the Old Town stands the cathedral of St Sophia, the oldest cathedral in the Russian empire.
The monastery contains a school of picturemakers of ancient origin, whose productions are widely diffused throughout the empire, and a printing press, from which have issued liturgical and religious works, the oldest known examples bearing the date 1616.
This club dates from 1849, and is said to be the oldest literary club in the country.
There are various commercial and trade organizations, the oldest and most influential being the Cincinnati Chamber of Commerce and Merchants' Exchange, which dates from 1839.
It is the oldest port on this part of the coast, and was for a time the principal outlet for a large mining district.
The Devonian is visible only in Minorca, the Trias being the oldest system represented in the other islands.
The Hartford grammar school, founded in 1638, long managed by the town and in 1847 merged with the classical department of the Hartford public high school, is the oldest educational institution in the state.
More than ioo periodicals have been established in Hartford, of which the oldest is the Hartford Courant (1764), the oldest newspaper in the United States.
GyOr is one of the oldest towns in Hungary and occupies the site of the Roman Arabona.
MÃ¼hlhausen is one of the oldest towns in Thuringia, and is said to have been fortified in 925.
The first of these families is often called Centropagidae, but, as Sars has pointed out, Diaptomus (Westwood, 1836) is the oldest genus in it.
The first is that the oldest dated MS., the Codex Babylonicus Petropolitanus, only goes back to the year A.D.
It was thus that St Paul came to write his two epistles to the Thessalonians, the oldest Christian documents that we possess.
At an early date in the 2nd century this demand was met by the composition of the oldest form of what we call the Apostles' Creed.
The text of this MS. is important as the oldest and best witness in a Greek MS. to the so-called " Western " text.
It is possible that this is the oldest Coptic version, and this view is supported by the general probabilities of the spread of Christianity in Egypt.
In this great book a break was made for the first time with the traditional text and the evidence of the late MSS., and an attempt was made to reconstruct the text according to the oldest authorities.
This was a great step forward, but unfortunately it was accompanied by a retrogression to the pre-Griesbachian (or rather pre-Bengelian) days; for Lachmann rejected the idea of grouping MSS., and having selected a small number of the oldest authorities undertook always to follow the reading of the majority.
Though found in so great a number of witnesses, this type of text is shown not to be the earliest or best by the evidence of all the oldest MS. versions and Fathers, as well as by internal evidence.
It is impossible, in face of the fact that the evidence of the oldest witnesses of all sorts is constantly opposed to the longer readings, to doubt that WH were right in arguing that these phenomena prove that the later text was made up by a process of revision and conflation of the earlier forms. Influenced by the use of the later text by Chrysostom, WH called it the Syrian or Antiochene text, and refer to the revision which produced it as the Syrian revision.
The Old Latin, if we take the African form as the oldest, as compared with the Neutral text has a series of interpolations and a series of omissions.
It is also possible to argue, as WH did, on the same side, that the purest form of text was preserved in Alexandria, from which the oldest uncials are directly or indirectly derived, but this argument has been weakened if not finally disposed of by the evidence of Clement of Alexandria.
In fact the presence of an orgiastic character is as marked a feature in Canaanite religion as the absence of it is in the oldest religion of Israel; but the new Hebrew enthusiasts had at least an external resemblance to the devotees of the Canaanite sanctuaries and this would be enough to determine the choice of a name which in the first instance seems hardly to have been a name of honour.
This pass which leads from the Gastein valley to Carinthia is the oldest bridle-path over the Hoher Tauern.
The oldest English standards remaining are those of Henry VII.
It has one of the finest race-courses in Australia, and in the King's School, founded in 1832, the oldest grammar school in the colony.
But were the oldest Neoplatonists really acquainted with the speculations of Philo, or Justin, or Valentinus, or Basilides?
The manufacture of lumber and timber products, one of the oldest industries of the state, ranked fifth in 1905; these products had increased in value from $5,641,445 in 1890 to $9,218,310 in 1900, or 63.4%, but decreased to $7,519,431 in 1905, the decrease being in large measure due to the great demand for spruce at the paper and pulp mills.
The oldest Latin inscriptions of the district are C.I.L.
Kalocsa is one of the oldest towns in Hungary.
In this square are the oldest buildings of the foundation, dating in part from the close of the 17th century, and the modern Graduates' Memorial buildings (1904).
Among hospitals those of special general interest are the Steevens, the oldest in the city, founded under the will of Dr Richard Steevens in 1720; the Mater Misericordiae (1861),which includes a laboratory and museum, and is managed by the Sisters of Mercy, but relieves sufferers independently of their creed; the Rotunda lying-in hospital (1756); the Royal hospital for incurables, Donnybrook, which was founded in 1744 by the Dublin Musical Society; and the Royal Victoria Eye and Ear hospital, Adelaide Road, which amalgamated (1904) two similar institutions.
Astoria is the oldest American settlement in the Columbia Valley.
Luke's account is too much interpolated from Paul, and the texts of his oldest MSS.
In what is probably the oldest Unitarian graveyard in the kingdom Mrs Gaskell lies buried; and in a churchyard a mile from the town stood the ancient church, which, though partially rebuilt in the time of Henry VIII., fell into ruin in 1741.
Other institutions are the public library, which from 1808 to 1898 was a subscription library; the Berks County Law Library; the Berks County Historical Society; and the Harmonie Maennerchor, organized in 1847 and one of the oldest singing societies in the United States.
The house of Schwarzburg is one of the oldest and noblest in Germany; and tradition traces its descent from Widukind and the kings of the Franks.
It is the second oldest university in Europe - the oldest being that of Prague - and was famous during the 15th and 16th centuries.
Of course men's bodies as well as the souls of the unsaved, who according to the oldest conception have in them no light whatever, fall under the sway of the powers of darkness.
Farther north in Montana, beyond the gorge of the Missouri river, the structure of the Front Range is altogether different; it is here the carved residual of a great mass of moderately bent Palaeozoic strata, overthrust eastward upon the Mesozoic strata of the plains; instead of exposing the oldest rocks along the axis and the youngest rocks low down on the flanks, the younger rocks of the northern range follow its axis, and the oldest rocks outcrop along its eastern flanks, where they override the much younger strata of the plains; the harder strata, instead of lapping on the mountain flanks in great slab-like masses, as in the Bighorns, form out-facing scarps, which retreat into the mountain interior where they are cut down by outfiowing streams.
Archeozoic (Archean) Group.The oldest group of rocks, called the Archean, was formerly looked upon, at least in a tentative way, as the original crtist of the earth or its downward extension, much altered by the processes of metamorphism.
A few geologists regard the sedimentary rocks here classed as Keweenawan as Palaeozoic; but they have yielded no fossils, and are unconformable beneath the Upper Cambrian, which is the oldest sedimentary formation of the region which bears fossils.
In all but a few places where their relations are known, the Proterozoic rocks are unconformable beneath the Palaeozoic Where conformity exists the separation is made on the basis of fossils, it having been agreed that the oldest rocks carrying the Olenellus fauna are to be regarded as the base of the Cambrian system.
The Niagara limestone contains the oldest known coral reefs of the continent.
The Comanchean system contains the oldest known remains of netted-veined leaved plants, which mark a great advance in the vegetable world.
The edge of the oldest drift sheet is buried by younger sheets of drift in most places.
The later work opens with the Ynglinga Saga, a brief history of the pretended immigration into Sweden of the Aesir, of their successors in that country, the kings of Upsala, and of the oldest Norwegian kings, their descendants.
Originally a Slavonic fort, Kolberg is one of the oldest places of Pomerania.
The youngest of these mountain chains is naturally the highest, and the oldest one in most places no longer rises to heights deserving the name of mountains.
It is one of the oldest towns of Chile, dating from the first years of the conquest.
But we have little record of his cult in this aspect, except at Athens, where his worship was of real importance, belonging to the oldest stratum of Attic religion.
The cult of Ninib can be traced back to the oldest period of Babylonian history.
The simplest and oldest form of blowpipe is a conical brass tube, about 7 in.
Esztergom is one of the oldest towns of Hungary, and is famous as the birthplace of St Stephen,the first prince crowned "apostolic king" of Hungary.
Of these the oldest and most important is the Canal d'Alaric, which follows the right bank for 36 m.
Traquair House, or Palace, on the right bank of the Tweed, is believed to be the oldest inhabited house in Scotland, the most ancient portion dating from the 10th century, and including a remnant of the castle.
The library of the episcopal palace, built between 1694 and 1701, possesses the oldest maps of Bohemia made in 1518 by Nicolaus Claudianus of Jung-Bunzlau.
The exchange, the chamber of commerce and the clearing-house (one of the oldest in the world, dating from 1764) are united under one roof in the Palazzo del Commercio, opened in 1907.
The oldest traces of the cult in Greek countries are found in Cyprus.
The caves are in three groups, the oldest group being of various dates from 200 B.C. to A.D.200, the second group belonging, approximately, to the 6th, and the third group to the 7th century A.D.
Also of interest are the Rosario chapel; the ruined earthworks of Fort Marcy, north of the city, constructed by General Kearny in 1846; the ruins of the Garita, an old Spanish fortification used as a custom house under the Mexican government; the so-called "oldest house," a dilapidated adobe structure claimed to be the oldest building, continuously inhabited, in the United States; the state library; and the national cemetery, in which 1022 American soldiers are buried.
Upon St Serf's, the largest, which commemorates the patron saint of Fifeshire, are the ruins of the Priory of Portmoak - so named from St Moak, the first abbot - the oldest Culdee establishment in Scotland.
The oldest extant specimen bears a faithfully copied Arabic inscription.
This foundation is the oldest and richest of the kind in Austria; it owns much of the land upon which the north-western suburbs of Vienna stand.
They held the "Lord's Prayer" in high respect as the most 1 These betray their Gnostic (Marcianite) spirit by the antiJewish tone of the oldest MSS.
Fiirstenwalde is one of the oldest towns of Brandenburg.
The north point, indicated in some of the oldest compass cards with a broad arrow-head or a spear, as well as with a T for Tramontano, gradually developed by a combination of these, about 1492, into a fleur de lis, still universal.
Weights with Aramaic inscriptions (the oldest from the reign of Shalmaneser IV., 727-22) were found at Calah.
In Vincennes are a Roman Catholic cathedral, erected in 1835, one of the oldest in the West, occupying the site of a church built early in the 18th century; Vincennes University (1806), the oldest educational institution in the state, which in 1910 had 14 instructors and 236 students; St Rose Female Academy, and a public library.
It is one of the oldest towns in Moravia, and possesses a Gothic town-hall and an old castle, once occupied by Matthias Corvinus.
Odin's island, is one of the oldest cities of Denmark.
It was in the times of the Persian monarchy that Phoenician art reached its highest development, and to this period belong the oldest sculptures and coins that have come down to us.
The oldest example of native sarcophagi are copied from Egyptian mummy-cases, painted with colours and ornamented with carvings in low relief; towards and during the Greek period the contours of the body begin to be marked more clearly on the cover.
The oldest of all the matrices is lime, and many splendid examples of its use by the Romans still exist.
This region of the province was one of the earliest inhabited and includes the oldest towns and villages, such as Schagen, which was flourishing in the 12th century and was created into a lordship in the beginning of the 15th century for the benefit of a natural son of Count Albrecht of Holland.
Lebanon is the seat of McKendree College, founded by Methodists in 1828 and one of the oldest colleges in the Mississippi valley.
It is probably the oldest of extant Greek temples, and may date from about 1000 B.C. It has colonnades of six columns each at east and west, and of sixteen each (counting the corner columns again) at north and south.
The oldest name of the town, according to Philo Herennius, was Payt9a or AevKi dKTii; it received that of Laodicea (ad mare) from Seleucus Nicator, who refounded it in honour of his mother as one of the four "sister" cities of the Syrian Tetrapolis (Antioch, Seleucia, Apamea, Laodicea).
It is one of the oldest settlements of the state.
As regards writing, it is most likely that the oldest Hebrew records were preserved in some form of cuneiform script.
It is possible that specimens of such long-lived species as Lecidea geographica actually outrival in longevity the oldest trees.
The Moravian Church, whose missions are the oldest (1732), is itself a missionary organization in a sense in which no 3.
Of the religious societies engaged in the evangelization of these many fields of labour, some have been established exclusively for foreign missionary work among the heathen - notably the famous Societe des Missions Etrangeres of Paris, the oldest and greatest of all (dating from 1658, and consisting of 34 bishops, 1200 European missionaries and 700 native priests); the German " Society of the Divine Word," whose headquarters are at Steyl in Holland; the Belgian Society of Scheat; the celebrated French Society of the " White Fathers," founded by the late Cardinal Lavigerie for African missions; the English Society of St Joseph, founded at Mill Hill by Cardinal Vaughan; and some others.
It is to him we owe the commentaries on seven of the shorter canonical books, consisting almost entirely of verses, and also the commentary on the Netti, perhaps the oldest Pali work outside the canon.