OLAF (II.) HARALDSSON (99510 3 0), king from 1016-1029, called during his lifetime "the Fat," and afterwards known as St Olaf, was born in 995, the year in which Olaf TryggvessOn came to Norway.
But his success was short-lived, for in 1029 the Norwegian nobles, seething with discontent, rallied round the invading Knut the Great, and Olaf had to flee to Russia.
The Norwegian order of knighthood of St Olaf was founded in 1847 by Oscar I., king of Sweden and Norway, in memory of this king.
Olaf Of Northumbria >>
The name is a corruption of St Olave, or Olaf, the Christian king of Norway, who in 994 attacked London by way of the river, and broke down London Bridge.
But he employed Nordin quite differently from his episcopal colleague Olaf Wallqvist.
Christianity was introduced by Leif Ericsson at the instance of Olaf Trygvasson, king of Norway, in r000 and following years.
Other higher educational institutions in Minnesota are Hamline University (Methodist Episcopal), with a college of liberal arts at St Paul, and a college of medicine at Minneapolis; Macalester College (Presbyterian) at St Paul; Augsburg Seminary (Lutheran) at Minneapolis; Carleton College (non-sectarian, founded in 1866) and St Olaf College (Lutheran, founded in 1874) at Northfield; Gustavus Adolphus College (Lutheran) at St Peter; Parker College (Free Baptist, 1888) at Winnebago City; St John's University (Roman Catholic) at Collegeville, Stearns county; and Albert Lea College for women (Presbyterian, founded 1884) at Albert Lea.
OLAF WALLQVIST (1755-1800), Swedish statesman and ecclesiastic, was ordained in 1776, became doctor of philosophy in 1779, court preacher to Queen Louisa Ulrica in 1780, and bishop of Vexio in 1787.
In 994 Olaf Tryggvason, king of Norway, and Sweyn, king of Denmark, united in a great invasion and attacked London.
Olaf also visited !Ethelred at the latter's request and, receiving a most honourable welcome, was induced to promise that he would never again come to England with hostile intent, an engagement which he faithfully kept.
In 982 London was burnt, and in 994 Olaf and Sweyn (the father of Canute) came with ninety-four ships to besiege it.
The church of St Olaf, from which the town took its name, was burned down by the English in 1502; and of the church erected on its site by Bishop Reid - the greatest building the Orkneys ever had - little more than the merest fragment survives.
Olaf (Kings) >>
In 999 he went from Greenland to the court of King Olaf Tryggvason in Norway, stopping in the Hebrides on the way.
His third son, Olaf, succeeded to the government about 1103, and the daughter of Olaf was married to Somerled, who became the founder of the dynasty known as Lords of the Isles.
Close to the entrance was a chapel, where is now the church of St Olaf (W), in which the new-corners paid their devotions immediately on their arrival.
Church of St Olaf.
Next come the biographies of the succeeding Norwegian kings, the most detailed being those of the two missionary kings Olaf Tryggvason and St Olaf.
His critical principles are explained in the preface, where he dwells on the necessity of starting as much as possible from trustworthy contemporary sources, or at least from those nearest to antiquity - the touchstone by which verbal traditions can be tested being contemporary poems. He inclines to rationalism, rejecting the marvellous and recasting legends containing it in a more historical spirit; but he makes an exception in the accounts of the introduction of Christianity into Norway and of the national saint St Olaf.
Besides his principal work, he elaborated in a separate form its better and larger part, the History of St Olaf (the great Olaf's Saga).
When the islands were given as security for the princess's dowry, there seems reason to believe that it was intended to redeem the pledge, because it was then stipulated that the Norse system of government and the law of St Olaf should continue to be observed in Orkney and Shetland.
Many districts in Norway, however, remained heathen until the reign of St Olaf (1014-1028), and in Sweden for half a century later.
The Order of St Olaf was founded in 1847 by Oscar I.
in honour of St Olaf, the founder of Christianity in Norway, as a general order of merit, military and civil.
10 The gospel was first introduced into Norway in the 10th century by an Englishman named Hacon, though the real conversion of the country was due to Olaf Tryggvasän.
About the same time, and largely owing to the exertions of Olaf, Iceland, Greenland and the Orkney and Shetland islands were also evangelized.
Later the Witenagemot met here, and it is the traditional scene of the meeting of 'Ethelred and Olaf the Dane.
On that occasion, apparently by way of protest against the decree of the diet of Vesteras (r 5th of January 1 544), declaring the Swedish crown hereditary in Gustavus's family, the Danish king caused to be quartered on his daughter's shield not only the three Danish lions and the Norwegian lion with the axe of St Olaf, but also "the three crowns" of Sweden.
The battle was fought between Olaf Trygvesson, king of Norway, and a coalition of his enemies - Eric Hakonson, his cousin and rival; Olaf, the king of Sweden; and Sweyn Forkbeard, king of Denmark.
Olaf had been during the summer in the eastern Baltic. The allies lay in wait for him at the island of Swold on his way home.
Olaf's own ships went past the anchorage of Eric Hakonson and his allies in a long column without order, as no attack was expected.
The allies allowed the bulk of the Norse ships to pass, and then stood out to attack Olaf.
Olaf lashed his ships side to side, his own - the "Long Serpent," the finest-war-vessel as yet built in the north - being in the middle of the line, where her bows projected beyond the others.
Olaf, in fact, turned his eleven ships into a floating fort.
They say that the Danes and Swedes rushed at the front of Olaf's line without success.
His vessel, the "Iron Ram," was "bearded," that is to say, strengthened across the bows by bands of iron, and he forced her between the last and last but one of Olaf's line.
Olaf leapt into the sea holding his shield edgeways, so that he sank at once and the weight of his hauberk dragged him down.
King Olaf is one of the same company as Charlemagne, King Arthur and Sebastian of Portugal - the legendary heroic figures in whose death the people would not believe, and whose return was looked for.
Magmusson (1893) and the Saga of King Olaf Tryggwason, trans.
Bergen (formerly BjÃ¸rgvin) was founded by King Olaf Kyrre in 1070-1075, and rapidly grew to importance, the Byfjord becoming the scene of several important engagements in the civil wars of subsequent centuries.
He visited the famous King Olaf Tryggvason, who reigned from 995 to 1000, and was bending his energies toward Christianizing Norway and Iceland.
Upon his arrival in Greenland, Leif presented the message of King Olaf, and seems to have attempted no further expeditions.
Among the more conspicuous buildings are St Olaf's church (erected by Gustavus Adolphus in 1616 and rebuilt in 1765-1767); St Hedvig's, built by the German colony in 1670; the town hall, dating from the beginning of the 19th century; the high school (1868), and technical and weaving schools.
Part of Norway was first seized after the united Danes and Swedes had defeated and slain King Olaf Trygvesson at the battle of Svolde (1000); and between 1028 and 1035 Canute the Great added the whole kingdom to his own; but the union did not long survive him.
He built a minster near York which he dedicated to St Olaf, and where he was buried; and one of his sons was Earl Waltheof.
In the first year of his reign Edmund had trouble with Olaf or Anlaf Sihtricsson, called Cuaran.
853 Olaf the White was over-king of Ireland, the vikings' power on the whole diminished.
853 Olaf the White became over-king of Ireland.
In Ireland, besides the important and successful Turgesius, we read of a Saxulf who early met his death, as well as of Ivar (Ingvar), famous also in England and called the son of Ragnar Lodbrog, and of Oisla, Ivar's comrade; finally (the vikings in Ireland being mostly of Norse descent) of the wellknown Olaf the White, who became king of all the Scandinavian settlements in Ireland.
Trondhjem, originally Nidaros, was founded by Olaf Tryggvason, who built a royal residence and a church here in 996.
Sigtuna, lying on the shore of a far-reaching northern arm of Lake Malar, also a royal residence and the seat of the first mint in Sweden, where English workmen were employed by King Olaf at the beginning of the 11th century, was destroyed in the 12th century.
Moreover after the time of Beowulf and Jordanes there are very few references to the kingdom of the Gotar and in Olaf Sktittkonung's time it was merely an earldom.
B jorn's sons and successors were Olaf and Eric the Victorious.
Styrbiorn Starki, the son of Olaf, being refused his share of the government by Eric after his father's death, made himself a stronghold at Jomsborg in Pomerania and spent some years in piratical expeditions.
Under his son and successor Olaf, surnamed Establish- Skottkonung, Christianity was fully established in ment of Sweden.
Olaf Tryggvason, the king of Norway, Christi- had married his sister Ingibiorg to Ragnvald, earl anity.
A quarrel arose in the last years of the 10th century between Olaf Skottkonung and Olaf Tryggvason.
Under Olaf Skott- Olaf Skott- konung Sweden became the mightiest of the king- konung.
These lands Olaf handed over to Earl Sweyn, brother of Earl Eric (whose father Haakon had governed Norway), as a marriage portion for his daughter HolmfriO.
Some years later we hear of hostilities between Olaf Skottkonung and another Norwegian prince, Olaf Haraldsson (the Fat), who raided Sweden and was besieged in the Malar by the Swedish king.
In 1014, the year of Earl Eric's departure to England with Canute, Olaf Haraldsson, returning to Norway as king, put an end to the Swedish and Danish supremacy, and in 1015 he forced Earl Sweyn to leave the country.
Olaf of Norway now sent his marshal Bjorn to Ragnvald to arrange a peace.
At this meeting Bjorn, supported by the earl, asked for peace, and Olaf was compelled by the pressure of the lawman Thorgny to agree to this and also to promise his daughter Ingeger6 in marriage to the Norse king.
The marriage, however, never got beyond the betrothal stage, and at Earl Ragnvald's suggestion Astrid, her half-sister, was substituted, contrary to the will of Olaf Skottkonung.
In Sweden, however, both the Vestgotar and the Upland Sviar were discontented, the former on account of the breaking of the king's promise to Olaf of Norway and the latter on account of the introduction of the new religion, and their passions were further inflamed by the lawman Anund of Skara.
A rising in Upland compelled Olaf to share his power with his son Jacob, whose name was changed to Anund by the leaders of the revolt.
The death of Olaf Skiittkonung is assigned by Snorri Sturluson to the winter of 1021-1022.
Anund, now sole king, early in his reign allied himself with Olaf Haraldsson against Canute of Denmark, who had demanded the restitution of the rights possessed by his father King Anund, Sweyn in Norway.
Olaf was driven from Norway by the Danes, but returning in 1030 he raised a small army in Sweden and marched through Jamtland to Trondhjem only to meet his death at the battle of Stiklestad.
Like Olaf Skottkonung he caused coins to be struck at Sigtuna, of which a few remain.
He was the son of a certain Ragnvald, perhaps connected with the Vestergotland Ragnvald, of the reign of Olaf Skottkonung.
In the year 991 he was associated with archbishop Sigeric in the conclusion of a peace with the victorious Danes from Maldon, and in 994 he was sent with Bishop 2Elfheah (Alphege) of Winchester to make peace with Olaf at Andover.
Instead of making a desperate attempt to drive them off, the king bribed them to depart with io,ooo pounds of silver, accepting it is said this cowardly advice from archbishop Sigeric. The fatal precedent soon bore fruit: the invaders came back in larger numbers, headed by Olaf Tryggveson, the celebrated adventurer who afterwards made himself king of Norway, and who was already a pretender to its throne.
It should be noted that the invader during this period was no mere adventurer, but king of all Denmark, and, after Olaf Tryggvesons death in 1000, king of Norway also.
Two viceroys, earlier wooers, were burned to death by her orders for their impertinence, and she refused the hand of Olaf Trygvessiin, king of Norway, rather than submit to baptism, whereupon the indignant monarch struck her on the mouth with his gauntlet and told her she was a worse pagan than any dog.
Shortly afterwards she married Sweyn, and easily persuaded her warlike husband to unite with Olaf, king of Sweden, against Olaf Trygvessdn, who fell in the famous sea-fight off Svolde (1000) on the west coast of Riigen, after a heroic resistance immortalized by the sagas, whereupon the confederates divided his kingdom between them.
His most remarkable exploit, Svolde, was certainly won at the expense of Christianity, resulting, as it did, in the death of the saintly Olaf.
(2) In 890-900 there came from the western Islands Queen Aud, widow of Olaf the White, king of Dublin, preceded and followed by a number of her kinsmen and relations (many like herself being Table of Icelandic Literature and History.
Such men were Egil, the foe of Eirik Bloodaxe and the friend of lEthelstan; Kormak, the hot-headed champion; Eyvind, King Haakon's poet, called Skaldaspillir, because he copied in his dirge over that king the older and finer Eiriksmal; Gunnlaug, who sang at Ã†thelred's court, and fell at the hands of a brother bard, Hrafn; Hallfred, Olaf Tryggvason's poet, who lies in Iona by the side of Macbeth; Sighvat, Saint Olaf's henchman, most prolific of all his comrades; Thormod, Coalbrow's poet, who died singing after Sticklestad battle; Ref, Ottar the Black, Arnor the earls' poet, and, of those whose poetry was almost confined to Iceland, Gretti, Biorn the Hitdale champion, and the two model Icelandic masters, Einar Skulason and Markus the Lawman, both of the 12th century.
In the literary age the chief poets belong to the great Sturlung family, Snorri and his two nephews, Sturla and Olaf, the White Poet, being the most famous " makers " of their day.
There is some of Sturla's poetry in his Islendinga Saga, and verses of Snorri occur in the Grammatical Treatise on figures of speech, &c., of Olaf, which contains about one hundred and forty quotations from various authors, and was written about 1250.
According to subject they fall into two classes, those relating to the older generation before Christianity and those telling of St Olaf's contemporaries; only two fall into a third generation.
Of the north there are the sagas of Kormak (930-960), most primitive of all, a tale of a wild poet's love and feuds, containing many notices of the heathen times; of Vatzdeelasaga (890-980), relating to the settlement and the chief family in Waterdale; of Hallfred the poet (996-1014), narrating his fortune at King Olaf's court, his love affairs in Iceland, and finally his death and burial at Iona; of Reyk -deela (990), which preserves the lives of Askell and his son Viga-Skuti; of Svarf-deela (980-990), a cruel, coarse story of the old days, with some good scenes in it, unfortunately imperfect, chapters I-10 being forged; of VigaGlum (970-990), a fine story of a heathen hero, brave, crafty and cruel.
Later is the Fostbreedrasaga (1015-1030), a very interesting story, told in a quaint romantic style, of Thorgeir, the reckless henchman of King Olaf, and how his death was revenged in Greenland by his sworn brother the true-hearted Thormod Coalbrow's poet, who afterward dies at Sticklestad.
The best text of Ari's KonungabOk (Ynglinga, and the sagas down to but not including Olaf Tryggvason's) is that of FrisbOk.
The Latin Lives of St Olaf, Odd's in Latin (c. 1175), compiled from original authorities, and the Legendary Life, by another monk whose name is lost, are of the medieval Latin school of Sa mund to which Gunn]aug belonged.
Snorri (1179-1241) wrote the Lives of the Kings (Heimskringla), from Olaf Tryggvason to Sigurd the Crusader inclusive; and we have them substantially as they came from his hand in the Great King Olaf's Saga; St Olaf's Saga, as in Heimskringla and the Stockholm MS.; and the succeeding Kings' Lives, as in Hulda and Hrokkinskinna, in which, however, a few episodes have been inserted.
They are abridgments made in Norway by Icelanders for their Norwegian patrons, the Life of St Olaf alone being preserved intact, for the great interest of the Norwegians lay in him, but all the other Kings' Lives being more or less mutilated, so that they cannot be trusted for historic purposes; nor do they give a fair idea of Snorri's style.
He wrote a Life of St Olaf, now lost; his authority is cited.
The whole were edited and compiled into one book, often quoted as Skioldunga, by a 13th-century editor, possibly Olaf, the White Poet, Sturla's brother, guest and friend of King Valdemar II.
Among them are the sagas of Thorgils and Haflidi (I118-1121), the feud and peacemaking of two great chiefs, contemporaries of Ari; of Sturla (1150-1183), the founder of the great Sturlung family, down to the settlement of his great lawsuit by Jon Loptsson, who thereupon took his son Snorri the historian to fosterage, - a humorous story but with traces of the decadence about it, and glimpses of the evil days that were to come; of the Onundar-brennusaga (1185-1200), a tale of feud and fire-raising in the north of the island, the hero of which, Gudmund Dyri, goes at last into a cloister; of Hrafn Sveinbiornsson (1190-1213), the noblest Icelander of his day, warrior, leech, seaman, craftsman, poet and chief, whose life at home, travels and pilgrimages abroad (Hrafn was one of the first to visit Becket's shrine), and death at the hands of a foe whom he had twice spared, are recounted by a loving friend in pious memory of his virtues, c. 1220; of Aron Hiorleifsson (1200-1255), a man whose strength, courage and adventures befit rather a henchman of Olaf Tryggvason than one of King Haakon's thanes (the beginning of the feuds that rise round Bishop Gudmund are told here), of the Svinefell-men (1248-1252), a pitiful story of a family feud in the far east of Iceland.
Sturla and his brother Olaf were the sons of Thord Sturlason and his mistress Thora.
Early work in this direction was done by Jon Gudmundsson, Olaf the Old and John Olafsson in the 17th century, who all put traditions on paper, and their labours were completed by the magnificent collection of Jon Arnason (1862-1864), who was inspired by the example of the Grimms. Many tales are but weak echoes of the sagas; many were family legends, many are old fairy tales in a garb suited to their new northern home; but, besides all these, there are a number of traditions and superstitions of indigenous origin.
invaders from the northern, was sent from Norway, whither he had escaped, to take possession of the islands for Olaf Trygvason, king of Norway.
It seems probable that his Norwegian name was Thorgils and he was possibly related to Godf red, father of Olaf the White, who figures prominently in Irish history a little later.
At any rate, in 851-852 the king of Lochlann (Norway) sent his son Amlaib (Olaf the White) to assume sovereignty over the Norsemen in Ireland and to receive tribute and vassals.
Ivar only survived Olaf two or three years, and it is stated that he died a Christian.
The most prominent figures at this time were Muirchertach " of the leather cloaks," son of Niall Glundub, Cellachan of Cashel and Amlaib (Olaf) Cuaran.
His sons Olaf and Godfred were expelled by Ã†thelstan.
The former, better known as Amlaib (Olaf) Cuaran, married the daughter of Constantine, king of Scotland, and fought at Brunanburh (938).
He was the second son of Olaf Ericsson, an inspector of mines, who died in 1818.
Her first act, after her father's death (1375), was to procure the election of her infant son Olaf as king of Denmark.
Olaf died in 1387, having in 1380 also succeeded his father; and in the following year Margaret, who had ruled both kingdoms in his name, was chosen regent of Norway and Denmark.
OLAF known by the French acronym OLAF, the European Anti-fraud Office is responsible for combating fraud against the EU budget.
Olaf, himself, may well have had Danish ancestry.
The pot returns to Olaf and he shakes the dice.
Before you can apply for a vacancy you will need to complete an Olaf.
The 29th of July, St Olaf's Day, saw a historical pageant take place.
OLAF received a tip off earlier this month alleging massive theft and malpractice by officials in the technology directorate.
First of all, the starting point of Count Olaf's house is spookily drawn, looking ancient and a little unkempt.
It is the seat of the Baker School for Nervous and Backward Children, a private institution; of St Olaf College (Norwegian Lutheran), founded in 1874; and of Carleton College (founded in 1866 by Congregationalists but now non-sectarian, opened in 1870), one of the highest grade small colleges in the West, and the first in the North-west to abolish its preparatory academy.
On the subsequent expedition of Thorfinn Karlsefni for the further exploration and settlement of the Far Western vine-country, it is recorded that certain Gaels, incredibly fleet of foot, who had been given to Leif by Olaf Tryggvason, and whom Leif had offered to Thorfinn, were put on shore to scout.
In the preface to this he gives a brief extract of the earlier history, and, as an appendix, a short account of St Olaf's miracles after his death; here, too, he employs critical art, as appears from a comparison with his source, the Latin legend.
10 The gospel was first introduced into Norway in the 10th century by an Englishman named Hacon, though the real conversion of the country was due to Olaf TryggvasÃn.
Bergen (formerly BjÃƒ¸rgvin) was founded by King Olaf Kyrre in 1070-1075, and rapidly grew to importance, the Byfjord becoming the scene of several important engagements in the civil wars of subsequent centuries.
But the contrast, at this crisis, between his self-sacrificing patriotism and the treachery of the Russophil aristocracy was so striking that, when the Riksdag assembled, Gustavus found that the three lower estates were ultra-royalist, and with their aid he succeeded, not without running great risks (see GUSTAVUS III.; Nordin, Gustaf; Wallqvist, Olaf), in crushing the opposition of the nobility by a second coup d'etat (Feb.
Such men were Egil, the foe of Eirik Bloodaxe and the friend of lEthelstan; Kormak, the hot-headed champion; Eyvind, King Haakon's poet, called Skaldaspillir, because he copied in his dirge over that king the older and finer Eiriksmal; Gunnlaug, who sang at Ãƒâ€ thelred's court, and fell at the hands of a brother bard, Hrafn; Hallfred, Olaf Tryggvason's poet, who lies in Iona by the side of Macbeth; Sighvat, Saint Olaf's henchman, most prolific of all his comrades; Thormod, Coalbrow's poet, who died singing after Sticklestad battle; Ref, Ottar the Black, Arnor the earls' poet, and, of those whose poetry was almost confined to Iceland, Gretti, Biorn the Hitdale champion, and the two model Icelandic masters, Einar Skulason and Markus the Lawman, both of the 12th century.
His sons Olaf and Godfred were expelled by Ãƒâ€ thelstan.
Saint Olaf English church 1897 holds Anglican services every Sunday in Summer; modeled on a stave church but very light.
First of all, the starting point of Count Olaf 's house is spookily drawn, looking ancient and a little unkempt.
Players help the Baudelaire orphans -- Violet, Klaus, and Sunny -- identify the villainous Count Olaf and his associated by deducing which room held which villain or weapon.
Once all the rooms are matched up with the correct person and weapon, Count Olaf's scheme is revealed and you move on to the next level.
Once all of the rooms are sorted out, you'll see what Count Olaf's evil plan was.
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