Oils sentence example

oils
  • Oils are powerful fuels, but the high price of refined petroleum, the oil generally preferred, precludes its widespread use for many purposes for which it is suitable.
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  • Imports include woven goods, metals, ironware, machinery, tea, wines and spirits, mineral oils, opium, paper, and arms and powder.
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  • The bark, resin and " oils " of the eucalyptus are well known as commercial products.
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  • Paraffins are found in all crude oils, and olefines in varying proportions in the majority, while acetylene has been found in Baku oil; members of the benzene group and its derivatives, notably benzene and toluene, occur in all petroleums. Naphthenes are the chief components of some oils, as already indicated, and occur in varying quantities in many others.
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  • Certain crude oils have also been found to contain camphenes, naphthalene and other aromatic hydrocarbons.
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  • It is found that transparent oils under the influence of light absorb oxygen, becoming deeper in colour and opalescent, while strong acidity and a penetrating odour are developed, these changes being due to the formation of various acid and phenylated compounds, which are also occasionally found in fresh oils.
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  • Similarly it is necessary, in view of the hydrostatical relations of water and mineral oils, and the volatile character of the latter, that the porous stratum should be protected from water and air by an overlying shale or other impervious deposit.
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  • Some of the more viscous crude oils obtained in the United States are employed as lubricants under the name of " natural oils," either without any treatment or after clarification by subsidence and filtration through animal charcoal.
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  • In most petroleum-producing countries, however, and particularly where the product is abundant, the crude oil is fractionally distilled, so as to separate it into petroleum spirit of various grades, burning oils, gas oils, lubricating oils, and (if the crude oil yields that product) paraffin.
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  • The operation was, however, completely revolutionized in the United States by the introduction of the " cracking process," and by the division of the distillation into two parts, one consisting in the removal of the more volatile constituents of the oil, and the other in the distillation (which is usually conducted in separate stills) of the residues from the first distillation, for the production of lubricating oils and paraffin.
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  • The result of this treatment is that the comparatively heavy oils undergo dissociation, as shown by the experiments of Thorpe and Young, into specifically lighter hydrocarbons of lower boiling points, and the yield of kerosene from ordinary crude petroleum may thus be greatly increased.
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  • In the earlier stages of the development of the manufacture of mineral lubricating oils, the residues were distilled in cast-iron stills, and the lubricating properties of the products thus obtained were injured by overheating.
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  • The process of distillation of lubricating oils under reduced atmospheric pressure is now in very general use, especially for obtaining the heavier products.
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  • Geoffroy in 1741 pointed out that the fat or oil recovered from a soap solution by neutralization with a mineral acid differs from the original fatty substance by dissolving readily in alcohol, which is not the case with ordinary fats and oils.
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  • He started skimming through one stack of oils.
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  • The imports consist principally of coal, salt, grain and flour, groceries, textiles, wood, and mineral oils.
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  • Other analogous glycerides are apparently contained in greater or smaller quantity in certain other oils.
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  • Such are known as " reduced oils."
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  • A large number of arrangements for carrying out the cracking process have been proposed and patented, probably the earliest directly bearing on the subject being that of James Young, who in 1865 patented his " Improvements in treating hydrocarbon oils."
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  • Oils which contain sulphur-compounds are subjected to a special process of refining in which cupric oxide or litharge is employed as a desulphurizing agent.
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  • In the testing of mineral lubricating oils the viscosity, flash-point, cold-test," and specific gravity are the characters of chief importance.
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  • It is still customary to determine the open flash-point and firetest of lubricating oils, but the close flash-point is also usually ascertained, a modification of the Abel or Abel-Pensky apparatus, known as the Pensky-Martens, having been devised for the purpose.
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  • For the testing of the viscosity of lubricating oils the Boverton Redwood standardized viscometer is generally employed in Great Britain.
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  • Petroleum has largely superseded other oils, and is still gaining ground, as a lubricant for machinery and railway rolling-stock, either alone or in admixture with fixed oils.
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  • The more viscous descriptions of mineral oils have also been found suitable for use in the Elmore process of ore-concentration by oil.
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  • Since the inception of the petroleum industry, most civilized countries have prescribed by law a test of flash-point or inflammability, designed in most cases primarily to afford a definition of oils for lighting purposes which may be safely stored without the adoption of special precautions.
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  • Moreover the chief object of the Petroleum Acts passed in the United Kingdom has hitherto been to regulate storage, and it has always been possible to obtain oils either of higher or lower flash-point, when such are preferred, irrespective of the legal standard, in addition to which it may be asserted that in a properly constructed lamp used with reasonable care the ordinary oil of commerce is a safe illuminant.
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  • The processes and extent of the manufacture were revolutionized at about the beginning of the 19th century by Chevreul's classical investigations on the fats and oils, and by Leblanc's process for the manufacture of caustic soda from common salt.
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  • These discoveries of Geoffroy and Scheele formed the basis of Chevreul's researches by which he established the constitution of oils and the true nature of soap. In the article Oils it is pointed out that all fatty oils and fats are mixtures of glycerides, that is, of bodies related to the alcohol glycerin C 3H5(OH)3 i and some fatty acid such as palmitic acid (C 16 H 31 0 2)H.
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  • Numerous varieties of soaps are made; the purposes to which they are applied are varied; the materials employed embrace a considerable range of oils, fats and other bodies; and the processes adopted undergo many modifications.
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  • As regards processes of manufacture soaps may be made by the direct combination of fatty acids, separated from oils, with alkaline solutions.
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  • All other soaps result from the combination' of fatty oils and fat with potash or soda solutions under conditions which favour saponification.
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  • The most important of the animal fats are those of the ox and hog, and of the vegetable oils cotton-seed and coco-nut; it is also to be remembered that resin, although not a fat, is also important in soap-making.
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  • Of the vegetable oils, in addition to cotton-seed and coco-nut, olive oil is the basis of soaps for calico printers and silk dyers; castor oil yields transparent soaps (under suitable treatment), whilst crude palm oil, with bone fat, is employed for making brown soap, and after bleaching it yields ordinary pale or mottled.
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  • The cold process, which is Drily applicable to the manufacture of soaps from readily saponifiable oils, such as those of the coco-nut oil group and also from castor oil, is but little used.
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  • In it the oils at 35° C. are stirred with concentrated alkali in an iron or wooden tub, whereupon saponification ensues with a development of some heat; the mixture being well agitated.
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  • But in all countries a mixture of several oils enters into the composition of curd soaps and the proportions used have no fixity.
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  • There is no separation of underlyes in potash soap, consequently the product contains the whole constituents of the oils used, as the operation of salting out is quite impracticable owing to the double decomposition which results from the action of salt, producing thereby a hard principally soda soap with formation of potassium chloride.
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  • The city is still very favourably situated for obtaining supplies of oils both local and foreign, including sesame, ground nut, castor oil, &c. In England, during the reign of Charles I.
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  • It is almost insoluble in water, but mixes in all proportions with absolute alcohol, ether, benzene and various oils.
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  • Carbon bisulphide is used as a solvent for caoutchouc, for extracting essential oils, as a germicide, and as an insecticide.
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  • A new and energetic spirit was introduced by Scheele; among other discoveries this gifted experimenter isolated and characterized many organic acids, and proved the general occurrence of glycerin (Olsiiss) in all oils and fats.
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  • Organic acids also condense with alcohols to form similar compounds: the fats, waxes, and essential oils are naturally occurring substances of this class.
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  • Bituminous products of every grade, from clear translucent oils resembling petroleum and refined naphtha, to lignite-like substances, occur in all parts of the island.
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  • The proportion of imports taken from the United States is greatest in foodstuffs, metals and metal manufactures, timber and furniture, mineral oils and lard.
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  • Its principal imports are coffee (of which it is the greatest continental market), tea, sugar, spices, rice, wine (especially from Bordeaux), lard (from Chicago), cereals, sago, dried fruits, herrings, wax (from Morocco and Mozambique), tobacco, hemp, cotton (which of late years shows a large increase), wool, skins, leather, oils, dyewoods, indigo, nitrates, phosphates and coal.
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  • If we take a thin layer of natural Canada balsam and heat it strongly for a little time most of the volatile oils are driven out of it.
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  • It thus possesses the same composition as the hydrocarbon of gutta-percha and as that of oil of turpentine and other terpenes which are the chief components of essential oils.
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  • Vegetable and other oils rapidly penetrate caoutchouc and lead to deterioration of its properties.
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  • It is found in the volatile oils of Spiraea, and can be obtained by the oxidation of the glucoside salicin, (C13H1807), which is found in willow bark.
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  • Its manufactures include cardboard, glue, oils, colours, fertilizers, chemical products, perfumery, &c. During the middle ages and till modern times Aubervilliers was the resort of numerous pilgrims, who came to pay honour to Notre Dame des Vertus.
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  • It has a strong and characteristic odour, and a hot sweetish taste, is soluble in ten parts of water, and in all proportions in alcohol, and dissolves bromine, iodine, and, in small quantities, sulphur and phosphorus, also the volatile oils, most fatty and resinous substances, guncotton, caoutchouc and certain of the vegetable alkaloids.
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  • Primary amines heated with carbon bisulphide in alcoholic solution are converted into mustard oils, when the dithiocarbamate first produced is heated with a solution of mercuric chloride.
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  • Other towns of Tunisia are, on the east coast, Nabeul, pop. about 5000, the ancient Neapolis, noted for the mildness of its climate and its pottery manufactures; Hammamet with 37 00 inhabitants; Monastir (the Ruspina of the Romans), a walled town with 5600 inhabitants and a trade in cereals and oils; Mandiya or Mandia (q.v.; in ancient chronicles called the city of Africa and sometimes the capital of the country) with 8500 inhabitants, the fallen city of the Fatimites, which since the French occupation has risen from its ruins, and has a new harbour (the ancient Cothon or harbour, of Phoenician origin, cut out of the rock is nearly dry but in excellent preservation); and Gabes (Tacape of the Romans, Qabis of the Arabs) on the Syrtis, a group of small villages, with an aggregate population of 16,000, the port of the Shat country and a depot of the esparto trade.
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  • The Arabians greatly improved the earlier apparatus, naming one form the alembic; they discovered many ethereal oils by distilling plants and plant juices, alcohol by the distillation of wine, and also distilled water.
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  • Nitric, hydrochloric and sulphuric acids, all more or less impure, were better studied; and many ethereal oils were discovered.
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  • The same inventor has patented the application of electrolysed chlorides to the purification of starch by the oxidation of less stable organic bodies, to the bleaching of oils, and to the purification of coal gas, spirit and other substances.
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  • The ozone so prepared has numerous uses, as, for example, in bleaching oils, waxes, fabrics, &c., sterilizing drinking-water, maturing wines, cleansing foul beer-casks, oxidizing oil, and in the manufacture of vanillin.
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  • A list of the acids present in fats and oils is given in the article Oils.
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  • Devoting himself to the economic side of geology in various parts of North America, he was enabled to bring out in 1861 A Practical Treatise on Coal, Petroleum and other Distilled Oils.
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  • The same observer considers Boghead coal, kerosene shale and similar substances used for the production of mineral oils to be mainly alteration products of gelatinous fresh water algae, which by a nearly complete elimination of oxygen have been changed to substances approximating in composition to C 2 H 3 and C 3 H 5, where C: H = 7.98 and C: O ±N = 46.3.
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  • The term is more customarily given to productions of flame such as we have in the burning of oils, gas, fuel, &c., but it is conveniently extended to other cases of oxidation, such as are met with when metals are heated for a long time in air or oxygen.
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  • A large fleet is engaged in the fishery; and a great number of factories extract the oil for tanning and currying, and for adulterating other more expensive oils, and manufacture the refuse into a valuable guano.
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  • In the suburbs, oils, chemicals, cigarettes and bricks are made at Tacuba; cotton textiles at Contreras, San Angel and Tlalpam; paper and boots at Tacubaya, and bricks at Mixcoac and Coyoacan.
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  • The drug, along with gum, fatty oils, and malates of magnesium and calcium, contains also about 1% of cubebic acid, and about 6% of a resin.
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  • In the early process for extracting the oil the livers were allowed to putrefy in wooden tubs, when oils of two qualities, one called "pale oil," and the other "light brown oil," successively rose to the surface and were drawn off.
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  • The oils so obtained are termed "steamed-liver oils."
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  • Cod-liver oil has the further peculiarity of being more readily oxidizable than any other oil; an obviously valuable property when it is remembered that the entire foodvalue of oils depends on their oxidation.
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  • The volatile oils have for centuries been regarded as of value in disorders of the reproductive organs, and the reputation of myrrh in this connexion is simply a survival of this ancient but ill-founded belief.
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  • The chief exports are sheep and oxen, most of which are raised in Morocco and Tunisia, and horses; animal products, such as wool and skins; wine, cereals (rye, barley, oats), vegetables, fruits (chiefly figs and grapes for the table) and seeds, esparto grass, oils and vegetable extracts (chiefly olive oil), iron ore, zinc, natural phosphates, timber, cork, crin vegetal and tobacco.
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  • Cotton, silks, woollen cloth, and felt are manufactured, also boots, saddles, cutlery and weapons, pottery and various oils.
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  • An investigation by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1909 finds that the crude Mexican oils are of low grade, but that while not equal to those found in the upper Mississippi basin for refining purposes, they furnish an excellent fuel for railway engines and other industrial purposes.
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  • Many of the Mexican railways are using these fuel oils, which are superseding imported coal.
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  • In the last part of the, 9th century its decline was rapid, not only because of the increasing scarcity of whales, but because of the introduction of the mineral oils, and by the end of the century whaling had ceased to be of any economic importance.
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  • The Appalachian field (Pennsylvania, New York, Ohio, West Virginia and Tennessee) produces oil rich in paraffin, practically free from sulphur and asphalt, and yielding the largest percentage of gasoline and illuminating oils.
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  • The Lima (Ohio)-Indiana, the Illinois, the Mid-Continent (Kansas, Oklahoma and northern Texas) and the Gulf (Texas and Louisiana) fields produce oils containing more or less of sulphur and asphalt between the extremes of the two other fields just mentioned.
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  • The geological conditions of the different fields, and the details of the composition of the oils yielded, are exceedingly varied, and their study has been little more than begun In 1859 when the total output of the country is supposed to have been only 2000 barrels of oil, production was confined to Pennsylvania and New York.
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  • Precious stones ($43,620,591); fruits and nuts; copper, iron and steel; tobacco (leaf $25,897,650; manufactured, $4,138,521); tin; spirits, wines and liquors; oils, paper, works of art, tea and leather ($16,270,406), being the remaining items in excess of $15,000,000 each.
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  • Many compound resins, however, from their admixture with essential oils, are possessed of distinct and characteristic odours.
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  • The hard transparent resins, such as the copals, dammars, mastic and sandarach, are principally used for varnishes and cement, while the softer odoriferous oleo-resins (frankincense, turpentine, copaiba) and gum-resins containing essential oils (ammoniacum, asafoetida, gamboge, myrrh, scammony) are more largely used for therapeutic purposes and incense.
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  • The lighter oil is conveyed to Batum on the Black Sea in pipes, and is there shipped for export; the heavier oils reach the same port and the ports of Novorossiysk and Poti, also on the Black Sea, in tank railway-cars.
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  • The products formed by the action of the Grignard reagent with the various types of organic compounds are usually thrown out of solution in the form of crystalline precipitates or as thick oils, and are then decomposed by ice-cold dilute sulphuric or acetic acids, the magnesium being removed as a basic halide salt.
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  • Materials like tar and pitch are sometimes employed as a matrix; they are used hot and without water, the solidifying action being due to cooling and to evaporation of the mineral oils contained in them.
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  • Other subjects on which he published papers were the inflammation of turpentine and other essential oils by nitric acid, and the methods of embalmment practised by the Egyptians.
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  • Among the enzymes already extracted from fungi are invertases (yeasts, moulds, &c.), which split cane-sugar and other complex sugars with hydrolysis into simpler sugars such as dextrose and levulose; diastases, which convert starches into sugars (Aspergillus, &c.); cytases, which dissolve cellulose similarly (Botrytis, &c.); peptases, using the term as a general one for all enzymes which convert proteids into peptones and other bodies (Penicillium, &c.); lipases, which break up fatty oils (Empusa, Phycomyces, &c.); oxydases, which bring about the oxidations and changes of colour observed in Boletus, and zymase, extracted by Buchner from yeast, which brings about the conversion of sugar into alcohol and carbondioxide.
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  • Furs kept in such a condition are not only immune from the ravages of the larvae of moth, but all the natural oils in the pelt and fur are conserved, so that its colour and life are prolonged, and the natural deterioration is arrested.
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  • It is also formed in the destructive distillation of many substances, as wood, coal, caoutchouc, bones, resin and the fixed oils.
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  • Since the opening of the new port the traffic has considerably increased, and it exports oil, pig-lead, silver, flour, wine, marble and sandstone for paving purposes, while it imports quantities of coal, iron, cereals, phosphates, timber, pitch, petroleum, and mineral oils.
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  • Under the general name "rape oil" is included the produce of several plants having distinct and fairly constant characters, and one of these oils - colza (q.v.) - is a very wellknown commercial variety.
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  • Refined by the ordinary processes '(see OILs), the oil assumes a clear golden yellow colour.
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  • The principal uses of rape oil are for lubrication and lighting; but since the introduction of mineral oils for both these purposes the importance of rape has considerably decreased.
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  • In the East Indies rape oil and its equivalents, known under various names, are the most important of oils for native use.
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  • Rape oil is the subject of extensive adulteration, principally with the cheaper hemp oil, rosin oil and mineral oils.
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  • The presence of sulphur in rape and other cruciferous oils also affords a ready means for their identification.
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  • Exempt from duty were now only refuse, raw products, scientific instruments, ships and literary and artistic objects; forty-four articles notably beer, vinegar, sugar, herrings, cocoa, salt, fish oils, ether, alum and sodawere unaffected by the change, while duties were henceforth levied upon a large number of articles which had previously been admitted dtity free, such as pig iron, machines and locomotives, grain, building timber, tallow; horses, cattle and sheep; and, again, the tariff law further increased the duties leviable upon numerous other articles.
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  • Ether, alcohol not in cluded elsewhere, essen tial oils, perfumery and cosmetics.
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  • As to the manual rites of the daily cult, all that can here be said is that incense, purifications and anointings with various Oils played a large part; the sacrifices consisted chiefly of slaughtered oxen and geese; burnt offerings were a very late innovation.
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  • In medicine it acts like other volatile oils and has a reputation as a cure for colds.
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  • Other exports of importance are rum, wax and honey; and of less primary importance, fruits, fine cabinet woods, oils and starch.
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  • The total value of oils and oil-seeds exported in1905-1906was over 72 millions sterling.
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  • The chief articles of import are cotton goods, cotton yarn, metals, sugar, mineral oils, machinery and mill-work, woollen manufactures,.
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  • There are gutta-percha, india-rubber and other trees and plants yielding gums, the banana, mango, and many other trees and plants yielding fruits; and various trees and plants yielding nuts, spices, oils and medicines.
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  • There is a great variety in the grades of oils produced in the state, ranging from the heavy asphaltic oils of the Popo Agie and Lander fields to the high-grade lubricants and superior light products obtained from the wells in the Douglas, Salt Creek and Uinta county fields.
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  • It includes diamonds, the majority of which, however, are of a somewhat yellow colour, gold, quicksilver, cinnabar, copper, iron, tin, antimony, mineral oils, sulphur, rock-salt, marble and coal.
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  • The local industries are not of much importance: they comprise manufactures of woollen and cotton stuffs of a coarse description, soaps, oils, cork and leather.
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  • Linseed oil is subject to various falsifications, chiefly through the addition of cotton-seed, niger-seed and hemp-seed oils; and rosin oil and mineral oils also are not infrequently added.
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  • His brother Claude Joseph, known as Geoffroy the younger (1685-1752), was also an apothecary and chemist who, having a considerable knowledge of botany, devoted himself especially to the study of the essential oils in plants.
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  • It is to these subsidiary matters that the flavour and bouquet in wine are particularly due, at any rate in the first stages of maturation, although some of the substances originally present in the grape, such as ready-formed esters, essential oils, fat and so on, also play a role in this regard.
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  • In 1847 Lyon Playfair informed him of a spring of petroleum which had made its appearance at Ridding's Colliery at Alfreton in Derbyshire, and in the following year he began to utilize it for making both burning and lubricating oils.
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  • This was soon put into operation in Scotland, first with the Boghead coal or Torbanehill mineral, and later with bituminous shales, and though he had to face much litigation Young successfully employed it in the manufacture of naphtha and lubricating oils, and subsequently of illuminating oils and paraffin wax, until in 1866, after the patent had expired, he transferred his works to a limited company.
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  • The goods transmitted in largest quantity are fish, metals, manufactured wares, hides, flax, timber, cereals, petroleum, oils and salt.
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  • Sometimes both whale and mineral oils are used, but in most cases the whale oil is omitted.
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  • The imports were raw and manufactured cotton, wool and silk, wheat and maize, coal, iron and machinery, dried codfish, sugar, rice, hides and skins, oils.
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  • On an average, £3,000,000 to £4,000,000 worth of wheat, about £i,000,000 worth of rye, and over £1,500,000 worth of barley are exported annually, besides oats, flax, linseed, rape seed, oilcake, bran, flour, vegetable oils, raw wool and caviare.
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  • The imports, consisting chiefly of salt, fish, wine, cotton, metals, machinery, coal, oils, fruits and tobacco, are also rapidly increasing: whereas in 1851-60 they were valued at about z million sterling, in 1901-1905 they reached 6-114 millions sterling.
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  • The imports are French wines, spirits and liqueurs; silk and cotton stuffs, tobacco, hardware, glass, earthenware, clothing, preserved meat, fish, and vegetables, maize, flour, hay, bran, oils and cattle.
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  • Linoleic acid, C18H3202, found as glyceride in drying oils, and ricinoleic acid, C18H33(OH)02, found as glyceride in castor oil, closely resemble oleic acid.
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  • The women are very fond of strong scents, which are generally oils imported from India and Ceylon.
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  • It is not soluble in fixed oils or in ether, although the pure alkaloid is soluble in both.
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  • When Leonardo, having received a commission for a picture, was found distilling for himself a new medium of oils and herbs before he had begun the design, the pope was convinced, not quite unreasonably, that nothing serious would come of it.
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  • The principal imports are cotton piece goods, railway materials, metals and machinery, oils, sugar, cotton, twist and salt; and the principal exports are jute, tea, hides, opium, rice, oil-seeds, indigo and lac. The inter-provincial trade is mostly carried on with Eastern Bengal and Assam, the United Provinces and the Central Provinces.
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  • Owing to increased competition, and in some degree to careless harvesting, there was a great fall in prices after 1900, and the Seychellois, though still producing vanilla in large quantities, paid greater attention to the products of the coconut palm - copra, soap, coco-nut oil and coco-nuts - to the development of the mangrove bark industry, the collection of guano, the cultivation of rubber trees, the preparation of banana flour, the growing of sugar canes, and the distillation of rum and essential oils.
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  • This phenomenon was minutely studied by Boyle, who found that solutions in some essential oils (oil of cloves) showed the same character, whilst in others (oils of mace and aniseed) there was no phosphorescence.
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  • The phosphorus used in the British pharma copoeia is obtained from calcium phosphate, and is a waxlike non-metallic substance soluble in oils and luminous in the dark.
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  • The old French oil of turpentine is the best antidote to use in phosphorus poisoning, delaying the toxic effects; but ordinary oils are not only useless but harmful.
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  • Many occur in nature in the free state: for example, natural gas, petroleum and paraffin are entirely composed of such bodies; other natural sources are india-rubber, turpentine and certain essential oils.
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  • If bituminous coal is distilled at a low tempera- Destruc- ture, the tar is found to contain considerable quantities of tive dis- light paraffin oils; and there is no doubt that paraffin tillation hydrocarbons are present in the original coal.
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  • Of the first class, the light paraffin oils and pitch may be taken as examples; whilst benzene, naphthalene and retort carbon represent the second.
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  • Working with a caking coal Wright obtained the following results: - Analysis of the tar showed that the increase of the specific gravity was due to the increase in the quantity of pitch, which rose from 28.89 to 64.08% in the residuals; whilst the ammonia, naphtha and light oils steadily fell in quantity, the creosote and anthracene oils doing the same, but to a smaller extent.
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  • The solubility of naphthalene by various oils has led some engineers to put in naphthalene washers, in which gas is brought into contact with a heavy tar oil or certain fractions distilled from it, the latter being previously mixed with some volatile hydrocarbon to replace in the gas those illuminating vapours which the oil dissolves out; and by fractional distillation of the washing oil the naphthalene and volatile hydrocarbons are afterwards recovered.
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  • Mixing with the coal gas oil gas, obtained by decomposing crude oils by heat.
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  • The chief sources of the terpenes and their derivatives are the essential oils obtained by the distillation or extraction by pressure of various plants, chiefly of the Coniferae and different species of Citrus.
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  • Certain of these oils consist very largely of hydrocarbons; for example, those of turpentine, citron, thyme, orange, pine-needle, goldenrod (from Solidago canadensis) and cypress, while others contain as their chief constituents various alcoholic and ketonic substances.
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  • With the exception of camphene, all the terpenes are liquids, boiling approximately between 160° and 190° C., so that it is almost impossible to separate them from the various essential oils by fractional distillation.
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  • Applied externally it possesses, in higher degree than any of its fellows, the properties of the volatile oils.
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  • The last enters into the composition of some of the solid lubricating greases, and is also used as an adulterant of other oils.
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  • Deficits appeared, which had to be covered temporarily by new loans, and which forced the government to establish monopolies on salt, tobacco, matches, mineral oils, &c. Every such step increased the unpopularity of the government and strengthened the opposition.
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  • Among other manufactures are hosiery and knit goods, overalls and suspenders, hardware, lumber, oils and varnishes, gasoline fire engines, mica insulators, agricultural implements, and wagons and carriages.
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  • Other industries include the manufacture of artificial flowers, wax-cloth, chemicals, ethereal oils and essences, beer, mineral waters, tobacco and cigars, lace, indiarubber wares, rush-work and paper, the preparation of furs and numerous other branches.
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  • The exports, worth £6,460,000 in 1902, chiefly consisted of grain, flour, sugar, timber and horses; the imports, worth £3,678,000 in the same year, of coal, wine, rice, fruit, jute and various minerals, chemicals and oils.
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  • Formerly, when substances were principally classified by obvious characteristics, the word included such a body as "oil of vitriol" (sulphuric acid), which has of course nothing in common with what is now understood under the term oils.
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  • The fixed oils and fats consist essentially of glycerides, i.e.
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  • The true chemical constitution of oils and fats was first expounded by the classical researches of Chevreul, embodied in his work, Recherches sur les corps Bras d'origine animale (1823, reprinted 1889).
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  • The fatty (fixed) oils and fats form a well-defined and homogeneous group of substances, passing through all gradations of consistency, from oils which are fluid even below the freezing-point of water, up to the hardest fats which melt at about 50° C. Therefore, no sharp distinction can be made between fatty oils and fats.
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  • The natural oils and fats are mixtures of at least two or three different triglycerides, the most important of which are tristearin, tripalmitin, C3H5(0'C16H310)3 and triolein, C 3 H 5 (0C1811330)3.
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  • These three glycerides have been usually considered the chief constituents of most oils and fats, but latterly there have been recognized as widely distributed trilinolin, the glyceride of linolic acid, and trilinolenin, the glyceride of linolenic acid.
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  • The two last-named glycerides are characteristic of the semidrying and drying oils respectively.
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  • In addition to the fatty acids mentioned already there occur also, although in much smaller quantities, other fatty acids combined with glycerin, as natural glycerides, such as the glyceride of butyric acid in butterfat, of caproic, caprylic and capric acids in butter-fat and in coco-nut oil, lauric acid in coco-nut and palm-nut oils, and myristic acid in mace butter.
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  • These glycerides are, therefore, characteristic of the oils and fats named.
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  • Oils and fats must, therefore, not be looked upon as definite chemical individuals, but as representatives of natural species which vary, although within certain narrow limits, according to the climate and soil in which the plants which produce them are grown, or, in the case of animal fats, according to the climate, the race, the age of the animal, and especially the food, and also the idiosyncrasy of the individual animal.
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  • The oils and fats are distributed throughout the animal and vegetable kingdom from the lowest organism up to the most highly organized forms of animal and vegetable life, and are found in almost all tissues and organs.
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  • The vegetable oils and fats occur chiefly in the seeds, where they are stored to nourish the embryo, whereas in animals the oils and fats are enclosed mainly in the cellular tissues of the intestines and of the back.
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  • The glycerides occurring in natural oils and fats differ, therefore, in the first instance by the different fatty acids contained in them, and secondly, even if they do contain the same fatty acids, by different proportions of the several simple and mixed glycerides.
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  • Since the methods of preparing the vegetable and animal fats are comparatively crude ones, they usually contain certain impurities of one kind or another, such as colouring and mucilaginous matter, remnants of vegetable and animal tissues, &c. For the most part these foreign substances can be removed by processes of refining, but even after this purification they still retain small quantities of foreign substances, such as traces of colouring matters, albuminoid and (or) resinous substances, and other foreign substances, which remain dissolved in the oils and fats, and can only be isolated after saponification of the fat.
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  • The former occurs in all oils and fats of vegetable origin; the latter is characteristic of all oils and fats of animal origin.
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  • This important difference furnishes a method of distinguishing by chemical means vegetable oils and fats from animal oils and fats.
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  • This distinction will be made use of in the classification of the oils and fats.
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  • A second guiding principle is afforded by the different amounts of iodine (see Oil Testing below) the various oils and fats are capable of absorbing.
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  • Since this capacity runs parallel with one of the best-known properties of oils and fats, viz.
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  • The specific gravities of oils and fats vary between the limits of o-910 and 0.975.
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  • The lowest specific gravity is owned by the oils belonging to the rape oil group - from 0.913 to 0.916.
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  • The specific gravities of most non-drying oils lie between 0.916 and 0.920, and of most semi-drying oil y between 0.920 and 0.925, whereas the drying oils have specific gravities of about 0.930.
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  • In their liquid state oils and fats easily penetrate into the pores of dry substances; on paper they leave a translucent spot - "grease spot" - which cannot be removed by washing with water and subsequent drying.
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  • A curious fact, which may be used for the detection of the minutest quantity of oils and fats, is that camphor crushed between layers of paper without having been touched with the fingers rotates when thrown on clean water, the rotation ceasing immediately when a trace of oil or fat is added, such as introduced by touching the water with a needle which has been passed previously through the hair.
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  • The oils and fats are practically insoluble in water.
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  • Oils and fats have no distinct melting or solidifying point.
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  • The freezing-points of those oils which are fluid at the ordinary temperature range from a few degrees above zero down to - 28° C. (linseed oil).
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  • At low temperatures solid portions - usually termed "stearine" - separate out from many oils; in the case of cotton-seed oil the separation takes place at 12° C. These solid portions can be filtered off, and thus are obtained the commercial "demargarinated oils" or "winter oils."
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  • Oils and fats can be heated to a temperature of 200° to 250° C. without undergoing any material change, provided prolonged contact with air is avoided.
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  • On being heated above 250° up to 300° some oils, like linseed oil, safflower oil, tung oil (Chinese or Japanese wood oil) and even castor oil, undergo a change which is most likely due to polymerization.
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  • Above 300° C. all oils and fats are decomposed; this is evidenced by the evolution of acrolein, which possesses the wellknown pungent odour of burning fat.
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  • On exposure to the atmosphere, oils and fats gradually undergo certain changes.
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  • The drying oils absorb oxygen somewhat rapidly and dry to a film or skin, especially if exposed in a thin layer.
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  • The semi-drying oils absorb oxygen more slowly than the drying oils, and are, therefore, useless as paint oils.
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  • The property of the semi-drying oils to absorb oxygen is accelerated by spreading such oils over a large surface, notably over woollen or cotton fibres, when absorption proceeds so rapidly that frequently spontaneous combustion will ensue.
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  • The non-drying oils, the type of which is olive oil, do not become oxidized readily on exposure to the air, although gradually a change takes place, the oils thickening slightly and acquiring that peculiar disagreeable smell and acrid taste, which are defined by the term "rancid."
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  • The changes conditioning rancidity, although not yet fully understood in all details, must be ascribed in the first instance to slow hydrolysis ("saponification") of the oils and fats by the moisture of the air, especially if favoured by insolation, when water is taken up by the oils and fats, and free fatty acids are formed.
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  • The fatty acids so set free are then more readily attacked by the oxygen of the air, and oxygenated products are formed, which impart to the oils and fats the rancid smell and taste.
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  • If the fats and oils are well protected from air and light, they can be kept indefinitely.
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  • If the action of air and moisture is allowed free play, the hydrolysis of the oils and fats may become so complete that only the insoluble fatty acids remain behind, the glycerin being washed away.
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  • The property of oils and fats of being readily hydrolysed is a most important one, and very extensive use of it is made in the arts (soapmaking, candle-making and recovery of their by-products).
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  • If oils and fats are treated with water alone under high pressure (corresponding to a temperature of about 220° C.), or in the presence of water with caustic alkalis or alkaline earths or basic metallic oxides (which bodies act as "catalysers") at lower pressures, they are converted in the first instance into free fatty acids and glycerin.
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  • The oils and fats used in the industries are not drawn from any very great number of sources.
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  • The tables on the following pages contain chiefly the most important oils and fats together with their sources, yields and principal uses, arranged according to the above classification, and according to the magnitude of the iodine value.
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  • It should be added that many other oils and fats are only waiting improved conditions of transport to enter into successful competition with some of those that are already on the market.
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  • Since the oils and fats have always served the human race as one of the most important articles of food, the oil and fat industry may well be considered to be as old as the human race itself.
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  • The methods of preparing oils and fats range themselves under three heads: (i) Extraction of oil by "rendering," i.e.
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  • The crudest method of rendering oils from seeds, still practised in Central Africa, in Indo-China and on some of the South Sea Islands, consists in heaping up oleaginous fruits and allowing them to melt by the heat of the sun, when the exuding oil runs off and is collected.
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  • Drying oils.
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  • The rendering process is, however, applied on a very large scale to the production of animal oils and fats.
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  • Formerly the animal oils and fats were obtained by heating the tissues containing the oils or fats over a free fire, when the cell membranes burst and the liquid fat flowed out.
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  • Whilst the original method of obtaining seed oils may perhaps have been the same which is still used in India, viz.
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  • In the East, where vegetable oils form an important article of food and serve also for other domestic purposes, various ingenious applications of lever presses and wedge presses, and even of combined lever and wedge presses, have been used from the remotest time.
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  • The sequence of operations in treating oil seeds, oil nuts, &c., for the separation of their contained oils is at the present time as follows: As a preliminary operation the oil seeds and nuts are freed from dust, sand and other impurities by sifting in an inclined revolving cylinder or sieving machine, covered with woven wire, having meshes varying according to the size and nature of the seed operated upon.
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  • This preliminary purification is of the greatest importance, especially for the preparation of edible oils and fats.
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  • For the preparation of edible oils and fats the meal is expressed in the cold, after having been packed into bags and placed in hydraulic presses under a pressure of three hundred atmospheres or even more.
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  • Oils so obtained are known in commerce as "cold drawn oils," "cold pressed oils," "salad oils," "virgin oils."
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  • Thus oils of the "second expression" and of the "third expression" are obtained.
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  • Such oils are hardly suitable for edible purposes, and they are chiefly used for manufacturing processes.
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  • According to the care exercised by the manufacturer in the range of temperature to which the seed is heated, various grades of oils are obtained.
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  • For several years afterwards the process made little advance, for the colour of the oils produced was higher and the taste much sharper.
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  • Where, however, the fatty material forms the main product, as in the case of palm kernel oil, or sesame and coco-nut oils from damaged seeds (which would no longer yield proper cattle food), the process of extraction will be preferred, especially when the price of oils is high.
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  • The fruits are expressed, and after the edible qualities and best class of oils for technical purposes have been taken off by expression, the remaining pulp is extracted by means of solvents.
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  • If care be exercised in the process of rendering animal oils and fats or expressing oils in the cold, the products are, as a rule, sufficiently pure to be delivered to the consumer, after a preliminary settling has allowed any mucilaginous matter, such as animal or vegetable fibres or other impurities, and also traces of moisture, to separate out.
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  • This process is now shortened by filtering oils through filter presses, or otherwise brightening them, e.g.
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  • In many cases these methods still suffice for the production of commercial oils and fats.
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  • In special cases, such as the preparation of edible oils and fats, a further improvement in colour and greater purity is obtained by filtering the oils over charcoal, or over natural absorbent earths, such as fuller's earth.
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  • Oils intended for use on the table which deposit "stearine" in winter must be freed from such solid fats.
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  • Most olive oils are naturally non-congealing oils, whereas the Tunisian and Algerian olive oils deposit so much "stearine" that they must be "demargarinated."
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  • Similar methods are employed in the production of lard oil, edible cotton-seed oil, &c. For refining oils and fats intended for edible purposes only the foregoing methods, which may be summarized by the name of physical methods, can be used; the only' chemicals permissible are alkalis or alkaline earths to remove free fatty acids present.
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  • Treatment with other chemicals renders the oils and fats unfit for consumption.
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  • Therefore all bleaching and refining processes involving other means than those enumerated can only be used for technical oils and fats, such as lubricating oils, burning oils, paint oils, soap-making oils, &c.
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  • This method is chiefly used in the refining of linseed and rape oils.
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  • In most cases the purification consisted in removing the free fatty acids from rancid oils and fats, the caustic soda forming a soap with the fatty acids, which would either rise as a scum and lift up with it impurities, or fall to the bottom and carry down impurities.
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  • After the treatment with sulphuric acid or caustic soda, the oils must be washed to remove the last traces of chemicals.
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  • The water is then allowed to settle out, and the oils are finally filtered.
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  • The number of chemicals which have been proposed from time to time for the purification of oils and fats is almost legion, and so long as the nature of oils and fats was little understood, a secret trade in oil-purifying chemicals flourished, With our present knowledge most of these chemicals may be removed into the limbo of useless things.
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  • Before that time it was believed that not only could individual oils and fats be distinguished from each other by colour reactions, but it was also maintained that falsification could be detected thereby.
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  • The saponification values of most oils and fats lie in the neighbourhood of 195.
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  • But the oils belonging to the rape oil group are characterized by considerably lower saponification values, viz.
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  • In the case of those oils which do not belong to the rape oils and yet show abnormally low saponification values, the suspicion is raised at once that a certain amount of mineral oils (which do not absorb alkali and are therefore termed "unsaponifiable") has been admixed fraudulently.
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  • A few of the blubber oils, like dolphin jaw and porpoise jaw oils (used for lubricating typewriting machines), have exceedingly high saponification values ` owing to their containing volatile fatty acids with a small number of carbon atoms. Notable also are coco-nut and palm-nut oils, the saponification numbers of which vary from 240 to 260, and especially butter-fat, which has a saponification value of about 227.
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  • On this value a scientific classification of all oils and fats can be based, as is shown by the above-given list of oils and fats.
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  • The unsaturated fatty acids which occur chiefly in oils and fats are oleic acid, iodine value 90.07; erucic acid, iodine value 75.15; linolic acid, iodine value 181.42; linolenic acid, iodine value 274.1; and clupanodonic acid, iodine value 367.7.
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  • Oleic acid occurs in all non-drying oils and fats, and to some extent in the semi-drying oils and fats.
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  • Linolic acid is a characteristic constituent of all semi-drying, and to some extent of all drying oils.
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  • Linolenic acid characterizes all vegetable drying oils; similarly clupanodonic acid characterizes all marine animal oils.
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  • Even if a mixture of several oils and fats be present, the iodine value assists greatly in the identification of the components of the mixture, and furnishes the most important key for the attacking and resolving of this not very simple problem.
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  • By combining the various methods which have been outlined here, and by the help of some further additional special methods, and by reasoning in a strictly logical manner, it is possible to resolve a mixture of two oils and fats, and even of three and four, into their components and determine approximately their quantities.
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  • The methods sketched here do not yet exhaust the armoury of the analytical chemist, but it can only be pointed out in passing that the detection of hydroxylated acids enables the analyst to ascertain the presence of castor oil, just as the isolation and determination of oxidized fatty acids enables him to differentiate blown oils from other oils.
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  • The viscosity test, although of considerable importance in the examination of lubricating oils, has been shown to have very little discriminative value as a general test.
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  • Fish and blubber oils are principally produced in Dundee, London and Greenock.
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  • The manufacture of cod-liver oil for pharmaceutical purposes is naturally somewhat limited, as Norway, Newfoundland, and latterly also Japan, are more favourably situated as regards the supply of fresh cod, but the technical liver oils (cod oil, shark-liver oil) are produced in very large quantities in Grimsby, Hull, Aberdeen, and latterly also on the west coasts of the United Kingdom.
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  • With regard to edible oils, edible cottonseed oil is the only table oil produced in Great Britain.
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  • Amongst the edible oils and fats which are largely imported, butter takes the first rank (to an amount of almost 25,000,000 per annum).
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  • Of lesser importance are greases, which form the by-product of the large slaughter-houses in the United States and Argentina, and American (Canadian) and Japanese fish oils.
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  • On the continent of Europe the largest oil-trading centres are on the Mediterranean (Marseilles and Triest), which are geographically more favourably placed than England for the production of such edible oils (in addition to the home-grown olive oil) as arachis oil, sesame oil and coco-nut oil.
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  • Moreover, the native population itself constitutes a large consumer of these oils.
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  • The United Ste tes takes the foremost place in the world for the production of cottonseed and maize oils, lard, bone fat and fish oils.
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  • Canada is likely to outstrip the United States in the trade of fish and blubber oils, and in tie near future Japan bids fair to become a very serious competitor in the supply of these oils.
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  • The waxes can be classified similarly to the oils and fats as follows: - The table enumerates the most important waxes: - Waxes There are only two liquid waxes known, sperm oil and arctic sperm oil (bottlenose-whale oil), formerly always classed together with the animal oils.
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  • In their physical properties the natural waxes simulate the fatty oils and fats.
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  • The essential, ethereal, or "volatile" oils constitute a very extensive class of bodies, which possess, in a concentrated form, the odour characteristic of the plants or vegetable substances from which they are obtained.
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  • The oils are usually contained in special cells, glands, cavities, or canals within the plants either as such or intermixed with resinous substances; in the latter case the mixtures form oleo-resins, balsams or resins according as the product is viscid, or solid and hard.
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  • The essential oils are for the most part insoluble or only very sparingly soluble in water, but in alcohol, ether,`,fatty oils and mineral oils they dissolve freely.
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  • Their chief physical distinction from the fatty oils is that they are as a rule not oleaginous to the touch and leave no permanent grease spot.
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  • The essential oils possess a high refractive power, and most of them rotate the plane of the polarized light.
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  • Even so nearly related oils as the oils of turpentine, if obtained from different sources, rotate the plane of the polarized light in opposite directions.
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  • In specific gravity the essential oils range from o 850 to 1.142; the majority are, however, specifically lighter than water.
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  • Before essential oils could be prepared synthetically they were obtained from plants by one of the following methods: (1) distillation, (2) expression, (3) extraction, (4) enfleurage, (5) maceration.
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  • The distillation is generally performed in a still with an inlet for steam and an outlet to carry the vapours laden with essential oils into a condenser, where the water and oil vapours are condensed.
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  • The process of expression is applicable to the obtaining of essential oils which are contained in the rind or skin of the fruits belonging to the citron family, such as orange and lemon oils.
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  • The process of extraction with volatile solvents is similar to that used in the extraction of oils and fats, but as only the most highly purified solvents can be used, this process has not yet gained commercial importance.
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  • This process is principally employed for preparing pomades and perfumed oils.
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  • The essential oil itself can be recovered from the perfumed oils, prepared either by enfleurage or maceration, by agitating the perfumed fat in a shaking machine with pure concentrated alcohol.
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  • Since the chemistry of the essential oils has been investigated in a systematic fashion a large number of the chemical individuals mentioned above have been isolated from the oils and identified.
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  • This first step has led to the synthetical production of the most characteristic substances of essential oils in the laboratory, and the synthetical manufacture of essential oils bade fair to rival in importance the production of tar colours from the hydrocarbons obtained on distilling coal.
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  • The aim of the chemist to produce essential oils on a manufacturing scale is naturally confined at present to the more expensive oils.
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  • For so long as the great bulk of oils is so cheaply produced in nature's laboratory, the natural products will hold their field for a long time to come.
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  • Essential oils have an extensive range of uses, of which the principal are their various applications in perfumery (q.v.).
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  • The value of flavouring herbs, condiments and spices is due in a large measure to the essential oils contained in them.
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  • The commercial value of tea, coffee, wine and other beverages may be said to depend largely on the delicate aroma which they owe to the presence of minute quantities of ethereal oils.
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  • Hence, essential oils are extensively used for the flavouring of liqueurs, aerated beverages and other drinks.
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  • Many of the essential oils find extensive use in medicine.
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  • Oils of lavender and of spike are used as vehicles for painting, more especially for the painting of pottery and glass.
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  • The examination of essential oils is by no means an easy task.
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  • Each oil requires almost a special method, but with the progress of chemistry the extensive adulteration that used to be practised with fatty oils has almost disappeared, as the presence of fatty oils is readily detected.
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  • Thus roses of different origin or even of different years will yield rose oils of widely different value.
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  • The cultivation of plants for essential oils has become a large industry, and is especially practised as an industry in the south of France (Grasse, Nice, Cannes).
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  • India and China are also very large producers of essential oils.
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  • Some of these, such as resins, gums, essential oils and fats, are readily obtained as natural exudations or by very simple manipulations, while others, such as the alkaloids, glucosides and vegetable acids, often require to be extracted by very complex processes.
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  • The aromatic bitters such as chamomile flowers, cascarilla bark, hops, orange peel and others contain in addition small quantities of essential oils which increase their local action.
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  • The resins when taken internally have much the same action as essential oils, which are closely allied chemically, while the benzoic and cinnamic acids in the balsams modify their actions very slightly.
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  • Although individual essential oils may differ somewhat in action, chemically and pharmacologically they are fundamentally similar.
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  • The various camphors, such as laurel camphor, Borneo camphor, menthol and cumarin, are oxidized derivatives of essential oils, and differ only superficially from them in their action.
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  • Petroleum, or rather the heavy oils obtained in tar refineries, having an equal or superior heating power to coal-gas, may also be used in laboratories for producing high temperatures.
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  • Tropical oils and mother's milk are by far the richest food sources of medium chain fatty acids available.
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  • First, that the oils used are 100 percent natural, not adulterated in any way.
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  • Fuel oils are characterized by the presence of an identifiable homologous series of normal alkanes.
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  • Taruna Oils offers therapeutic grade aromatherapy & essential oils for mind, body & spirit.
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  • This natural aromatherapy facial mist contains only the finest ingredients, all carefully blended by hand using the purest quality essential oils.
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  • Related pages aromatherapy massage oils Aromatherapy is the ancient, esthetic & scientific art of healing using essential oils.
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  • Made from the purest oils and herbal astringents its aroma is reminiscent of dewy rose petals, freshly picked tangerines and Juniper Berries.
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  • It specializes in oils and greases for agriculture, automotive, aviation, construction, industrial, marine and trucking industries.
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  • About one evening a week, she will also draw a bath, laced with bath oils or bubble bath.
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  • All of our candles are made from local English beeswax with pure essential oils in the floating candles.
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  • In some balsams and essential oils are found benzyl alcohol, benzyl benzoate, benzyl cinnamate and benzyl salicylate.
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  • In addition, the paints and finishes used on the Ecoplus System are all based on natural plant oils and contain no biocides.
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  • The aim is to test the performance of the new green biofuel produced by UK company D1 Oils.
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  • For information on other aspects of diet, including oily fish and fish oils, see the arc booklet ' Diet and Arthritis ' .
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  • Pure essential oils and organic botanicals are added to create just a little bit of " paradise " .
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  • Do not use bubble baths, oils, soaps or talcum powder for seven days. After washing dry the wound thoroughly.
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  • Some people also find that these same amounts of fish oils can cause ' fishy burps ' and avoid taking it for that reason.
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  • The vegetable oils are reacted with hydrogen gas using a nickel catalyst.
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  • Typical sources of essential oils include chamomile, lavender, rosemary and tea tree.
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  • Their natural bath and body products contain no artificial colorants, synthetic fragrance oils or animal products and are cruelty free.
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  • Back to Top Oils Darren Dowling Oils are generally very combustible.
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  • Non-stick cookware helps reduce the amount of oils used in cooking.
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  • The only rich source of dietary squalene comes from the liver oils of the deep-sea dogfish.
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  • We sell watercolors, oils, pastels and pencil drawings.
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  • You may choose one of our aromatic herbal oils to improve the skin's elasticity.
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  • Alternatives: vegetable emollients (see alternatives to Animal Fats and Oils ).
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  • Many products contain essential oils to enhance their fragrance, and in some cases to help care for the skin and hair.
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  • Your entire dull skin gets a layer of pure essential oils.
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  • Many of the therapies employ COMO Shambhala products, formulated with pure organic essential oils and herbs.
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  • Because of the nature of this condition there are many different essential oils which may be used.
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  • Well, there are several essential oils noted for their calming effect; two of these are lavender and geranium.
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  • The oils will slowly evaporate into the air to be inhaled.
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  • The oils produced from the seed contains the highest amount of essential fatty acids in the plant world.
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  • Certain essential oils are good but oils to be avoided include evening primrose, rosemary, hyssop, sweet fennel and sage.
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  • Great ones to burn to remind you of summer include floral (rose or jasmine) or citrus based oils like bergamot.
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  • Apart from the essential oils, enzymes, and trace elements, honey is simply a rich source of the sugars fructose and glucose.
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  • Local authorities control the sulfur content of heavy fuel oils used in such applications.
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  • Blended with essential oils of frankincense, rose geranium and lavender to calm, soothe and refresh body and mind.
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  • Temperature resistant, inert base oils and a new type of thickener are blended to form a soft, white lubricating grease.
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  • Products containing herbal extracts and essential oils of chamomile, lavender and sandalwood will often help soothe dry eczema.
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  • Our solvent based paints use two solvents, often in combination: - citrus oils, - aliphatic hydrocarbons.
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  • Disinfectants The list referred to above, highlights 17 active substances, including sodium hypochlorite and tar oils.
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  • The Harvard researchers urge further trials of fish oils in the treatment of depression and manic-depressive illness.
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  • The results I am aiming for would be something like traditional oils, not heavy impasto, and some very detailed work.
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  • Also loose incense, hand blended by us using our own gums, resins, herbs and oils.
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  • It is most often rendered animal fat, restaurant grease, or other oils too rancid or deemed inedible for humans.
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  • These combine luxury ingredients blended from the finest quality plant oils.
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  • Cooking oils that dreck i mean being intransigent said.
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  • Cooking oils that due to begin emotions thereby lessening star caron butler.
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  • Sources of linoleic acid include full-fat sunflower margarine or sunflower, safflower or sesame seed cooking oils.
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  • Citronella, lavender or tea tree oils applied to the pulse points will repel mosquitoes.
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  • This is made with neem oil, cold pressed from the seeds of the wild grown neem oil, cold pressed from the seeds of the wild grown neem trees, combined with natural essential oils.
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  • The brain is over 50% fat and needs oils to be properly nourished.
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  • It is now virtually trans fat free and does not contain hydrogenated vegetable oils.
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  • The essential oils you add to the base oil is up to you.
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  • His first engines were designed to run on a wide variety of vegetable oils including peanut oil.
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  • The hand made, all natural soap is created from cold pressed pure olive, coconut and palm oils.
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  • Substitution with cheaper ingredients: adding low cost ingredients to a more expensive product, e.g. diluting olive oil with vegetable oils.
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  • Try to choose foods high in monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat such as vegetable oils e.g. olive and sunflower oil.
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  • Most nuts contain more omega 6 than omega 3 oils.
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  • A life-long passion for painting oils of faces, the artist also paints still life and landscapes.
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  • The majority of her portrait commissions come from America and she specializes in the mediums graphite pencil, colored pencil and oils.
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  • We have a great blend for sore perineum 's, after the birth, of lavendar and cypress oils.
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  • Common crops are developing different values as society slowly replaces petrochemicals with plant-based oils.
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  • It is actually very difficult to use essential oils for purely physiological or purely psychological treatment.
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  • Putty contains drying oils which are necessary in order for the compound to remain pliable.
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  • Some oils actually inhibit airborne bacteria, thus purifying the air in a sickroom.
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  • However, he should avoid unrefined rapeseed or vegetable oils, because these may still contain the proteins that sensitive people can react to.
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  • Geranium, jasmine, juniper, lavender, peppermint, rose, rosemary and thyme are oils commonly used for this purpose.
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  • These oils include rosemary, sage, hyssop, fennel and wormwood.
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  • They suggested I take a bath, so Graham ran me a bath with more lavender and clary sage oils.
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  • Great for oily skin - really sucks up excess oils.
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  • Some think he's the lube that oils the machine others that he's a great big spanner in the works.
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  • We use plant sterols extracted from vegetable oils, such as sunflower seed or rapeseed.
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  • Phytosterols or vegetable sterols or vegetable sterols are compounds naturally present in vegetable oils.
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  • Frying with more stable oils, such as olive oil, is not associated with an increased risk of high blood pressure.
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