The export that comes next in value is silk, and after it may be named wheat, barley, manganese ore, maize, wool, oilcake, carpets, rye, oats, liquorice and timber.
This removal of the shell makes a great difference in the oilcake, as the decorticated cake is more nutritious than the undecorticated.
There are several factories for pressing cotton, and for cleaning coffee, oilcake presses, tanneries and saltpetre refineries.
The principal articles of export are cereals, with some oilcake, phosphate and coal; but the total value is only about £2,000,000 annually.
Livonia carries on a large export trade, especially through Riga and Pernau, in petroleum, wool, oilcake, flax, linseed, hemp, grain, timber and wooden wares; the Dvina is the chief channel for this trade.
On an average, £3,000,000 to £4,000,000 worth of wheat, about £i,000,000 worth of rye, and over £1,500,000 worth of barley are exported annually, besides oats, flax, linseed, rape seed, oilcake, bran, flour, vegetable oils, raw wool and caviare.
Wheat, barley, eggs, butter, oilcake, hides, tallow, leather, tobacco, rugs, feathers and other items add considerably to the total value of the exports, which increased from 14 million sterling in 1851-1860 to 8-14 millions sterling in 1901-1905.
Large grain elevators have been built, and a new commercial town has grown up. Besides cereals, which amount to 69% of the whole, the exports consist of petroleum and petroleum waste, oilcake, linseed, timber, bran, millet seed, wool, potash, zinc ore and liquorice, the total annual value ranging between 32 and 54 millions sterling.
The external trade of the Russian empire (bullion and the external trade of Finland not included) since the year 1886 is shown in the following table: The exports rank in the following order :- cereals (wheat, barley, rye, oats, maize, buckwheat) and flour, 49.2%; timber and wooden wares, 7.2; petroleum, 5.8; eggs, 5.4; flax, 5; butter, 3; sugar, 2-4; cottons and oilcake, 2 each; oleaginous seeds, &c., 1.5; with hemp, spirits, poultry, game, bristles, hair, furs, leather, manganese ore, wool, caviare, live-stock, gutta-percha, vegetables and fruit, and tobacco.