It is insoluble in water,' but readily soluble in carbon bisulphide, sulphur chloride and oil of turpentine.
A fine oil of turpentine is distilled from the crude material; the residue forms a coarse resin.
It thus possesses the same composition as the hydrocarbon of gutta-percha and as that of oil of turpentine and other terpenes which are the chief components of essential oils.
When solid caoutchouc is strongly heated it breaks down, without change in its ultimate composition, into a number of simpler liquid hydrocarbons of the terpene class (dipentene, di-isoprene, isoprene, &c.), of which one, isoprene (C5H8), is of simpler structure than oil of turpentine (C 10 H 16), from which it can also be obtained by the action of an intense heat.
He began his experimental work in 1841 with investigations of oil of turpentine and tolu balsam, in the course of which he discovered toluene.
The Alexandrians prepared oil of turpentine by distilling pine-resin; Zosimus of Panopolis, a voluminous writer of the 5th century A.D., speaks of the distillation of a "divine water" or "panacea" (probably from the complex mixture of calcium polysulphides, thiosulphate, &c., and free sulphur, which is obtained by boiling sulphur with lime and water) and advises "the efficient luting of the apparatus, for otherwise the valuable properties would be lost."
According to Pereira, much sold under the name of Venice turpentine is a mixture of common resin and oil of turpentine.
Phosphorus is nearly insoluble in water, but dissolves in carbon bisulphide, sulphur chloride, benzene and oil of turpentine.
The old French oil of turpentine is the best antidote to use in phosphorus poisoning, delaying the toxic effects; but ordinary oils are not only useless but harmful.
This oil is closely allied in composition to oil of turpentine and is given in doses of a half to three minims. The Spiritus juniperi of the British pharma copoeia is given in doses up to one drachm.
Chemically, oil of turpentine is a more or less complex mixture of hydrocarbons generically named terpenes.
In large doses oil of turpentine causes purging and may induce much haemorrhage from the bowel; it should be combined with some trustworthy aperient, such as castor oil, when given as an anthelmintic. It is readily absorbed unchanged and has a marked contractile action upon the blood vessels.
The exhausting pain, the serious haemorrhages, and the abdominal septicity associated with a repulsive odour and the absorption of toxic products, which are the chief and ultimately fatal symptoms of that disease, are all directly combated by the administration of oil of turpentine.
Old turpentine and French oil of turpentine are antidotes to phosphorus, forming turpentine-phosphoric acid, which is inert.
One of the earliest triumphs of synthetical chemistry in this direction was the production of terpineol, the artificial lilac scent, from oil of turpentine.
In the arts, oil of turpentine is used on the largest scale in the manufacture of varnishes, and in smaller quantities for the production of terpineol and of artificial camphor.
Heated rather below 300Ã‚° C. amber suffers decomposition, yielding an "oil of amber," and leaving a black residue which is known as "amber colophony," or "amber pitch"; this forms, when dissolved in oil of turpentine or in linseed oil, "amber varnish" or "amber lac."
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.