The warm farmhouse smelled of gun oil and breakfast.
Bacteria can process toxic wastes and oil spills into harmless biodegradable materials.
But it sure made you burn the night oil to keep up the grades.
It is a colourless oil, which boils at 247° C. (745 mm.), and when pure is almost odourless.
There are considerable forests of oil palms, rubber trees and vines, and timber and dyewood trees.
Next the Wizard poured a pool of oil from the can upon the glass floor, where it covered quite a broad surface.
It is this: When you oil your beard, don't oil it too much, lest it soil your clothing.
"Interesting," Dean said as he drizzled the olive oil over the pasta and sprinkled it with pepper and Italian spices.
Local industries include the manufacture of coarse cloth, esparto fabrics, oil and flour.
Cato says, the master of a family (patremfamilias) must have in his rustic villa "cellam oleariam, vinariam, dolia multa, uti lubeat caritatem expectare, et rei, et virtuti, et gloriae erit," that is, "an oil and wine cellar, many casks, so that it may be pleasant to expect hard times; it will be for his advantage, and virtue, and glory."
When he lighted the oil a hundred tongues of flame shot up, and the effect was really imposing.
The lanterns were beginning to grow dim, and the Wizard poured the remaining oil from one into the other, so that the one light would last longer.
He owns a large Spanish land grant – oil wells and such.
She watched, astonished, as it carefully cleaned her feet without hurting them and then slathered on oil from one vial and wrapped them in gauze.
I wish you would go and fetch my satchel, two lanterns, and a can of kerosene oil that is under the seat.
Arbois is well known for its red and white wines, and has saw-mills, tanneries and market gardens, and manufactures paper, oil and casks.
Standing before the mirror, as I had seen others do, I anointed mine head with oil and covered my face thickly with powder.
C. C.) 1 The oil left over from the year before is burnt.
Then he poured over them all the kerosene oil that was left in his oil-can, and lighting a match set fire to the pile.
The chief trade is in, and the principal exports are, palm oil and kernels, rubber, cotton, maize, groundnuts (Arachis), shea-butter from the Bassia parkii (Sapotaceae), fibres of the Raphia vinifera, and the Sansevieria guineensis, indigo, and kola nuts, ebony and other valuable wood.
Over the mantle hung a gilt-framed landscape oil; a fall scene that captured all the colors he so loved.
That's like getting an ice cream sundae with castor oil for topping.
The eucalypts are remarkable for the oil secreted in their leaves, and the large quantity of astringent resin of their bark.
Some Gnostics sprinkled the heads of the dying with oil and water to render them invisible to the powers of darkness; but in the East generally, where the need to compete with the Cathar sacrament of Consolatio was less acutely felt, extreme unction is unknown.
His story being that their family dealt in oil and real estate, and he managed some of their holdings.
The room was lit by a hearth and one oil pan, but it smelled completely of her.
My furniture, part of which I made myself--and the rest cost me nothing of which I have not rendered an account--consisted of a bed, a table, a desk, three chairs, a looking-glass three inches in diameter, a pair of tongs and andirons, a kettle, a skillet, and a frying-pan, a dipper, a wash-bowl, two knives and forks, three plates, one cup, one spoon, a jug for oil, a jug for molasses, and a japanned lamp.
Howie and Quinn remained the oil and water of our association although there was no mention of Martha's teenage indiscretion that had caused so much early turmoil.
There is a lively trade in hemp, hemp-seed oil, hemp goods and cattle, and there are hemp-mills, soap-works and tanneries.
She landed on a topless bottle of oil and spit the fluid out as it sprayed across her face.
The scent of rain and oil made her nose crinkle after so long in the condo.
"Big Whale Oil" couldn't stop the move to kerosene.
A dressing of olive oil and vinegar is added by the patron at the table.
Gas and oil radiators would be more properly termed " convectors," since they warm mainly by convected currents.
That of oil, candles and soap has its chief centre at Marseilles.
Even if the slide itself is mechanically perfect, the irregularity in the thickness of the lubricating oil between the bearing surfaces of the slide is apt to produce a variable error.
The Wizard carried his satchel, which was quite heavy, and Zeb carried the two lanterns and the oil can.
Among the natural flora may be noted the wild olive, the lentisk (from which oil is extracted), the prickly pear, the myrtle, broom, cytisus, the juniper.
They aren't responsible for the oil being in Alaska and do nothing to extract the oil from the earth.
She unzipped the portfolio and pulled out a large canvas that had hundreds of shoes painted in oil; every style and color imaginable.
of oil, valued at $20,000,000, were taken out of these districts.
The exportation of olive oil in 1898 was valued at 24,000.
The oil film prevented 1 See Electrical Review, 1902, 51, p. 968.
This oil generally acts as an excellent preventive of this and other insect attacks.
Drake started a well on Oil Creek, Pennsylvania.
The kitchen of this alternative dining experience uses only stainless steel equipment, and all fried foods are cooked in canola oil.
You can also make a full dinner of the side dishes, such as asparagus and mushrooms sautéed in a light olive oil.
Offerings include pizza with figs, gorgonzola, caramelized onions, and truffle oil, an appetizer of grilled rabbit livers with pancetta, rosemary and trio tapenade, and several fish dishes.
Tyrokafteri is a spicy cheese dip made from the seeds of a local pepper, the kafteri, a soft cheese such as feta or anthotiro, olive oil and garlic.
Tzatziki is made from a thick yogurt, shredded cucumber, garlic, fresh dill, olive oil and salt.
The croutons are one-inch sliced triangles lightly fried in oil and vinegar.
Dinner is served in the ambiance of linen-draped tables and the soft glow of oil lamps.
Couples share a cooking pot where they prepare their own meals fondue-style, clinking forks as they dip meat and vegetables into broth or oil.
Although oil is more traditional, broth is a healthier and lighter option.
Exotic side dishes range from truffle oil creamed corn to black forbidden rice.
Entrée choices include meat, fish and chicken cooked in flavored broths or oil.
The " leathery turtle," which is herbivorous, and yields abundance of oil, has been caught at sea off the Illawarra coast so large as 9 ft.
Its matter is olive oil, blessed by a bishop. It shall not be given except to a sick person whose death is apprehended.
A good palliative is sweet oil; this will allay any corrosive irritation of the throat and stomach, and at the same time cause vomiting.
In 1771 Thomas Jefferson described a " burning spring " in the Kanawha Valley, and when wells were drilled for salt brine near Charleston petroleum and natural gas were found here before there was any drilling for oil in Pennsylvania.
The oil when brought to the surface has the appearance of a whitish-blue water, which gives out brilliant straw-coloured rays, and emits a strong pungent odour.
Oils are powerful fuels, but the high price of refined petroleum, the oil generally preferred, precludes its widespread use for many purposes for which it is suitable.
A water pipe of copper or wrought iron is passed through a cylinder in which gas or oil heating burners are placed.
afar, essence), a perfume consisting of essential oil of roses, prepared by distilling, or, in some districts, by macerating the flowers.
Just then his eye fell upon the lanterns and the can of kerosene oil which Zeb had brought from the car of his balloon, and he got a clever idea from those commonplace things.
The electroscope was used in conjunction with an oil lamp or gas flame.
Widnes is one of the principal seats of the alkali and soap manufacture, and has also grease-works for locomotives and waggons, copper works, iron-foundries, oil and paint works and sail-cloth manufactories.
As early as 1866, tannic acid, gallic acid, wood spirit, acetic acid, essential oil and eucalyptol were produced from various species of eucalyptus, and researches made by Australian chemists, notably by Messrs.
By "make a car," I mean really make a car: dig iron ore out of the ground, smelt it to steel, wildcat for oil, find oil and refine it into gasoline, and so on.
After the war, wells were drilled at Burning Springs, Oil Rock, California House, Volcano, Sandhill and Horseneck, and in the years1865-18763,000,000 bbls.
Other branches of industry are carpet-weaving, distilling, oil and oil-cake manufacture, dyeing, cooperage and the manufacture of arms and bullets.
Erith has large engineering and gun factories, and in the neighbourhood are gunpowder, oil, glue and manure works.
He began to hum a Dave Brubeck piece as he reached for a bottle of virgin olive oil.
His black hair appeared darker, thicker and shone as if coated in oil.
He sat up in bed a long time picturing Elisabeth as she created the oil.
When they made their way to Jackson's room, she immediately noticed her oil.
It is extended in v II to the vineyard and the olive oil, but here the culture necessary to keep the vines and olive trees in order is not forbidden; the precept is only that the produce is to be left to the poor.
The sea produces three different seals, which often ascend rivers from the coast, and can live in lagoons of fresh water; many cetaceans, besides the " right whale " and sperm whale; and the dugong, found on the northern shores, which yields a valuable medicinal oil.
jars or of Leyden panes immersed in oil or some form of air condenser, and the inductance coil or primary circuit of the oscillation transformer consists of a few turns of highly insulated wire wound on a frame and immersed in oil.
The chief productions are wheat, wine, oil, mastic, figs, raisins, honey, wax, cotton and silk.
The olive-growing area occupies about 3.5% of the total area of the country, and the crop in 1905 produced about 75,000,000 gallons of oil.
With the development of agricultural knowledge, notable improvements have been effected in the manufacture of oil.
In 1901, 1985 imperial tuns of oil were shipped from Gallipoli for abroadtwo-thirds to the United Kingdom, one-third to Russiaand 666 to Italian ports; while in 1904 the figures were reversed, 1633 tuns going to Italian ports, and only 945 tuns to foreign ports.
The cura tori or curatoli (factors) receive 40 a year, with a slight interest in the profits; the stockmen hardly earn in money and kind 13; the muleteers and underworkmen get between 5 to 8, plus firewood, bread and oil; irregular workmen have even lower wages, with a daily distribution of bread, salt and oil.
The diminution was due to a smaller exportation of raw silk and oil.
The large predominance of imports over exports after 1884 was a result of the falling off of the export trade in live stock, olive oil and wine, on account of the closing of the French market, while the importation of corn from Russia and the Balkan States increased considerably.
grain from 270 lb per head in 1884-1885 to 321 lb in 1901-1902 (maize reman~s almost stationary at 158 II,); wine from 73 to 125 litres per head; oil from 12 to 13 lb per head (sugar is almost stationary at 73/4 lb per head, and coffee at about I Ib); salt from 14 to 16 lb per head.
Cloudy amber maybe clarified in an oil-bath, as the oil fills the numerous pores to which the turbidity is due.
The following poisons may not be sold, either retail or wholesale, unless distinctly labelled with the name of the article, and the word poison, with the name and address of the seller: Almonds, essential oil of (unless deprived of prussic acid).
The spinning and weaving of cotton and the manufacture of hosiery, of both of which Troyes is the centre, are the main industries of the department; there are also a large number of distilleries, tanneries, oil works, tile and brick works, flour-mills, saw-mills and dyeworks.
types of glands also exist, either in connection with the epidermis or not, such as nectaries, digestive glands, oil, resin and mucilage glands, &c. They serve the most various purposes in the life of the plant, but they are not of significance in relation to the primary vital activities, and cannot be dealt with in the limits of the present article.l The typical epidermis of the shoot of a land plant does not absorb water, but some plants living in situations where they cannot depend on a regular supply from the roots (e.g.
Of the suspended substances, grains of caoutchouc, drops of resin and oil, proteid crystals and starch grains may be mentioned.
In some cases special secreting tissues, resin ducts, oil glands, laticiferous tissue, crystal sacs, &c., may be developed among the ordinary secondary vascular elements.
The digestion of fat or oil has not been adequately investigated, but its decomposition in germinating seeds has been found to be due to an enzyme, which has been called lipase.
Aleurone.Aleurone is a proteid substance which occurs in seeds especially those containing oil, in the form of minute granules or large grains.
In the retina the cones prevail in numbers over the rods, as in the mammals, and their tips contain, as in other Sauropsida, coloured drops of oil, mostly red or yellow.
They contain a volatile oil which does not occur in the corm, and their proportion of colchicine is higher, for which reason the Tinctura Colchici Seminum- dose 5 to 15 minims - is preferable to the wine prepared from the corm.
In colchicum poisoning, empty the stomach, give white of egg, olive or salad oil, and water.
The only product is cocoa-nut oil, of which about 106,000 gallons are annually exported.
The French occupied the islands in 1791 from Mauritius, and the oil industry (from which the group is sometimes called the Oil Islands) came into the hands of French Creoles.
Coco-nut oil is produced on Nias and also more especially on the Nako group. A Dutch commissioner is established at Gunong Sitoli on the east coast, a settlement of Malay and Chinese traders.
Besides manufactures of brandy, flour, oil, soap, linen and cloth, it has an active trade in wheat, wine and fruit, especially melons.
The trade in fruit, cereals, oil and wine is considerable.
Its industries include the distillation of oil, tanning, salt-refining, brewing, and the manufacture of earthenware and casks.
The log should be washed in fresh water when practicable, to prevent oxidization of the wheels, and be lubricated with suitable oil through a hole in the case.
The bearings and rollers are lubricated with castor oil every twelve hours through holes in the sliding case E, and can be examined by unscrewing the case E and the eye M.
It is insoluble in water,' but readily soluble in carbon bisulphide, sulphur chloride and oil of turpentine.
The town has a cotton-mill, a saw-mill, and tile, coffee and oil works.
The most striking trees in the forest region are, in the basin of the Cavalla, the giant Funtumia elastica, which grows to an altitude of 200 ft.; various kinds of Parinarium, Oldfieldia and Khaya; the bombax or cotton tree, giant dracaenas, many kinds of fig; Borassus palms, oil palms, the climbing Calamus palms, and on the coast the coconut.
Buchu leaves contain a volatile oil, which is of a dark yellow colour, and deposits a form of camphor on exposure to air, a liquid hydro-carbon being the solvent of the camphor within the oil-glands.
The drug has the properties common to all substances that contain a volatile oil.
The infusion contains very little of the oil and is of very slight value.
The latter are the oil beetles (fig.
- Lytta vesicatoria (Oil Beetle).
Water-melons, sun-flowers and flax, both the last two for oil, are usual crops.
There are also some oil 2 Persian census in - 1884; 25,28 - 4 - Males, 28,323 females.
wells at Daliki, near Bushire, but several attempts to tap the oil have been unsuccessful.
It increased the jurisdiction of the Commission by placing under the act express companies, sleeping-car companies and pipe lines for the transportation of oil.
In that most largely used, known as " creosoting," dead oil of tar, to the amount of some 3 gallons per sleeper, is forced into the wood under pressure, or is sucked in by vacuum, both the timber and the oil being heated.
Holden developed the use of liquid fuel on the Great Eastern railway to a point beyond the experimental stage, and used it instead of coal with the engines running the heavy express traffic of the line, its continued use depending merely upon the relative market price of coal and oil.
As to lighting, the oil lamp has been largely displaced by gas and electricity.
A former trade in oil and sealskin has decayed, owing to the smaller number of whales and seals remaining about the islands.
But we have in addition to the animal sacrifices, vegetable offerings of meal, oil and cakes (massoth, ashishah and kawwan, which last is specially connected with the `Ashtoreth cult: Jer.
Israel) the corn, the new wine and the oil, and have bestowed on her silver and gold in abundance which they have wrought into a Baal image " (Hos.
Parkersburg is the see of a Protestant Episcopal bishop. Oil, coal, natural gas and fire-clay abound in the neighbouring region, and the city is engaged in the refining of oil and the manufacture of pottery, brick and tile, glass, lumber, furniture, flour, steel, and foundry and machine-shop products.
The city has various manufactures, including flour, cotton-seed oil, lumber, furniture and farm implements.
The country around is flat and fertile, producing much wine, dates, oranges, oil, saffron and aniseed.
Instead of sacerdotal kings, there were royal priests, anointed with oil, arrayed with kingly insignia, claiming the usual royal dues in addition to the customary rights of the priests.
At last John of Giscala portioned out the sacred wine and oil, saying that they who fought for the Temple might fearlessly use its stores for their sustenance.
Exports in 1904 were valued at £419,642, the principal items being agricultural products (oranges, lemons, carobs, almonds, grapes, valonia, &c.), value £153,858, olives and products of olives-(oil, soap, &c.), £134,788, and wines and liquors, £48,544.
The natural products include fine cabinet and construction woods, rubber, fruit, palm oil and fibres.
The value of the total factory product was $57,45 1, 445 in 1905, when a little more than three-fourths was represented by lumber and timber products, cotton-seed oil and cake, and cotton goods.
In addition to being the principal emporium for the Austrian traffic on the Elbe, Tetschen has a considerable industry, its products comprising chemicals, oil, soap, cotton stuffs, plaster of Paris, glazed and coloured paper, cellulose, beer, flour and preserved fish.
The island lacks water, and is dusty during drought, but is fertile, producing fruit, wine and olive oil; the indigenous flora comprises Boo species.
Pop. (1901), 4135 It is in the midst of the oil region of Canada, and numerous wells in the vicinity have an aggregate output of about 30,000,000 gallons of crude oil per annum, much of which is refined in the town.
There are, however, flour mills, oil and soap works,, and the Paris-Lyon-Mediterranee Railway Company have large workshops.
They are minute worms with coloured oil drops (green, olive green or orange) contained in the epidermis.
Largely present in olive oil and other saponifiable vegetable oils and soft fats; also present in animal fats, especially hog's lard.
The chief constituent of palm oil; also contained in greater or less quantities in human fat, olive oil, and other animal and vegetable fats.
The main constituent of castor oil.
Triacetin, C 3 H 5 (O C 2 H 3 0) 3, is apparently contained in cod-liver oil.
palm oil, it exists in the free state, so that it can be separated by washing with boiling water, which dissolves the glycerin but not the fatty glycerides.
Glycerin is useless as a food and is not in any sense a substitute for cod-liver oil.
Other thriving local industries include the manufacture of oil, soap, flour, leather, alcohol and esparto grass rugs.
They pray over their sick and, when so requested, anoint them with oil.
The imports, which consist chiefly of machinery, fruits (dried and fresh), wie, oil and textiles, do not much exceed half a million sterling annually.
The products of the territorial coast lands are sugar, cotton, tobacco, maize, palm oil, coffee, fine woods and medicinal plants.
In the city are machine and car shops of the International & Great Northern railway, and cottoncompresses, and there are manufactures of cotton-seed oil, &c. Taylor, named in honour of Gen.
Sunflowers are very extensively grown for oil in the government of Kuban and elsewhere, and also some flax.
But all these are insignificant in comparison with the mineral oil industry of Baku, which in normal times yields annually between ten and eleven million tons of crude oil (naphtha).
The refined oil is exported as kerosene or petroleum, the heavier refuse (mazut) is used as fuel.
Manufacturing industry is confined to a few articles and commodities, such as cement, tea, tin cans (for oil), cotton goods, oil refineries, tobacco factories, flour-mills, silk-winding mills (especially at Shusha and Jebrail in the south of Elisavetpol), distilleries and breweries.
Many of the oil wells at Baku were burned, and massacres took place at that town, at Shusha, at Erivan, at Tiflis, at Batum, at Jebrail and at other places.
32) as " a land of corn and wine, a land of bread and vineyards, a land of oil olive and of honey."
Some steep seed in soda and oil lees to get a larger produce.
In 1894, at Cambridge, the awards were for fixed and portable oil engines, potato-spraying and tree-spraying machines, sheep-dipping apparatus and churns.
In 1901, at Cardiff, competition was invited in portable oil engines, agricultural locomotive oil engines and small ice-making plant suitable for a dairy.
A fine oil of turpentine is distilled from the crude material; the residue forms a coarse resin.
New Paphos became the administrative capital of the whole island in Ptolemaic and Roman days, as well as the head of one of the four Roman districts; it was also a flourishing commercial city in the time of Strabo, and famous for its oil, and for "diamonds" of medicinal power.
It is a thriving manufacturing town, its chief industries being leather-making, yarn-spinning, cottonand linen-weaving, the manufactures of cigars, brushes, liquors and oil, and glueand soap-boiling.
Then he treated oil of vitriol in the same way, but got nothing until by accident he dropped some mercury into the liquid, when "vitriolic acid air" (sulphur dioxide) was evolved.
Again he heated fluorspar with oil of vitriol, as K.
It is said that there were only seven cotton oil mills in the South in 1860.
The main product is the refined oil, which is used for a great number of purposes, such as a substitute for olive oil, mixed with beef products for preparation of compound lard, which is estimated to consume one-third of cotton seed oil produced in the States.
Miners' lamp oil consists of the bleached oil mixed with kerosene.
But it still contains a large amount of oil, which forms animal fat and heat, and thus makes up for part of its deficiency in carbohydrates.
With the consideration of cotton seed oil and meal we have not, however, exhausted its possibilities.
For a long time these shells or hulls, as they are called, were burned at oil mills for fuel, 22 tons being held equal to a cord of wood, and 43 tons to a ton of coal.
They are used on a very large scale in the vicinity of oil mills in southern cities like Memphis, New Orleans, Houston, and Little Rock, from Soo to s000 cattle being often collected in a single yard for this purpose.
Careful attention is now given to the employment of the seed in new cotton countries, and oil expression is practised in the West Indies.
Crude oil, 290 pounds.
Cottolene (with beef stearin, cooking oil).
The profits obtained from ground-nuts (Arachis hypogea) in Gambia, gold mining in the Gold Coast, and from products of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) in the palm-oil belt serve to prevent much attention being given to cotton in these districts.
Corn, wine, oil, wool, silk, fruits and liquorice (a speciality of the district) are exported.
The surrounding country abounds in coal, iron ore, oil, clay, stone and timber, for which the city is a distributing centre.
Particulars of the shales which yield oil on destructive distillation are given in the article on paraffin.
Herodotus describes the oil pits near Ardericca (near Babylon), and the pitch spring of Zacynthus (Zante), whilst Strabo, Dioscorides and Pliny mention the use of the oil of Agrigentum, in Sicily, for illumination, and Plutarch refers to the petroleum found near Ecbatana (Kerkuk).
Marco Polo refers to the oil springs of Baku towards the end!of the 13th century; the medicinal properties of the oil of Tegernsee in Bavaria gave it the name of " St Quirinus's Oil " in 1436; the oil of Pechelbronn, Elsass, was discovered in 1498, and the " earthbalsam " of Galicia was known in 1506.
The earliest mention 'of American petroleum occurs in Sir Walter Raleigh's account of the Trinidad pitch-lake in 1595; whilst thirty-seven years later, the account of a visit of a Franciscan, Joseph de la Roche d'Allion, to the oil springs of New York was published in Sagard's Histoire du Canada.
A Russian traveller, Peter Kalm, in his work on America, published in 1748, showed on a map the oil springs of Pennsylvania, and about the same time Raicevich referred to the " liquid bitumen " of Rumania.
The first commercial exploitation of importance appears to have been the distillation of the oil at Alfreton in Derbyshire by James Young.
In 1853 and 1854 patents for the preparation of this substance from petroleum were obtained by Warren de la Rue, and the process was applied to the " Rangoon oil " brought to Great Britain from Yenangyaung in Upper Burma.
The active growth of the petroleum industry of the United States began in 1859, though in the early part of the century the petroleum of Lake Seneca, N.Y., was used as an embrocation under the name of " Seneca oil," and the "American Medicinal Oil" of Kentucky was largely sold after its discovery in 1829.
The Pennsylvania Rock Oil Company was formed in 1854, but its operations were unsuccessful, and in 1858 certain of the members founded the Seneca Oil Company, under whose direction E.
After drilling had been carried to a depth of 69 feet, on the 28th of August 1859, the tools suddenly dropped into a crevice, and on the following day the well was found to have " struck oil."
From Oil Creek, development spread first over the eastern United States and then became general, subsequently embracing Canada (1862), recently discovered fields being those of Illinois, Alberta and California (44,854,737 barrels in 1908).
For about 10 years Pennsylvania was the one great oil producer of the world, but since 1870 the industry has spread all over the globe.
Sumatra, Java and Borneo, where active development began in 1883, 1886 and 1896, bid fair to rank before long among the chief sources of the oil supplies of the world.
Similarly, Burma, where the Burmah Oil Company have, since 1890, rapidly extended their operations, is rising to a position of importance.
Oil fields are being continually opened up in other parts of the world, and whilst America still maintains her position as the largest petroleum producer, the world's supplies are now being derived from a steadily increasing number of centres.
Viscosity increases with density, but oils of the same density often vary greatly; the coefficient of expansion, on the other hand, varies inversely with the density, but bears no simple relation to the change of fluidity of the oil under the influence of heat, this being most marked in oils of paraffin base.
The calorific power of Baku oil appears to be highest, while this oil is poorest in solid hydrocarbons, of which the American petroleums contain moderate quantities, and the Upper Burma oils the largest amount.
The boiling point, being determined by the character of the constituents of the oil, necessarily varies greatly in different oils, as do the amounts of distillate obtained from them at specified temperatures.
Paraffins are found in all crude oils, and olefines in varying proportions in the majority, while acetylene has been found in Baku oil; members of the benzene group and its derivatives, notably benzene and toluene, occur in all petroleums. Naphthenes are the chief components of some oils, as already indicated, and occur in varying quantities in many others.
This mixture dissolves in petroleum, escaping when the oil is stored, and conversely it invariably carries a certain amount of water and oil, which is deposited on compression.
The main requisites for a productive oil or gas field are a porous reservoir and an impervious cover.
Water, often saline or sulphurous, is also found in these porous rocks and replaces the oil as the latter is withdrawn.
In addition to these two necessary factors, structural conditions play an important part in determining the accumulation of oil and gas.
Owing to difference of density the oil and water in the anticlines separate into two layers, the upper consisting of oil which fills the anticlines, while the water remains in the synclines.
They need not be horizontal, and sometimes have a dip of a few feet per mile, as in the case of the Ohio and Indiana oil fields, where the amount varies from one to ten feet.
Oil and gas are often met with in drilled wells under great pressure, which is highest as a rule in the deepest wells.
The extremely high pressure under which oil is met with in wells drilled in some parts of the Russian oil fields is a matter of common knowledge, and a fountain or spouting well resulting therefrom is one of the " sights" of the country.
A famous fountain in the Groznyi oil field in the northern Caucasus, which began to flow in August 1895, was estimated to have thrown up during the first three days 1,200,000 poods (over 4,500,000 gallons, or about 18,500 tons) of oil a day.
In April 1897 there was still an occasional outburst of oil and gas.
The conditions of formation and accumulation of petroleum point to the fact that the principal oil fields of the world are merely reservoirs, which will become exhausted in the course of years, as in the case of the decreasing yield of certain of the American fields.
But new deposits are continually being exploited, and there may be others as yet unknown, which would entirely alter any view that might be expressed at the present time in regard to the probable duration of the world's supply of oil and gas.
Berthelot was the first to suggest, in 1866, after conducting a series of experiments, that mineral oil was produced by purely chemical action, similar to that employed in the manufacture of acetylene.
The earlier supporters of the organic theory held that it was a product of the natural distillation of coal or carbonaceous matter; but though in a few instances volcanic intrusions appear to have converted coal or allied substances into oil, it seems that terrestrial vegetation does not generally give rise to petroleum.
Peckham, but others have held that it is of exclusively animal origin, a view supported by such occurrences as those in the orthoceratities of the Trenton limestone, and by the experiments of C. Engler, who obtained a liquid like crude petroleum by the distillation of menhaden (fish) oil.
Consideration of the evidence leads us to the conclusion that, at least in commercially valuable deposits, mineral oil has generally been formed by the decomposition of marine organisms, in some cases animal, in others vegetable, in others both, under practically normal conditions of temperature and pressure.
The earliest system adopted for the collection of petroleum appears to have consisted in Early skimming the oil from the surface of the water upon Methods which it had accumulated, and Professor Lesley states, that at Paint Creek, in Johnson county, Kentucky, a Mr George and others were in the habit of collecting oil from the sands, " by making shallow canals loo or 200 ft.
The petroleum industry in the United States may be considered to date from the year 1859, when the first well avowedly drilled The for the production of oil was completed by E.
The drilling of petroleum wells is carried on by individuals or companies, either on lands owned by them, or on properties whose owners grant leases, usually on condition that a certain number of wells shall be sunk within a stated period, and that a portion of the oil obtained (usually from one-tenth to one-fourth) shall be appropriated as royalty to the lessor.
To discourage the sinking of wells on land immediately adjoining productive territory, it has been usual to drill along the borders of the land as far as practicable, in order to first obtain the oil which might otherwise be raised by others; and on account of the small area often controlled by the operator, the number of wells drilled has frequently been far in excess of the number which might reasonably be sunk.
Experience has proved that in some of the oil fields of the United States one well to five acres is as close as they should be drilled.
The chief portion of this rig is the derrick, Oil which consists of four strong uprights or legs held in Derrick position by ties and braces, and resting on strong wooden sills, which are preferred, as a foundation, to masonry.
It is either set in the first instance at some distance from the engine and well, or is subsequently removed sufficiently far away before the drill enters the oil-bearing formation, and until the oil and gas are under control, in order to minimize the risk of fire.
Sand-pumps and bailers are also required to remove detritus, water and oil from the bore-hole.
West Virginia, estimates that in fairly good producing sand a cubic foot of rock contains from 6 to 12 pints of oil.
Taking these figures as a basis, the total yield of oil from an acre of petroliferous territory would be a little over 5000 barrels of 42 U.S. gallons.
A flow of oil may often be induced in a well which would otherwise require to be pumped, by preventing the escape of gas which issues with the oil, and causing its pressure to raise the oil.
The gas thus confined in the oil-chamber forces the oil up the tubing.
The sucker carries a series of three or four leather cups, which are pressed against the inner surface of the working barrel by the weight of the column of oil.
The initial diameter of the well drilled from the bottom of this pit is in some instances as much as 36 in., bore-holes of the larger size being preferred, as they are less liable to become choked, and admit of the use of larger bailers for raising the oil.
Within recent years, owing to the initiative of Colonel English, a method of raising oil by the agency of compressed air has been introduced into the Baku oil-fields.
The wells from which the supplies of natural gas are obtained in the United States are drilled and cased in the same manner as the oil wells.
In the early days of the petroleum industry the oil was transported in the most primitive manner.
It is interesting to find that a rude pipe-line formerly existed in this field for conveying the crude oil from the wells to the river; this was made of bamboos, but it is said that the loss by leakage was so great as to lead to its immediate abandonment on completion.
In Russia, until 1875, the crude oil was carried in barrels on Persian carts known as " arbas."
In America, crude petroleum was at first transported in iron-hooped barrels, holding from 40 to 42 American gallons, which were carried by teamsters to Oil Creek and the Allegheny River, where they were loaded on boats, these being floated down stream whenever sufficient water was present - a method leading to much loss by collision and grounding.
Bulk barges were soon introduced on the larger rivers, but the use of these was partially rendered unnecessary by the introduction of railways, when the oil was at first transported in barrels on freight cars, but later in tank-cars.
Hutchinson of New York, laid a short line from the Tarr Farm wells to the refinery, which passed over a hill, the oil being moved on the syphon principle, and a year later constructed another three miles long to the railway.
The pumps employed to force the oil through the pipes were at first of the single-cylinder or " donkey " type, but these were found to cause excessive wear - a defect remedied by the use of the Worthington pump now generally adopted.
Tanks of various types are employed in storing the oil, those at the wells being circular and usually made of wood, with a content of 250 barrels and upwards.
Large tanks of boiler-plate are used to receive the oil as it comes through the pipe-lines.
In Canada, means of transport similar to those already described are employed, but the reservoirs for storage often consist of excavations in the soft Erie clay of the oil district, the sides of which are supported by planks.
The primitive methods originally in use in the Russian oil-fields have already been described; but these were long ago superseded by pipe-lines, while a great deal of oil is carried by tank steamers on the Caspian to the mouth of the Volga where it is transferred to barges and thence at Tzaritzin to railway tank-cars.
Ragozin states in his work on the petroleum industry that Johann Lerche, who visited the Caspian district in 1735, found that the crude Caucasian oil required to be distilled to render it satisfactorily combustible, and that, when distilled, it yielded a bright yellow oil resembling a spirit, which readily ignited.
In most petroleum-producing countries, however, and particularly where the product is abundant, the crude oil is fractionally distilled, so as to separate it into petroleum spirit of various grades, burning oils, gas oils, lubricating oils, and (if the crude oil yields that product) paraffin.
Kier fitted up a small refinery with a five-barrel still, for the treatment of the oil obtained from his father's saltwells.
The operation was, however, completely revolutionized in the United States by the introduction of the " cracking process," and by the division of the distillation into two parts, one consisting in the removal of the more volatile constituents of the oil, and the other in the distillation (which is usually conducted in separate stills) of the residues from the first distillation, for the production of lubricating oils and paraffin.
Various arrangements have been proposed and patented for the continuous distillation of petroleum, in which crude oil is supplied to a range of stills as fast as the distillates pass off.
The system is largely employed in Russia, and its use has been frequently attempted in the United States, but the results have not been satisfactory, on account, it is said, of the much greater quantity of dissolved gas contained in the American oil, the larger proportion of kerosene which such oil yields, and the less fluid character of the residue.
The " cracking " process, whereby a considerable quantity of the oil which is intermediate between kerosene and lubricating oil is converted into hydrocarbons of lower specific gravity and boiling-point suitable for illuminating purposes, is one of great scientific and technical interest.
It is generally understood that the products of fractional distillation, even in the laboratory, are not identical with the hydrocarbons present in the crude oil, but are in part produced by the action of heat upon them.
Under such conditions, distillation takes place at higher temperatures than the normal boiling-points of the constituent hydrocarbons of the oil, and a partial cracking results.
In the American petroleum refineries it is found that sufficient cracking can be produced by slow distillation in stills of which the upper part is sufficiently cool to allow of the condensation of the vapours of the less volatile hydrocarbons, the condensed liquid thus falling back into the heated body of oil.
The modern practice is to employ horizontal cylindrical wrought-iron or steel stills, and to introduce steam into the oil.
It was, however, found that after the oil so purified had been burned in a lamp, for a short time, the wick became encrusted, and the oil failed to rise properly.
The rationale of this treatment is not fully understood, but the action appears to consist in the separation or decomposition of the aromatic hydrocarbons, fatty and other acids, phenols, tarry bodies, &c., which lower the quality of the oil, the sulphuric acid removing some, while the caustic soda takes out the remainder, and neutralizes the acid which has been left in the oil.
In the routine examination of crude petroleum it is customary to determine the specific gravity, and the amount of water and earthy matter in suspension; the oil is also frequently subjected to a process of fractional distillation in order to ascertain whether there has been any addition of distilled products or residue.
To illuminating oil or kerosene a series of tests is applied in order that the colour, odour, specific gravity and flash-point or fire-test may be recorded.
Fuel oil is submitted to certain of the foregoing tests and in addition the calorimetric value is determined.
Paraffin wax is tested for melting-point (or setting-point), and the semi-refined product is further examined to ascertain the percentage of oil, water and dirt present.
The earliest form of testing instrument employed for this purpose was that of Giuseppe Tagliabue of New York, which consists of a glass cup placed in a copper water bath heated by a spirit lamp. The cup is filled with the oil to be tested, a thermometer placed in it and heat applied, the temperatures being noted at which, on passing a lighted splinter of wood over the surface of the oil, a flash occurs, and after further heating, the oil ignites.
In Saybolt's Electric Tester (1879) ignition is effected by a spark from an induction-coil passing between platinum points placed at a fixed distance above the oil.
The oil-cup is supported in a bath or heating-vessel, consisting of two flat-bottomed copper cylinders, to contain water, heated by a spirit lamp, and provided with an air-space between the water-vessel and the oil-cup. Thermometers are placed in both oil-cup and waterbath, the temperature of the latter being raised to 130° at the commencement of the test, while the oil is put in at about 60° F.
By means of this instrument the time occupied in the flow of a measured quantity of the oil through a small orifice at a given temperature is measured.
Petroleum has very long been known as a source of light and heat, while the use of crude oil for the treatment of wounds and cutaneous affections, and as a lubricant, was even more general and led to the raw material being an article of commerce at a still earlier date.
The more viscous descriptions of mineral oils have also been found suitable for use in the Elmore process of ore-concentration by oil.
Moreover the chief object of the Petroleum Acts passed in the United Kingdom has hitherto been to regulate storage, and it has always been possible to obtain oils either of higher or lower flash-point, when such are preferred, irrespective of the legal standard, in addition to which it may be asserted that in a properly constructed lamp used with reasonable care the ordinary oil of commerce is a safe illuminant.
Thompson, The Oil Fields of Russia (1908); and J.
Henry, Oil Fields of the Empire (1910).
He has 200 bezants, along with a quantity of wheat, barley, lentils and oil; and in return he must march with four horses (Rey, Les Colonies franques en Syrie, p. 24).
Here the slave trade was longer maintained than anywhere else on the Nest African seaboard; since its extirpation, palm oil and india-rubber have been the main objects of commerce.
Some wine and corn are produced, and the quality of the olive oil is good.
Soap appears to have been first made from goat's tallow and beech ash; in the 13th century the manufacture was established at Marseilles from olive oil, and in England during the next century.
Geoffroy in 1741 pointed out that the fat or oil recovered from a soap solution by neutralization with a mineral acid differs from the original fatty substance by dissolving readily in alcohol, which is not the case with ordinary fats and oils.
In preparing lead plaster by boiling olive oil with oxide of lead and a little water - a process palpably analogous to that of the soap-boilerhe obtained a sweet substance which, called by himself " Olsiiss " (" principium dulce oleorum "), is now known as " glycerin."
The soap solution which results from the combination forms soap-size and is a mixture of soap with water, the excess alkali, and the glycerin liberated from the oil.
Lard yields lard oil, which is mainly applied in making hard toilet soaps.
Of the vegetable oils, in addition to cotton-seed and coco-nut, olive oil is the basis of soaps for calico printers and silk dyers; castor oil yields transparent soaps (under suitable treatment), whilst crude palm oil, with bone fat, is employed for making brown soap, and after bleaching it yields ordinary pale or mottled.
The processes of soap manufacture may be classified (a) according to the temperatures employed into (I) cold processes and (2) boiling processes, or (b) according to the nature of the starting material - acid or oil and fat - and the relative amount of alkali, into (1) direct saturation of the fatty acid with alkali, (2) treating the fat with a definite amount of alkali with no removal of unused lye, (3) treating the fat with an indefinite amount of alkali, also with no separation of unused lye, (4) treating the fat with an indefinite amount of alkali with separation of waste lye.
The cold process, which is Drily applicable to the manufacture of soaps from readily saponifiable oils, such as those of the coco-nut oil group and also from castor oil, is but little used.
By blending the coco-nut oil with other less saponifiable substances such as tallow, lard, cotton-seed oil, &c., and effecting the mixing and saponification at a slightly higher temperature, soaps are obtained which resemble milled toilet soaps.
Soaps made by this process contain the glycerin originally present in the oil, but, in view of their liability to contain free alkali and unsaponified oil, the process has been largely given up.
The oil mixture used differs in the several manufacturing countries, and the commercial name of the product is correspondingly varied.
In Germany tallow is the principal fat; in France olive oil occupies the chief place and the product is known as Marseilles or Castile soap; and in England tallow and palm oil are largely used.
of oil is required.
In the first way the ordinary oil and the coco nut oil are mixed and saponified together as described above.
According to the second plan, the ordinary oil is treated as for the preparation of a curd soap, and to this the coconut soap separately saponified is added in the pan and both are boiled together till they form a homogeneous soap.
From the conditions of the manufacture care must be taken to regulate the amount and strength of the alkali in proportion to the oil used, and the degree of concentration to which the boiling ought to be continued has to be determined with close observation.
This, when cast into forms and allowed to harden and dry slowly, comes out as transparent soap. A class of transparent soap may also be made by the cold process, with the use of coco-nut oil, castor oil and sugar.
It generally contains a large amount of uncombined alkali, and that, with its unpleasant odour of coco-nut oil, makes it a most undesirable soap for personal use.
The finer soaps are perfumed by the cold method; the soap is shaved down to thin slices, and the essential oil kneaded into and mixed with it by special machinery, after which it is formed into cakes by pressure in suitable moulds.
Marseilles has long been recognized as the most important centre of the soap trade, a position that city originally achieved through its ready command of the supplies of olive oil.
The city is still very favourably situated for obtaining supplies of oils both local and foreign, including sesame, ground nut, castor oil, &c. In England, during the reign of Charles I.
Two preparations of hard soap (sodium oleate), made by acting on olive oil with caustic soda, are used in medicine: (1) Emplastrum saponis, made with lead plaster; (2) Pilula saponis cornposita, which contains one in five parts of opium.
Soft or green soap (potassium oleate), made by acting on olive oil with caustic potash, is also used; its preparation (Linamentum saponis) is known as opodeldoc. Curd soap is also used, and is chiefly a stearate of sodium.
It may be more conveniently prepared by passing the vapour of sulphur over red hot charcoal, the unccndensed gases so produced being led into a tower containing plates over which a vegetable oil is allowed to flow in order to absorb any carbon bisulphide vapour, and then into a second tower containing lime, which absorbs any sulphuretted hydrogen.
The crude product is very impure and possesses an offensive smell; it may be purified by forcing a fine spray of lime water through the liquid until the escaping water is quite clear, the washed bisulphide being then mixed with a little colourless oil and distilled at a low temperature.
Carbon bisulphide combines with primary amines to form alkyl dithiocarbamates, which when heated lose sulphuretted hydrogen and leave a residue of a dialkyl thio-urea, CS 2 +2R NH 2 - R NH CSS NH 3 RCS(NHR)2+H2S; or if the aqueous solution of the dithiocarbamate be boiled with mercuric chloride or silver nitrate solution, a mustard oil (q.v.) is formed, R.NH CSS NH3R+HgC12-Hg(R NH CSS)2->2RNCS-}-HgS+H2S.
The New, or Roman, Agora to the north of the Acropolis, perhaps mainly an oil market, was constructed after the year 27 B.C. Its dimensions were practically determined by excavation in 1890-1891.
Camphor, sugar, tea, indigo, ground peanuts, jute, hemp, oil and rattans are all articles of export.
The place has an active trade, especially in grain and in the timber floated down from the Black Forest by the Rhine and the Ysel; the industries include tanning, weaving, and oil and paper manufactures.
Sealskins and other furs, and whale and seal oil, are exported, and the herring fishery is very productive.
Olive oil and silk are the chief exports.
The chief imports are cotton piece goods, cotton twist, salt, sugar, provisions, railway materials, raw cotton, metals, coal, tobacco, spices and kerosene oil.
PYRROL, C 4 H 5 N or C 4 H 4 NH, an organic base found in coaltar and Dippel's oil.
14, and in cases of sickness seek no medical aid but rely on oil, prayer and nursing.
SALICYLIC ACID (ortho-hydroxybenzoic acid), an aromatic acid, C 6 H 4 (OH)(CO 2 H), found in the free state in the buds of Spiraea Ulmaria and, as its methyl ester, in gaultheria oil and in the essential oil of Andromeda Leschenaultii.
Methyl Salicylate, C,H 4 (OH) CO 2 CH 31 found in oil of wintergreen, in the oil of Viola tricolor and in the root of varieties of Polygala, is a pleasant-smelling liquid which boils at 222° C. On passing dry ammonia into the boiling ester, it gives salicylamide and dimethylamine.
It may be prepared by the general methods, and occurs in fusel oil, especially in potato spirit.
It is a liquid, smelling like fusel oil and boiling at 108.4° C. Methyl ethyl carbinol, CH 3 C 2 H 5 CHOH, is the secondary alcohol derived from nbutane.
It was valued chiefly on account of its brilliancy of tone and its inertness in opposition to sunlight, oil, and slaked lime (in fresco-painting).
Artificial, like natural, ultramarine has a magnificent blue colour, which is not affected by light nor by contact with oil or lime as used in painting.
The exports are chiefly groundnuts, rubber of inferior quality, sesamum and other oil seeds, tortoise-shell and ebony.
After copies of such reliefs have been taken in gypsum, cement, statuary pasteboard, fossil dust mixed with vegetable oil, or some other suitable material, they are painted.
Its industrial establishments comprise tobacco, yarn, thread, linen and woollen cloth manufactories, bleaching and dyeing works, breweries and oil and flour mills.
It has a considerable shipping trade, and manufactories of tobacco and cigars, chocolate, margarine, oil, chemicals, brushes, vinegar, soap, guano and perfumery.
Coal, oil, natural gas, clay and iron are found in the vicinity, and among the city's manufactures are iron, steel, glass, furniture and pottery.
This quarter has been pierced by several straight roads, one of which, crossing the Mahmudiya canal by the Pont Neuf, leads to Gabbari, the most westerly part of the city and an industrial and manufacturing region, possessing asphalt works and oil, rice and paper mills.
Notwithstanding the losses that the city had sustained, `Amr was able to write to his master, the caliph Omar, that he had taken a city containing "4000 palaces, 4000 baths, 12,000 dealers in fresh oil, 12,000 gardeners, 40,000 Jews who pay tribute, 400 theatres or places of amusement."
Manacor has a small trade in grain, fruit, wine, oil and live stock.
In former times it was a common article of food in England and France, but is now rarely if ever eaten, being valuable only for the oil obtained from its blubber.
The Jennings field, one of the greatest in the United States, produced up to and including 1907 more than 26,000,000 barrels of high-grade oil, twelve-thirteenths of which came from an area of only 50 acres, one well producing a tenth of the entire output.
Shreveport, Oil City, Blanchard, Mooringsport, Bozier City and Texarkana are supplied with natural gas by pipe lines from this field.
Manufacturing industries are for the most part closely related to the products of the soil, about two-thirds of the value of all manufactures in Igoo and in 1905 being represented by sugar and molasses refining, lumber and timber products, cotton-seed oil and cake, and rice cleaned and polished.
The corojo palm (Cocos crispa) rivals the royal palm in beauty and utility; oil, sugar, drink and wood are derived from it.
The principal industries are wool and cotton spinning, and the manufacture of porcelain, earthenware, boots, soap, oil, sparkling wines and beer.
Journ., 1811, 8, p. 302), and obtained by the action of chlorine or sodium hypochlorite on ammonium chloride, or by the electrolysis of ammonium chloride solution, is a very volatile yellow oil.
Pyrethrum cinerariaefolium is exported for the manufacture of insect-powder, and sunflowers are cultivated for the oil contained in their seeds.
The surrounding district is mainly agricultural and pastoral, producing oats, maize, cotton, olive oil, cattle, sheep, skins, hides and butter.
Among other important productions of the Ottoman Empire are sesame, coleseed, castor oil, flax, hemp, aniseed, mohair, saffron, olive oil, gums, scammony and liquorice.
Cleveland's rapid growth both as a commercial and as a manufacturing city is due largely to its situation between the iron regions of Lake Superior and the coal and oil regions of Pennsylvania and Ohio.
Cleveland is the headquarters of the largest shoddy mills in the country (value of product, 1905, $ 1, 0 84,594), makes much clothing (1905, $ 10, 4 26, 535), manu factures a large portion of the chewing gum made in the United States, and is the site of one of the largest refineries of the Standard Oil Company.
There are also important fisheries for cod, caplin, halibut, red fish (Sebastes) and nepisak (Cyclopterus lumpus); a shark (Somniosus microcephalus) is taken for the oil from its liver; and sea-trout are found in the streams and small lakes of the south.
The fine arts department contains twenty-seven oil paintings by modern English and continental artists bequeathed by William Menelaus of Dowlais in 1883, the Pyke-Thompson collection of about roo water-colour paintings presented in 5899, and some 3000 prints and drawings relating to Wales.
Woollen fabrics are manufactured, and the sugar industry established in 1890 employs several thousand hands; but the majority of the inhabitants are occupied by the trade in grain, fruit, wine and oil.
The city is situated in an agricultural and cotton-raising region, and has cotton compresses and gins, cotton mills, cotton-seed oil refineries, foundries and machine shops, and furniture and wagon factories.
Other manufactures of importance are butter, cheese and condensed milk, packed meats and other slaughter-house products, steam railway cars, foundry and machine-shop products, linseed oil, malt liquors, planing-mill products, sash, doors and blinds, boots and shoes, and agricultural implements.
It is a thick yellowish oil boiling between 242° C. and 250° C. It condenses with acetone in the presence of caustic soda to a quinoline.
the benediction of abbots, of priests at their ordination, of virgins taking the veil, of churches, cemeteries, oratories, and of all articles for use in connexion with the altar (chalices, patens, vestments, &c.), of military colours, of soldiers and of their arms. The holy oil is also blessed by bishops in the Roman Catholic Church; in the Greek Church, on the other hand, the oil for the chrism at baptism is blessed by the priest.
It was difficult to be sure as to the variations in the actual number of fish caught, but it was easy to show that there was a real variability in the yield of cod-liver oil (an important product of the fishery).
Tracing, then, the quantities of oil given per 1,000 fish from year to year, they seemed to establish a connexion between the variation in " condition " of the fish, the variation in the inflow of Atlantic water, and the variation in the number of sunspots from year to year.
It appeared that the quantity of oil contained in the liver of a cod (per unit of weight) increases with the age of the fish.
Detailed study of the cod shoals also showed that their composition was continually changing: in some years the shoal is composed of younger or older fish than the average and with this latter variation there are changes in the quantities of oil yielded per t,000 fish.
The principal manufactures of Georgetown are cotton and cotton-seed oil, and planing-mill products.* In Page Park are mineral springs, whose waters have medicinal qualities similar to the famous Karlsbad waters.
Some fusel oil, glycerin and succinic acid appear to be formed simultaneously, but in small amount.
These seeds have been examined at the Imperial Institute, and the kernels have been found to contain nearly half their weight (48%) of an oil resembling linseed oil and applicable for the same purposes.
The residue or " cake " left after expression of the oil is apparently nutritious and may prove to be of value for feeding animals.
There is present in the seeds an enzyme which rapidly decomposes the oil if the seeds are crushed and kept, setting free a fatty acid and glycerin.
It thus possesses the same composition as the hydrocarbon of gutta-percha and as that of oil of turpentine and other terpenes which are the chief components of essential oils.
When solid caoutchouc is strongly heated it breaks down, without change in its ultimate composition, into a number of simpler liquid hydrocarbons of the terpene class (dipentene, di-isoprene, isoprene, &c.), of which one, isoprene (C5H8), is of simpler structure than oil of turpentine (C 10 H 16), from which it can also be obtained by the action of an intense heat.
In commercial importance Iloilo ranks next to Manila among Philippine cities; it has manufactures of pina, jusi, coconut oil, lime, vinegar and various articles made from palm wood.
the stone-pine are collected for oil in West Siberia.
The import trade consists of timber, maize, paper, crockery, sugar, tobacco, kerosene oil, &c. Gold has been found in the territory, and silver, tin, lead and iron are said to exist.
It is situated in a rich agricultural region which abounds in oil and natural gas.
A furnace is served by three men, working in eight-hour shifts, and requires about 2 tons of coal, which corresponds to about 110 gallons reduced oil, air being used as atomizer.
The distillation of 1000 lb charge lasts 5-6 hours, requires 500-600 lb coke or 30 gallons reduced oil, and yields about to% metallic zinc and I% blue powder - a mixture of finely-divided metallic zinc and zinc oxide.
Litharge is much used for the preparation of lead salts, for the manufacture of oil varnishes, of certain cements, and of lead plaster, and for other purposes.
Strong sulphuric acid dissolves it, forming an acid salt, Pb(HS04)2, which is hydrolysed by adding water, the normal sulphate being precipitated; hence the milkiness exhibited by samples of oil of vitriol on dilution.
PHENANTHRENE, C14H10, a hydrocarbon isomeric with anthracene, with which it occurs in the fraction of the coal tar distillate boiling between 270°-400° C. It may be separated from the anthracene oil by repeated fractional distillation, followed by fractional crystallization from alcohol (anthracene being the less soluble), and finally purified by oxidizing any residual anthracene with potassium bichromate and sulphuric acid (R.
6 a and its figs, oil, almonds and grain are also profitable articles of trade.
Ship-building is carried on, and the preparation of fish and cod-liver oil occupies many hands.
4 ï¿½ CHO(4),isfoundin Roman caraway oil and in oil of the water hemlock.
Cinnamic aldehyde ((3-phenyl acrolein), C6H5ï¿½CH: CHï¿½CHO, an unsaturated aromatic aldehyde, is the chief constituent of cinnamon oil.
He began his experimental work in 1841 with investigations of oil of turpentine and tolu balsam, in the course of which he discovered toluene.
It is taken with the harpoon and its oil is one of the commercial products of the Amazon valley.
Modern industrial development in some of the states has greatly increased the importation of machinery, electric supplies, materials for construction, coal, &c. Kerosene oil also figures among the principal imports, and beef cattle are imported for consumption by some cities.
Nitromethane, CH 3 NO 2, is a colourless oil which boils at 101° C. Fuming sulphuric acid decomposes it into carbon monoxide and hydroxylamine.
The principal products are rubber, cacao and nuts; cattle are raised on the elevated plains of the north, while curing fish and collecting turtle eggs for their oil give occupation to many people on the rivers.
Rosell, Ber., 1890, 23, p. 487), or from the aminoazo compound and a mustard oil, the resulting thiocarbanilido derivative being heated with acetic acid (M.
It is hardly likely that the Thonraki of the 10th century would have rejected water-baptism and yet have retained unction with holy oil; this Gregory Magistros attests they did, but he is an unreliable witness.
(2) Christ, after baptism, was not anointed with myrrh nor with holy oil, therefore let them not be anointed with myrrh or holy oil.
EUGENOL (allyl guaiacol, eugenic acid), C10H1202,anodoriferous principle; it is the chief constituent of oil of cloves, and occurs in many other essential oils.
It is a colourless oil boiling at 247° C., and having a spicy odour.
They live in caves, especially in Caripe, and are caught in large numbers for the oil extracted from them, which is commonly known as " Caripe butter."
The principal exports are rubber, sugar, ground-nuts and oil seeds, beeswax, chromite (from Rhodesia), and gold (from Manica).
It aids the absorption of fats and may be used with cod liver oil when the latter is administered by the skin.
Fishing is carried on, and timber, oil, wine, lemons and other sub-tropical fruits are exported to some extent.
The city has cotton-compresses and cotton-gins, and among its manufactures are cotton-seed oil, flour, cement blocks, pressed bricks, canned goods, foundry products, waggon-beds and creamery products.
The oil separates from the fat-cells and is found lying free, while the sulphuretted hydrogen evolved as one of the products of putrefaction reacts upon the iron of the blood and throws down a precipitate of sulphide of iron, which in course of time imparts to the limb a range of colour commencing in green and terminating in black.
Many of the muscle fibres show numerous droplets of oil seen as dark round granules.
Black droplets of oil are seen in the epithelial cells lining the secreting tubules.
When pure it is a very pale yellow oil of sp. gr..
From Meroe to Memphis the commonest subject carved or painted in the interiors of the temples is that of some contemporary Phrah or Pharaoh worshipping the presiding deity with oblations of gold and silver vessels, rich vestments, gems, the firstlings of the flock and herd, cakes, fruits, flowers, wine, anointing oil and incense.
In the burntofferings of male kine to Isis, the carcase of the steer, after evisceration, was filled with fine bread, honey, raisins, figs, frankincense, myrrh and other aromatics, and thus stuffed was roasted, being basted all the while by pouring over it large quantities of sweet oil, and then eaten with great festivity.
An act of parliament enforced this in 1661; in 1684 Edward Heming, the inventor of oil lamps, obtained licence to supply public lights; and in 1736 the corporation took the matter in hand, levying a rate.
The term 1 is not limited to underground operations, but includes also surface excavations, as in placer mining and open-air workings of coal and ore deposits by methods similar to quarrying, and boring operations for oil, natural gas or brine.
The so-called oil air-pumps are much more efficient; the valve difficulty is avoided, and the risk of leakage minimized; whilst in addition there is no air clearance between the piston and the base of the cylinder as in the older mechanical forms. The Fleuss pump may be taken as an example.
Oil is placed both above the upper valve seating, and also in the cylinder up to the height of the lower edge of the inlet pipe.
The action is as follows: On raising the piston it cuts off communication with the inlet pipe and then compresses the air above, forcing it through the upper valve and oil into the atmosphere.
Some of the oil is also driven out, but as the valve does not close until the piston has descended a short distance, a certain amount of oil returns.
The Burma Oil Company since 1889 has worked by drilled wells on the American or cable system, and the amount produced is yearly becoming more and more important.
Since the introduction of iron ships teak has supplanted oak, because it contains an essential oil which preserves iron and steel, instead of corroding them like the tannic acid contained in oak.
in diameter, and are fed with a mixture of fine emery and oil.
These small furnaces are usually heated by an oil spray under the pressure of steam or compressed air.
It has an important trade in timber, and numerous windmills in the vicinity provide power for oil, cement and paper works, timber-sawing and corn-grinding.
oleum, oil); the form " benzene " was due to A.
At first, the oil was manufactured principally for combustion in the Read-Holliday lamp and for dissolving rubber, but the development of the coal-tar colour industry occasioned a demand for benzols of definite purity.
The light oil fraction of the coal-tar distillate, which comes over below 140° and consists principally of benzene, toluene and the xylenes, yields on fractionation (i) various volatile impurities such as carbon disulphide, (2) the benzene fraction boiling at about 80° C., (3) the toluene fraction boiling at too°, (4) the xylene fraction boiling at 140°.
obtained large concessions in the interior to develop the cultivation of the oil-palm and to erect factories on the spot for crushing the oil.
In 1910 the export of palm kernels was 6,141 tons, of palm oil 2,160 tons; in 1916 the figures were 22,391 tons and 3,852 tons respectively.
From 1914 onward copper and palm kernels and oil were the chief exports.
In 1911-3 a pipe-line was laid from Matadi, on the Congo estuary, to Stanley Pool to supply the river steamers with petroleum for fuel and reservoirs capable of holding 8,000 tons of oil were built.
It has a cathedral, being an archiepiscopal see of the Orthodox Greek Church, a school of gardening and sericulture, a public library, and a few distilleries, tanneries and oil works.
Situated at the intersection of two roads - from Kulja to Tashkent, and from Semipalatinsk to Kashgar - Vyernyi carries on an active trade in wheat, rice, corn, tea, oil and tobacco.
Florence is the centre of a large and fertile agricultural district, and does considerable business in wine, oil and grain, and supplies the neighbouring peasantry with goods of all kinds.
The principal industries are refineries for preparing whale and seal oil and saw-mills.
There is also present a volatile oil.
These pans are sometimes heated by boiling oil, with the idea that under such conditions the sugar which is kept stirred all the time as it thickens cannot be burnt or caramelized; but the same object can be attained more economically with steam of a given pressure by utilizing its latent heat.
It is an important centre of trade, and has tanneries, oil, flour, tallow, dye, soap and iron works; knitting is an important domestic industry.
There is much less moisture, and the flora is of a less tropical character than farther north; it has some Polynesian and New Zealand affinities, and on the west coast a partially Australian character; on the higher hills it is stunted; on the lower, however, there are fine .grass lands, and a scattered growth of niaulis (Melaleuca viridiflora), useful for its timber, bark and cajeput oil.
The chief industrial establishments are smelting furnaces for cobalt, meat-preserving works at Ouaco, sugar-works and distilleries at Noumea and La Foa, tobacco, oil and soap factories at Noumea.
When a long glass tube open at both ends is filled with soil and one end is dipped in a shallow basin of water, the water is found to move upwards through the soil column just as oil will rise in an ordinary lamp wick.
The industries of the town include brewing and malting, and the manufacture of brushes and oil.
The picked leaves are usually either prepared for market by simple exposure to the sun for a few days, or in addition are sprinkled with groundnut oil and sometimes other materials also, which result in an increase of strength.
When ripe the seeds are much esteemed as a delicacy, while in France much oil of fine quality is extracted from them by pressure.
Other industries include iron and brass foundries, engineering, manufactures of woollens and calicoes, silk-weaving, paper-making, oil and fireclay.
In 1832 he published, jointly with Willer, one of the most famous papers in the history of chemistry, that on the oil of bitter almonds (benzaldehyde), wherein it was shown that the radicle benzoyl might be regarded as forming an unchanging constituent of a long series of compounds obtained from oil of bitter almonds, throughout which it behaved like an element.
A continuation of their work on bitter almond oil by Liebig and Wohler, who remained firm friends for the rest of their lives, resulted in the elucidation of the mode of formation of that substance and in the discovery of the ferment emulsin as well as the recognition of the first glucoside, amygdalin, while another and not less important and far-reaching inquiry in 'which they collaborated was that on uric acid, published in 1837.
Priesthood, Oil of Unction, the Offering of the Body and Blood of Christ, Absolution, The Holy Leaven, the Signation of the life-giving Cross.
Pliny says that their wood was everlasting, and therefore images of the gods were made of it; he makes mention also of the oil of cedar, or cedrium, distilled from the wood, and used by the ancients for preserving their books from moths and damp; papyri anointed or rubbed with cedrium were on this account called ced ati libri.
The latter was much used by the Greeks for making images; and its empyreumatic oil, Huile de Cade, is used medicinally for skin-diseases.
The principal exports are olive oil, wheat, esparto grass, barley, sponges, dates, fish (especially tunny), hides, horses, wool, phosphates, copper, zinc and lead.
Rich in corn, in herds, and in later times also in oil, and possessing valuable fisheries, mines and quarries, the province of Africa, of which Tunisia was the most important part, attained under the empire a prosperity to which Roman remains in all parts of the country still bear witness.
The fruit is commonly used for the manufacture of oil, which is consumed in the country, and only a small part is exported.
The crude oil is used on some of the Peruvian railways.
The Alexandrians prepared oil of turpentine by distilling pine-resin; Zosimus of Panopolis, a voluminous writer of the 5th century A.D., speaks of the distillation of a "divine water" or "panacea" (probably from the complex mixture of calcium polysulphides, thiosulphate, &c., and free sulphur, which is obtained by boiling sulphur with lime and water) and advises "the efficient luting of the apparatus, for otherwise the valuable properties would be lost."
The chief industries are sugar-refining, the manufacture of cement, paper, bamboo and rattan ware, carving in wood and ivory, working in copper and iron, gold-beating and the production of gold, silver and sandal-wood ware, furniture making, umbrella and j;nricksha making, and industries connected with kerosene oil and matches.
Among the principal goods dealt with are tea, silk, opium, sugar, flax, salt, earthenware, oil, amber, cotton and cotton goods, sandal-wood, ivory, betel, vegetables, live stock and granite.
Tallow candles as a substitute for whale-oil had been introduced, and the British market was closed by a duty of £r8 a ton on oil; a bounty offered by the Massachusetts legislature (£5 on white and £ 3 on yellow or brown spermaceti, and £2 on whale-oil per ton) was of slight assistance.
With the Reformation' faith healing proper reappears among the Moravians and Waldenses, who, like the Peculiar People of our own day, put their trust in prayer and anointing with oil.
Good wine, fruit and olive oil are the most important natural products of the country round Trieste.
On the 16th of the month Maimacterion, a long procession, headed by a trumpeter playing a warlike air, set out for the graves; wagons decked with myrtle and garlands of flowers followed, young men (who must be of free birth) carried jars of wine, milk, oil and perfumes; next came the black bull destined for the sacrifice, the rear being brought up by the archon, who wore the purple robe of the general, a naked sword in one hand, in the other an urn.
Whaling was an established in- dustry in Rhode Island as Eearly as 1723, and in 1731 the colonial assembly provided a bounty of five shillings a barrel for whale oil, and a penny a pound for whalebone.
It is the chief town of a wide district exporting olive oil, esparto', corn and flour, wools and Algerian onyx; and has a population of (1906) 24,060.
The chief industries include coast and deep-sea fisheries, shipbuilding, tanning, the making of cod-liver oil and fish-curing.
Grasshoppers (batta) are abundant, and one kind (inago), which frequent the rice-fields when the cereal is.ripening, are caught and fried in oil as ad article of food.
These artists, at first educated in one of the native schools, obtained from a Hollander in Nagasaki some training in the methods and principles of European painting, and left a few oil paintings in which the laws of light and shade and perspective were correctly observed.