Take this as an official request.
Take this as an official request.
He's the one who made this an official matter for the sheriff's office.
After all, it was the night of our official engagement.
In 1821 he began his official career as a lawyer in the grand-duchy of Hesse, and in 1832 was elected to the second chamber.
She wasn't able to make an official deal with Darkyn to save the kids, and she had nothing to offer him.
We had tacit official sanction, on our terms.
You've got no official capacity here, Mr. Dean.
You've got no official capacity here, Mr. Dean.
Darian started towards the palace, intending to take her to bed with him once more before he started his official duties.
"Fitzgerald is the official," Dean said.
This was already far enough beyond his official duties to make him feel a twinge of guilt.
You shall be the Official Wizard of my kingdom, and be treated with every respect and consideration.
It was Lydia Larkin, in uniform, in her official vehicle.
If she proved to be as he suspected she was, she might find herself the first woman in his society given the official position of strategy battle planner, a position traditionally held by the dhjan alone.
An old gentleman wearing a star and another official, a German wearing a cross round his neck, approached the speaker.
"To his Honor Baron Asch, from General-in-Chief Prince Bolkonski," he announced with such solemnity and significance that the official turned to him and took the letters.
Jenn fingered the necklace around her neck, the one Darian gave her months before, when they became an official couple.
Nine days after the abandonment of Moscow, a messenger from Kutuzov reached Petersburg with the official announcement of that event.
Wynn's soul was an official debt she incurred, and Death would do its duty and repay.
The Romans had, up to the end of the Republic, accepted only one official apotheosis; the god Quirinus, whatever his original meaning, having been identified with Romulus.
Alpatych moved forward and next time the official came out addressed him, one hand placed in the breast of his buttoned coat, and handed him two letters.
It is already the official language in more than fifty countries spread across every continent.
Drowned, that was the official conclusion.
He turned and strutted to his official car parked in the roped off street.
Hastings recorded in an official minute that he had found Francis's private and public conduct to be "void of truth and honour."
Hastings recorded in an official minute that he had found Francis's private and public conduct to be "void of truth and honour."
A French official wearing a scarf came up to the right of the row of prisoners and read out the sentence in Russian and in French.
There was no further official word on Martha's whereabouts, but Fred continued to assure the Deans not to worry, saying the girl was in good hands, whatever that meant.
"Not 'our Sovereign, the Emperor,' as they say at official dinners," said he, "but the health of our Sovereign, that good, enchanting, and great man!
This brought them under the official censure, and was forbidden.
If I'm not mistaken, the souls of your assassins are more of a personal collection than an official one.
In a variety of ways it does a great deal of social service similar to that of gilds of help. Its administration has always been in the hands of laymen, and it works through local "conferences" or branches, the general council having been suspended because it declined to accept a cardinal as its official head.
Dean felt equally acrimonious toward the overbearing state official whom he hadn't seen since the winter and who, in Dean's mind, had no business being back in Ouray.
Then with the unerring official memory that characterized him he repeated from the opening words of the manifesto:
What happened was outside of Gabe's official purview.
What happened was outside of Gabe's official purview.
(e) Again, not all dogmatic teachings of the pope are under the guarantee of infallibility; neither his opinions as private instructor, nor his official allocutions, however authoritative they may be, are infallible; it is only his ex cathedra instruction which is guaranteed; this is admitted by everybody.
At the chief entrance to the palace, however, an official came running out to meet him, and learning that he was a special messenger led him to another entrance.
36), though, according to Boissier, his worship never had official sanction.
36), though, according to Boissier, his worship never had official sanction.
Aside from the birth certificate, there was no way the rest were official police papers!
For the purposes of a concordat the state recognizes the official status of the church and of its ministers and tribunals; guarantees it certain privileges; and sometimes binds itself to secure for it subsidies representing compensation for past spoliations.
This is starkly different than if violence breaks out in a distant, unreal place where the only flow of information is from official sources.
"We've been balancing both our demanding masters the past few weeks," Brady said, referring to his PMF militia duties and his official regular military duties.
During his three years of office as resident he was able to render not a few valuable services to the Company; but it is more important to observe that his name nowhere occurs in the official lists of those who derived pecuniary profit from the necessities and weakness of the native court.
So the official version goes.
To the last he believed that the attacking force would at least have spared his house, which contained official records of priceless value, but he was doomed to see his faith falsified.
An official blanket ballot containing the names of the candidates.
So you're not even official foster parents?
Dean began to wonder if he was laying his pension on the line by not reporting the entire case in an official manner.
The woman's husband, a short, round- shouldered man in the undress uniform of a civilian official, with sausage-shaped whiskers and showing under his square-set cap the hair smoothly brushed forward over his temples, with expressionless face was moving the trunks, which were placed one on another, and was dragging some garments from under them.
Deputy Sheriff Lydia Larkin drove by in her official white Blazer and Dean repressed the impulse to give her a one-finger salute.
On hearing this indifferent voice, Rostov grew frightened at what he was doing; the thought of meeting the Emperor at any moment was so fascinating and consequently so alarming that he was ready to run away, but the official who had questioned him opened the door, and Rostov entered.
This seemed to satisfy the official, who was obviously embarrassed over the entire debacle and infinitely relieved that at least half their problem was solved without any accusatory newspaper headlines.
The Greek language occurs in their official seals down to the 13th century.
Up to 1848 he was a government official in Nassau; in that year he became a member of the German national parliament and undersecretary of state for foreign affairs.
More official information transparency.
As all of the bikers were assigned numbers, Dean made a verbal note of each on a small handheld tape-recorder borrowed from his more official duties.
But if these other news outlets contradict the official account, then all the better.
While he'd considered bringing his revolver to Colorado, he had no official reason to do so and was reluctant to lie about being on police business.
If Fitzgerald was involved with Billy's death, some official should investigate and do something about it.
They'd never made official application for custody, but when they broached the subject with the authorities it was met with less than enthusiasm.
Willarski was a married man with a family, busy with his family affairs, his wife's affairs, and his official duties.
He felt this in the looks of the soldiers who, marching in regular ranks briskly and gaily, were escorting him and the other criminals; he felt it in the looks of an important French official in a carriage and pair driven by a soldier, whom they met on the way.
In the 9th century Hincmar, archbishop of Reims, in his work, De ordine palatii et regni, speaks of a summus cancellarius, evidently an official at the court of the Carolingian emperors and kings.
Billie—it was official now, identified or guessed at by the weeping Ida Wasserman, accompanied to the mortuary by Andy Sackler, who drew the short straw.
Besides the plunderers, very various people, some drawn by curiosity, some by official duties, some by self-interest--house owners, clergy, officials of all kinds, tradesmen, artisans, and peasants--streamed into Moscow as blood flows to the heart.
Two witnesses for the mock marriage--Khvostikov, a retired petty official whom Dolokhov made use of in his gambling transactions, and Makarin, a retired hussar, a kindly, weak fellow who had an unbounded affection for Kuragin--were sitting at tea in Dolokhov's front room.
The vidame was originally, like the avoue (advocatus), an official chosen by the bishop of the diocese, with the consent of the count.
The vidames usually took their title from the see they represented, but not infrequently they styled themselves, not after their official fief, but after Head Vicugna.
The best way to explore the area is to take a self-guided tour of the area, using the printable map available in the village's official website.
Cold energy sealed the deal as official.
Then he added, on a more serious note, "I'll give you a hand if I can, but nothing official."
Intrigued by the offer she brought him before she disappeared, he was beginning to think he should've made the deal official.
Take my hand, and the deal is official.
The forests are under an English official.
2 Elster (Beitrage) says that the poem is the work of two poets: the first part by a Thuringian wandering minstrel, the second - which differs in style and dialect - by a Bavarian official.
In the first place is the official recognition by the state of the Catholic religion 1 These are arranged under thirty-five distinct heads in Nussi's Quinquaginta conventiones de rebus ecclesiasticis (Rome, 1869).
And so great was the influence of the Jesuits, that the congregation of St Maur, the canons of Ste Genevieve, and the Oratory laid their official ban on the obnoxious doctrines.
Plato, while admiring Pericles' intellect, accuses him of pandering to the mob; Aristotle in his Politics and especially in the Constitution of Athens, which is valuable in that it gives the dates of Pericles' enactments as derived from an official document, accepts the same view.
His official duty is to mark the game on the scoring card when the leader announces the result.
Rulers of this name are found at Rhodes as late as the 1st century B.C. The Prytaneum was regarded as the religious and political centre of the community and was thus the nucleus of all government, and the official "home" of the whole people.
3) we know that the Prytaneum was the official residence of the Archons, but, when the new Agora was constructed (by Peisistratus ?), they took their meals in the Thesmotheteum for the sake of convenience.
The only official standard is the French, dating from 1859, preserved by a tuning-fork vibrating 870.9 (double vib.
Owing to the proximity of the capital this group is comparatively subject to the Turkish power, and pays a small annual tribute; the chiefs, who assess and collect the tribute, form a kind of administrative council; the confederation has also an official representative council at Scutari, called the Jibal, under the presidency of a Serkarde or Moslem official.
(5) The Malsia Jakovs, a group of two Catholic and three Moslem tribes, extend in the direction of Jakova, where they maintain an official representative; they are entirely exempt from taxation.
In the 14th century the district was first overrun by the Mahommedans, after which it was annexed to the newly established Hindu kingdom of Vijayanagar, an official of which named Dhar Rao, according to local tradition, built the fort at Dharwar town in 1403.
/ ait and John Lydgates Bearbeitungen von Boccaccios De Casibus, Munich, 1885) has thrown much doubt on this statement as regards Italy, but Lydgate knew France and visited Paris in an official capacity in 1426.
It was however accepted by him, and in official documents he usually styles them "the people called Methodists."
DECURIO, a Roman official title, used in three connexions.
He takes precedence, Primus inter pares, of all the members, and is recognized as the official head of the Church during his term of office.
In 1904 official estimates, based on immigration and emigration returns and upon registered births and deaths, both of which are admittedly defective, showed a population increased to 5,410,028, and a small diminution in the rate of annual increase from 1895 to 1904 as compared with 18.69-1895.
According to the official returns,' the over-sea immigration for the forty-seven years 1857-1903 aggregated 2,872,588, while the departure of emigrants during the same period was 1,066,480, showing a net addition to the population of 1,806,108.
This university was founded in 1621 and the university of Buenos Aires in 1821, but although Bonpland and some other European scientists were members of the faculty of Buenos Aires in its early years, neither there nor at Cordoba was any marked attention given to the natural sciences until President Sarmiento (official term, 1868-1874) initiated scientific instruction at the university of Cordoba under the eminent German naturalist, Dr Hermann Burmeister (1807-1892), and founded the National Observatory at Cordoba and placed it under the direction of ' There are two distinct statistical offices compiling immigration returns and their totals do not agree, owing in part to the traffic between Buenos Aires and Montevideo.
Official corruption and speculation have led to some unsound ventures, but in the great majority of cases the lines constructed have been beneficial and productive.
No change was made in official methods, and the condition of affairs drifted from bad to worse, until the temper of the people, so long and so sorely tried, showed plainly that the situation had become insufferable.
The official value of the dollar was fixed at 44 cents gold for all government purposes.
At the head of each department is a prefect, a political official nominated by the minister of the interior and appointed by the president, who acts as general agent of the government and renresentative of the central authority.
Procureurs-gnraux and avocats-gnraux are also attached to the parquet, or permanent official staff, of the courts of appeal.
In each department an official collector (Trsorier payeur genral) receives the taxes and public revenue collected therein and accounts for them to the central authority in Paris.
In the commune an official known as the receveur municipal receives all moneys due to it, and, subject to the authorization of the mayor, makes all payments due from it.
There is also an official performing the functions of a director at Bastia, in Corsica.
Before opening a private school the person proposing to do so must give notice to the mayor, prefect and academy rnspector, and forward his diplomas and other particulars to the latter official.
The municipality has to pay the Cost of building, furnishing and upkeep. At the head of the lyce is the principal (proviseur), an official nominated by the minister, and assisted by a teaching staff of professors and charges de cours or teachers of somewhat lower standing.
Arnold (London, 1888); articles on Local Government in France in the Stock Exchange Official Intelligence Annuals (London, I908 and 1909); M.
Official statistical works: A nnuaire statistique de la France (a summary of the statistical publications of the government), Slatistique agricole annue,lle, Statislique de lindustrie minerale et des appareils de vapeur, Tableau genera~l dii commerce et de la navigation, Reports on the various colonies issued annually by the British Foreign Office, &c. Guide Books: Karl Baedeker, Northern France, Southern France; P. Joanne, Nord, Champagne et Ardenne; Normandie; and other volumes dealing with every region of the country.
From England he passed to the Low Countries, Germany, Switzerland and Italy, and on his return to the Peninsula in 1796 was appointed official translator to the foreign office.
Walmer Castle was for long the official residence of the lord warden, but has, since the resignation of Lord Curzon in 1903, ceased to be so used, and those portions of it which are of historic interest are now open to the public. George, prince of Wales (lord warden, 1903-1907), was the first lord warden of royal blood since the office was held by George, prince of Denmark, consort of Queen Anne.
The judge sits as the official and commissary of the lord warden, just as the judge of the high court of admiralty sat as the official and commissary of the lord high admiral.
Dr Phillimore's patent had a grant of the "place or office of judge official and commissary of the court of admiralty of the Cinque Ports, and their members and appurtenances, and to be assistant to my lieutenant of Dover castle in all such affairs and business concerning the said court of admiralty wherein yourself and assistance shall be requisite and necessary."
Incipient brain-disease compelled him to withdraw from official life in November 1863, and he died at Spandau on the 26th of August 1865.
The Public Record of Horatio Seymour (New York, 1868) includes his speeches and official papers between 1856 and 1868.
He went to Italy as president of the commission, carrying to the prince at Florence the official news of his election.
In spite of the official rebuff received from the mother-country, the Australian ministry, in drawing up the new Federal tariff, gave a substantial preference to British imports, and thus showed their willingness to go farther.
The magistrates bore the name of scabini (schepenen or echevins), and at their head was the seigneurial official - the schout or baljuw.
The crisis of 1860, by which the office he held was abolished, was the end of his official career; for the rest of his life he was very prominent as the leader of the Federalist party in Bohemia.
His apologists explain that his action was merely "official," but Bonner was one of those who brought it to pass that the condemnation of heretics to the fire should be part of his ordinary official duties.
The enforcement of the first Book of Common Prayer had also been part of his official duties; and the fact that Bonner made no such protest against the burning of heretics as he had done in the former case shows that he found it the more congenial duty.
To prevent foreign states from giving official recognition to the Confederacy was the task of the hour, and in this he was successful.
has influenced the official Roman doctrine of demoniacal possession.
THEGN, or Thane, an Anglo-Saxon word meaning an attendant, servant, retainer or official, and cognate with Gr.
The result has been that wind velocities published in many official publications have of ten been in error by nearly 5 0%.
The higher officials had endowments and official residences.
Badajoz is the see of a bishop, and the official residence of the captain-general of Estremadura.
The official life of St Francis is St Bonaventura's Legenda, published in a convenient form by the Franciscans of Quaracchi (1898); Goetz's estimate of it (op. cit.) is much more favourable than Sabatier's.
Since tobacco is a government monopoly, its cultivation is subject to official concessions and prescriptions.
See Annuario statistico -ilaliano (not, however, issued regularly each year) for general statistics; and other official publications; W.
At first, indeed, the term was apparently confined to the regions of the central and southern districts, exclusive of Cisalpine Gaul and the whole tract north of the Apennines, and this continued to be the official or definite signification of the name down to the end of the republic. But the natural limits of Italy are so clearly marked that the name came to be generally employed as a geographical term at a much earlier period.
The official distinction was, however, still retained.
Augustus was the first who gave a definite administrative organization to Italy as a whole, and at the same time gave official sanction to that wider acceptation of the name which had already established itself in familiar usage, and which has continued to prevail ever since.
The division of Italy into eleven regions, instituted by Augustus for administrative purposes, which continued in official use till the reign of Constantine, was based mainly on the territorial divisions previously existingi and preserved with few exceptions the ancient limits.
With its object he sympathized; yet he could not give official sanction to an armed attack on a friendly power, nor on the other hand could he forbid an action enthusiastically approved by public opinion.
The advent of Thiers, his attitude towards the petition of French bishops on behalf of the pope, the recall of Senard, the French minister at Florencewho had written to congratulate Victor Emmanuel on the capture of Romeand the instructions given to his successor, the comte de Choiseul, to absent himself from Italy at the moment of the kings official entry into the new capital (2nd July 1871), together with the haste displayed in appointing a French ambassador to the Holy See, rapidly cooled the cordiality of Franco-Italian relations, and reassured Bismarck on the score of any dangerous intimacy between the two governments.
Articles 6 and 7 forbade access of any Italian official or agent to the above-mentioned palaces or to any eventual conclave or oecumenical council without special authorization from the pope, conclave Or council.
Parliament had degenerated into a congeries of personal groups, whose members were eager only to overturn cabinets in order to secure power for the leaders and official favors for themselves.
Documents subsequently published have somewhat attenuated the responsibility of Ferry and Saint Hilaire for this breach of faith, and have shown that the French forces in Tunisia acted upon secret instructions from General Farre, minister of war in the Ferry cabinet, who pursued a policy diametrically opposed to the official declarations made by the premier and the foreign minister.
In May 1883 this procesl received official recognition by the elimination of the Radical~ Zanardelli and Baccarini from the Depretis cabinet, while ir the course of 1884 a Conservative, Signor Biancheri, was elected to the presidency of the Chamber, and another Conservative, General Ricotti, appointed to the War Office.
On the 4th of June 1887 the official Vatican organ, the Osservatore Romano, published a letter written by Tosti to the pope conditionally retracting the views expressed in the pamphlet.
to allow him to dissolve parliament, entrusted Signor Giolitti, a Piedmontese deputy, sometime treasury minister in the Crispi cabinet, with the formation of a ministry of the Left, which contrived to obtain six months supply on account, and dissolved the Chamber, The ensuing general election (November 1892), marked by unprecedented violence and abuse of official pressure upon B k the electorate, fitly ushered in what proved to be scandals, the most unfortunate period of Italian history since the completion of national unity.
For a time Giolitti successfully opposed inquiry into the conditions of the state banks, but on the 21st of March was compelled to sanction an official investigation by a parliamentary commission composed of seven members.
At Milan alone the official returns confessed to eighty killed and several hundred wounded, a total generally considered below the real figures.
For the earlier period their authorities were state and family records - above all, the annales maximi (or annales pontificum), the official chronicle of Rome, in which the notable occurrences of each year from the foundation of the city were set down by the pontifex maximus.
His Political Memoranda were edited by Oscar Browning for the Camden Society in 1884, and there are eight volumes of his official correspondence in the British Museum.
The official figures in inches for the station at Port Blair, which is situated in by far the driest part of the settlement, were: - A tidal observatory has also been maintained at Port Blair since 1880.
Ordinarily, the appeal from an archdeacon or his official lay to the court of the bishop; but by custom the appeal might be to the court of the metropolitan.
(d) The official of the bishop might be his official principal, who was his alter ego, or a special officer for a particular locality (officialis foraneus).
How far the official principal had jurisdiction in criminal matters by virtue of his office, how far it was usual to add this jurisdiction by special commission, and what were the respective limits of his office and that of the vicar-general, are questions of some nicety.
In the Low Countries, France and England the jurisdiction of the official principal was wider (Van Espen, pars i.
The " parlements " of France were constantly insisting on the independence and irremovability of the official (Fournier, p. 219).
But jurisdiction which was not necessarily incident to the office of the official principal, that is to say voluntary jurisdiction, such as the granting of licences and institution to benefices, and criminal jurisdiction over clerks (and probably over laymen), the bishop could reserve to himself.
(f) From the bishop, or his official, appeal lay to the metropolitan, who again could hear causes by his official.
As to metropolitan peculiars, the metropolitan might give an appeal from the dean to his regular official principal.
Thus, in Canterbury there was an appeal from the dean of Arches to the official principal of the Arches court.
When peculiars were abolished (vide infra) the dean of Arches disappeared, and his title, in the 19th century, was erroneously given to the official principal.
Fournier (p. 219) says that in France it was not till the 17th century that there grew up a custom of having different officials for the metropolitan, one for him as bishop, a second as metropolitan, and even a third as primate, with an appeal from one to the other, and that it was an abuse due to the parlements which strove to make the official independent of the bishop. In England there has been, for a long time, a separate diocesan court of Canterbury held before the " commissary."
But the same person was often official of both courts.
evoked to the royal court a prosecution for abduction pending before the archbishop of Tarragona, declaring that the archbishop and the official were incompetent to judge noblemen.
In the 13th centur y Archbishop Peckham, says Maitland (p. 117), as archbishop "asserted for himself and his official (1) a general right to entertain in the first instance complaints made against his suffragans' subjects, and (2) a general right to hear appeals omisso medio."
It was, for the time, determined that the archbishop might himself, in virtue of his legatine authority, entertain complaints from other dioceses in first instance, but that this legatine jurisdiction was not included in the ordinary jurisdiction of his official principal, even if the archbishop had so willed it in his commission.
If the metropolitan see were vacant the jurisdiction was exercised by the dean and chapter through an official (Rothery, Return of Cases before Delegates, Nos.
The judge under this act became (upon vacancies occurring) ex officio official principal of the arches court of Canterbury and of the chancery court of York.
The bishop's " official " is now universally called his vicargeneral (except in France, where sometimes an official is appointed eo nomine), and generally exercises both voluntary and contentious jurisdiction (op. cit.
He became a Salian priest at the age of eight, and soon knew by heart all the forms and liturgical order of the official worship, and even the sacred music. In the earliest statue we have he is a youth offering incense; he is a priest at the sacrificial altar in the latest triumphal reliefs.
in 1627 and 1631, again commanded abstinence from all flesh during Lent, and the High Church movement of the 17th century lent a fresh religious sanction to the official attitude.
For practical studies see official reports on the Mississippi, Rhine, Seine, Elbe and other great rivers.
In this respect a country is either centralized, like the United Kingdom or France, 1 For the history of territorial changes in Europe, see Freeman, Historical Geography of Europe, edited by Bury (Oxford), 190; and for the official definition of existing boundaries, see Hertslet, The Map of Europe by Treaty (4 vols., London, 1875, 1891); The Map of Africa by Treaty (3 vols., London, 1896).
Accepting the position in which the Tudor king would have his great nobles, he became the faithful soldier, diplomatist and official of the new power.
Susa once more became a capital, and on the establishment of the Persian empire remained one of the three seats of government, its language, the Neo-Susian, ranking with the Persian of Persepolis and the Semitic of Babylon as an official tongue.
The official dose of powdered colchicum is 2 to 5 grains, which may be given in a cachet.
12); they did not assume, so far as we know, the official style of "fathers in God."
Some of these were actual decisions of particular Geonim; others were an official summary of the discussion of the subject by the members of the School.
In accordance with the consistent policy of inclusion and toleration by which the whole of his official life was characterized, he induced the council to call the assembly of notables, which met at Fontainebleau in August 1560 and agreed that the States General should be summoned, all proceedings against heretics being meanwhile suppressed, pending the reformation of the church by a general or national council.
Even in the 3rd century the cult of Celtic deities (Hercules Magusanus, Deusoniensis, &c.) were revived, the Celtic leuga reintroduced instead of the Roman mile on official milestones, and a brief effort made to establish an independent, though romanized, Gaul under Postumus and his short-lived successors (A.D.
Before the Norman Conquest England had two official tongues; documents Sicily.
French, the language which the Normans brought with them, did not become an official language in England till after strictly Norman rule had passed away.
He was, moreover, an Imperialist and a Colonial Federationist at a time when Liberalism was tied and bound to the Manchester traditions; and, to the consternation of, the official wire-pullers, he vigorously supported Disraeli's foreign policy, and in 1881 opposed the Gladstonian settlement with the Boers.
In March 1890 General Tajes handed over the presidency to Herrera y Obes, a clever but unscrupulous man, who filled every official post with his own friends and ensured the return of his supporters to the chamber.
Martin, Through Five Republics (London, 1905); Anuario Estadistico and Anuario Demografico (official, Montevideo); British and American Consular Reports; Publications, Bureau of American Republics.
!L officer, and the latter is an official journal.
In the British mercantile marine all ships (except those employed exclusively in trading between ports on the coasts of Scotland) are compelled to keep an official log book in a form approved by the Board of Trade.
The last named was opened in 1904, and is controlled by the Winona Lake corporation, having official connexion with several national trade unions.
About 1836 he entered the civil service as an official of the foreign ministry.
He was an important court official whose duties comprised the superintendence of the Chapel Royal and all the religious ceremonies of the court.
In Germany the official title of the Church is Evangelische BruderUniteit; in Austria, Evangelische Bruder-Kirche; in England and America, Moravian Church.
In 1898, the raja being of weak intellect and without heir, the administration was undertaken by a British official.
Alfred Arneth studied law, and became an official of the Austrian state archives, of which in 1868 he was appointed keeper.
The official divisions of the empire are given here, and details are given in separate articles.
Imperator is the official style.
2 Strictly speaking, the title is inapplicable, there being no collective official name for the two chambers.
The judges were not so by profession; they were merely members of the official class (chinovniks), the prejudices and vices of which they shared.
The present condition of the peasants - according to official documents - appears to be as follows.
Like the tsar, he had the official title of " Great Lord " (veliki gosudar), and he had his palace, his court-dignitaries, his retinue, his boyars and his officials all organized on the model of those of the sovereign.
Without his assent and blessing no important decisions were taken, all state documents emanating from the highest authority bore his signature, and he was regarded, both in the official world and by the xxru.
In this way German influence was enormously increased, and was represented by men of considerable capacity holding the highest official positions, such as Biren, Miinnich and Ostermann.
that the word " alliance " was used publicly by official personages.
Two years later (August 1897), during the official visit of M.
On the whole, the best statistical source for this information is the annual computation published by the Archiv fiir Eisenbahnwesen, the official organ of the Prussian Ministry of Public Works; but the figure quoted above utilizes the Board of Trade returns for the United Kingdom and the report of the Interstate Commerce Commission for the United States.
Dewsnup (ed.), Railway Organization and Working (Chicago, 1906); Interstate Commerce Commission; Rate Regulation Hearings before the U.S. Senate Committee (Washington, 5 vols., 1905); and on current matters, The Official Railway Guide (monthly, New York, the Railroad Age Gazette (weekly, New York) and the Commercial and Financial Chronicle (weekly, New York).
the expected benefits of official control from being realized.
Many miracles have been ascribed to him; an official list of these, said to have been attested by eyewitnesses, was drawn up by the auditors of the Rota when the processes for his canonization were formed, and is preserved in manuscript in the Vatican library.
This supreme official, who was destined ultimately to take the place of the king in the church-nation of post-exilian Judaism, is mentioned for the first time in Zech.
The discovery here of an official monument of Sargon II.
In 1855 he was elected a member of the second chamber; and as the government refused to allow him leave of absence from his official duties he resigned his post in the public service.
takes the part of his subjects against the excessive zeal of the official Gadatas, and grants freedom of taxation and exemption from forced labour to those connected with a temple of Apollo in Asia Minor (Bulletin de correspondance hellenique, xiii.
32) the Jews, and in the official letters no reference is made to Judas.
The popular verdict received official and formal sanction.
He seems to have served Tiberius as an official scrutineer of the imperial officials and he commemorated his devotion by the foundation of the city of Tiberias.
The Babylonian Jews were practically independent, and the exilarch (reshgalutha) or prince of the captivity was an official who ruled the community as a vassal of the Persian throne.
In Persia Jews are often the victims of popular outbursts as well as of official extortion, but there are fairly prosperous communities at Bushire, Isfahan, Teheran and Kashan (in Shiraz they are in low estate).
It is interesting, as bringing out the personal element in the traditional royal seat, that an inscribed sealing belonging to the earliest period of the later palace of Cnossus bears on it the impression of two official signets with portrait heads of a man and of a boy, recalling the " associations " on the coinage of imperial Rome.
Under the Venetian government Candia, a fortress originally built by the Saracens, and called by them " Khandax," became the seat of government, and not only rose to be the capital and chief city of the island, but actually gave name to it, so that it was called in the official language of Venice " the island of Candia," a designation which from thence passed into modern maps.
"HERBERT CLARK HOOVER (1874-), American mining engineer and public official, was born of Quaker parentage on a farm at West Branch, Ia., Aug.
It is unknown precisely how the Roman word came into use, though an explanation of the earlier official title, magister populi, throws some light on the subject.
Taxes were increased - expenditure increased nearly threefold between 1869 and 1871 - and there was some official corruption; but the state escaped the heavy burden of debt imposed upon its neighbours, partly because of the higher character of its reconstruction governors, and partly because its credit was already impaired by the repudiation of obligations contracted before the war.
"JOHN WINGATE WEEKS (1860-), American public official, was born at Lancaster, N.H., April II 1860.
Now they form an official province of British Baluchistan within the Baluchistan Agency; and the agency extends from the Gomal to the Arabian Sea and the Persian frontier.
was living and that among the signatories of the treaty of April 13th were some who possessed proofs of his existence; and Eckard, one of the mainstays of the official account, left among his unpublished papers a statement that many members of "an assembly of our wise men" obstinately named Louis XVII.
The official version of the dauphin's history as accepted under the Restoration was drawn up by Simien Despreaux in his uncritical Louis XVII.
One of the functions of this official was to subsidize political pamphleteers, and Mirabeau had hoped to be so employed, but he ruined his chances by a series of writings on financial questions.
In any case there is no ground for the old theory that he was an official historiographer.
The Mahratta king, a descendant of Sivaji, had become a roi fainéant, and the arrangement was negotiated by his Brahman minister, whose official designation was the peshwa.
apXt&clucovos), a high official of the Christian Church.
The Fertilizers and Feeding Stuffs Act 1906, amending and re-enacting the act of 1893, provided for the compulsory appointment by county councils of official samplers.
Whilst the returns relating to the acreage of crops and the number of live stock in Great Britain have been officially collected in each year since 1866, the annual official estimates of the produce of the crops in the several sections of the kingdom do not extend back beyond 1885.
The fatal disease known as anthrax did not form the subject of official returns previous to the passing of the Anthrax Order of 1886.
In 1856 he became head of the examiner's office in the India House, and for two years, till the dissolution of the Company in 1858, his official work, never a light task, kept him fully occupied.
His retirement from official work was followed almost immediately by his wife's death at Avignon, whither they had come in the course of a tour.
Nearly every state in America has its official economic entomologists, and nearly every one of the British crown colonies is provided with one or more able men who help the agricultural community to battle against the insect pests.
where a Roman official wanted to hear his lectures, and in Antioch, in response to a most flattering invitation from Julia Mammaea (mother of Alexander Severus, afterwards emperor), who wished to become acquainted with his philosophy.
He refused to put the vote of outlawry, uttered a few passionate words, cast off his official robes, declared the session at an end, and made his way out under protection of a squad of grenadiers.
The reader is referred to the article France (Law and Institutions) for the information respecting the various codes dating from this period, and to the article Concordat for the famous measure whereby Napoleon re-established official relations between the state and the church in France.
Here again the Tribunate offered a vehement opposition to the measure, and in spite of official pressure passed the bill only by a majority of eight.
On the 30th of January he caused the official French paper, the Moniteur, to publish in extenso a confidential report sent by Colonel Sebastiani describing his so-called commercial mission to the Levant.
The horror aroused by this crime did not long deaden the feeling, at least in official circles, that something must be done to introduce the principle of heredity, as the surest means of counteracting the aims of conspirators.
Other official addresses of the same general tenour flowed in; and even the tribunate showed its docility by proposing that the imperial dignity should be declared hereditary in the family of Bonaparte (3rd of May).
He did so with masterly skill and swiftness, and the triumphs of Ulm and Austerlitz hid from view the disaster of Trafalgar; and the only official reference to that crushing defeat was couched in these terms: "Storms caused us to lose some ships of the line after a fight imprudently engaged" (speech to the Legislature, 2nd of March 1806).
There, on the 16th of December, he issued a decree (omitted from the official Correspondence) declaring le nomsne Stein an enemy of France and confiscating his property in the lands allied to France.
His mother, Lady Randolph Churchill, divorced her second husband, George Cornwallis-West, in 1913; and married in 1918, as her third husband, Montague Phippen Porch, formerly a Government official in Nigeria.
The author's official position gave him access to the state papers and to other authentic sources not attainable by other writers, while he did not scruple to borrow largely from other MSS., especially from that of Bartolome de Las Casas.
The history of the false Smerdis is narrated by Herodotus and Ctesias according to official traditions; Cambyses before his death confessed to the murder of his brother, and in public explained the whole fraud.
Two years later this was followed by a second contribution from him on the same subject, and of this only an extract appeared in the official organ of the Academy (ut supra, xvi.
Soon after the concentration The at Rialto the doge Angelo Particiaco began an official residence for the head of the state.
But the appeal to the verbally inspired Bible was stronger than that to a church hopelessly divided; the Bible, and not the consent of the universal church, became the touchstone of the reformed orthodoxy; in the nomenclature of the time, " evangelical " arose in contradistinction to " Catholic," while, in popular parlance, the " protest " of the Reformers against the " corruptions of Rome " led to the invention of the term " Protestant," which, though nowhere assumed in the official titles of the older reformed churches, was early used as a generic term to include them all.
His recommendations were adopted by the House of Commons, but his unpopularity in South Africa was great, and in 1830 he was convicted of libelling a Cape official.
Prices were low, foreign commerce was already large, business thriving; wealth gave social status; the official British class lent a lustre to society; and Boston " town " was drawing society from the " country."
Figures are difficult to obtain, but an official report from the Japanese Residency General in 1907 estimated the crop at about 214,000 bales, all being used locally.
The official figures are supplemented from time to time by numerous private forecasts, for instance those in " Neild's circular."
Beneath are the official Liverpool quotations of " futures," as they appeared on the morning of the 19th of April 1906: A merican Deliveries, any port, basis of middling, good ordinary clause (the fractions are given in moths of a penny).
We begin by giving the official quotations of " spot," and statement of business done, published on the morning of the 19th of April 1906.
These official prices are sometimes prices actually paid, and sometimes prices settled by 1 Transactions of too bales only.
2.5 East Indies „ ' 1 Smyrna or Turkey 5.7 The British Cotton Growing Association works under the sanction of a royal charter and has met with valuable official support.
ANTONINI ITINERARIUM, a valuable register, still extant, of the stations and distances along the various roads of the Roman empire, seemingly based on official documents, which were probably those of the survey organized by Julius Caesar, and carried out under Augustus.
In the second place, the Mongols of the 13th century were not as yet, in any great numbers, Mahommedans; the official religion was "Shamanism," but in the Mongol army there were many Christians, the results of early Nestorian missions to the far East.
From the Arabic point of view the life of Richard's rival, Saladin, is described by Beha-ud-din, a high official under Saladin, who writes a panegyric on his master, somewhat confused in chronology and partial in its sympathies, but nevertheless of great value.
For the Fourth Crusade the primary authority is Villehardouin's La Conquete de Constantinople, an official apology for the diversion of the Crusade written by one of its leaders, and concealing the arcana under an appearance of frank naïveté.
Nothing marks the secular attitude of the Italians at an epoch which decided the future course of both Renaissance and Reformation more strongly than the mundane proclivities of this apostolic secretary, heart and soul devoted to the resuscitation of classical studies amid conflicts of popes and antipopes, cardinals and councils, in all of which he bore an official part.
Traj an's scheme for the "alimentation" of poor children was carried out upon a larger scale under the superintendence of a special official called praefectus alimentorum.
Direct collection of taxes by imperial procurators was substituted for the system of farming, and a special official (advocatus fisci) was instituted to look after the interests of the imperial treasury.
When the request was refused, American forces seized Fernandina in the spring of 1812, an action that was repudiated by the American government after protest from Spain, although it was authorized in official instructions.
Its area according to official returns is 12,542 sq.
Drew continued to work at his trade till 1805, when he entered into an engagement with Dr Thomas Coke, a prominent Wesleyan official, which enabled him to devote himself entirely to literature.
They came into open conflict at the council of Woodstock (July 1163), when Becket successfully opposed the king's proposal that a land-tax, known as the sheriff's aid, which formed part of that official's salary, should be henceforth paid into the Exchequer.
Within a short time his shrine at Canterbury became the resort of innumerable pilgrims. Plenary indulgences were given for a visit to the shrine, and an official register was kept to record the miracles wrought by the relics of the saint.
The earlier text, of which five short fragments have come down to us, is known as the Pactus Alamannorum, and from the persistent recurrence of the expression "et sic convenit" was most probably drawn up by an official commission.
He obtained, after difficulty, the official recognition of his Society from Paul III.
Bartole, the official biographer of Ignatius, says that he would not permit any innovation in the studies; and that, were he to live five hundred years, he would always repeat "no novelties" in theology, in philosophy or in logic - not even in grammar.
Bartole, the official biographer, wrote his Della vita e dell' instituto di S.
It will be sufficient here to mention: A Book of Spiritual Exercises, written by Garcias de Cisneros (London, 1876); the official Latin text in the third volume of the Avignon edition of the Constitutions (1830); Roothaan's Exercitia spiritualia S.
The inhabitants are mentioned in the official works of the Yuan dynasty as Tung fan or eastern barbarians; and under the Ming dynasty the island begins to appear as Kilung.
His family was known among judicial circles in the 16th century, and maintained the Roman Catholic faith after the official introduction of the Reformed religion into Navarre.
ATHANASY LAVRENTEVICH (?-1680) ORDUIN - NASHCHOKIN, Russian statesman, was the son of a poor official at Pskov, who saw to it that his son was taught Latin, German and mathematics.
But his whole official career was a constant struggle with narrow routine and personal jealousy on the part of the boyars and clerks of the council.
Parliament voted her £ 20,000 in 1660 for the payment of her debts, but Elizabeth did not receive the money, and on the 19th of May 1661 she left the Hague for England, in spite of the king's attempts to hinder her journey, receiving no official welcome on her arrival in London and being lodged at Lord Craven's house in Drury Lane.
Doyle's Official Baronage of England (1886), the Complete Peerage of G.
His colonial ancestors held official positions in the civil and military service of Virginia.
His official duties, however, did not interfere with the prosecution of scientific pursuits, and in 1779 he was elected a fellow of the Royal Society.
Official receptions are held on it, and private visits paid; friends congratulate one another, and presents are given; new clothes are put on, and the graves of relatives are visited.
His first official appointment was that of under-secretary of state for foreign affairs, in the administration formed by Sir Robert Peel in 1841 - his chief being the earl of Aberdeen.
The official surname of Antiochus II., Theos, suggests that he himself had here been the innovator.
The Antigonid dynasty, simpler and saner in its manners, had no official cult of this sort.
The official surnames must not, of course, be confused with the popular nicknames which were naturally not recognized by the court, e.g.
The official portrait by Muytens, engraved by Petit, gives a less convincing impression that an excellent chalk drawing of the head by Gabriel Mattei.
The process was a simple one: any cardinal, nobleman or official who was known to be rich would be accused of some offence; imprisonment and perhaps murder followed at once, and then the confiscation of his property.
The United States Geographic Board acts upon rules practically identical with those indicated, and compiles official lists of place-names, the use of which is binding upon government departments, but which it would hardly be wise to follow universally in the case of names of places outside America.
the Roman Empire at that time was traversed in all directions by roads furnished with mile-stones, that the Agrimensores employed upon such a duty were skilled surveyors, and that the official reports of the commanders of military expeditions and of provincial governors were available, this map, as well as the provincial maps upon which it'was based, must have been a work of superior excellence, the loss of which is much to be regretted.
authors is assumed to have been the official map of the Roman Empire, but if we compare the crude outline given to the Mediterranean with the more correct delineation of Ptolemy, who was certainly in a position to avail himself of these official sources, such an assumption is untenable.
A geological map of France on a scale of I: 80,000 is nearly completed, there are also a map (1: 500,000) by Carez and Vasseur, and an official Carte geologique (1: i,000,000; 1906).
There are in addition an official map of India (1:1,000,000), the first edition of which was published in 1903, as also maps of the great provinces of India, including Burma, all on a scale of 1: 2,827,520, and a variety of physical and statistical maps.
McCarthy (1881-1883), a former official of the Indian survey, which did good work in connexion with the determination of the FrancoSiamese frontier (1906).
The official maps of the other colonies have been compiled by A.
Of the Congo State we have an official map on a scale of 1:1,000,000, published in 1907.
In Argentina an official geographical institute was established in 1879, but neither A.
They also contended that the ministry should possess no official authority or pastoral prerogative, but should merely carry into effect the decisions of majorities in the different meetings.
By this doctrine of Augustine's, the old millennarianism, though not completely extirpated, was at least banished from the official theology.
The Gazette is the official organ of the Kennel Club.
In 1688 the German Friends of Germantown, Philadelphia, raised the first official protest uttered by any religious body against slavery.
They have their own organization, being divided into seven yearly meetings numbering about 20,000 members, but these meetings form no part of the official organization which links London Yearly Meeting with other bodies of Friends on the American continent.
Its official title is " London Yearly Meeting."
For the various protectorates, (I) British - the annual reports issued by the Colonial Office, London; Official History of the Operations in Somaliland, 1901-1904 (2 vols., London, 1907); War Office maps on the scale of I :1,000,000, also sketch map 1:3,000,000 (1907).
(3) Italian protectorate - Somalia italiana,1885-1895 (official " Green Book "); C. Rossetti, Somalia italiana settentrionale, with map (Rome, 1906); U.
In Roman times Brucheum was enlarged by the addition of an official quarter, making up the number of four regiones in all.
The name Piyadassi is the official epithet always used by Asoka in his inscriptions when speaking of himself.
Nor have we the slightest trace of any official interference with Christian burials, such as would render secrecy necessary or desirable.
He speaks of his poor circumstances, but from the superscription clarissimus and spectabilis in one MS., he seems to have held a high official position.
In 1766 an official census showed a total population of 5552.
English was made the official language.
PREFECT (prefet), in France, the title of a high official.
The inapplicability of many laws passed for the Peninsula - all of which under a constitutional system would apply to Cuba as to any other province, unless that system be modified - was indeed notorious; and Cuban opinion had repeatedly, through official bodies, protested against laws thus imposed that worked injustice, and had pleaded for special consideration of colonial conditions.
Government, Trade, &c. - The colony of the Bahamas is under a British governor, who is assisted by an executive council of nine members, partly official, partly unofficial; and by a legislative council of nine members nominated by the crown.
Each district has its court of law, where cases are tried by three official judges and two assessors, selected from the leading citizens.
Judged by its influence on Bosnian politics, the Orthodox community was relatively unimportant at the Turkish conquest; and its subsequent growth is perhaps due to the official recognition of the Greek Church, as the representative of Christianity in Turkey.
Asboth, An Official Tour through Bosnia and Herzegovina (London, 1890) is.
Agriculture and Commerce: annual British consular reports, and the official Ergebnisse der Viehzahlungen (1879 and 1895), and Landwirtschaft in Bosnien and Herzegovina (1899).
The chief official publications are in German.
The downfall of the Moslem aristocracy resulted in an important administrative change: Serajevo, which had long been the commercial centre of the country, and the jealously guarded stronghold of the nobles, superseded Travnik as the official capital, and the residence of the vali.
"LENIN (originally OuLIANOV), Vladimir Ilich (1870-), Russian Communist leader, was born in Simbirsk in 1870, his father being an official of middle rank - a district inspector of schools.
It really, however, had the effect of centralizing the whole power of the country more absolutely than ever in the sultan's hands, since the Valis were wholly in his undisputed power, while the ex officio official members of the local councils secured a perpetual Mussulman majority.
The official budget shows a credit for admiralty expenditure of £TI,000,327, which is apparently less than that for the previous year by some ET220,000.
Every village or town district has a kind of mayor (mukhtar) appointed by election and approved by the official provincial authorities, and a " council of ancients " whose members are elected directly.
The official authorities provide lists of all the taxes to be collected to the tahsildars, who hand them, against formal receipt, to the kabz-i-mals.
The tahsildars check the accounts of the kabz-i-mals, and, if they discover peculation, send them at once to be dealt with by the chief official authorities of the Gaza (department); all the electors of a mukhtar are, ipso facto, joint sureties for him.
None of the above regulations apply to Constantinople, where no military exemption tax is imposed, and where separate official regulations for the collection of taxes are in force.
£T30,270,246 370,520 883,160 550,180 from the farmers, who, on the other hand, are entitled to full official assistance to enforce their rights.
The first class contains such revenues as the emlak verghi-si (duty on realty), `ashar (tithes), temettu (professional tax), &c. In all such cases the taxable values are fixed by a commission of experts, sometimes chosen by the tax-payers themselves, sometimes by the official authorities; in all cases both tax-payers and authorities are represented on the commissions, whose decisions may be appealed against, in last resort, to the council of state at Constantinople, whose decision is final.
No part of the subterranean working of a mine may be abandoned without official permission obtained according to formalities specified in the law.
When, on the death of Cantacuzenus, John Palaeologus remained sole occupant of the imperial throne, Murad declared war against him and conquered the country right up to Adrianople; the capture of this city, the second capital of the emperors, was announced in official letters to the various Mussulman rulers by Murad.
By this treaty the annual tribute payable by Austria was abolished, but an indemnity of 200,000 florins was paid "once for all " by the emperor, who was henceforth to be given his proper imperial title (padishah) in Turkish official documents.
Janissaries and the suppression of the quasi-indepen dent power of the derebeys had removed the worst disturbing elements; the government had been centralized; a series of enactments had endeavoured to secure economy in the administration, to curb the abuses of official power, and ensure the impartiality of justice; and the sultan had even expressed his personal belief in the principle of the equality of all, Mussulman and non-Mussulman, before the law.
Such foundations had been created from the earliest times, and the execution of the testator's wishes was generally left to his descendants, under the supervision of some high official designated in the act of endowment.
A regular hierarchical order was elaborated for the official classes, both civil and military, whereby the rank of each person was clearly defined.
The Kurds, the constant oppressors of that people, had received official recognition and almost complete immunity from the control o f the civil law by being formed into a Y g eo Y manry frontier-guard known as the Hamidian cavalry.
Strife then arose between the committee and the Liberal Union, a body which mainly represented the Christian electorate, and on the 5th of April Hassan Fehmi Effendi, who edited the Serbesti, the official organ of the union, was assassinated.
Official Publications and Collections of Treaties: Sir E.
He is second only to the governor or vali pasha in power, and indeed his influence is often greater than that of the official ruler of the vilayet.
More than two-thirds of the population are Moslems, mostly Shi`as, with the exception of the official classes.
With the capture of the city by the Mongols, under Hulagu (Hulaku), the grandson of Jenghiz Khan, in 1258, and the extinction of the Abbasid caliphate of Bagdad, its importance as the religious centre of Islam passed away, and it ceased to be a city of the first rank, although the glamour of its former grandeur still clung to it, so that even to-day in Turkish official documents it is called the "glorious city."
In 1869 he resigned his see, but continued to live at the official residence at Farnham until his death on the 1 5th of August 1874.
As in the rest of Indo-China, there is no hereditary nobility, but there exist castes founded on blood relationship - the members of the royal family within the fifth degree (the Brah-Vansa) those beyond the fifth degree (BrahVan), and the Bakou, who, as descendants of the ancient Brahmans, exercise certain official functions at the court.
In the 10th century Buddhism, which had existed for centuries in Cambodia, began to become powerful and to rival Brahmanism, the official religion.
The Convention published a Prods-verbal of its sessions, which, although lacking the value of those published by assemblies to-day, is an official document of capital importance.
He often accompanied his father on his official visits to the lighthouses of the Scottish coast and on longer journeys, thus early accustoming himself to travel.
He had edited in 188g The Lambeth Conferences, an historical account of the conferences of 1867, 1878 and 1888, giving the official reports and.
But he retained the possession of his wife's dowerlands in Champagne, and is described in an official document of Champagne so late as the year 1287, as "the Count Edmund."
Though a foreigner, he soon acquired a thorough knowledge of Rumanian, and was instrumental in helping to introduce that language into the church as its official language.
The counts, of course, as over-lords, had their Vogt (advocatus) in the town, but this official, as the city grew in power, became subordinate to the Rath, as at Lubeck.
There are many valuable official publications which may be consulted, among these being: Statistik des hamburgischen Staates (1867-1904); Hamburgs Handel and Schiffahrt (1847-1903); the yearly Hamburgischer Staatskalender; and Jahrbuch der Hamburger wissenschaftlichen Anstalten.
In an age when, with the evolution of the feudal organization cf society, even everyday costume was becoming a uniform, symbolizing in material and colour the exact status of the wearer, it was natural that in the parallel organization of the Church the official vestments should undergo a similar process of differentiation and definition.
With the help of the official vote of ministers the Dutch were thus able to have a perpetual majority.
The attempt of the king to enforce the official use of the Dutch language, and the foundation of the so-called philosophical college at Louvain helped to exacerbate the growing discontent.
Vilbouchevitch); Herbert Wright, Hevea brasiliensis or Para Rubber (Colombo, 1908); Rubber in the East: the official account of the Ceylon Rubber Exhibition, 1906, edited by J.
The word apanage is still employed in this sense in French official texts of some Customs; but it was in old public law that it received its definite meaning and importance.
Kaufmann as follows 2: These figures are somewhat under-estimated, but the official figures are still lower, especially for Tomsk.
An official newspaper is published in the Yoruba and English languages.
8) and other authors, the official and administrative language used the word Africa in a narrower sense, which is noticed below.
The official preparation is an ointment which contains one part of the alkaloid in fifty.
Pop. 8000 and upward, about one-tenth Christians; except in the official classes, there are no Turks.
When the control of the courts passed into the hands of the property equites, all who were summoned to undertake the duties of judices were called equites; the ordo judicum (the official title) and the ordo equester were regarded as identical.
Certain official posts, of which it would have been inadvisable to deprive senators, could thus be bestowed upon the promoted equites..
Effects of the World War.-The losses suffered by Latvia from evacuation, war, occupation, invasion and Bolshevik rule almost ruined her beyond hope; the official statistician Skuieneeks estimated in 1920 that it would take 50 years to bring her back to the pre-war level.
sacristan) being merely the title which he bore as an official of the great parish church of Haarlem.
His design was frustrated by the establishment of and his official connexion with the Ecole Normale, and the Ecole Polytechnique.
Bonaparte, who styled him "la haute pyramide des sciences mathematiques," loaded him with personal favours and official distinctions.
The Moniteur, which became the official journal of the state in 1800, was placed under his control.
3 French was the official language throughout, but the parties were allowed to make any communication to the tribunal, in French, English, German or Japanese.
4 French was again the official language, but the counsel and agents of both parties were allowed to address the tribunal in English.
The protocols and the judgment were drawn up in French accompanied by an official English translation.
The designation comes thus developed into a formal official title of high officers of state, some qualification being added to indicate the special duties attached to the office in each case.
An important official of the second rank (spectabilis, " respectable" as contrasted with those of highest rank who were "illustrious") was the count of the East, who appears to have had the control of a department in which 600 officials were engaged.
the Bavarian on Castrucio de' Antelminelli, duke of Lucca, and his heirs male, was official as well as honorary, being charged with the attendance and service to be performed at the palace at the emperor's coronation at Rome (Du Cange, s.v.
A relic of the old official meaning of "count" still survives in Transylvania, where the head of the political administration of the Saxon districts is styled count (comes, Graf) of the Saxon Nation.
- The process by which the official counts were transformed into feudal vassals almost independent is described in the article Feudalism.
In Germany the change from the official to the territorial and hereditary counts followed at the outset much the same course as in France, though the later development of the title and its meaning was different.
By the second half of the 12th century the official character of the count had quite disappeared; he had become a territorial noble, and the foundation had been laid of territorial sovereignty (Landeshoheit).
As a god who gave victory, he was prominent in the official cult of Persia, the seventh month and the sixteenth day of other months being sacred to him.
The export in 1905 was 10,820,604 bags of 132 lb each, with an official valuation of £21,420,330.
The total number of colonists and immigrants entering Brazil between 1804 and 1902, inclusive, according to official returns, was 2,208,353.
4 The Brazilian official titles are given for the state capitals: Belem for Para; Sao Luiz for Maranhao; Sao Salvador for Bahia; and Recife for Pernambuco.
They were grouped in the official reports of 1905 as follows Government lines (21): Private and state lines operated by virtue of state concessions, with and without interest guarantees (49) .
Coffee and rubber, however, represent from 80 to 90% of the official valuation of all exports.
According to a summary for the six years 1901 to 1906, derived from official sources and published in the annual Retrospecto of the Jornal do Commercio, of Rio de Janeiro, the values of the imports and exports for those years (exclusive of coin), reduced to pounds sterling at the average rate of exchange (or value of one milreis) for each year, were as follows: - Nearly 761% of the exports of 1906 were of coffee and rubber, the official valuations of these being: coffee 2 45,474,5 2 5 milreis gold (27,615,884), and rubber (including manigoba and mangabeira), 12 4,941,433 milreis gold (£14,055,911).
To illustrate the comparative productiveness and relationship of these sources of national wealth and industry, the following official returns of export for the years 1905 and 1906 are arranged in the four general classes previously discussed, the values being in Brazilian gold milreis, worth 2s.
He may be impeached before the senate for his official acts and suspended from office, or tried by the supreme tribunal for criminal offences.
in 1808 broke down some of these restrictions, and the first year of his residence in Rio de Janeiro saw the establishment of the first printing press in Brazil and the publication of an official gazette.
In no country, perhaps, has the press exercised a more direct and powerful influence upon government than in Brazil, and in no other country can there be found so high a percentage of journalists in official life.
The gold and currency receipts and expenditures for the six years 1900 to 1905, inclusive, according to official returns, were as follows: - Reducing gold to a currency basis at 15d.
per milreis (the official valuation adopted in 1906), the budget for 1907 provided for a revenue of 353,590,593 milreis and an expenditure of 409,482,284 milreis, showing a deficit of 55,891,691 milreis.
Disturbances then broke out in Rio Grande do Sul, in consequence of disputes between the official party and the people living in the country districts.
In July 1899 President Roca had visited Rio de Janeiro accompanied by an Argentine squadron, this being the first official visit that any South American president had ever paid to one of the adjoining states.
Having worked first as a mason and then as a compositor, he joined P. Dubois in the foundation of Le Globe which became in 1831 the official organ of the Saint-Simonian community, of which he became a prominent member.
The Royal Institution, in the Doric style, surmounted by a colossal stone statue of Queen Victoria by Sir John Steell, formerly furnished official accommodation for the Board of Trustees for Manufactures and the Board of Fishery, and also for the school of art, and the libraries and public meetings of the Royal Society (founded in 1783), and the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland (founded in 1780).
The reader is the only minor official mentioned by Tertullian (Praescr.
It corresponds to the form by which, e.g., a Roman official was put in possession of his magistracy.
Prior to 1899 the jurisdiction of the port was in the hands of a marine board, three members of which were elected by the shipping interest, and the remaining four nominated by the government, but in that year the board was replaced by a single official, known as the superintendent of the department of navigation and responsible to the colonial secretary.
The number of half-castes is remarkably small, at the census of 1904 the number of " mixed and others," which The following is the official estimate of the population on the 31st of December 1908: Europeans 91,443, natives 998,264 (including 7386 " mixed and others "), Asiatics 116,679; total 1,206,386.
To all these requests no official answer was returned.
The leader of the party which sought responsible government was Sir John Robinson (1839-1903) who had gone to Natal in 1850, was a leading journalist in the colony, had been a member of the legislative council since 1863, and had filled various official positions.
See also the official Statistical Year Book.
Bird, The Annals of Natal, 1 495 to 1845 (2 vols., Maritzburg, 1888), a work of permanent value, consisting of official records, &c.; Shepstone, Historic Sketch of Natal (1864).
Thomism, which was destined to become the official philosophy of the Roman Catholic Church, became in the first instance the accepted doctrine of the Dominican order, who were presently joined in this allegiance by the Augustinians.
Had he been inspired with personal ambition, he might have entered upon the race of political advancement with the prospect of attaining the highest official prizes.
But he preferred keeping himself at liberty to serve his countrymen unshackled by official ties, and declined the invitation.
After a careful investigation of the official documents, Cobden became convinced that those were utterly unrighteous proceedings.
These statesmen expressed in general terms their approval of his purpose, but he went entirely on his own account, clothed at first with no official authority.
The House of Representatives consists of members elected, under the Electoral Law of 1874, by a complicated franchise based upon property, taxation, profession or official position, and ancestral privileges.3 The house consists of 453 members, of which 413 are deputies elected in Hungary and 43 delegates of Croatia-Slavonia sent by the parliament of that province.
The official language is Magyar, but the delegates of CroatiaSlavonia may use their own language.
The administration of the municipalities is carried on by an official appointed by the king, aided by a representative body.
The Ishmaelites, the financial experts of the day, were the official mint-masters, treasurers and bankers.
From them, the official guardians of Hungary's safety, he received no help, either during his governorship (1446-1453), or when, in 1454, on the eve of his departure for his last and most glorious campaign, the diet commanded a levee en masse of the whole population in his support.
He re-codified the Hungarian common law; strictly defined the jurisdiction of the whole official hierarchy from the palatine to the humblest village judge; cheapened and accelerated legal procedure, and in an age when might was right did his utmost to protect the weak from the strong.
To Matthias is also due the credit of creating an efficient official class.
The clergy, the chief official class, were naturally less ignorant than the gentry.
In 1784 the Language Edict made German the official language of the common state.
Latin was still to be the official language, but Magyar was now introduced into the university and all the schools.
Two progressive measures of the highest importance were passed by this diet, one making Magyar the official language of Hungary, the other freeing the peasants' holdings from all feudal obligations.
Magyar was now declared to be the language of the schools and the law-courts as well as of the legislature; mixed marriages were legalized; and official positions were thrown open to non-nobles.
Unfortunately his success caused some jealousy in official quarters, and when, in the middle of February 1849, a commander-in-chief was appointed to carry out Kossuth's plan of campaign, that vital appointment was given, not to the man who had made the army what it was, but to a foreigner, a Polish refugee, Count Henrik Dembinski, who, after fighting the bloody and indecisive battle of Ka olna (Feb.
German was the official language.
That it was used also in official documents and ordinances is shown by copies of formularies of oaths, the import of which proves beyond a doubt that the originals belonged 1301- to the reigns of Louis I.
In the Itthon (At Home), by Alois Degre (1877), the tale is made the medium for a satirical attack upon official corruption and Hungarian national vanity; and in the Almok dlmodoja (Dreamer of Dreams), by John Asboth (1878), other national defects are aimed at.
No official record of his consecration can be discovered, but there is no sufficient reason to doubt the fact; and it is certain that during his lifetime he was acknowledged as a canonical bishop both by Roman Catholics and by Protestants.
The drawbridge of London Bridge having been lowered by treachery, Tyler and his followers crossed the Thames; and being joined by thousands of London apprentices, artisans and criminals, they sacked and burnt John of Gaunt's splendid palace of the Savoy, the official residence of the treasurer, Sir Robert Hales, and the prisons of Newgate and the Fleet.
The lower town contains the official buildings and two or three churches, but these are of little interest.
That the Great Powers were so long in according official recognition to the new state was due to purely political reasons connected with the Adriatic dispute.
The official policy of Baron Kallay, for 20 years the administrator of Bosnia, was to taboo the name of Serb in the hope of creating a distinct " Bosnian " nationality.
Baron Paul Rauch, the Magyar nominee as Ban, failed, with all his official apparatus, to secure a single seat for his creatures at the general election of 1908, and therefore proceeded to govern without Parliament, by an elaborate system of administrative pressure, press persecution and espionage.
19 1912 was replaced as Ban by a little known official Mr. Cuvaj, who promptly dissolved the Diet before it had even met, and proceeded to muzzle the press, to close the university and to arrest several prominent politicians.
On Dec. 27 1912 Cuvaj was replaced by a colourless official, Dr. Unkelhausser, who marked time until a fresh candidate for the post of commissary or dictator was forthcoming in the person of Baron Skerlecz (July 23 1913).
During the spring of 1915 the official organ at Sarajevo published list after list of Bosnian-Serb families who were thus declared to have forfeited their citizenship: and many thousands of women and children were driven across the Montenegrin frontier, often with only the clothes in which they stood.
The official recognition accorded to the Pact of Rome by ]vIr.
With the disappearance of the Scythae as an ethnic and political entity, the name of Scythia gives place in its original seat to that of Sarmatia, and is artificially applied by geographers, on the one hand, to the Dobrudzha, the lesser Scythia of Strabo, where it remained in official use until Byzantine times; on the other, to the unknown regions of northern Asia, the Eastern Scythia of Strabo, the "Scythia intra et extra Imaum" of Ptolemy; but throughout classical literature Scythia generally meant all regions to the north and north-east of the Black Sea, and a Scythian (Scythes) any barbarian coming from those parts.
He fought with Bul - garian and Greek guerrilla bands, coming meanwhile in contact with the representatives of the new ideas, and finding in Talaat, the minor telegraph official, a politician after his own heart.
For since the ministers of the Temple at Jerusalem were the aristocracy of the land, and were often, as we know both from the book of Malachi and from the history of the Maccabees, the chief offenders, it is extremely unlikely that they collected for the official services.
The British official History of the War gave the number as 87,000; another calculation, based on the number killed, taken prisoner and surrendered, made the total 90,000.
Each field-cornet, who, with the commandant, was a paid official of the state, was responsible for the arms, equipment and attendance of his commando.
For more detailed study, besides the Transvaal and British official publications (cf.
For the war of 1899-1902, see the British official History of the War in South Africa (4 vols., 1906-1910); " The Times " History of the War in South Africa (7 vols., 1900-1909); C. R.
In Palestine and western Syria, the home of pre-Christian Aramaic dialects, the vernacular Semitic speech had under Roman dominion been replaced by Greek for official and literary purposes.
7 0 5-7 1 5) who, out of hatred to Christianity, replaced Greek by Arabic as the language of official documents at Damascus.
The well-known legend of the correspondence of Abgar Ukkama, king of Edessa, with Christ and the mission of Addai to Edessa immediately after the Ascension was accepted as true by the historian Eusebius (f340) on the faith of a Syriac document preserved in the official archives of the city.
3 The adoption of Christianity by Constantine as the official religion of the Roman Empire had an unfortunate effect on the position of the Christians in Persia.
This office he actually held for the long period of forty-two years; and it was in this official capacity that he wrote the Histoire du renouvellement del' Academie des Sciences (Paris, 3 vols., 1708, 1717, 1722) containing extracts and analyses of the proceedings, and also the -loges of the members, written with great simplicity and delicacy.
For a long time, too, sanctus was an official title, particularly reserved for bishops (v.
The count palatine of the Rhine was a royal official who is first mentioned in the 10th century.
Throughout Egyptian history the official costume was conventionalized, and the latest kings and even the Roman emperors are arrayed like their predecessors of the IVth Dynasty.
' The relations between sacerdotal and civic authority may be seen in the vestments of the church (chasuble, alb, stole), which probably were once the official garments of magistrates.
In the cinctus Gabinus, which was the fashion adopted in early times when fighting was in prospect, the end of the toga was drawn tightly round the waist and formed a kind of girdle; this was retained in certain official functions, such as the opening of the emple of Janus in historical times.
The mandarinate or official class is recruited from all ranks of the people by competitive examination.
The education of a mandarin includes local history, cognizance of the administrative rites, customs, laws and prescriptions of the country, the ethics of Confucius, the rules of good breeding, the ceremonial of official and social life, and the practical acquirements necessary to the conduct of public or private business.
But the character being ideographic, the words which express them are dissimilar in the two languages, and official text is read in Chinese by a Chinese, in Annamese by an Annamese.
He was admitted into the intimacy of young men of the best families, such as Scipio, Laelius and Furius Philus; and he enjoyed the favour of older men of literary distinction and official position.
m., according to official calculations.
The lowest temperatures recorded in official reports are those of Mucuchies, in the state of Merida, where the maximum is 68°, the minimum 43° and the mean 56°.
The official Handbook of Vene- zuela for 1904 estimated the population for the preceding year as 2,663,671.
An official work (Veloz Goiticoa, Venezuela, Washington, 1904)1904) gives the number of coffee trees in Venezuela as 250,000,000 belonging to 33,000 estates; the output was 42,806 tons in 1907.
There are few manufacturing industries in Venezuela, and these usually of the parasitic type, created by official favour and protected by high tariffs on imports in competition.
The official budget returns for 1904-6 show the revenues and expenditures to have been 1904.
In 1908 (July 31) the total debt of Venezuela (according to official returns) consisted of the following items: The currency of Venezuela is on a gold basis, the coinage of silver and nickel is restricted, and the state issues no paper notes.
Official nominees are as a rule returned without any opposition, the details of the voting having been previously arranged by the local authorities in conformity with instructions from headquarters.
Zeitschrift (1898), pp. 601-617; and (the official) Der Elbstrom (1900); B.
To the official support, which never failed him, Damasus endeavoured to join the popular sympathy.
Taking all the evidence into consideration it seems more probable that Map had, at a comparatively early date, before he became so important an official, composed a poem on the subject of Lancelot, which was the direct source of the German version, and which Chretien also knew and followed.
Yet he is, like Nicias and Phocion, the official man, head of a board of fifteen generals, which he persuades the people to cut down to three.
For a few months indeed Lamartine, from being a distinguished man of letters, an official of inferior rank in diplomacy, and an eloquent but unpractical speaker in parliament, became one of the foremost men in Europe.
The date of the discovery of diamonds,, upon which its wealth and importance chiefly depend, is uncertain,, but the official announcement was made in 1729, and in the following year the mines were declared crown property, with a crown reservation, known as the "forbidden district," 42 leagues.
But if Lord Rosebery once more separated himself from the official Liberals, his principal henchmen in the Liberal League were included in the cabinet, Mr Asquith becoming chancellor of the exchequer, Sir Edward Grey foreign secretary, and Mr Haldane war minister.
Even Voltaire did not venture to publish this lampoon on a great official of a prince so touchy as the king of Prussia without some permission, and if all tales are true he obtained this by another piece of something like forgery - getting the king to endorse a totally different pamphlet on its last leaf, and affixing that last leaf to Akakia.
At this junction stand the Royal Exchange, the Mansion House (the official residence of the Lord Mayor of London) and the Bank of England, from which this important point in the communications of London is commonly known as " Bank."
The Heralds' College or College of Arms, the official authority in matters of armorial bearings and pedigrees, occupies a building in Queen Victoria Street, City, erected subsequently to the great fire (1683).
No record has been found of the date when the aldermen became the official advisers of the mayor.
Although the official form of "The Mayor and Commune " was continued until the end of the 13th century, and it was not until early in the 14th century that the form " Mayor, Aldermen and Common Council " came into existence, there is sufficient evidence to show that the aldermen and common council before that time were acting with the mayor as governors of the city.
The recorder, the chief official, is appointed for life.
from the Dutch by Bishop Colenso), Cetshwayo's Dutchman (1880); British official Narrative of.
Tyler, Forty Years among the Zulus (Boston, 1891); British official Military Report on Zululand (1906); W.
His father was an official, his mother an Ancillon, distantly related to the Prussian minister of that name.
For a Prussian official to venture to give uncalled-for advice to his sovereign was a breach of propriety not calculated to increase his chances of favour; but it gave Gentz a conspicuous position in the public eye, which his brilliant talents and literary style enabled him to maintain.
This activity gained him recognition abroad and gifts of money from the British and Austrian governments; but it made his position as an official in Berlin impossible, for the Prussian government had no mind to abandon its attitude of cautious neutrality.
Ambitious persons often spent enormous sums in this manner to win the popular favour with a view to official advancement.
In the latter sense, modern usage tends to supersede "officinal" by "official."
ments of custom included in the second division according to the first classification, a great many of the rules entered in collections promulgated by kings; most of the paragraphs of iEthelberht's, Hlothhere's, and Eadric's and Ine's laws, are popular legal customs that have received the stamp of royal authority by their insertion in official codes.
Samas-sum-yukin became more Babylonian than his subjects; the viceroy claimed to be the successor of the monarchs whose empire had once stretched to the Mediterranean; even the Sumerian language was revived as the official tongue, and a revolt broke out which shook the Assyrian empire to its foundations.
Besides the purely literary works there were others of the most varied nature, including collections of letters, partly official, partly private.
In the navy, chaplains are likewise appointed but do not hold official rank.
The etymology of the name, which to a Greek ear meant "swarthy-faced," is unknown, nor can we say why in official inscriptions of the Axumite dynasty the word is used as the equivalent of Habashat (whence the 1 For the topography and later history see Sudan and Abyssinia.
This was a blockhouse built for coast defence by Henry VIII., but became the official residence of the Lords Warden of the Cinque Ports, and was in consequence much altered from its original condition.
It ceased to be the official residence in 1905, when the prince of Wales (afterwards George V.) was appointed Lord Warden, and the public was given access to those rooms which possess historical associations with former holders of the office, such as the duke of Wellington, who died here in 1852, William Pitt and others.
The "official" eulogy he pronounced upon Bishop Jakob P. Mynster (1775-1854) in 1854, brought down upon his head the invectives of the philosopher Soren Kierkegaard.
The news of the failure of the French arms in Belgium gave rise in Paris to popular movements on the 9th and 10th of March 1793, and on the 10th of March, on the proposal of Danton, the Convention decreed that there should be established in Paris an extraordinary criminal tribunal, which received the official name of the Revolutionary Tribunal by a decree of the 29th of October 1793.
On the other hand, the gild merchant was certainly an official organ or department of the borough administration, and it exerted considerable influence upon the economic and corporative growth of the English municipalities.
He had as colleague Franz Gomarus, a strong supralapsarian, perfervid, irrepressible; and their collisions, personal, official, political, tended to develop and define their respective positions.
No laboratories were accessible to ordinary students, who had to content themselves with what the universities could give in the lectureroom and the library, and though both at Bonn and Erlangen Liebig endeavoured to make up for the deficiencies of the official instruction by founding a students' physical and chemical society for the discussion of new discoveries and speculations, he felt that he could never become a chemist in his own country.
The poor landowner, likely to lose all that he had from one kind of oppression or another, went to the great landowner, his neighbour, whose position gave him immunity from attack or the power to prevent official abuses, and begged to be protected.
The dynasty accepted Judaism (c. 740), but there was equal tolerance for all, and each man was held amenable to the authorized code and to the official judges of his own faith.
Educated at Meung and at Angers, he entered the Benedictine abbey of Bourgueil, and in 1079 became abbot of this place, but his time was devoted to literary pursuits rather than to his official duties.
From 1826 to 1837 he edited the Hartford Times, making it the official organ of the Jacksonian Democracy in southern New England.
In 1883 the new situation under the French protectorate was recognized by the British government withdrawing its consular jurisdiction in favour of the French courts, and in 1885 it ceased to be represented by a diplomatic official.
Owing to the export tax on rubber (8 cents per kilogram on jebe and 5 cents on caucho) it is probable that the official statistics do not cover the total production, which was returned as 2539 metric tons in 1905, valued at £913,989.
The number of mining claims (pertenencias) registered in 1907 was 12,858, according to official returns, each subject to a tax of 30 soles, or £3, per annum, the payment of which secures complete ownership of the property.
The vice-presidents cannot be candidates for the presidency during their occupancy of the supreme executive office, nor can the ministers of state, nor the generalin-chief of the army, while in the exercise of their official duties.
The French metric system is the official standard of weights and measures and is in use in the custom-houses of the republic and in foreign trade, but the old units are still commonly used among the people.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.