The next morning the caliph called ten of his officers before him.
Behind her throne stood the twenty-eight officers of her army and many officials of the royal household.
Then one of the officers, who was sitting near the poet, cried out: Stop!
Two uniformed officers nearby turned their heads.
Corporations are run by "officers," comprised of multiple "divisions," and set revenue "targets."
Corday nodded to the others who slowly left the room until he and Fitzgerald were the only two officers remaining.
The governor appoints, subject to the consent of a majority of the members elected to the Senate, all officers whose appointment or election is.
Assistant Director Summerfield announced to the press at the height of the search, more than two hundred officers and volunteers were involved.
He started to say something but both of the accompanying officers all but pushed him out the door.
All other officers and officials he appoints and promotes without the consent of the senate.
He courageously aided the escape of Youssouff, pursued by the soldiers of the bey, of whom he was one of the officers, for violation of the seraglio law.
The former Royal Dockyard was made over to the War Office in 1872 and converted into stores, wharves for the loading of troopships, &c. The Royal Artillery Barracks, facing Woolwich Common, originally erected in 1775, has been greatly extended at different times, and consists of six ranges of Brick building, including a church in the Italian Gothic style erected in 1863, a theatre, and a library in connexion with the officers' mess-room.
The administrative officers of the state are a governor, a lieutenantgovernor, a secretary of state, a state treasurer, and an auditor of accounts, elected by popular vote, and an inspector of finance, a commissioner of taxes, a superintendent of education, a fish and game commissioner, three railroad commissioners, and various boards and commissions, of whom some are elected by the General Assembly and some are appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the Senate.
The judges of the supreme court are elected biennially by tine General Assembly, and all the other judicial officers are elected by the people.
I was brought before a court of investigation composed of the teachers and officers of the Institution, and Miss Sullivan was asked to leave me.
TO THE CHIEFS OF THE DEPARTMENTS AND OFFICERS IN CHARGE OF BUILDINGS AND EXHIBITS
Like all infantry officers he wore no mustache, so that his mouth, the most striking feature of his face, was clearly seen.
Kutuzov walked through the ranks, sometimes stopping to say a few friendly words to officers he had known in the Turkish war, sometimes also to the soldiers.
Jonathan Winston accepted the thanks of the officers with his usual grace and dignity.
In Jerusalem itself the subordinate officers of the temple were not members of a holy gild, but of the royal body-guard, or bond-slaves who had access to the sacred courts, and might even be uncircumcised foreigners (Josh.
His officers and great men shook their heads.
In the prolonged discussions regarding the Bill of Indemnity he was instrumental in saving the life of Haselrig, and opposed the clause compelling all officers who had served under Cromwell to refund their salaries, he himself never having had any.
"And how do you get on with the officers?" inquired Zherkov.
It must have worked, because his trainees were some of the best officers.
It is of course quite possible that isolated cases of officers being put to death for their faith occurred during Maximinian's reign, and on some such cases the legend may have grown up during the century and a half between Maximinian and Eucherius.
It gives name to a school of gunnery, where officers are instructed and experiments carried out.
The most attractive parts are the American quarter, where the employes of the Panama railway have their homes, and the old French quarter, where dwelt the French officers during their efforts to build the canal.
The Senate elects a president, confirms or rejects the nominations of the governor, and acts as a court of impeachment for the trial of public officers, besides sharing in legislative functions.
The judicial powers of the county court are confined to probate, the appointment of executors, administrators and other personal representatives, and the settlement of their accounts, matters relating to apprentices and to contested elections for county and district officers.
Other officers are the clerk of the county court, elected for six years, the sheriff, who also acts as tax-collector and treasurer, the prosecuting attorney, one or two assessors, the surveyor of lands and the superintendent of free schools, all elected for the term of four years; the sheriff may not serve two consecutive full terms. In addition there are boards appointed or elected by various authorities and charged with specific duties.
Pierpont was chosen governor of Virginia, other officers were elected and the convention adjourned.
All the officers of administration were transferred from Murshidabad to Calcutta, which Hastings boasted at this early date that he would make the first city in Asia.
He signalized his accession by putting to death his brothers and nephews; and gave early proof of resolution by boldly cutting down before their troops two officers who showed signs of insubordination.
Outside the dockyard are the residences of the admiral of the home fleet and other officers, and barracks.
Behind the College is the Royal Hospital School, where woo boys, sons of petty officers and seamen, are boarded.
And now in all the Greek cities of Aeolis and Ionia the oligarchies or tyrants friendly to Persia fell, and democracies were established under the eye of Alexander's officers.
With the sanction and under the guidance of the Apostles, officers called elders and deacons were appointed in every newly-formed church.'
elders or bishops, are the highest permanent officers in the Church and are of equal rank; (3) that an outward and visible Church is one in the sense that a smaller part is controlled by a larger and all the parts by the whole.'9 Though Presbyterians are unanimous in adopting the general system of church polity as here outlined, and in claiming New 1 Phil.
They were unanimous in adopting the idea of a church in which all the members were priests under the Lord Jesus, the One High Priest and Ruler; the officers of which were not mediators between men and God, but preachers of One Mediator, Christ Jesus; not lords over God's heritage, but ensamples to the flock and ministers to render service.
In 1581 the Middelburg Synod divided the Church, created provincial synods and presbyteries, but could not shake off the civil power in connexion with the choice of church officers.
Its main features were strictly Presbyterian, but the minister was greatly superior to the elder, and the state had wide powers especially in the nomination of higher officers.
The congregation chooses all the officers, and these form a church council.
The staff officers bore similar titles, relics of the time when the order existed only for amusement: Genii, Hydras, Furies, Goblins, Night Hawks, Magi, Monks and Turks.
The president, with the advice and consent of the senate, appoints judges, diplomatic agents, governors of territories, and officers of the army and navy above the rank of colonel.
A military school, with 125 cadets, is maintained at San Martin, near the national capital, and a training school for non-commissioned officers in the capital itself.
In 1906 the president announced that permission had been given by the German emperor for 30 Argentine officers to enter the German army each year and to serve eighteen months, and also for five officers to attend the Berlin Military Academy.
There are about 320 officers in active service, and the total personnel ranges from 5000 to 6000 men.
On the 13th of February 1880, the minister of war, Dr Carlos Pellegrini, summoned the principal officers connected with the Tiro Nacional, General Bartolome Mitre, his brother Emilio, Colonel Julio Campos, Colonel Hilario Lagos and others, and warned them that as officers of the national army they owed obedience to the national government, and would be severely punished if concerned in any revolutionary outbreak against the constituted authorities.
The reply to this threat was the immediate resignation of their commissions by all the officers connected with the Tiro Nacional.
A number of officers of the army and navy agreed to lend assistance to a revolutionary outbreak, and towards the end of July 1893 matters came to a head.
In 1906 the peace strength of the army in France was estimated at 532,593 officers and men; in Algeria 54,580; in Tunis 20,320; total 607,493.
The general staff and also the staff of the corps and divisions are composed of_certificated (breveUs) officers who have passed all through the Ecole de Guerre.
The officers of the army are obtained partly from the oldestablished military schools, partly from the ranks of the noncommissioned officers, the proportion of the latter being about one-third of the total number of officers.
of non-commissioned officers for commissions in the infantry, cavalry, artillery and engineers respectively.
The non-commissioned officers are, as usual in universal service armies, drawn partly from men who voluntarily enlist at a relatively early age, and partly from men who at the end of their compulsory period of service are re-engaged.
The medaille militaire is awarded to private soldiers and non-commissioned officers who have distinguished themselves or rendered long and meritorious services.
The ordnance department of the navy is carried on by a large detachment of artillery officers and artificers provided by the war office for this special duty.
The chief naval school is the Ecole navale at Brest, which is devoted to the training of officers; the age of admission is from fifteen to eighteen years, and pupils after completing their course pass a year on a frigate school.
At Paris there is a more advanced school (Ecole superieure de la Marine) for the supplementary training of officers.
He rallied the Bulgarian army, now deprived of its Russian officers, to resist the Servian invasion, and after a brilliant victory at Slivnitza (November 19) pursued King Milan into Servian territory as far as Pirot, which he captured (November 27).
The Sicilian and Neapolitan contingents were commanded by the marquess of Santa Cruz, and Cardona, Spanish officers.
In 1613 he led a large army against his persecutor, on whose murder by two of his officers that year Bethlen was placed on the throne by the Porte, in opposition to the wishes of the emperor, who preferred a prince who would incline more towards Vienna than towards Constantinople.
They were naval or military officers in command of the garrison, the convicts and the few free settlers.
Opposite the barracks is the memorial to the officers and men of the Royal Artillery who fell in the Crimean War, a bronze figure of Victory cast out of cannon captured in the Crimea.
Women have the right to vote in all elections relating to schools and school officers in cities, towns and graded school districts, and also the right to be elected to any local school position or to the office of township clerk.
Shortly afterwards he joined Essex with sixty horse, and was present at Edgehill, where his troop was one of the few not routed by Rupert's charge, Cromwell himself being mentioned among those officers who "never stirred from their troops but fought till the last minute."
In May he defeated a greatly superior royalist force at Grantham, proceeding afterwards to Nottingham in accordance with Essex's plan of penetrating into Yorkshire to relieve the Fairfaxes; where, however, difficulties, arising from jealousies between the officers, and the treachery of John Hotham, whose arrest Cromwell was instrumental in effecting, obliged him to retire again to the association, leaving the Fairfaxes to be defeated at Adwalton Moor.
Cromwell chose his own troops, both officers and privates, from the" religious men,"who fought not for pay or for adventure, but for their faith.
Cromwell soon restored order, and the representative council, including privates as well as officers chosen to negotiate with the parliament, was subordinated to the council of war.
In a letter to the city, possibly written by Cromwell himself, the officers repudiated any wish to alter the civil government or upset the establishment of Presbyterianism, but demanded religious toleration.
He reproached the soldiers for their insubordination against their officers, and the army for its rebellion against the parliament.
Cromwell had no patience with formal pedantry of this sort; and in point of strict legality "The Rump" of the Long Parliament had little better title to authority than the officers who expelled it from the House.
This was the "Little" or "Barebones Parliament," consisting of one hundred and forty persons selected by the council of officers from among those nominated by the congregations in each county, which met on the 4th of July 1653.
On the 23rd of February 1657 the Remonstrance offering Cromwell the crown was moved by Sir Christopher Packe in the parliament and violently resisted by the officers and the army party, one hundred officers waiting upon Cromwell on the 27th to petition against his acceptance of it.
On the 25th of lvIarch the Remonstrance, now termed the Petition and Advice, and including a new scheme of government, was passed by a majority of 123 to 62 in spite of the opposition of the officers; and on the 31st it was presented to Cromwell in the Banqueting House at Whitehall whence Charles I.
On the 8th of May about thirty officers presented a petition to parliament against the revival of the monarchy, and Fleetwood, Desborough and Lambert threatened to lay down their commissions.
It was only when five years had passed since the death of the king without any "settlement of the nation" being arrived at, that Cromwell at last accepted a constitution drafted by his military officers, and attempted to impose it on the parliament.
He was chosen emperor in his forty-third year by the officers of the army at Nicaea in Bithynia in 364, and shortly afterwards named his brother Valens colleague with him in the empire.
Hence the following appliance was worked out by Lieutenant Solari and officers in the Italian navy.
With the help of a strong detachment of officers and men from the Atlantic coast he equipped a squadron consisting of one brig, six fine schooners and one sloop. Other vessels were laid down at Presque Isle (now Erie), where he concentrated the Lake Erie fleet in July.
All salaried 220,479 165,144 government officials (except minis ters, under-secretaries of state and other high functionaries, and officers 210,020 347,940 in the army or navy), and ecclesiastics, -, are disqualified for election.
Officers 14,070 22,482 36,739 36,718
Including officers on special service or in the reserve.
In 1915 the field army should, including officers and permanent cadres, be about 1,012,000 strong.
The personnel on active service consisted of 1799 officers and 25,000 men, the former being doubled and the latter trebled since 1882.
The mass of the people remained unrepresented in the government; and even if the consuls existed in the days of Heribert, they were but humble legal officers, transacting business for their constituents in the courts of the bishop and his viscount.
In the republics, as we begin to know them after the war of investitures, government was carried on by officers called consuls, varying in number according to custom and according to the division of the town into districts.
Like all officers created to meet an emergency, the limitations to his power are illdefined, and he is often little better than an autocrat.
The French system of taxation was maintained because it brought in ampler revenues; but feudalism, the antiquated legislation and bureaucracy were revived, and all the officers and officials still living who had served the state before the Revolution, many of them now in their dotage, were restored to their posts; only nobles were eligible for the higher government appointments; all who had served under the French administration were dismissed pr reduced in rank, and in the army beardless scions of the aristocracy were placed over the, heads of war-worn veterans who had commanded regiments in Spain and Russia.
When Ferdinand returned to Naples in 1815 he found the kingdom, and especially the army, honeycombed with CarbonarQevolu- ism, to which many noblemen and officers were tiot, if, affiliated; and although the police instituted prosecuNaples, tions and organized the counter-movement of the 1820.
liberationist movement; a military mutiny led by two officers, Silvati and Morelli, and the priest Menichini, broke out at Monteforte, to the cry of God, the King, and the Constitution!
The rebels were captured and shot, but the significance of the attempt lies in the fact that it was the first occasion on which north Italians (the Bandieras were Venetians and officers in the Austrian navy) had tried to raise the standard of revolt in the south.
first caused no difficulty; the rank and file of the nd were mostly disbanded, but a number of the officers tee: 1 taken into the Italian army; the third offered a more)Us problem.
Garibaldi demanded that all his officers should be n equivalent rank in the Italian army, and in this he had the port of Fanti.
The French regular troops were withdrawn from Rome in December 1866; but the pontifical forces were largely recruited in France and commanded by officers of the imperial army, and service under the pope was considered by the French war office as equivalent to service in France.
On the following day, however, the Abyssinians succeeded in surprising, near the village of Dogali, an Italian force of 524 officers and men under Colonel De Cristoforis, who were convoying provisions to the garrison of Saati.
Four hundred and seven men and twenty-three officers were killed outright, and one officer and eighty-one men wounded.
the 17th of July 1894, and garrisoned the place with native levies under Italian officers.
Toselli and all but three officers and 300 men fell at their posts after a desperate resistance.
The acceptance by the powers of the Murzsteg programme and the appointment of Austrian and Russian financial agents in Macedonia was an advantage for Austria and a set-back for Italy; hut the latter scored a success in the appointment of General de Giorgis as commander of the international Macedonian gendarmerie; she also obtained, with the support of Great Britain, France and Russia, the assignment of the partly Albanian district of Monastir to the Italian officers of that corps.
However the authorities had been informed of the plot, probably by one of the conspirators named George Edwards; officers appeared upon the scene and arrested some of the conspirators; and although Thistlewood escaped in the confusion he was seized on the following day.
declared that the sheriffs and other officers of the king must not hold the pleas of the crown.
Two able officers, Colebrooke of the Bengal Engineers, and Blair of the sea service, were sent to survey and report.
Here it is used, in the limited sense defined by an American Court, as " the authority by which judicial officers take cognizance of and decide causes."
It would seem that, in the intervals of persecution, some rights of property were recognized in the Christian Church and its officers; although the Church was an illegal society.
In France, where the bishop was a temporal baron, his feudal and his spiritual courts were kept by distinct officers (Fournier, p. 2).
Each bishop is assisted by at least two officers with judicial or quasi-judicial powers, the " archimandrite " who adjudicates upon causes of revenue and the archdeacon who adjudicates on questions between deacons (op. cit.
Spain appointed two accomplished naval officers, the brothers Ulloa, as coadjutors.
He reached Tahiti in October 1788, and in April 1789 a mutiny broke out, and he, with several officers and men, was thrust into an open boat in mid-ocean.
His eldest son Charles (1536-1624), lord admiral of England in 1585, sailed as commander in chief against the Spanish Armada, and, although giving due weight to the counsel of Drake and his other officers, showed himself a leader as prudent as courageous.
A town clerk and other officers were also appointed, and the town boundaries described in great detail.
There is a standing army with a peace strength of about 7000 officers and men.
The deck log book, kept by the officers of the watch, is copied into the ship's log book by the navigating XVI.
The claim of the heralds to make "gentry" depend on the bearing of coat-armour, and the right to this depend on grant or recognition by themselves as officers of the crown, is of comparatively late growth.
The customs service includes British customs officers lent to the Liberian service.
A gunboat for preventive service purchased from the British government and commanded by an Englishman, with native petty officers and crew, is employed by the Liberian government.
In England, the royal almonry still forms a part of the sovereign's household, the officers being the hereditary grand almoner (the marquess of Exeter), the lord high almoner, the sub-almoner, and the secretary to the lord high almoner.
army is one of the principal officers in the war department, the head of the bureau for army correspondence, with the charge of the records, recruiting, issue of commissions, &c. Individual American states also have their own adjutant-general, with cognate duties regarding the state militia.
Other important buildings are the Sobranye, or parliament house, the palace of the synod, the ministries of war and commerce, the university with the national printing press, the national library, the officers' club and several large military structures.
A small -mausoleum contains the remains of Prince Alexander; there are monuments to the tsar Alexander II., to Russia, to the medical officers who fell in the war of 1877 and to the patriot Levsky.
The peace strength of the army is estimated at 42,000 officers and 1,100,000 men (about 950,000 combatants), while the war strength is approximately 75,000 officers and 4,500,000 men.
Here, about 1590, was founded an independent military colony called the Setch, the members of which, recognizing no authority but that of their own elected officers, lived by fishing, hunting and making raids on the Tatars, and were always ready to assist their less fortunate countrymen in resisting Polish aggression.
This naturally caused profound disappointment and dissatisfaction in the liberal section of the educated classes and especially among the young officers of the regiments which had spent some years in western Europe.
Some of these officers had been in touch with the revolutionary movements, and had adopted the idea then prevalent in France, Germany and Italy that the best instrument for assuring political progress was to be found in secret societies.
In the summer of 1891 the visit to Kronstadt of a French squadron under Admiral Gervais was made the occasion for an enthusiastic demonstration in favour of a Franco-Russian alliance; and two years later (October 1893) a still more enthusiastic reception was given to the Russian Admiral Avelan and his officers when they visited Toulon and Paris.
The inspections made by the officers of the Board of Trade under this act are very complete: the permanent way, bridges, viaducts, tunnels and other works are carefully examined; all iron or steel girders are tested; stations, including platforms, stairways, waiting-rooms, &c., are inspected; and the signalling and " interlocking " are thoroughly overhauled.
In these statistics, the third item, " other persons," includes post office and customs officials and other persons connected with the railway service, as well as railway officers and servants off duty.
The Master Car Builders' Association, a great body of mechanical officers organized especially to being about improvement and uniformity in details of construction and operation, expressed its sense of the importance of " self-coupling " so far back as 1874, but no device of the kind that could be considered useful had then been invented.
Civil war immediately ensued, in which several American and British officers and sailors were killed by the natives, the Germans upholding the claims of Mataafa, and the British and Americans supporting the rival candidate.
At the election of 1904 an amendment was adopted which provides that whenever 10% of the voters of the state, as shown by the votes of the last preceding election, express a wish that any law or resolution of the legislature shall be submitted to the people, the Act or Resolve shall be voted on at the next election of the state or county officers, and if a majority of the voters approve the measure it shall stand; otherwise, it shall become void.
The instrument was submitted to a vote of the people and was adopted, and a full set of state officers was chosen.
Moreover, as state officers were to be chosen at the same time that the constitution was voted on, disappointed candidates for party nominations fought against ratification.
As a result, the constitution was rejected while officers to act under it were at the same time duly elected.
They brought to the support of that instrument "the areas of intercourse and wealth" (Libby), the influence of the commercial towns, the greater planters, the army officers, creditors and property-holders generally, - in short, of interests that had felt the evils of the weak government of the Confederation, - and alsc of some few true nationalists (few, because there was as yet no general national feeling), actuated by political principles of centralization independently of motives of expediency and self-interest.
The king stood at the head, as the court of final appeal, and upon him and his officers depended the people's welfare.
Assyrian officers were placed in the land and Judah thus gained its deliverance at the expense of Israel.
Other peoples were introduced, officers were placed in charge, and the usual tribute re-imposed.
" The king's officers who were enforcing the apostasy came into the city of Modein to sacrifice, and many of Israel went over to them, but Mattathias.
In Germany Jews are still rarely admitted to the rank of officers in the army, university posts are very difficult of access, Judaism and its doctrines are denounced in medieval language, and a tone of hostility prevails in many public utterances.
The real ruler and the chief officers of the state were members of the Tupou family, from which also the wife of the Tui Tonga was always chosen, whose descendants through the female line had special honours and privileges, under the title of tamaha, recalling the vasu of Fiji.
Public order is maintained by a force of gendarmerie (xcopoc19vXaKii) organized and at first commanded by Italian officers, who were replaced by Greek officers in December 1906.
In reply to their petition the governor denied that he had made any promise in their behalf; and in September he had at his command a military force of 1153, about one-fourth of whom were officers.
These riotous proceedings provoked the second military expedition of the governor, and on the 16th of May 1771, with a force of about r000 men and officers, he met about twice that number of Regulators on the banks of the Alamance, where, after two hours of fighting, with losses on each side nearly equal, the ammunition of the Regulators was exhausted and they were routed.
His men became panic-stricken at the first rush and allowed themselves to be slaughtered like sheep. Baker himself with a few of his officers succeeded by hard fighting in cutting a way out, but his force was annihilated.
From 1896 to 1898 we find two British cavalry officers taking the front position in the list of Tibetan travellers - Captain M.
The lists of officers, &c., are fuller than those in Samuel, and here and there contain notices of value.
A few great officers of state were appointed at the court of Jerusalem (viii.
His dismissal along with other officers was the occasion of another paper controversy in which Conway was defended by Horace Walpole, and gave rise to much constitutional dispute as to the right of the king to remove military officers for their conduct in parliament - a right that was tacitly abandoned by the Crown when the Rockingham ministry of 1765 reinstated the officers who had been removed.
He had read a pamphlet published in America attacking the proposed order, which was to form a bond of association between the officers who had fought in the American War of Independence against England; the arguments struck him as true and valuable, so he re-arranged them in his own fashion, and rewrote them in his own oratorical style.
The church officers (generally unpaid) comprise bishops (or ministers), elders, teachers, deacons (or visiting brethren) and deaconesses - chiefly aged women who are permitted at times to take leading parts in church services.
The task was no pleasant one, for he had to agree to economies where he considered that more outlay was needed, and he had to disappoint the hopes of the many officers who were left unemployed by the peace.
in 1688, and under this the appointment of officers and other of the corporation, arrangements are to a great extent regulated.
Sivaji and his fighting officers were Mahrattas of humble caste, but his ministers were Brahmans.
During the previous war the peshwa had been the protege and ally of the British; and since the war he had fallen more completely than before under British protection - British political officers and British troops being stationed at his capital.
Nor were their feelings more than half allayed by the arrangement which made their ecclesiastics salaried officers of the Russian state.
The forests of Peak and Duffield had their separate courts and officers, the justice seat of the former being in an extra-parochial part at equal distances from Castleton, Tideswell and Bowden, while the pleas of Duffield Forest were held at Tutbury.
It had six rooms, each about 100 X45 ft., was used as a tobacco warehouse and a ship-chandlery until 1861, and then until the capture of Richmond was used as a prison, chiefly for Federal officers.
Other elective officers are the mayor, city treasurer, city sergeant, commonwealth attorney, city collector, city auditor, sheriff and high constable, elected for four years; and clerks of the various courts elected for eight years.
The city council appoints an attorney for the corporation, a city engineer, a city clerk, a police justice, a board of fire commissioners and a board of police commissioners, one from each ward, who have control of the fire and police departments, respectively, and a number of other officers.
For the present their means were very scanty, and, as the ardent royalism of his brother officers limited his social circle, he plunged into work with the same ardour as before, frequently studying fourteen or fifteen hours a day.
The lack of trained officers was such as to render the employment and advancement of Bonaparte probable in the near future, and on the 30th of August, Servan, the minister for war, issued an order appointing him to be captain in his regiment and to receive arrears of pay.
But an inspection of his antecedents showed the many irregularities of his conduct as officer and led to his name being erased from the list of general officers (September 15th).
The executive powers were placed almost entirely in his hands, as will be seen by the terms of article 41 which defined his functions: "The First Consul promulgates the laws; he appoints and dismisses at will the members of the Council of State, the ministers, the ambassadors and other leading agents serving abroad, the officers of the army and navy, the members of local administrative bodies and the commissioners of government attached to the tribunals.
Its officers were required to obey "the statutes of the teaching body, which have for their object uniformity of instruction, and which tend to form for the state citizens attached to their religion, their prince, their country and their family."
It was organized in fifteen cohorts, each comprising seven grand officers, twenty commanders, thirty officers and 350 legionaries.
Far more lenient was Bonaparte's conduct towards a knot of discontented officers who, in April - May 1802, framed a clumsy plot, known as the "Plot of the Placards," for arousing the soldiery against him.
It was named in honour of President Monroe and was first regularly garrisoned in 1823; in 1824 the Artillery School of Practice (now called the United States Coast Artillery School) was established to provide commissioned officers of the Coast Artillery with instruction in professional work and to give technical instruction to the non-commissioned staff.
On Monday, July 20, at Spithead, there was a great review by the King of the most powerful fleet ever assembled, numbering some 200 vessels in all, manned by 70,000 officers and men.
Mr. Churchill went out to Egypt, and held in Cairo a conference of the British civil and military officers then administering those countries.
See Azel Ames, The May-Flower and Her Log (Boston, 1901); Blanche McManus, The Voyage of the Mayflower (New York, 1897); The General Society of Mayflower: Meetings, Officers and Members, arranged in State Societies, Ancestors and their Descendants (New York, 1901).
For some time he had to hide in Paris from the officers sent by Edward II.
On Seavey's Island Admiral Cervera and other Spanish officers and sailors captured during the SpanishAmerican War were held prisoners in July - September 1898.
As the duties of this council were to appoint all officers of state, including the doge, it is clear that by its creation the aristocracy had considerably curtailed the powers of the people, who had hitherto elected the doge in general assembly; and at the creation of Michiel's successor, Sebastiano Ziani (1172), the new doge was presented to the people merely for confirmation, not for election.
If he die in office, resign or be impeached, the officers standing next in succession are the lieutenant-governor, the president of the Senate, and the speaker of the House of Representatives in the order named.
In March 1786 the second Ohio Company (q.v.), composed chiefly of New England officers and soldiers, was organized in Boston, Massachusetts, with a view to founding a new state between Lake Erie and the Ohio river.
The imperial officers imprisoned him at Vilvorde Castle, the state prison, 6 m.
From very early days executive officers known as " select-men," constables, clerks of markets, hog reeves, packers of meat and fish, &c., were chosen; and the select-men, particularly, gained power as the attendance of the freemen on meetings grew onerous.
The government was vested in the council (1 30uXii) and people (8rl/20s), and administered by civil officers with Greek titles, the proedros (president), the grammateus (secretary), the archons, syndics and dekaprotoi (a fiscal council of ten), following the model of a Greek municipality under the Roman Empire.
He was still in office when the final rising of the Cubans began in February 1895, and he had to resign in March because he could not find superior officers in the army willing to help him to put down the turbulent and disgraceful demonstrations of the subalterns of Madrid garrison against newspapers which had given offence to the military.
On East Rock is a monument to the Connecticut soldiers who fell in the War of Independence, the War of 1812, the Mexican War and the Civil War; on the West Rock is a cave, "Judges' Cave," in which the regicides William Goffe and Edward Whalley are said to have concealed themselves when sought for by royal officers in 1661.
assistants, a secretary and a constable were chosen as the civil officers; annual elections and an annual session of the General Court in the last week of October were agreed upon; English statute and common law were expressly excluded; and the "worde of God was adopted as the onely rule to be attended unto in ordering the affayres of government in this plantation."
Attention has been paid in the West Indies to seed selection, by the officers of the imperial Department of Agriculture, with the object of retaining for West Indian Sea Island cotton its place as the most valuable cotton on the British market.
In 1792 the quantity exported from the United States was only 1 It is related that in the year 1784 William Rathbone, an American merchant resident in Liverpool, received from one of his correspondents in the southern states a consignment of eight bags of cotton, which on its arrival in Liverpool was seized by the customhouse officers, on the allegation that it could not have been grown in the United States, and that it was liable to seizure under the Shipping Acts, as not being imported in a vessel belonging to the country of its growth.
He is also to be credited with the abolition of the gladiatorial shows in 404 (although there is said to be evidence of their existence later), a reduction of the taxes, improvements in criminal law, and the reorganization of the defensores civitatum, municipal officers whose duty it was to defend the rights of the people and set forth their grievances.
Its most important feature, when compared with the previous constitution of 1868, is its provision for the choice of state officials other than the governor (who was previously chosen by election) by elections instead of by the governor's appointment, but the governor, who serves for four years and is not eligible for the next succeeding term, still appoints the circuit judges, the state' attorneys for each judicial circuit and the county commissioners; he may fill certain vacancies and may suspend, and with the Senate remove officers not liable to impeachment..
Sir Thomas Beaufort, afterwards earl of Dorset and duke of Exeter (appointed admiral of the fleet 1407, and admiral of England, Ireland and Aquitaine 1412, which latter office he held till his death in 1426), certainly had a court, with a marshal and other officers, and forms of legal process - mandates, warrants, citations, compulsories, proxies, &c. Complaints of encroachment of jurisdiction by the Admiralty Courts led to the restraining acts, 13 Ric. II.
The principal officers of the court in subordination to the judge were the registrar (an office which always points to a connexion with canon or civil law), and the marshal, who acted as the maritime sheriff, having for his baton of office a silver oar.
These officers and their assistance have been preserved in the High Court of Justice.
They present somewhat similar features with the Salic law, but often differ from it in the date of compilation, the amount of fines, the number and nature of the crimes, the number, rank, duties and titles of the officers, &c. For the Salic law and other Frankish laws, see Salic Law, and for the edict of Theodoric I., which was applicable to the Ostrogoths and Romans, see Roman Law.
In 1904, as it was felt that the college was unable properly to carry on its work under existing conditions, it was proposed to amalgamate it with Hackney College, but the Board of Education refused to sanction any arrangement which would set aside the requirements of the deed of foundation, namely that the officers and students of Cheshunt College should subscribe the fifteen articles appended to the deed, and should take certain other obligations.
The society grew in strength during the Civil War, when the increased demand for coal caused an influx of miners, many of them lawless characters, into the coal-fields, and in1862-1863it opposed enlistments in the Federal Army and roughly treated some of the enlisting officers.
The administration of the province is conducted by a chief commissioner on behalf of the governor-general of India in council, assisted by members of the Indian civil service, provincial civil service, subordinate civil service, district and assistant superintendents of police, and officers specially recruited for various departments.
styled " civil agents " and charged with the supervision of the local authorities in the application of reforms, were placed by the side of the inspector-general while the reorganization of the gendarmerie was entrusted to a foreign general in the Turkish service aided by a certain number of officers from the armies of the great powers.
The latter task was entrusted to the Italian General de Giorgis (April 1904), the country being divided into sections under the supervision of the officers of each power.
The king's state dress was the same in principle as that worn by the Macedonian or Thessalian horsemen, as the uniform of his own cavalry officers.
These were mainly the bands of Greek condottieri, and even for their home-born troops Greek officers of renown were often engaged.
The enemy received their final blow at Palap, but not before three officers were killed, three wounded, and 102 sepoys and followers killed and wounded.
A similar map, mainly based upon surveys made by Austrian officers and revised by H.
Far superior to these maps is the Karte von Attika (1: ioo,000 and 1:25,000) based upon careful surveys made by Prussian officers and published by E.
For maps of the Balkan Peninsula we are still largely indebted to the rapid surveys carried on by Austrian and Russian officers.
In the meantime large scale maps prepared by European authorities are to be welcomed, such as maps of Chih-li and Shan-tung (1:200,000), from surveys by Prussian officers, 1901-1905, maps on East China (1:1,000,000) and of Yun-nan by British, German and Indian officers, of the Indo-Chinese frontier (1:200,000, Paris 1908), and of the upper Yangtsze-kiang by S.
It was kept in great state, and surrounded by a numerous train of officers and guards: when it fawned upon them it was supposed to be pleased with their proceedings; when it growled, it disapproved of the manner in which their government was conducted.
These officers hold, from time to time, meetings separate from the general assemblies of the members, but the special organization for many years known as the Meeting of Ministers and Elders, reconstituted in 1876 as the Meeting on Ministry and Oversight, came to an end in 1906-1907.
Banks was one of the most prominent of the volunteer officers.
The task of mapping the coast was largely undertaken by officers of the Indian navy, while the first explorers of the interior were officers of the Indian army quartered at Aden - Lieut.
Of the whole party only 40 Yaos, of whom 36 were wounded, escaped; Io British officers being among the slain.
In 1442, when the Portuguese under Prince Henry the Navigator were exploring the Atlantic coast of Africa, one of his officers, Antam Gonsalves, who had captured some Moors, was directed by the prince to carry them back to Africa.
That emperor, after the Crimean War, created a secret committee composed of the great officers of state, called the chief committee for peasant affairs, to study the subject of serf-emancipation.
Under the Territorial government the legislative officers were not at first elective.
In 1852 even the judges of the supreme court were placed among the officers chosen by popular vote.
The chief executive officers have four-year terms, neither the governor nor the treasurer being eligible for immediate re-election.
The senate is the court of trial for the president, officers of the cabinet, and provincial governors when accused of political offences.
The house of representatives, whose members are chosen directly by the citizens for four years, one-half retiring every two years, has the special power of impeaching the president and cabinet officers.
Its powers are extensive, including, in addition to ordinary legislative powers, control of financial affairs, foreign affairs, the power to declare war and approve treaties of peace, amnesties, electoral legislation for the provinces and municipalities, control of the electoral vote for president and vice-president, and designation of an acting president in case of the death or incapacity of these officers.
The local authorities were divided among themselves by bitter feuds - the ecclesiastical against the civil, the ayuntamiento against the governors, the administrative officers among themselves; brigandage, mutinies and intestinal struggles disturbed the peace.
The revision of the whole military system was undertaken in 1910, especially as regards enrolment and promotion of officers, but, as things then stood, the term of service was twenty years (from the age of 20 to the age of 40), for all Ottoman male subjects: active service (muasaff) nine years, of which three with the colours (nizam), in the case of infantry, four in the case of cavalry and artillery; six and five respectively in the reserve (ikhtiat); Landwehr (redif) nine years; territorial (mustahfiz) two years.
On war footing the strength of a squadron of cavalry is 6 officers, 100 men, 80 horses (Ertogrul-140 men, 135 horses).
The total war strength of the cavalry is 54 regiments (210 squadrons); 1580 officers, 26,800 men, 21,900 horses.
On war-footing each field battery has 4 officers, 100-120 N.C. officers and men, 100-125 horses and draught animals, 3-9 ammunition wagons; each horse battery, 4 officers, 120 N.C. officers and men, 100 horses, &c., 3 ammunition wagons; each mountain battery, 3 officers, 100 N.C. officers and men, 87 horses, &c.; each howitzer battery, 4 officers, 120 N.C. officers and men, Poo horses, &c., 3 ammunition wagons.
On a war-footing the strength of the artillery troops is 1032 officers and 29,380 men.
- These are formed into battalions of pioneers, railway troops, telegraph troops, sappers and miners, &c.; in all II battalions (55 companies) numbering 245 officers and 10,470 men.
Abd-ul-Aziz, however, with the aid of British naval officers, succeeded in creating an imposing fleet of ironclads constructed in English and French yards.
British naval officers were engaged for training the personnel, and to assist in the reorganization of the fleet.
As regards the first of these, it is curious to observe that the budget decree of 1880 stringently limited the peace strength of the Ottoman army to 100,000 men, " including officers and generals," in order to put a stop to the rapidly increasing military expenditure; but this was merely the expression of a pious wish, at a time when European financial good will was indispensable, that expenditure might be kept down.
These officers were usually chosen from among the more promising of the youths selected by the devshurme, or system of forced levy for manning the ranks of the Janissaries: hence so many of the statesmen of Turkey were of non-Mussulman origin.
Besides these members of the secretarial class, such as nishanjis and defterdars, as well as regular army officers, and occasionally members of the ecclesiastical class, or ulema, rose to the rank of vizier.
Fiefs with a revenue of from 20,000 to 100,000 aspres were called ziamets and were conferred on similar terms on inferior officers, usually for life or during good behaviour.
In 1807 the garrisons of the Black Sea forts at the entrance of the straits rose in rebellion, headed by one Kabakji Mustafa, and killed their officers.
All officers who were partisans of the reforms were obliged to take refuge in flight; and Turkey's position would have been desperate but for the conclusion of the peace of Tilsit (July 7, 1807) between Russia and France, to which Turkey also became a party.
The army hereupon retired to Adrianople, and the powerful pasha of Rustchuk, Mustafa Bairakdar, who had distinguished himself by his resistance to the Russians, and who thoroughly shared Selim's desire for reform, was now induced by the many officers who held similar views to march on Constantinople to restore Selim to the throne.
English officers were engaged to reform the gendarmerie, and judicial inspectors of foreign nationality were to travel through the country to redress abuses.
It was also arranged that foreign officers should be named to reorganize the gendarmerie.
An Italian officer, General De Giorgis, was appointed to the chief command in the reorganization, and the three vilayets were apportioned among the great powers into districts, in each of which was appointed a staff officer with a number of subordinate officers of his nationality under his orders.
The enforcement of these reforms, however, was postponed sine die owing to the revolution which transformed the Ottoman Empire into a constitutional state; and the powers, anticipating an improvement in the administration of Macedonia by the new government, withdrew their military officers in the summer of 1908.
To gain this, an extensive propaganda was carried on by secret agents, many of whom were officers.
Most of its members were military officers, prominent among them being Majors Enver Bey and Niazi Bey, who directed the propaganda in Albania and Macedonia.
The regimental officers had all acquired their rank before the enemy and knew how to manage their men, and of the men themselves nearly two-thirds had seen active service.
To remedy this, Murat and other general officers as well as minor agents were sent ahead and instructed to travel through South Germany in plain clothes with a view to collecting information and mastering the topography.
On the morning of the 12th the Saxon commanding officers approached Hohenlohe with a statement of the famishing condition of their men, and threatened to withdraw them again to Saxony.
The French who had thrown themselves into houses, copses, &c., picked off the officers, and the flanks of the long Prussian lines swayed and got into confusion.
Organization and tactics did not affect the issue directly, for the conduct of the men and their junior officers gave abundant proof that in the hands of a competent leader the " linear " principle of delivering one shattering blow would have proved superior to that of a gradual attrition of the enemy here, as on the battlefields of the Peninsula and at Waterloo, and this in spite of other defects in the training of the Prussian infantry which simultaneously caused its defeat on the neighbouring field of Auerstadt.
The intelligence of the men and regimental officers was very low, but on the other hand service was practically for life, and the regiment the only home the great majority had ever known.
Ever since Austerlitz the Austrian officers had been labouring to reconstitute and reform their army.
The panics of Wagram had taught men and officers alike a salutary lesson.
Besides the court of superior officers, which assists the pasha in the general administration of the province, there is also a mejlis or mixed tribunal for the settlement of municipal and commercial affairs, to which both Christian and Jewish merchants are admitted.
Burckhardt at Taif in 1814 and those of the French officers with the Egyptian expeditions into the country from 1814 to 1837.
Its most important early charter was that granted in 1340 by Hugh le Despenser, whereby the burgesses acquired the right to nominate persons from whom the constable of the castle should select a bailiff and other officers, two ancient fairs, held on the 29th of June and, 9th of September, were confirmed, and extensive trading privileges were granted, including the right to form a merchant gild.
Women (since 1898) may vote for school officers and members of library boards, and are eligible for election to any office pertaining to the management of schools or libraries.
The state furnished four regiments (a total of 5313 officers and men)' to the volunteer army during the Spanish-American War (1898),(1898), the service of the 13th Regiment for more than a year in the Philippines being particularly notable.
On the 13th of April 1814 officers arrived with the announcement to both armies of the capture of Paris, the abdication of Napoleon, and the practical conclusion of peace; and on the 18th a convention, which included Suchet's force, was entered into between Wellington and Soult.
Ecclesiastical vestments, with which the present article is solely concerned, are the special articles of costume worn by the officers of the Christian Church "at all times of their ministration" - to quote the Ornaments Rubric of the English Book of Common Prayer, i.e.
The officers of the Church during the first few centuries of its existence were content to officiate in the dress of civil life, though their garments were expected to be scrupulously clean and of decent quality.
On the 17th of October, a joint letter of expostulation was sent in to Ibrahim Pasha, but was returned with the manifestly false answer that he had left Navarino, and that his officers did not know where he was.
Eaton, wife of the secretary of war, with whom the wives of the cabinet officers had refused to associate.
The first part of the act deals with the penalties for election or resignation of officers of churches, colleges, schools, hospitals, halls and societies for reward.
Wei-hai-wei was made the headquarters of a native Chinese regiment in the pay of Great Britain, and organized and led by British officers; but this regiment was disbanded in 1902.
These by-laws are carried into effect by officers of the conservators, assisted by the river-keepers of the various fishing associations.
They raided into the British district of Darrang and carried off several native forest officers as hostages.
to make an attempt to reconcile the church with the republic. He invited the officers of the Mediterranean squadron to lunch at Algiers, and, practically renouncing his monarchical sympathies, to which he clung as long as the comte de Chambord was alive, expressed his support of the republic, and emphasized it by having the Marseillaise played by a band of his Peres Blanes.
From 1846 to 1854 Delamarre published his Exploration archeologique de l'Algerie, in collaboration with the French officers.
Toutain, Esperandieu, Gauckler, Merlin, Homo and many others, to say nothing of German scholars, such as Willmans and Schulten, and especially of a great number of enthusiastic officers of the army of occupation, who explored all the ancient sites, and in many cases excavated with great success (for their results see the works quoted above).
The personal character of Michaelis can be read between the lines 1 By a strange fortune of war it was the occupation of Gottingen by the French in the Seven Years' War, and the friendly relations he formed with the officers, that procured him the Paris MS. from which he edited Abulfeda's description of Egypt.
Under these officers the equites formed a kind of corporation, which, although' not officially recognized, had the right of passing resolutions, chiefly such as embodied acts of homage to the imperial house.
In order to provide a supply of competent officers, each eques was required to fill certain subordinate posts, called militiae equestres.
Tribune (Officers) >>
Richard's elevation, not being "general of the army as his father was," was distasteful to the officers, who desired the appointment of a commander-in-chief from among themselves, a request refused by Richard.
The officers in the council, moreover, showed jealousy of the civil members, and to settle these difficulties and to provide money a parliament was summoned on the 27th of January 1659, which declared Richard protector, and incurred the hostility of the army by criticizing severely the arbitrary military government of Oliver's last two years, and by impeaching one of the major-generals.
A council of the army accordingly established itself in opposition to the parliament, and demanded on the 6th of April a justification and confirmation of former proceedings, to which the parliament replied by forbidding meetings of the army council without the permission of the protector, and insisting that all officers should take an oath not to disturb the proceedings in parliament.
At last, however, his temporary connexion with the college de Beauvais was ended by a feat of arms which proved him as stout a fighter with his sword as with his pen; and, since his victory was won over officers of the king's guard, it again became expedient for him to change his place of residence.
The designation comes thus developed into a formal official title of high officers of state, some qualification being added to indicate the special duties attached to the office in each case.
In the 5th century the "sacred bounties" corresponded to the aerarium of the early Empire, while the res privatae represented the fisc. The officers connected with the palace and the emperor's person included the count of the wardrobe (comes sacrae vestis), the count of the residence (comes domorum), and, most important of all, the comes domesticorum et sacri stabuli (graecized as Kowis Tou o-Ta,3Xov).
solicitor-general of the republic. The judges and solicitor-general are appointed by the president with the approval of the senate, but the tribunal chooses its own presiding officers and secretaries and, nominally, is independent of executive control.
The nominal strength of the army in 1906 was 29,489, including the officers of the general and subordinate staffs and the officers and cadets of the military schools.
Efforts to organize a national guard have been unsuccessful, although officers have been appointed and the organization perfected, on paper.
The military organization is provided with an elaborate code and systems of military courts, which culminate in a supreme military tribunal composed of 15 judges holding office for life, of which 8 are general army officers, 4 general naval officers and 3 civil judges.
Female orphans of noble families were given in marriage to the officers, and portioned from the royal estates, and orphan boys were sent to be educated by the Jesuits.
His first step was to introduce a regular government among his countrymen; his second, to send to the African coast one of his officers, who took possession of a Portuguese settlement, and thus secured a supply of slaves.
He created a regency in Lisbon, and departed for Brazil on the 29th of November 1807, accompanied by the queen Donna Maria I., the royal family, all the great officers of state, a large part of the nobility and numerous retainers.
Discontented officers in the army and navy rallied to this idea, and a conspiracy was organized to depose the emperor and declare a republic. On the 14th of November 1889 the palace was quietly surrounded, and on the following morning the emperor and his family were placed on board ship and sent off to Portugal.
These were joined by Admiral da Gama and a number of the naval officers, who had escaped from Rio de Janeiro; but in June 1895 the admiral was killed in a fight with the government troops.
Some of the officers and students were promptly expelled, and the president closed the school for several months.
An army comprising some 5000 officers and men was then sent to crush Conselheiro and his people at all costs.
Here we pause to remark that in Tertullian's view the church as a whole possesses the power of self-government and administration, though in the interest of discipline and convenience it delegates that power to special officers.
43), be one bishop in the Catholic Church; and he then enumerates the church officers subject to himself as bishop of Rome.
He served in the Northern Campaign under his father-in-law, General Taylor, and was greatly distinguished for gallantry and soldierly conduct at Monterey and particularly at Buena Vista, where he was severely wounded early in the engagement, but continued in command of his regiment until victory crowned the American arms. While still in the field he was appointed (May 1847) by President Polk to be brigadier-general of volunteers; but this appointment Davis declined, on the ground, as he afterwards said, "that volunteers are militia and the Constitution reserves to the state the appointment of all militia officers."
Afterwards, Davis himself, as president of the Confederate states, was to appoint many volunteer officers.
Unfortunately his firmness developed into obstinacy, and exhibited itself in continued confidence in officers who had proved to be failures, and in dislike of some of his ablest generals.
The regular army of his province and the fortresses were independent of him and commanded by royal officers; but he was allowed to have troops in his own service (in later times mostly Greek mercenaries).
In the county system were included all the inhabitants of the country save two classes: the still numerous pagan clans, and those nobles who were attached to the king's person, from whom he selected his chief officers of state and the members of his council, of which we now hear for the first time.
the decree ordering the demolition of the new castles, most of them little better than robber-strongholds; the decree compelling the great officers of state to suspend their functions during the session of the diet; the decree declaring illegal the new fashion of forming confederations on the Polish model, all of which measures were obviously directed against the tyranny and the lawlessness of the oligarchy.
The great officers of state acted habitually on the principle that might is right.
Basta was authorized to Germanize and Catholicize without delay, and he began by dividing the property of most of the nobles among his officers, appropriating the lion's share himself.
But they were guerillas, not regulars; they had no good officers, no serviceable artillery, and very little money; and all the foreign powers to whom Rakoczy turned for assistance (excepting France, who fed them occasionally with paltry subsidies) would not commit themselves to a formal alliance with rebels who were defeated in every pitched battle they fought.
Desultory fighting, in which Austrian officers with the tacit consent of the minister of war took part against the Magyars, had already broken out in the south.
But the religious toleration of the edict of Nantes was reaffirmed while its political privilegeswere destroyed, and Huguenot officers fought loyally in the foreign enterprises of the cardinal.
Princes are "God's lieutenants, God's presidents, God's officers, God's commissioners, God's judges.
Serbian officers under General Livkovic were sent out, and many officers of the future Czechoslovak legions first saw service in this corps.
The state furnishes three battalions of the 2nd Hanseatic regiment, under Prussian officers.
More than 1,200 officers, among them 153 generals and colonels, were dismissed by Enver in one day.
At one time the Turkish script was altered, with the result that officers were unable to read their reports or orders; then the Enverie, a highly unpractical head-covering, reminiscent of a child's paper hat, was invented and introduced; in March 1914 he demanded and obtained the hand of Princess Nadjie, the Sultan's niece, made himself general of a division, and began, moreover, to take thought for his financial future.
The force, disciplined and organized by a permanent staff of officers and non-commissioned officers of the regular army, is about 6500 strong, and consists of a brigade of artillery, four mounted, three composite and four infantry corps, a cyclist corps, &c. There are also cadet companies some 3000 strong.
Half the men were killed and wounded; the other half including some officers, were taken prisoners.
Symons was mortally wounded, and 226 officers and men were killed and wounded.
- Assyrian Officers.
- Israelite Tribute-bearers introduced by two Assyrian Officers.
After his defeat at the Boyne (July 1, 1690) he speedily departed from Ireland, where he had so conducted himself that his English followers had been ashamed of his incapacity, while French officers had derided him.
There is no lack of officers of the highest grades, but the rank and file are not uniformed, equipped or drilled, and military campaigns are usually irregular in character and of comparatively short duration.
There is a military academy at Caracas, and battalion schools are provided for officers and privates, but they are of little value.
The question was subsequently arranged in 1899 by arbitration, and by the payment of a moderate indemnity to the British officers and men who had been captured.
He was fortunate in serving under active officers, and had opportunities of seeing service in the North Sea.
These posts were generally given to officers who were retiring from the sea.
The Admiralty was naturally anxious to secure the services of trustworthy flag officers, and having confidence in Hood promoted him rear-admiral out of the usual course on the 26th of September 1780, and sent him to the West Indies to act as second in command under Rodney, to whom he was personally known.
The number of field battalions was nearly doubled, two-thirds of the artillery received breech-loading rifled guns, the infantry had for some years had the breech-loading "needlegun," and steps were initiated to train an adequate number of staff officers to a uniform appreciation of strategical problems, based on Moltke's personal interpretation of Clausewitz's Vom Kriege.
There was, however, a fundamental disagreement in the tactical ideas of the senior and those of the junior officers.
All three arms trained their men for seven years, and almost all officers and non-commissioned officers had considerable war experience.
July 2nd) the prince immediately despatched officers' patrols towards the Elbe, and about 6 p.m.
All hope for the city being now at an end, the Syracusans threw themselves on the mercy of Marcellus; but Achradina and the island still held out for a brief space under the Syracusan mercenaries, till one of their officers, a Spaniard, betrayed the latter position to the enemy, and at the same time Achradina was carried and taken.
In preserving the public health, the medical profession is again brought into direct relation with the state, through the public medical officers.
A medical officer of health for the whole county is appointed by the Council, which also pays half the salaries of local medical officers and sanitary inspectors.
There were two bodies having jurisdiction over the whole metropolis except the City, namely, the officers appointed under the Metropolitan Building Act of 1844, and the Metropolitan Commissioners of Sewers, appointed under the Commissioners of Sewers Act 1848.
Out of this fund certain expenses of guardians in connexion with the maintenance of indoor paupers and lunatics, the salaries of officers, the maintenance of children in poorlaw schools, valuation, vaccination, registration, &c., are paid.
Libitina was the goddess of funerals; her officers were the Libitinarii our undertakers; her temple in which all business connected with the last rites was transacted, in which the account of deaths - ratio Libitinae - was kept, served the purpose of a register office."
There were originally several distinct reeves, all apparently officers appointed by the king.
In Edward IV.'s reign the elections of mayor, sheriffs and other officers and members of parliament were transferred to liverymen.
The county is divided into districts under district committees, and county and district officers are appointed.
His brother officers, whose leanings were liberal, denounced him to the revolutionary government, and asked that he might be removed.
This danger can be reached only in small degree by laws and inspection; but the safety of the men must depend upon the skill and care of the miners themselves and the officers in charge of the underground work.
But the enemy speedily brought effective flanking artillery fire to bear on the beach and on the boats; the troops, both officers and men, were inexperienced, the ground to be advanced over was hilly, scrub-clad and extremely broken, and considerable confusion arose.
This body was to have control of Indian affairs, impose taxes, nominate all civil officers, authorize the opening of new lands to settlement, and in general have charge of colonial defence, and of the enlistment, equipment and maintenance of an army.
An executive or viceroy, to be known as the president-general, was to have the veto power over the acts of the Grand Council and the right of appointment of military officers.
Other purely judicial officers are the judicial commissioner for Upper Burma, and the civil judges of Mandalay and Moulmein.
There are also a deputy postmaster-general, chief superintendent and four superintendents of telegraphs, a chief collector of customs, three collectors and four port officers, and an inspector-general of jails.
The commissioners of division are ex officio sessions judges in their several divisions, and also have civil powers, and powers as revenue officers.
Among the salaried staff of officials, the townships officers are the ultimate representatives of government who come into most direct contact with the people.
The military police are in reality a regular military force with only two European officers in command of each battalion; and they are recruited entirely from among the warlike races of northern India.
The officers on whom devolved the duty of representing the wrongs of their fellow-countrymen and demanding redress, proceeded to Rangoon, the governor of which place had been a chief actor in the outrages complained of; but so far were they from meeting with any signs of regret, that they were treated with indignity and contempt, and compelled to retire without accomplishing anything beyond blockading the ports.
In 1901 and following years the sudd was removed by British officers from the Bahr-el-Ghazal, the Jur and other rivers.
The priori and other officers were drawn by lot from among the Guelphs over thirty years old who were declared fit for public office by a special board of 98 citizens (1329).
To quiet the people and save the unhappy victim, two officers volunteered to conduct him to the senate house and there place him in arrest.
At that time the officers of the Frency navy were divided into two parties - the reds or nobles, and the blues or roturiers.
With his single aim in view he busied himself with the creation of a national militia, with the aid of Moltke and other German officers.
Along with these crimes against religion went treason to the emperor, offences against the laws, especially counterfeiting, defraudation in taxes, seizure of confiscated property, evil conduct of imperial officers, &c. There is no formal definition of sacrilege in the code of Justinian but the conception remains as wide.
The Morwenspeches were periodical meetings at which the brethren feasted, revised their ordinances, admitted new members, elected officers and transacted other business.
Officers, commonly called wardens in England, were elected by the members, and their chief function was to supervise the quality of the wares produced, so as to secure good and honest workmanship. Therefore, ordinances were made regulating the hours of labour and the terms of admission to the gild, including apprenticeship. Other ordinances required members to make periodical payments to a common fund, and to participate in certain common religious observances, festivities and pageants.
Laws were passed, for example in 1503, requiring that new ordinances of "fellowships of crafts or misteries" should be approved by the royal justices or by other crown officers; and the authority of the companies to fix the price of wares was thus restricted.
The allprevailing need of the later Roman and early medieval society was protection - protection against the sudden attacks of invading tribes or revolted peasants, against oppressive neighbours, against the unwarranted demands of government officers, or even against the legal but too heavy exactions of the government itself.
By the grant of an immunity to a proprietor the royal officers, the count and his representatives, were forbidden to enter his lands to exercise any public function there.
Finally he secured from the king an immunity which excluded the royal officers from his lands and made him a quasi-representative of the state.
Jomard's map, published in 1839, based on the information given by the French officers employed with Ibrahim Pasha's army in Asir from 1824 to 1827, and of J.
a view to botanical research, but the next advance in geographical knowledge in south Arabia was due to the French officers, M.
Neither of these officers was able to follow up their discoveries, but in 1843 Adolph von Wrede landed at Mukalla and, adopting the character of a pilgrim to the shrine of the prophet Hud, made his way northward across the high plateau into the W.
Burckhardt had hoped in 1815 that the advance of the Egyptian expedition would have given him the opportunity to see something of Nejd, but he had already left Arabia before the overthrow of the Wahhabi power by Ibrahim Pasha had opened Nejd to travellers from Hejaz, and though several European officers accompanied the expedition, none of them left any record of his experience.
officers of the Egyptian army in that district, and with that of Halevy, who makes all the drainage from Nejran northward run to the same great wadi.
In order to define the limits between Turkish territory and that of the independent Arab tribes in political relations with Great Britain, a joint commission of British and Turkish officers in 1902-1905 laid down a boundary line from Shekh Said to a point on the river Bana, 12 M.
The number of naval ships was increased between 1861 and 1865 from 90 to 670, the officers from 1300 to 6700, the seamen from 7500 to 51,500, and the annual expenditure from $12,000,000 to $123,000,000; important changes were made in the art of naval construction, and the blockade of the Confederate ports was effectively maintained.
The mestizos of the coast are usually traders, artisans, overseers, petty officers and clerks, and small politicians.
Each was ruled by a viceroy, under whom were the " huaranca-camayocs," or officers ruling over thousands, and inferior officers, in regular order, over Soo, 500, 50 and so men.
In 1569 the governor, Lope Garcia de Castro, divided Peru into corregimientos under officers named corregidors, of whom there were 77, each in direct communication with the government at Lima.
These intendencias included about 6 of the old corregimientos, which were called partidos, under officers named subdelegados.
Thus the number of officers reporting direct to Lima was reduced from 77 to 7, a great improvement.
After the Chilean War the disorders fomented by the rival military officers led to a desire to place the administration of public affairs under civilian control.
This led to a material reduction in the army, which, as reorganized, consists of 4000 officers and men, divided into seven battalions of infantry of 300 men each, seven squadrons of cavalry of 125 men each, and one regiment of mountain artillery of 590 men, with six batteries of mountain guns.
The reorganization of the army was carried out by 10 officers and 4 non-corns.
There are a military high school, preparatory school, and " school of application " in connexion with the training of young officers for the army.
Formerly the Indians were forcibly pressed into the service and the whites filled the positions of officers, in great part untrained.
In addition to the foregoing the government has a few small river boats on the Maranon and its tributaries, which are commanded by naval officers and used to maintain the authority of the republic and carry on geographical and hydrographical work.
All unemployed persons were sent on distant expeditions, and moderate " encomiendes " were granted to a few deserving officers.
The viceroy and all his officers were taken prisoners, and the Spanish power in Peru came to an end.
Under the new act marriages of non Catholics solemnized by diplomatic or consular officers or by ministers of dissenting churches, if properly registered, are valid, and those solemnized before the passing of this act were to be valid if registered before the end of 1899.
The attack orders for the 2nd of December (drawn up by the Austrian general Weyrother, and explained by him to a council of superior officers, of whom some were hostile, the greater part indifferent, and the chief Russian member, General Kutusov, asleep) gave the five columns and the reserve, into which the Austro-Russian army was organized, the following tasks: the first and second (Russians) to move south-westward behind the Pratzen ridge towards Telnitz and Sokolnitz; the third (Russian) to cross the southern end of the plateau, and come into line on the right of the first two; the fourth (Austrians and Russians under Kolowrat) on the right of the third to advance towards Kobelnitz.
is a collection of examples of military stratagems from Greek and Roman history, for the use of officers; a fourth book, the plan and style of which is different from the rest (more stress is laid on the moral aspects of war, e.g.
In March 1777 he resigned his commission because other officers had been promoted over him.
The other administrative officers are a secretary of state, an attorney-general, an auditor, a treasurer, a commissioner of public schools, a railroad commissioner, and a factory inspector, and various boards and commissions, such as the board of education, the board of agriculture, the board of health, and the commissioners of inland fisheries, commissioners of harbours and commissioners of pilots.
The American officers protested but in vain, and on the 28th they decided to retreat to the north end of the island.
Another great service rendered by Philaret to his country was the reorganization of the Muscovite army with the help of foreign officers.
After many years Porter's friends succeeded (1878) in procuring a revision of the case by a board of distinguished general officers.
During the war with Denmark he had his first military experience, being attached to the staff of Marshal von Wrangel; he performed valuable service in arranging the difficulties caused by the disputes between the field marshal and the other officers, and was eventually given a control over him.
In the rebellion of 1857 the troops stationed at Aligarh mutinied, but abstained from murdering their officers, who, with the other residents and ladies and children, succeeded in reaching Hathras.
During the siege of Bactra he met Semiramis, the wife of one of his officers, Onnes, whom he took from her husband and married.
Though it appears that Athens made individual agreements with various states, and therefore that we cannot regard as general rules the terms laid down in those which we possess, it is undeniable that the Athenians planted garrisons under permanent Athenian officers (¢poi papxoc) in some cities.
The officers of justice adopted the popular tale, and were supplied by the mob with what they accepted as conclusive evidence of the fact.
They may thus be said to have hollowed out the imperial, or Byzantine, possessions in Italy, the interior being under their power, and the coast remaining to the imperial officers.
Under his influence the order spread rapidly, and he soon found himself the supreme director (Oberhauptdirektor) of some 26 "circles," which included in their membership princes, officers and high officials.
The local societies became "Corps," and their evangelists "Field Officers," with Booth as "General" of the whole body.
In 1878 there were 75 corps and 120 officers in the United Kingdom, the amount contributed by the outside public being £1925.
Since then the number of corps and officers has greatly increased.
Large powers devolve upon other officers, such as the "Chief of the Staff," the "Foreign Secretary," and the "Chancellor," who direct affairs from the "International Headquarters" in London.
1 Officers and employees (British Isles), 7538.
All officers and many of the rank and file wear a uniform.
William Booth, Orders and Regulations for Soldiers; Orders and Regulations for Field Officers; Orders and Regulations for Staff Officers; Salvation Soldiery; Interview with W.
(1895); John Total number of officers engaged exclusively in social work, 2520.
In July 1816 the French frigate "Medusa," which carried officers on their way to Senegal to take possession of that country for France, was wrecked off Arguin, 350 lives being lost.
The lower officers of the forest, who held merely local appointments, were the verderers, the regarders (one of whose duties was that of seeing to the expeditation of "great dogs"), the foresters, the woodwards and the agisters.
Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe (London, 1884); Twelve British Soldiers (London, 1899); General Wolfe's Instructions to Young Officers (1768-1780); Beckles Willson, The Life and Letters of James Wolfe (1909); and A.
Some officers were for withdrawing by sea, but the general chose to hold his ground, though his army was enfeebled by sickness and would have to fight on unfavourable terrain against odds of two to one.
What is known as the Society of Rosicrucians (Rosenkreuzer) was really a number of isolated individuals who early in the 17th century held certain views in common (which apparently was their only bond of union); for of a society holding meetings, and having officers, there is no trace.
Subordinate officers and rapacious governors of forts wield all the power of the state, and tyranny, oppression and anarchy reign over the whole country.
In common with many other army officers Wilkinson now turned toward the West, and in 1784 settled near the Falls of the Ohio (Louisville), where he speedily became, a prominent merchant and farmer and a man of considerable influence.
Dissatisfaction arose under Aragonese rule from the periodical grants of Malta, as a marquisate or countship, to great officers of state or illegitimate descendants of the sovereign.
Under the Aragonese, Malta, as regards local affairs, was administered bya Universitd or municipal commonwealth with wide and indefinite powers, including the election of its officers, Capitan di Verga, Jurats, &c. The minutes of the " Consiglio Popolare " of this period are preserved, showing it had no legislative power; this was vested in the king, and was exercised despotically in the interests of the Crown.
A regulation excluding Maltese from the navy (because of their speaking on board a language that their officers did not understand) provoked from Trinity College, Cambridge, the Strickland correspondence in The Times on the constitutional rights of the Maltese, and a leading article induced the Colonial Office to try an experiment known as the Strickland-Mizzi Constitution of 1887.
The contents of the letter were not made known to his officers until he was assured that the army was on Egyptian soil, so that the expedition might be continued under the sanction of Omar's orders.
But the losses of the and brigade, particularly in officers, had been too heavy, and the rush died out whilst still 500 yds.
Fortunately, by the superb gallantry of some of the company officers and men, the new arrivals were induced to recognize their mistake, and by degrees about 10 p.m.
was the concentration completed, and Bazaine again assembled his commanding officers to give them their final instructions.
Other city officers are chosen by the council, and city employees are selected by a civil service commission of three members, appointed by the council.
cap. 27), and he was one of the few officers concerned in the surrender who were retained at the remodelling of the army.
Bolivar had, no doubt, regained the personal confidence of the officers and soldiers of the third division; but the republican party, with Santander at their head, continued to regard with undisguised apprehension his ascendancy over the army, suspecting him of a desire to imitate the career of Napoleon.
After Cromwell's death, the officers, having determined to recall the "Rump" Parliament, assembled at Lenthall's house at the Rolls (6th May 1659), to desire him to send out the writs.
Nevertheless, upon the officers threatening to summon the parliament without his aid, and hearing the next morning that several members had assembled, he led the procession to the parliament house.
Sandwich, who had taken some prizes, unlawfully seized part of their cargoes for the benefit of himself and the other flag officers.
Great injury was inflicted on English trade by Dutch cruisers, while the wasteful administration of his officers reduced the king's treasury to much embarrassment.
It was characteristic of the morality of his time and the spirit of the English navy as it had been shaped by the corrupt government of Charles II., that the officers concerned quarrelled violently and accused one another of fraud.
His naval officers insisted on making prize of all Dutch-built vessels found under the English flag.
Vauban was unique amongst the officers of his time, and Crequi and Luxemburg were not unworthy successors of Turenne and Conde.
He was also one of the officers of the force defeated by General John Sullivan in the engagement at Newtown (Elmira), N.Y., on the 29th of August 1779.
The secret of Trajan's power lay in his close personal relations with the officers and men of the army and in the soldierly qualities which commanded their esteem.
Having a good title to military distinction himself, he could afford, as the unwarlike emperors could not, to be generous to his officers.
by senatorial officers.
Taxation was in many directions reduced, and the financial exactions of the imperial officers controlled by the erection of a special court.
At the same time he royally entertained the people and no less royally rewarded his brave officers.
At the same time, these letters bring home to us his conviction that, particularly in financial affairs, it was necessary that local self-government should be carried on under the vigilant supervision of imperial officers.
In the same year, 1520, Machiavelli, at the instance of the cardinal Giulio de' Medici, received commission from the officers of the Studio pubblico to write a history of Florence.
Besides the income from interest and dividends on investments, the state revenues are derived from taxes on licences, on commissions to public officers, on railway, telegraph and telephone, express, and banking companies, and to a slight extent from taxes on collateral inheritance.
Grant said of him, "Hancock stands the most conspicuous figure of all the general officers who did not exercise a separate command.
Louis was readily induced to rebel; but the country was saved from a serious civil war by the energy of the king's officers and the solid loyalty of his "good cities."
The Egyptian garrison and many Egyptian civilians, in all 6500 persons, left Harrar between November 1884 and the 25th of April 1885, when a son of the ruler who had been deposed by Egypt was installed as amir, the arrangement being carried out under the superintendence of British officers.