On his return, he found that Odysseus had reached home before him.
During the war, he distinguished himself as the wisest adviser of the Greeks, and finally, the capture of Troy, which the bravery of Achilles could not accomplish, was attained by Odysseus' stratagem of the wooden horse.
Homer was acquainted with it and speaks of the "Argo" as well known to all men; the wanderings of Odysseus may have been partly founded on its voyage.
When Odysseus reached the country of the Lotophagi, many of his sailors after eating the lotus lost all wish to return home.
Out of curiosity, or with the idea that it contains valuable treasures, Odysseus' companions open the bag; the winds escape and drive them back to the island, whence Aeolus dismisses them with bitter reproaches.
We possess two declamations under his name: Peri Sofiston, directed against Isocrates and setting forth the superiority of extempore over written speeches (a recently discovered fragment of another speech against Isocrates is probably of later date); ''Odusseus, in which Odysseus accuses Palamedes of treachery during the siege of Troy (this is generally considered spurious).
Here she was found by Odysseus and his companions; the latter she changed into swine, but the hero, protected by the herb moly, which n he had received from Hermes, not only forced her to restore them to their original shape, but also gained her love.
The island is incidentally described with no small variety of detail, picturesque and topographical; the Homeric localities for which counterparts have been sought are Mount Neritos, Mount Neion, the harbour of Phorcys, the town and palace of Odysseus, the fountain of Arethusa, the cave of the Naiads, the stalls of the swineherd Eumaeus, the orchard of Laertes, the Korax or Raven Cliff and the island Asteris, where the suitors lay in ambush for Telemachus.
It is a popular disquisition on the heroes of the Trojan War in the form of a conversation between a Thracian vine-dresser on the shore of the Hellespont and a Phoenician merchant who derives his knowledge from the hero Protesilaus, Palamedes is exalted at the expense of Odysseus, and Homer's unfairness to him is attacked.
127), son of Odysseus and Penelope.
ODYSSEUS (in Latin Ulixes, incorrectly written Ulysses), in Greek legend, son of Laertes and Anticleia, king of Ithaca, a famous hero and typical representative of the Greek race.
After the death of Achilles the Greeks adjudged his armour to Odysseus as the man who had done most to end the war successfully.
According to a later legend, Telegonus, the son of Odysseus by Circe, was sent by her in search of his father.
Cast ashore on Ithaca by a storm, he plundered the island to get provisions, and was attacked by Odysseus, whom he slew.
P. 267), Odysseus is an old Arcadian nature god identical with Poseidon, who dies at the approach of winter (retires to the western sea or is carried away to the underworld) to revive in spring (but see E.
Mannhardt and others regard Odysseus as a solar or summer divinity, who withdraws to the underworld during the winter, and returns in spring to free his wife from the suitors (the powers of winter).
But although the personality of Odysseus may have had its origin in some primitive religious myth, chief interest attaches to him as the typical representative of the old sailor-race whose adventurous voyages educated and moulded the Hellenic race.
The adventures of Odysseus were a favourite subject in ancient art, in which he may usually be recognized by his conical sailor's cap.
Early in 1825 the government was victorious; Kolokotrones was in prison; and Odysseus, the hero of so many exploits and so many crimes, who had ended by turning traitor and selling his services to the Turks, had been captured, imprisoned in the Acropolis, and finally assassinated by his former lieutenant Gouras (July 16, 1824).
It is said that on this occasion Sisyphus seduced Autolycus's daughter Anticleia, and that Odysseus was really the son of Sisyphus, not of Laertes, whom Anticleia afterwards married.
1) he entertains Odysseus, gives him a favourable wind to help him on his journey, and a bag in which the unfavourable winds have been confined.
Fougeres, Mantinee et l'Arcadie orientate (1898), according to whom Odysseus is an Arcadian chthonian divinity and Penelope a goddess of flocks and herds, akin to the Arcadian Artemis; S.
Eitrem, Die gottlichen Zwillinge bei den Griechen (1902), who identifies Odysseus with one of the Dioscuri ('OXvi yES = HoXv5EVrc, t s); V.
457.) When Odysseus (Ulysses) was swept into the sea from the raft on which he had left the home of Calypso, he swam ashore to Scheria, where he fell asleep on the bank of a river.
The incident of Odysseus and Nausicaa formed the subject of a lost play by Sophocles and was frequently represented in ancient art.
For a general description of the whole region, its inhabitants, political problems, &c., see "Odysseus," Turkey in Europe (London, 1900), a work of exceptional interest and value.
He was brought up by his grandfather Lycomedes in the island of Scyros, and taken to Troy in the last year of the war by Odysseus, since Helenus had declared that the city could not be captured without the aid of a descendant of Aeacus.
The binding of his son Polyphemus by Odysseus brings upon the hero the wrath of Poseidon, from which he is only protected by the united influence of the rest of the gods.
He was concealed, disguised as a woman, in the palace of Lycomedes, king of the island, when his mother wished to keep him back from the Trojan War; he was discovered there by Odysseus, and gladly accompanied him to Troy.
It was founded, according to legend, either by a son of Odysseus and Circe, or by Danae, the mother of Perseus.
It is spoken of in the Iliad as the stormy abode of Selli who sleep on the ground and wash not their feet, and in the Odyssey an imaginary visit of Odysseus to the oracle is referred to.
Odysseus, warned by Circe, escaped the danger by stopping the ears of his crew with wax and binding himself to the mast until he was out of hearing (Odyssey xii.).
When the adventures of Odysseus were localized on the Italian and Sicilian coasts, the Sirens were transferred to the neighbourhood of Neapolis and Surrentum, the promontory of Pelorum at the entrance to the Straits of Messina, or elsewhere.
Yet in several respects the conditions under which the singer finds himself in the house of a chieftain like Odysseus or Alcinous are more in harmony with the character of Homeric poetry than those of the later rhapsodic contests.
Doloneia - Night expedition of Odysseus and Diomede (in all probability added later).
There was first of all a " Return of Odysseus," relating chiefly the adventures with the Cyclops, Calypso and the Phaeacians; then a continuation, the scene of which lay in Ithaca, embracing the bulk of books xiii.-xxiii.
PENELOPE, in Greek legend, wife of Odysseus, daughter of Icarius and the nymph Periboea.
She was relieved by the arrival of Odysseus, who returned after an absence of twenty years, and slew the wooers.
During her husband's absence she is said to have become the mother of Pan by Hermes, and Odysseus, on his return, repudiated her as unfaithful (Herodotus ii.
According to another account she married Telegonus the son of Odysseus and Circe, after he had killed his father, and dwelt with him in the island of Aeala or in the Islands of the Blest (Hyginus, Feb.
A short fragment has been discovered (in the Rainer papyri) from the `OSuvQei s abr6 oXos, which told how Odysseus got inside Troy in the disguise of a beggar and obtained valuable information.
According to other accounts, having been made prisoner by a stratagem of Odysseus, he declared that Philoctetes must be fetched from Lemnos before Troy could be taken; or he surrendered to Diomedes and Odysseus in the temple of Apollo, whither he had fled in disgust at the sacrilegious murder of Achilles by Paris in the sanctuary.
It was said that Zeus threw it down from heaven when Ilus was founding the city of Ilium, Odysseus and Diomedes carried it off from the temple of Athena, and thus made the capture of Troy possible.
It was represented as the entrance by which both Odysseus and Aeneas descended to the infernal regions, and as the abode of the Cimmerii.
212) tells how he was chastised by Odysseus for daring to abuse the commander-in-chief.
Well-known parallels are Odysseus and Telegonis, Rustem and Sohrab.
90), Teiresias was the only person in the world of the dead whom Proserpine allowed to retain his memory and intellect unimpaired, and Circe sends Odysseus to consult him concerning his return home.
His reception and entertainment of Odysseus, who when cast by a storm on the shore of the island was relieved by the king's daughter, Nausicaa, is described in the Odyssey (vi.-xiii.).
Another Argus, the old dog of Odysseus, who recognized his master on his return to Ithaca, figures in one of the best-known incidents in Homer's Odyssey (xvii.
An oracle having declared that Troy could not be taken without the arrows of Heracles, Odysseus and Diomedes (or Neoptolemus) were sent to fetch Philoctetes.
In Hesiod (Theogony, 1013) he is the son of Odysseus and Circe, and ruler of the Tyrsenians; in Virgil, the son of Faunus and the nymph Marica, a national genealogy being substituted for the Hesiodic, which probably originated from a Greek source.
To prevent his going to the siege of Troy, Thetis disguised him in female apparel, and hid him among the maidens at the court of King Lycomedes in Scyros; but Odysseus, coming to.the island in the disguise of a pedlar, spread his wares, including a spear and shield, before the king's daughters, among whom was Achilles.
The contest between Ajax and Odysseus for his arms is also mentioned.
The object of the story is to establish the close connexion between Hermes, the god of theft and cunning, and the three persons - Sisyphus, Odysseus, Autolycus - who are the incarnate representations of these practices.