How to use Ocean in a sentence
She breathed in the ocean air.
She faced the ocean, the moon dangling low and large in the sky before her.
The sight, sound and scent of the ocean helped her relax.
In fact, he must be struggling to float on the ocean of problems this family represented.
He glared at the ocean and strode up the beach littered with wood, boats, and cars, to the highway.Advertisement
She shivered in the chilly ocean breeze.
Kris opened a portal to the Indian Ocean Sanctuary, where Erik had gone to seek out Ully.
His gaze went to the ocean.
The sound of a roaring ocean filled the chamber.
The ocean breeze did nothing to cool her off.Advertisement
Chilled by the cold ocean wind, Deidre pressed herself against his warm body.
Rhyn gasped and struggled to sit. Kiki's still body lay a few feet from him, the ocean lapping at his brother's feet. The Caribbean night was humid and warm, and the moon large over head.
According to sources at the Ocean Shore Motel, Byrne was last seen on his way to the beach shortly after midnight by Leo Sutter, a waiter at the motel.
If an airplane crashes in the middle of the ocean and someone is listed as a passenger on it, it's pretty simple, even if there's never a body.
Hunter and Dean exchanged information during the short drive to the Ocean Shore Motel.Advertisement
His eyes were as dark as the ocean depths, his grip around her body unmovable.
She will be as she was before she walked into the ocean.
Accompanied by two guards, she mounted her favorite bay horse and pounded through familiar roads and intersections to the southern wall., The chill of the ocean crept into its walls.
The sun had set, and dusk settled over the ocean.
Like a sunken object freed from the ocean floor, Dean began to ascend to the surface of wakefulness.Advertisement
The ocean's calming rhythm and flavorful breeze made the beach more bearable.
It was not unlike the Ocean Shore in Norfolk, only smaller and completely deserted.
Denton was the one who hated to swim in the ocean.
The fleet is divided into the Mediterranean squadron, the Northern squadron, the Atlantic division, the Far Eastern division, the Pacific division, the Indian Ocean division, the Cochin China division.
The Atlantic Ocean contains a relatively small number of islands.Advertisement
There the Volga, the Ural, the Syr-darya and the Amu-darya discharge their waters without reaching the ocean, but they bring life to the rapidly desiccating Transcaspian steppes, and link together the most remote parts of Russia.
Finally a fifth depression, which descends below the level of the ocean, extends for more than zoo m.
Urals, and enters the ocean by a large estuary at the Gulf of Pechora.
Though thus exhibiting the distinctive features of a continental climate, Russia does not lie altogether outside the reach of the moderating influence of the ocean.
Along the Murman coast of the Arctic Ocean and in the White Sea, where many millions of herrings are caught annually by some 3000 persons, the yearly produce is estimated at the value of £140,000.
Then he annexed its colonies and thereby extended his dominions to the Polar Ocean and the Ural Mountains.
Thus the term Savaii itself, originally Savaiki, is supposed to have been carried by the Samoan wanderers over the ocean to Tahiti, New Zealand, the Marquesas and Sandwich groups, where it still survives in such variant forms as Havaii, Hawaiki, Havaiki and Hawaii.
The ocean tempers the climate considerably on the seaboard.
Sure enough, after ten minutes of silent driving on nearly empty streets, he recognized Ocean View Avenue, and a few minutes later, The Ocean Shore Motel.
The sun peered over the ocean to the north while blooming apple trees sprinkled their flowers into piles in a cool sea breeze.
If we get separated, go toward the ocean.
The ocean was visible; she estimated they were about half a mile from the orchard.
Her gaze assessed their location for a safe path towards the ocean.
The ocean air was fragrant and heavy, and moonlight pierced the forest canopy in patches.
He shivered at the taste of night-blooming flowers and the salty ocean on the cool breeze.
The quiet city smelled of the ocean and the forest.
The heavy scent of fragrant sea swept over him, the chill of the ocean kept out of the city by its thick walls.
I threw my cousin's body from the Cliffs into the ocean, and I told my mate a bandit killed our daughter.
He broke down and cried quietly for his father and their men, wondering how he could make it across the ocean alone.
If Memon succeeds in raising an army of his allies, he will be able to trap us here on the cliffs, against the ocean here.
The night air was crisp and cool and laden by the scents of the ocean.
He remained facing the ocean, resolved to deal with her on his terms.
Moonlight glinted off the swords at his hip, and a cold ocean breeze swept up the Western Cliffs, rolled over them, and rustled the branches of the nearby forest.
Taran's gaze went to where the dark ocean met the sky in the distance.
The moon was too bright for his eyes, and the cold ocean breeze burned his lungs.
You swim in the ocean, don't you ... or do you stay on the beach all the time to avoid the sharks?
My guess is that you accept the slim possibility that a shark might get you, and swim in the ocean anyway.
She was getting used to the water and it felt good, but she would have preferred a swim in the ocean.
The fragrant ocean breeze was chilly as it brushed his skin, and his movements fell into the rhythm of the ebb and flow of waves.
California sunlight and an ocean breeze streamed in through open windows of Xander's spacious condo.
Jessi watched him go, texted her cousins then returned her gaze to the dark sky and ocean.
He imagined the ocean breeze zipping straight through where his living room used to be.
Her gray eyes were almost the color of the moon overhead, her pale features obscured by curls that danced in an ocean breeze.
North of the Senegal the Sahara reaches the coast, and for over moo miles no river enters the ocean.
The Mediterranean is all that remains of a great ocean which at an early geological epoch, before the formation of the Atlantic, encircled half the globe along a line of latitude.
This ocean, already diminished in area, retreated after Oligocene times from the Iranian plateau, Turkestan, Asia Minor and the region of the north-west Alps.
Some of these lake-beds are at or slightly below sea-level, so that a very slight depression of the land to the south of them would connect much of the interior with the Southern Ocean.
Even the White Sea is merely a gulf of that ocean.
It is served by the Panama railway, which crosses the Isthmus of Panama from ocean to ocean.
Besides the Belt there are several parks and reserves, including botanical and acclimatization gardens, the so-called Ocean Beach, and two race-courses.
Norfolk is the see of a Protestant Episcopal bishopric. The city has a public park of 110 acres and various smaller ones, and in the vicinity are several summer resorts, notably Virginia Beach, Ocean View, Old Point Comfort, Pine Beach and Willoughby Beach.
The entrance to it was in the extreme west, on the borders of Ocean, in the mythical land of the Cimmerians.
The romance of Alexander is found written in the languages of nearly all peoples from the Indian Ocean to the Atlantic, but all these versions are derived, mediately or immediately, from the Greek original which circulated under the false name of Callisthenes.
In the extreme west, which is as yet but slightly explored and settled, there is an extensive depressed area, largely saline in character, which drains into lakes and morasses, having no outlet to the ocean.
It stands up from the ocean depths in three fairly well-marked terraces.
The first ledge rising from the ocean floor has depth averaging 8000 ft.
The vertical relief of the land above the ocean is a very important factor in determining the climate as well as the distribution of the fauna and flora of a continent.
The Southern Ocean system of the Victorian Dividing Range hardly attains to the dignity of high mountains.
Flowing into the Pacific Ocean on the east coast there are some fine rivers, but the majority have short and rapid courses.
Much accumulated evidence, biological and geological, has pointed to a southern extension of India, an eastern extension of South Africa, and a western extension of Australia into the Indian Ocean.
Thus he came at length to stand on the verge of the Indian Ocean; " gazing upon it," a writer has said, " with as much delight as Balboa, when he crossed the Isthmus of Darien from the Atlantic to the Pacific."
The rivers of the province belong to the basins of the Indian Ocean and the Java Sea respectively, the water-parting being formed by the western and eastern ends respectively of the northern and southern lines of mountain peaks.
The Chi Tandui, also rising here, flows south-east to the Indian Ocean, and alone of all the rivers in this province is navigable.
It extends E northward to the Arctic Basin and southward to the Great Southern Ocean.
On both sides of the central ridge deep troughs extend southwards from the Telegraph plateau to the Southern Ocean, the deep water coming close to the land all the way down on both sides.
In the North Atlantic the distribution of pressure and resulting wind circulation are very largely modified by the enormous areas of land and frozen sea which surround the ocean on three sides.
The movements of the northern branch of the Gulf Stream drift have been the object of more careful and more extended study than all the other currents of the ocean put together, except, perhaps, the Gulf Stream itself.
The tides of the Atlantic Ocean are of great complexity.
The tidal wave of the Southern Ocean, which sweeps uninterruptedly round the globe from east to west, generates a secondary wave between Africa and South America, which travels north at a rate dependent only on the depth of the ocean.
When the consolidation of the Dominion by means of railway construction was under discussion in 1872, Grant travelled from the Atlantic to the Pacific with the engineers who surveyed the route of the Canadian Pacific railway, and his book Ocean to Ocean (1873) was one of the first things that opened the eyes of Canadians to the value of the immense heritage they enjoyed.
He was the author of a number of works, of which the most notable besides Ocean to Ocean are, Advantages of Imperial Federation (1889), Our National Objects and Aims (1890), Religions of the World in Relation to Christianity (1894) and volumes of sermons and lectures.
The experience gained in the earlier days of ocean telegraphy, from the failure and abandonment of nearly 50 per cent.
In depths beyond the reach of wave motion, and apart from suspension across a submarine gully, which will sooner or later result in a rupture of the cable, the most frequent cause of interruption is seismic or other shifting of the ocean bed, while in shallower waters and near the shore the dragging of anchors or 40 fishing trawls has been mostly responsible.
The Atlantic Telegraph Company was reconstituted as the AngloAmerican Telegraph Company with a capital of f600,000 and sufficient cable was ordered not only to lay a line across the ocean but also to complete the 1865 cable.
He also repeated the suggestion which Lindsay had already made that it might be possible to signal in this manner by conduction currents through the Atlantic Ocean from the United States to Europe.
He proposed that one ship should be provided with the means of making an interrupted current in a circuit formed partly of an insulated metallic wire connected with the sea at both ends by plates, and partly of the unlimited ocean.
The furrows are the great ocean basins, and these would still persist even if the land surface were enlarged to the 1400 fathoms contour.
It was natural, if not strictly logical, that the ocean river should be extended from a narrow stream to a world-embracing sea, and here again Greek theory, or rather fancy, gave its modern name to the greatest feature of the globe.
From Sidon, and later from its more famous rival Tyre, the merchant adventurers of Phoenicia explored and colonized the coasts of the Mediterranean and fared forth into the ocean beyond.
The great Phoenician colony of Carthage, founded before 800 B.C., perpetuated the commercial enterprise of the parent state, and extended the sphere of practical trade to the ocean shores of Africa and Europe.
The world was henceforth viewed as a very large place stretching far on every side beyond the Midland or Mediterranean Sea, and the land journey of Alexander resulted in a voyage of discovery in the outer ocean from the mouth of the Indus to that of the Tigris, thus opening direct intercourse between Grecian and Hindu civilization.
After two successful voyages, Eudoxus, impressed with the idea that Africa was surrounded by ocean on the south, left the Egyptian service, and proceeded to Cadiz and other Mediterranean centres of trade seeking a patron who would finance an expedition for the purpose of African discovery; and we learn from Strabo that the veteran explorer made at least two voyages southward along the coast of Africa.
One of the crew of Enciso's ship, Vasco Nunez de Balboa, the future discoverer of the Pacific Ocean, induced his commander to form a settlement on the other side of the Gulf of Darien.
Vasco Nunez, the new commander, entered upon a career of conquest in the neighbourhood of Darien, which ended in the discovery of the Pacific Ocean on the 25th of September 1513.
This was one of the greatest calamities that could have happened to South America; for the discoverer of the South sea was on the point of sailing with a little fleet into his unknown ocean, and a humane and judicious man would probably have been the conqueror of Peru, instead of the cruel and ignorant Pizarro.
For this purpose Juan Diaz de Solis was despatched in October 1515, and in Pacific January 1516 he discovered the mouth of the Rio de la ocean.
It was long before another British ship entered the Pacific Ocean.
James Lancaster made a voyage to the Indian Ocean from 1591 to 1594; and in 1599 the merchants and adventurers of London resolved to form a company, with the object of establishing a trade with the East Indies.
On the 6th of May 1615 Spilbergen entered the Pacific Ocean, and touched at several places on the coast of Chile and Peru, defeating the Spanish fleet in a naval engagement off Chilca.
In 1772 the French explorer Yves Kerguelen de Tremarec had discovered the land that bears his name in the South Indian Ocean without recognizing it to be an island, and naturally believed it to be part of the southern continent.
The deviation is of importance in the movement of air, of ocean currents, and to some extent of rivers.3 In popular usage the words " physical geography " have come to mean geography viewed from a particular standpoint rather than any special department of the subject.
Granting that the geoid or mean surface of the ocean is a uniform spheroid, the distribution of land and water approximately indicates a division of the surface of the globe into two areas, one of elevation and one of depression.
Actual or projected routes for telegraph cables across the deep sea have also been sounded with extreme accuracy in many cases; but beyond these lines of sounding the vast spaces of the ocean remain unplumbed save for the rare researches of scientific expeditions, such as those of the " Challenger," the " Valdivia," the " Albatross " and the " Scotia."
Thus the best approximation to the average depth of the ocean is little more than an expert guess; yet a fair approximation is probable for the features of sub-oceanic relief are so much more uniform than those of the land that a smaller number of fixed points is required to determine them.
A striking fact in the configuration of the crust is cs 1'000 n that each continent, or elevated mass of the crust, is T diametrically opposite to an ocean basin or great de 5000 0 -5000 -15000 -20 2500 -300 pression; the only partial exception being in the case of southern South America, which is antipodal to eastern Asia.
Taking the Atlantic as our simplest type, we may say that the surface of an ocean basin resembles that of a mighty trough or syncline, buckled up more or less centrally in a medial ridge, which is bounded by two long and deep marginal hollows, in the cores of which still deeper grooves sink to the profoundest depths.
Where the great continental sag sinks below the ocean level, we have our gulfs and our Mediterraneans, seen in our type continent, as the Mexican Gulf and Hudson Bay.
Where the central oceanic buckle attains the water-line we have our oceanic islands, seen in our type ocean, as St Helena and the Azores.
The percentages of the land surface draining to the different oceans are approximately - Atlantic, 34'3%; Arctic sea, 26.5%; Pacific, 14.4%; Indian Ocean, 12.8%.'
Corals and other quick-growing cal- careous marine organisms are the most powerful in this respect by creating new land in the ocean.
Plicatulae have been found attached to these coprolites, showing that they were already hard bodies when lying at the bottom of the Chalk ocean.
In turn other animals took shape, the last being two golden spiders from whose excrement the earth gradually rose above the surrounding ocean.
The Gallic Wars (58-51) of Caesar (q.v.) added all the rest of Gaul, north-west of the Cevennes, to the Rhine and the Ocean, and in 49 also annexed Massilia.
Hills nearly enclose the city, protecting it from the ocean fogs.
These two conquests, wrought in the great island of the Ocean and in the great island of the Mediterranean, were the main works of the Normans after they had fully put on the character of a Christian and French-speaking people, in other words, after they had changed from Northmen into Normans.
It has a seaboard on the Atlantic Ocean of 120 m., a shore-line to the south on the Rio de la Plata of 235 m., and one of 270 m.
In a steam vessel running at high speed on an ocean route, with engines working smoothly and uniformly, a careful officer with correct line and glass can obtain very accurate results with the common log.
Thus it consists of the immense plains and flat lands which extend between the plateau formation and the Arctic Ocean, including the series of parallel chains and hilly spurs which skirt the former region on the N.W.
The picturesque Bureya Mountains above the Amur, the forest-clad Sikhota-alin on the Pacific, and the volcanic chains of Kamchatka belong, however, to quite another orographical construction, being the border-ridges of the terraces by which the great plateau formation descends to the depths of the Pacific Ocean.
The Eocene covers wide tracts from Lithuania to Tsaritsyn, and is represented in the Crimea and Caucasus by thick deposits belonging to the same ocean which left its deposits on the Alps and the Himalayas.
It is a special feature of Russia that she has no free outlet to the open sea except on the ice-bound shores of the Arctic Ocean.
He now " plunged into the ocean of the Augustan history," and " with pen almost always in hand," pored over all the original records, Greek and Latin, between Trajan and the last of the Western Caesars.
At a time when all nationalities, and at the same time all bonds of religion and national customs, were beginning to be broken up in the seeming cosmos and real chaos of the Graeco-Roman Empire, the Jews stood out like a rock in the midst of the ocean.
On the east and north their boundary was the lower Rhine, on the west the ocean.
The harbours along the sounds and in the estuaries of the rivers are well protected from the storms of the ocean by the long chain of narrow islands in front, but navigation by the largest vessels is interrupted by shoals in the sounds, and especially by bars crossing the inlets between islands.
A great circle, drawn through East Cape and the southern point of Arabia, passes nearly along the coast-line of the Arctic Ocean, over the Ural Mountains, through the western part of the Caspian, and nearly along the boundary between Persia and Asiatic Turkey.
Although for the purposes of geographical nomenclature, boundaries formed by a coast-line - that is, by depressions of the earth's solid crust below the ocean level - are most easily recog- Political nized and are of special convenience; and although such divisions.
The portion of Asia which lies between the Arctic Ocean and the mountainous belt bounding Manchuria, Mongolia and Turkestan Siberia.
Thus it appears that from the Arctic Ocean there stretches a broad area as far as the south of China, in which no marine deposits of later date than Carboniferous have yet been found, except in the extreme north.
It was a portion of a great land-mass which probably extended across the Indian Ocean and was at one time united with the south of Africa.
The moderating effect of the proximity of the ocean is felt in an important degree along the southern and eastern parts of Asia, where the land is broken up into islands or peninsulas.
In the summer a great accumulation of solar heat takes place on the dry surface soil, from which it cannot be released upwards by evaporation, as might be the case were the soil moist or covered with vegetation, nor can it be readily conveyed away downwards as happens on the ocean.
Among the more remarkable phenomena of the hotter seas of Asia must be noticed the revolving storms or cyclones, which are of frequent occurrence in the hot months in the Indian Ocean and China Sea, in which last they are known under the name of typhoon.
The heated body of air carried from the Indian Ocean over southern Asia by the south-west monsoon comes up highly charged with watery vapour, and hence in a condition to release a large body of water as rain upon the land, whenever it is brought into circumstances which reduce its temperature in a notable degree.
Of the marine orders of Sirenia and Cetacea the Dugong, Halicore, is exclusively found in the Indian Ocean; and a dolphin, Platanista, peculiar to the Ganges, ascends that river to a great distance from the sea.
The Polynemidae, which range from the Atlantic through the Indian Ocean to the Pacific, supply animals from which isinglass is prepared; one of them, the mango-fish, esteemed a great delicacy, inhabits the seas from the Bay of Bengal to Siam.
The Salmonidae are entirely absent from the waters of southern Asia, though they exist in the rivers that flow into the Arctic Ocean and the neighbouring parts of the northern Pacific, extending perhaps to Formosa; and trout, though unknown in Indian rivers, are found beyond the watershed of the Indus, in the streams flowing into the Caspian.
It would seem from this distribution that the Malays are not continental, but a seafaring race with exceptional powers of dispersal, who have spread over the ocean from some island centre - perhaps Java.
The district forms a narrow strip of land between the Indian Ocean and the mountains which separate it from the independent kingdom of Siam.
Metternich persuaded the tsar and the king of Prussia to make a declaration that the allies would leave to Napoleon the "natural boundaries" of France - the Rhine, Alps, Pyrenees and Ocean.
In the Mandaean representation the sky is an ocean of water, pure and clear, but of more than adamantine solidity, upon which the stars and planets sail.
His opportunities of becoming acquainted with birds were hardly inferior to Brisson's, for during Latham's long lifetime there poured in upon him countless new discoveries from all parts of the world, but especially from the newly-explored shores of Australia and the islands of the Pacific Ocean.
Their route led them through Persia, along the southern and eastern shores of the Caspian (whose inland character, unconnected with the outer ocean, their journey helped to demonstrate), and probably through Talas, north-east of Tashkent.
Up to this time the English had based their claim to the same territory on the discovery of the Atlantic Coast by the Cabots and upon the Virginia, Massachusetts and Connecticut charters under which these colonies extended westward to the Pacific Ocean.
The following decade was the most active of the city's history as regards the ocean carrying trade.
Of extra-Atlantic species the mackerel of the Japanese seas are the most nearly allied to the European, those of New Zealand and Australia, and still more those of the Indian Ocean, differing in many conspicuous points.
The fauna, explored by Dybowski and Godlewski, and in 1900-2 by Korotnev, is much richer than it was supposed to be, and has quite an original character; but hypotheses as to a direct communication having existed between Lake Baikal and the Arctic Ocean during the Post-Tertiary or Tertiary ages are not proved.
Generally, while there is a relative poverty of zoological groups, there is a great wealth of species within the group. Of gammarids, there are as many as 300 species, and those living at great depths (33 o to 380 fathoms) tend to assume abyssal characters similar to those displayed by the deep-sea fauna of the ocean.
It is Egypt therefore - to which, it must be remembered, the centre of Mahommedan power had now been virtually shifted, and to which motives of trade impelled the Italian towns (since from it they could easily reach the Red Sea, and the commerce of the Indian Ocean) - it is Egypt which is henceforth the normal goal of the Crusades.
Shut off from the adjacent Indian Ocean by its mountain barrier, the drainage of the country is westward to the distant Atlantic. As its name implies, the chief rivers rise in Mont aux Sources.
From the inner sides of that mountain descend the Caledon and the Senku, whilst from its seaward face the Tugela flows through Natal to the Indian Ocean.
Not far from St Augustine a spring bursts through the sea itself with such force that the ocean breakers roll back from it as from a sunken reef.
These railway communications, and the situation of the city (on the Piedmont Plateau) on the water-parting between the streams flowing into the Atlantic Ocean and those flowing into the Gulf of Mexico, have given Atlanta its popular name, the "Gate City of the South."
The Aegean Sea occupied the centre of the map, while the line where ocean and firmament seemed to meet represented an enlarged horizon.
Dicaearcus of Messana in Sicily, a pupil of Aristotle (326-296 B.C.), is the author of a topographical account of Hellas, with maps, of which only fragments are preserved; he is credited with having estimated the size of the earth, and, as far as known he was the first to draw a parallel across a map. 4 This parallel, or dividing line, called diaphragm (partition) by a commentator, extended due east from the Pillars of Hercules, through the Mediterranean, and along the Taurus and Imaus (Himalaya) to the eastern ocean.
The inhabited world thus delineated formed an island of irregular shape, surrounded on all sides by the ocean, the Erythrean Sea freely communicating with the western ocean.
This map of Eratosthenes, notwithstanding its many errors, such as the assumed connexion of the Caspian with a northern ocean and the supposition that Carthage, Sicily and Rome lay on the same meridian, enjoyed a high reputation in his day.
Even Strabo (c. 30 B.C.) adopted its main features, but while he improved the European frontier, he rejected the valuable information secured by Pytheas and retained the connexion between the Caspian and the outer ocean.
In the main he copied Marinus whose work he revised and supplemented in some points, but he failed to realize the peninsular shape of India, erroneously exaggerated the size of Taprobane (Ceylon), and suggested that the Indian Ocean had no connexion with the western ocean, but formed Mare Clausum.
In every instance the inhabited world is surrounded by the ocean.
Beyond this ocean lies another world, which was occupied by man before the Deluge, and within which Cosmas placed the Terrestrial Paradise.
The charts in use of the medieval navigators of the Indian Ocean - Arabs, Persians or Dravidas - were equal in value if not superior to the charts of the Mediterranean.
Nicolaus Germanus, a monk of Reichenbach, in 1466 prepared a set of Ptolemy's maps on a new projection with converging meridians; and Paolo del Pozzo Toscanelli in 1474 compiled a new chart on a rectangular projection, which was to guide the explorer across the western ocean to Cathay and India.
The ocean separating Europe from he was dependent upon dead reckoning, for although various methods for determining a longitude were known, the available astronomical ephemerides were not trustworthy, and errors of 30 in longitude were by no means rare.
It is also known as the " Eastern Horn of Africa," because it projects somewhat sharply eastwards into the Indian Ocean, and is the only section of the continent which can be spoken of as a peninsula.
The water is deep right to the base of the cliff and owing to the winds and the strength of the ocean currents, navigation is dangerous.
Over this line passes an enormous trade from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean - the railway with its "Empress" steamers on the Pacific and also on the Atlantic Ocean claiming to have as its termini Liverpool and Yokohama.
Afterward going westward from Lake Athabasca and through the Peace river, he reached the Pacific Ocean, being the first white man to cross the North American continent, north of Mexico.
Nearly allied is Neophocaena phocaenoides, a small species from the Indian Ocean and Japan, with teeth of the same form as those of the porpoise, but fewer in number (eighteen to twenty on each side), of larger size, and more distinctly notched or lobed on the free edge.
There is thus a minimum circulation in the greater depths causing there uniformity of temperature, an absence of the circulation of oxygen by other means than diffusion, and a protection of the sulphuretted hydrogen from the oxidation which takes place in homologous situations in the open ocean.
On the Ottoman conquest of Egypt in the 6th century Suez became a naval as well as a trading station, and here fleets were equipped which for a time disputed the mastery of the Indian Ocean with the Portuguese.
The western portions of the range rise abruptly from the ocean, forming a bold and beautiful coast.
The surrounding seas are shallow for the most part, but there are three well-defined channels - the Florida or New Bahama channel, between the north-western islands and Florida, followed by the Gulf Stream, the Providence channels (north-east and north-west) from which a depression known as the Tongue of Ocean extends southward along the east side of Andros, and the Old Bahama channel, between the archipelago and Cuba.
Other captains carried the Turkish arms down the Arabian and Persian gulfs far out into the Indian Ocean.
Driven, with the remnant of his ships, into the Indian Ocean, he landed with fifty companions on the coast of India and travelled back to Turkey by way of Sind, Baluchistan, Khorassan and Persia.
He was the author also of a mathematical work on the use of the astrolabe and of a book (Muhit, " the ocean ") on the navigation of the Indian seas.
The operations of the British fleet were therefore divided between the work of patrolling the ocean roads and ancillary services to diplomacy, or to the armies serving in Italy, Denmark and, after 1808, in Spain.
In 1893 Stevenson published the important Scottish romance of .Catriona., written as a sequel to Kidnapped, and the three tales illustrative of Pacific Ocean character, Island Nights' Entertainments.
His body was carried next day by sixty sturdy Samoans, who acknowledged Stevenson as their chief, to the summit of the precipitous peak of Vaea, where he had wished to be buried, and where they left him to rest for ever with the Pacific Ocean at his feet.
Hydrodynamical methods received increased attention and the investigation of the movements of the ocean by means of physico-mathematical devices developed as a result of the older work of Bjerknes, continued chiefly by Helland-Hansen and Sandstrom.
Given that such observations at the surface of the sea, at intermediate levels and at the bottom are sufficiently numerous and are of a high degree of precision, general conclusions as to the movements of the ocean may be deduced from established theorems in hydrodynamics.
All ocean currents vary from year to year in their strength of flow and the main interest of physical oceanography in recent years has been the tracing-out of these variations and the search for the causes.
The tide-generating force is due to the attraction of the waters of the ocean by sun and moon.
The distribution is very interesting and it has been shown that the water of the Antarctic Ocean contains about 0 .
Clearly, however, the vast quantity of living substance in the ocean is built up from materials that are present in the sea-water as an exceedingly dilute solution, and the solution is dilute just because organisms are incessantly utilizing it.
First of all we consider inorganically combined nitrogen (as nitrates and nitrites chiefly), since upon this depends all the life of the ocean.
It would seem that, on the whole, nitrogen compounds in the ocean (whether existing in the organic or inorganic forms) remain constant in amount.
A considerable degree of denitrification must, therefore, take place in the ocean, for the concentration of combined nitrogen is always excessively small.
Further, the ocean and the atmosphere stand in equilibrium with each other; if there is excess of carbonic acid anywhere in the sea it is absorbed by the atmosphere and vice versa, and so also with the oxygen.
Differences of temperature and atmospheric pressure must disturb this equilibrium, but the movements of both ocean and atmosphere lead to a high degree of uniformity in both envelopes as regards their gaseous constitutions.
Silica is continually being added to the ocean.
The silica, in the form of diatom or radiolarian skeletons, is eventually deposited on the ocean floor after the death of the organisms. Most of the fine colloidal clay is, however, deposited as river-sludges when the fresh water carrying it mixes with denser sea-water.
The water of the ocean is usually nearly saturated with calcium salts, which must continually be removed since they are always being added in the water brought down from the land.
Daly estimates that the maximum lowering of ocean level due to this cause would only amount to 36 fathoms, but even that would be the cause of very marked geological effects.
Finally, Glandiceps abyssicola (Spengelidae) was dredged during the "Challenger" expedition in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Africa at a depth of 2500 fathoms.
In the region between Viluisk (on the Vilui) and Yeniseisk a broad belt of alpine tracts, reaching their greatest elevation in the northern Yeniseisk taiga (between the Upper Tunguzka and the Podkamennaya Tunguzka) and continued to the south-west in lower upheavals, separates the elevated plains from the lowlands which extend towards the Arctic Ocean.
The three principal rivers - the Ob, the Yenisei, and the Lena - take their rise on the high plateau or in the alpine regions fringing it, and, after descending from the plateau and piercing the alpine regions, flow for many hundreds of miles across the high plains and lowlands before they reach the Arctic, Ocean.
The coast-line of Siberia is very extensive both on the Arctic Ocean and on the Pacific. The former ocean is ice-bound for at least ten months out of twelve; and, though Nordenskjold and Captain Wiggins demonstrated (1874-1900) the possibility of navigation along its shores, it is exceedingly is s.
The extensive lowlands which stretch over more than one half of the area, as well as the elevated plains, lie open to the Arctic Ocean.
The Russians, issuing from the middle Urals, have travelled as a broad stream through south Siberia, sending branches to the Altai, to the Ili river in Turkestan and to Minusinsk, as well as down the chief rivers which flow to the Arctic Ocean, the banks of which are studded with villages 15 to 20 m.
Although the Arctic Ocean had been reached as early as the first half of the 17th century, the exploration of its coasts by a series of expeditions under Ovtsyn, Minin, Pronchishev, Lasinius and Laptev - whose labours constitute a brilliant page in the annals of geographical discovery - was begun only in the 18th century (1735-1739).
About this stage the larvae leave the broodpouch, which is a lateral or median cavity in the body of the female, and lead a free swimming life in the ocean.
While at New York he wrote a play, The Ocean Waif, or Channel Outlaw, which was acted, and is forgotten.
The whole series was evidently deposited in shallow water on the summit of a submarine volcano standing in its present isolation, and round which the ocean floor has probably altered but a few hundred feet since the Eocene age.
The ocean currents, the trade-winds blowing from the Australian mainland, and north-westerly storms from the Malayan islands, are no doubt responsible for the introduction of many, but not all, of these Malayan and Australasian species.
In Ponape and Kusaie, massive stone structures, similar to those which occur in several other parts of the Pacific Ocean, have long been known to exist.
Aldabra, however, although situated in that region of the Indian Ocean which forms part of the site of the IndoMadagascar continent of the Secondary period, is not a peak of the submerged land.
He investigated also the variations of temperature in the atmosphere and ocean.
The second group represents, first, the birth of Mithras; then the god nude, cutting fruit and leaves from a fig-tree in which is the bust of a deity, and before which one of the winds is blowing upon Mithras; the god discharging an arrow against a rock from which springs a fountain whose water a figure is kneeling to receive in his palms; the bull in a small boat, near which again occurs the figure of the animal under a roof about to be set on fire by two figures; the bull in flight, with Mithras in pursuit; Mithras bearing the bull on his shoulders; Helios kneeling before Mithras; Helios and Mithras clasping hands over an altar; Mithras with drawn bow on a running horse; Mithras and Helios banqueting; Mithras and Helios mounting the chariot of the latter and rising in full course over the ocean.
The head of the divine hierarchy of Mithras was Infinite Time - Cronus, Saturn; Heaven and Earth were his offspring, and begat Ocean, who formed with them a trinity corresponding to Jupiter, Juno, and Neptune.
Both of these lakes lie nearly parallel with the coast line, are separated from the ocean by broad sand beaches filled with small lakes, and communicate with the ocean through the same channel.
The most popular resorts are Manly Beach, Chowder Bay and Watson's Bay, in the harbour; Cabarita, on the Parramatta river; Middle Harbour; and Coogee Bay and Bondi, on the ocean beach; Botany, Lady Robinson's Beach, Sandringham and Sans Souci on Botany Bay.
The former is most picturesquely situated on the cliff overlooking the Pacific Ocean.
The question of a fairway from ocean to harbour has been a difficult one at nearly every port on the African coast.
A heavy sea from the Indian Ocean is always breaking on the shore, even in the finest weather, and at the mouth of every natural harbour a bar occurs.
He saw in the Magyars the chief obstacle to the realization of his dream, and openly warned them that they were " an island in the Slav ocean," which one day might easily engulf them.
This edge is marked by ranges of hills such as the Witwatersrand, Witwatersberg and Magaliesberg; the Witwatersrand, which extends eastward to Johannesburg, forming the watershed between the rivers flowing to the Atlantic and Indian Ocean.
Thence issue many streams which in their way to the ocean have forced their way through the ranges of hills which mark the steps in the plateau, forming the narrow passes or poorts characteristic of South African scenery.
Of these the Komati (q.v.) and its affluents, and the Pongola and its affluents rise in the high veld and flowing eastward to the Indian Ocean drain but a comparatively small area of the province, of which the Pongola forms for some distance the south-eastern frontier.
The air is unusually dry, owing to the proximity of the Kalahari Desert on the west and to the interception on the east by the Drakensberg of the moisture bearing clouds from the Indian Ocean.
In general the climate of Venezuela is healthy wherever the ocean winds have free access.
The distance in a direct line between its source in the Alps and its mouth in the German Ocean is 460 m.
Probably this section may be looked upon as the oldest portion of the river course proper, connecting the upper Rhenish lake with the primeval ocean at Bonn.
It is not probable that the sweet-smelling gums and resins of the countries of the Indian Ocean began to be introduced into Greece before the 8th or 7th century B.C., and doubtless XiOavos or X q /3avw-rOs first became an article of extensive commerce only after the Mediterranean trade with the East had been opened up by the Egyptian king Psammetichus (c. 664-610 B.C.).
The Umfolosi, with two main branches, the Black and White Umfolosi, drains the central part of the country and reaches the ocean at St Lucia Bay.
Farther south the Umhlatuzi empties into a lagoon which communicates with the ocean by Richards Bay.
That it is possible to work with safety beneath rivers, lakes and even the ocean has been proved in numerous instances; mines in different parts of the world having been extended long distances under the sea.
At Wheal Cock near St Just in Cornwall the protecting roof was so thin that holes bored for blasting more than once penetrated to the bed of the ocean, and wooden plugs were kept on hand to drive into such holes when this occurred.
The three vessels lost, the' " Irresistible," " Ocean " and " Bouvet," were out of date; but of those put out of action the " Inflexible " was a modern ship, and she and another very nearly foundered before they could be got to a place of safety.
In 1793 peace was concluded between these two powers, the Siamese yielding to the Burmans the entire possession of the coast of Tenasserim on the Indian Ocean, and the two important seaports of Mergui and Tavoy.
The puma has an exceedingly wide range of geographical distribution, extending over a hundred degrees of latitude, from Canada in the north to Patagonia in the south, and formerly was generally diffused in suitable localities from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, but the advances of civilization have curtailed the extent of the districts which it inhabits.
It is visited by the ocean steamers of several lines, and is the centre of a very extensive beche-de-mer and pearl fishery.
Brett controlled the Newfoundland Telegraph Company on the other side of the ocean, Bright organized with them the Atlantic Telegraph Company in 1856 for the purpose of carrying out the idea, himself becoming engineer-in-chief.
Bahrein, Kuwet and Muscat are in steam communication with India, and the Persian Gulf ports; all the great lines of steamships call at Aden on their way between Suez and the East, and regular services are maintained between Suez, Jidda, Hodeda and Aden, as well as to the ports on the African coast, while native coasting craft trade to the smaller ports on the Red Sea and Indian Ocean.
Bering Sea is the northward continuation of the Pacific Ocean, from which it is demarcated by the long chain of the Aleutian Islands.
The sea is connected with the Arctic Ocean northward by Bering Strait, at the narrowest part of which East Cape (Deshnev) in Asia approaches within about 56 m.
Leaving Hampton Roads on the 18th of August 1838, it Mopped at Madeira and Rio de Janeiro; visited Tierra del Fuego, Chile, Peru, the Paumotu group of the Low Archipelago, the Samoan islands and New South Wales; from Sydney sailed into the Antarctic Ocean in December 1839 and reported the discovery of an Antarctic continent west of the Balleny islands; visited the Fiji and the Hawaiian islands in 1840, explored the west coast of the United States, including the Columbia river, San Francisco Bay and the Sacramento river, in 1841, and returned by way of the Philippine islands, the Sulu archipelago, Borneo, Singapore, Polynesia and the Cape of Good Hope, reaching New York on the 10th of June 1842.
The coast, extending from the base of the Western or Maritime Cordillera to the Pacific Ocean, consists of a sandy desert crossed at intervals by rivers flowing through narrow, fertile valleys.
The coast has been upraised from the ocean at no very distant geological epoch, and is nearly as destitute of vegetation as the Coast.
Such a circle, however, runs so near the coast of Antarctica as to make the southern ocean very small.
Others, like Malte Brun (1803) and Supan (1903), take the loxodromes between the three capes and call the ocean to the south the Antarctic Ocean.
Where the ocean touches the continents the margin is in places deeply indented by peninsulas and islands marking off portions of the water surface which from all antiquity have been known as " seas."
These seas are entirely dependent on the ocean for their regime, being filled with ocean water, though subject to influence by the land, and the tides and currents of the ocean affect them to a greater or less extent.
Enclosed seas extend deeply into the land and originate either by the breaking through of the ocean or by the overflowing of a subsiding area.
They are connected with the ocean by narrow straits, the salinity of the water contained in them differs in a marked degree from that of the ocean, and the tidal waves are of small amplitude.
There are also four smaller continental enclosed seas each with a single channel of communication with the ocean, viz.
Hence their tidal conditions are quite oceanic, though their salinity is usually rather lower than that of ocean water.
If the whole globe were covered with a uniformly deep ocean, and if there were no difference of density between one part and another, the surface would form a perfect ellipsoid of revolution, that is to say, all the meridians would be exactly equal ellipses and all parallels perfect circles.
Hecker took the opportunity of a voyage from Hamburg to La Plata, and in 1904 and 1905 of voyages in the Indian and Pacific Oceans to determine the local attraction over the ocean by comparing the atmospheric pressure measured by means of a mercurial barometer and a boiling-point thermometer, and obtained results similar to Scott Hansen's.
At this period an exact knowledge of the depths of the ocean off after the beginning of the south-west monsoon to a minimum assumed an unlooked-for practical importance from the daring in August, the total range being 92 in.
In the region of tropical hurricanes the navies, while in the Mediterranean and in the Indian Ocean converging wind system of a circular storm causes a heaping many soundings were made in connexion with submarine up of water capable of devastating the low coral islands of the cables to the East.
Ingenious devices had indeed been tried in the 17th biological conditions of the ocean as a whole.
American scientific enterprise, mainly in very deep water, though in a few instances he overestimated under the guidance of Professor Alexander Agassiz, has been the depth by failing to detect the moment at which the lead active in the North Atlantic and especially in the Pacific Ocean, touched bottom.
Viewed from the floor of the ocean the continental block would thus appear as a great plateau rising to a height of 14,360 ft.
Nevertheless, the greatest depths of the ocean below sea-level and the greatest heights of the land above it are of the same order of magnitude, the summit of Mount Everest rising to 29,000 ft.
Particularly steep slopes are found in the case of submarine domes, usually incomplete volcanic cones, and there have been cases in which after such a dome has been discovered by the soundings of a surveying ship it could not be found again as its whole area was so small and the deep floor of the ocean from which it rose so flat that an error of 2 or 3 m.
While such steep mountain walls are found in the bed of the ocean it must be remembered that they are very exceptional, and except where there are great dislocations of the submarine crust or volcanic outbursts the forms of the ocean floor are incomparably gentler in their outlines than those of the continents.
Being protected by the water from the rapid subaerial erosion which sharpens the features of the land, and subjected to the regular accumulation of deposits, the whole ocean floor has assumed some approach to uniformity.
Still there are everywhere gentle inequalities on the smoothest ocean floor which give to its greater features a distinct relief.
The seaward edge of the continental shelf often falls steeply to the greatest depths of the ocean, and not infrequently forms the slope of a trench, a form of depression which has usually a steep slope towards a continent or an island-bearing rise on one side and a gentler slope towards the general level of the ocean on the other.
Continuing southwards the rise joins the Azores Plateau, which has in parts a very marked relief, and runs thence southward almost exactly in the middle of the ocean, becoming gradually lower as it goes.
The greater part of the Indian Ocean is occupied by the great Indian Basin, which covers 35,000,000 sq.
The western part of the Indian Ocean has been shown by the surveys of H.M.S.
The Pacific Ocean consists mainly of one enormous basin bounded on the west by New Zealand and the Tonga, Marshall aid Marianne ridges, on the north by the festoons of islands marking off the North Pacific fringing seas, on the east by the coast of North America and the great Easter Island Rise and on the south by the Antarctic Shelf.
This greatest of ocean basins contains also the largest and deepest trenches.
The northern part of the Marianne Trench leads to a wave-like configuration of the ocean floor, the depth to the east of Saipan being over 4300 fathoms, followed by a rise to 1089 fathoms and then a descent to 3167 fathoms.
The south-western part of the Pacific Ocean has a very rich and diversified submarine relief, abounding in small basins separated by ridges and rises.
The borders of the Malay Sea are everywhere shallower on the side of the Indian Ocean than on that of the Pacific, and consequently water from the Pacific preponderates in the depths.
The Mediterranean Sea, the best-known member of the intercontinental class, is separated from the Atlantic Ocean by a ridge running from Cape Spartel to Cape Trafalgar on which the greatest depth is only 175 fathoms. The depth increases so rapidly towards the east that soundings exceeding 500 fathoms occur off Gibraltar.
Towards the continent there is a broad shelf, and just before the chain of islands separating them from the ocean runs a narrow and deep trough.
Oceanic Deposits.-It has long been known that the deposits which carpet the floor of the ocean differ in different places, and coasting sailors have been accustomed from time immemorial to use the lead not only to ascertain the depth of the water but also to obtain samples of the bottom, the appearance of which is often characteristic of the locality.
As so defined the hemipelagic deposits are those which occur in general on the slope from the continental shelves to the ocean depths and also in the deep basins of enclosed and fringing seas.
Blue mud prevails in large areas of the Pacific Ocean from the Galapagos Islands to Acapulco.
In the Indian Ocean it covers the Bay of Bengal, the Arabian Gulf, the Mozambique Channel and the region to the south-west of Madagascar.
The terrigenous ingredients in the deposits become less and less abundant as one goes farther into the deep ocean and away from the continental margins.
Still, according to Murray and Irvine, finely divided colloidal clay is to be found in all parts of the ocean however remote from land, though in very small amount, and there is less in tropical than in cooler waters.
Volcanic dust thrown into the air settles out slowly, and some of the products of submarine and littoral volcanoes, like pumice-stone, possess a remarkable power of floating and may drift into any part of the ocean before they become waterlogged and sink.
To this inconceivably slowly-growing deposit of inorganic material over the ocean floor there is added an overwhelmingly more rapid contribution of the remains of calcareous and siliceous planktonic and benthonic organisms, which tend to bury the slower accumulating material under a blanket of globigerina, pteropod, diatom or radiolarian ooze.
It is a remarkable geographical fact that on the rises and in the basins of moderate depth of the open ocean the organic oozes preponderate, but in the abysmal depressions below 2500 or 3000 fathoms, whether these lie in the middle or near the edges of the great ocean spaces, there is found only the red clay, with a minimum of calcium carbonate, though sometimes with a considerable admixture of the siliceous remains of radiolarians.
In the Indian Ocean the area covered is 31,000,000 .sq.
This fact, together with the extraordinarily rare occurrence of such remains and meteoric particles in globigerina ooze, although there is no reason to suppose that at any one time they are unequally distributed over the ocean floor, can only be explained on the assumption that the rate of formation of the epilophic deposits through the accumulation of pelagic shells falling from the surface is rapid enough to bury the slowgathering material which remains uncovered on the spaces where the red clay is forming at an almost infinitely slower rate.
There is even some hesitation in accepting the continuity of the chalk with the globigerina ooze of the modern ocean.
If this estimate is correct there exists dissolved in the ocean a quantity of silver equal to T3,300 million metric tons, that is to say 46,700 times as much silver as has been produced from all the mines in the world from the discovery of America down to 1902.
One can look on sea-water as a mixture of very dilute solutions of particular salts, each one of which after the lapse of sufficient time fills the whole space as if the other constituents did not exist, and this interdiffusion accounts easily for the uniformity of composition in the sea-water throughout the whole ocean, the only appreciable difference from point to point being the salinity or degree of concentration of the mixed solutions.
The great similarity between the salts of the ocean and the gaseous products of volcanic eruptions at the present time, rich in chlorides and sulphates of all kinds, is a strong argument for the ocean having been salt from the beginning.
Magnesium sulphate amounts to 4.7% of the total salts of sea-water according to Dittmar, but to 23.6% of the salts of the Caspian according to Lebedinzeff; in the ocean magnesium chloride amounts to 10.9% of the total salts, in the Caspian only to 4.5%; on the other hand calcium sulphate in the ocean amounts to 3.6%, in the Caspian to 6.9 This disparity makes it extremely difficult to view ocean water as merely a watery extract of the salts existing in the rocks of the land.
Such a simple formula is only possible because the salts of sea-water are of such uniform composition throughout the whole ocean that the chlorine bears a constant ratio to the total salinity as newly defined whatever the degree of concentration.
Their experiments show that in similar conditions the evaporation of sea-water amounts to from 70 to 91% of the evaporation of fresh water, a fact of some importance in geophysics on account of the vast expanses of ocean the evaporation from which determines the rainfall and to a large extent the heat-transference in the atmosphere.
Schott gives the following as the result of measurements of transparency by means of a white disk at 23 stations in the open ocean, where quantitative observations of the plankton under i square metre of surface were made at the same time.
The colour of ocean water far from land is an almost pure blue, and all the variations of tint towards green are the result of local disturbances, the usual cause being turbidity of some kind, and this in the high seas is almost always due to swarms of plankton.
The northern seas have an increasing tendency towards green, the Irminger Sea showing 5-9 Forel, while in the North Sea the water is usually a pure green (io-14 Forel), the western Mediterranean shows 5-9 Forel, but the eastern is as blue as the open ocean (0-2 Forel).
There is a distinct relationship between colour and transparency in the ocean; the most transparent water which is the most free from plankton is always the purest blue, while an increasing turbidity is usually associated with an increasing tint of green.
Brown or even blood-red stripes have been observed in the North Atlantic when swarms of the copepod Calanus finmarchicus were present; the brown alga Trichodesmium erythraeum, as its name suggests, can change the blue of the tropical seas to red; swarms of diatoms may produce olive-green patches in the ocean, while some other forms of minute life have at times been observed to give the colour of milk to large stretches of the ocean surface.
In other words, water which has a specific gravity of 1 0280 at the surface would at the same temperature have a specific gravity of 1 0450 at 2000 and I 0540 at 3000 fathoms. If the whole mass of water in the ocean were relieved from pressure its volume would expand from 319 million cub.
The water of the ocean, like any other liquid, absorbs a certain amount of the gases with which it is in contact, and thus sea-water contains dissolved oxygen, nitrogen and carbonic acid absorbed from the atmosphere.
The distribution of dissolved oxygen in the depths of the open ocean is still very imperfectly known.
Carbonic acid passes from the atmosphere into the ocean as soon as its tension in the latter is the smaller; hence in this respect the ocean acts as a regulator.
The amount of carbonic acid in solution may also be increased by submarine exhalations in regions of volcanic disturbance, but it must be remembered that the critical pressure for this gas is 73 atmospheres, which is reached at a depth of 400 fathoms, so that carbonic acid produced at the bottom of the ocean must be in liquid form.
Buchanan on the " Challenger " were vitiated by the incompleteness of the method employed, but they are none the less of value in showing clearly that the waters of the far south of the Indian Ocean are relatively rich in carbonic acid and the tropical areas deficient.
The North Atlantic maximum is the highest with water of 37.9 per mille salinity; the maximum in the South Atlantic is 37.6; in the North Indian Ocean, 36.7; the South Indian Ocean, 36.4; the South Pacific, 36.9; and the North Pacific has the lowest maximum of all, only 35'9.
For the open ocean the only quite trustworthy results are those obtained by the prince of Monaco in the North Atlantic, and by the recent Antarctic expeditions in the South Atlantic and South Indian Oceans.
Buchanan pointed out in 1876, that the great contrasts in surface salinity between the tropical maxima and the equatorial minima give place at the moderate depth of 200 fathoms to a practically uniform salinity in all parts of the ocean.
Our knowledge of the Pacific in this respect is still very imperfect, but it appears to be less salt than the other oceans at depths below 800 fathoms, as on the surface, the salinity at considerable depths being 34.6 to 34.7 in the Western part of the ocean, and about 34.4 to 34.5 in the eastern, so that, although the data are by no means satisfactory, it is impossible to assign a mass-salinity of more than 34.7 per mille for the whole body of Pacific water.
The warming of the ocean is due practically to solar radiation alone; such heat as may be received from the interior of the earth can only produce a small effect and is fairly uniformly distributed.
There are few obseryations available for ascertaining the depth to which warmth from the sun penetrates in the ocean.
The arrangement of the isotherms thus affords a basis for valuable deductions as to the direction of ocean currents.
We are still ignorant of the depth to.which the annual temperature wave penetrates in the open ocean, but observations in the Mediterranean enable us to form some opinion on the matter.
The vertical distribution of temperature ' in the open ocean is much better known than that of salinity.
The whole ocean must thus form but a cold dwelling-place for the organisms of the deep sea.
Thus in the Central American Sea below 93 o fathoms, the depth on the bar, no water is found at a temperature lower than that prevailing in the open ocean at that depth, viz.
An under-current flows out from the Red Sea through the Strait of Bab-el-Mandeb, and from the Mediterranean through the Strait of Gibraltar, raising the salinity as well as the temperature of the part of the ocean outside the gates of the respective seas.
The latter often gives birth to prodigious icebergs and ice islands, which are carried northward by ocean currents, nearly as far as the tropical zone before they melt.
The first comprehensive study of the currents of the Atlantic was that carried out by James Rennell (1790-1.830), and since that time Findlay in his Directories, Heinrich Berghaus, Maury and the officials of the various Hydrographic Departments have produced increasingly accurate descriptions of the currents of the whole ocean, largely from material supplied by merchant captains.
The general lines of the currents of the oceans are fairly well understood, and along the most frequented ocean routes the larger seasonal variations have also been ascertained.
The general scheme of ocean currents depends on the prevailing winds taken in conjunction with the configuration of the coast and its submarine approaches.
The trade-wind regions correspond pretty closely with westward-flowing currents, while in the equatorial calm belts there are eastward-running countercurrents, these lying north of the equator in the Atlantic and Pacific, but south of the equator in the Indian Ocean.
A cyclonic circulation of the atmosphere is associated with a cyclonic circulation of the water of the ocean, as is well shown in the Norwegian Sea and North Atlantic between the Azores and Greenland.
The coincidence of wind and current direction is most marked in the region of alternating monsoons in the north of the Indian Ocean and in the Malay Sea.
We must remember that the ocean is a continuous sheet of water of a certain depth, and the conditions of continuity which hold good for all fluids require that there should be no vacant space within it; hence if a single water particle is set in motion, the whole ocean must respond, as Varenius pointed out in 1650.
Thus all the water carried forward by any current must have the place it left immediately occupied by water from another place, so that only a complete system of circulation can exist in the ocean.
When the wind acts on the surface of the sea it drives before it the particles of the surface layer of water, and, as these cannot be parted from those immediately beneath, the internal friction of the fluid causes the propelling impulse to act through a considerable depth, and if the wind continued long enough it would ultimately set the whole mass of the ocean in motion 'right down to the bottom.
Such currents, due to the banking up of water, have a large share in setting the depths of the sea in motion, and so securing the vertical circulation and ventilation of the ocean.
The difference in density which occurs between one part of the ocean and another, shares with the wind in the production of currents.
If there were strong currents at the bottom of the ocean the uniform accumulation of the deposit of minute shells of globigerina and radiolarian ooze would be impossible, the rises and ridges would necessarily be swept clear of them, and the fact that this is not the case shows that from whatever cause the waters of the depths are set in motion, that motion must be of the most deliberate and gentlest kind.
Differences of density between the waters of enclosed seas and of the ocean are brought about in some instances by concentration of the water of the sea on account of active evaporation, and in other instances by dilution on account of the great influx of land water.
A very powerful vertical circulation is thus set up between enclosed seas and the outer ocean.
The very dense water of the Red Sea and the Mediterranean makes the column of water salter and heavier and the level lower than in the ocean beyond the straits.