The females have relatively large tusks, which are essential in obtaining their food.
At the close of her life she had some success in obtaining payment of her jointure.
After some years' absence in England, fighting the Danes, he returned to Norway in 1015 and declared himself king, obtaining the support of the five petty kings of the Uplands.
He profited largely by the tyranny of Rufus, farming for the king a large proportion of the ecclesiastical preferments which were illegaly kept vacant, and obtaining for himself the wealthy see of Durham (1099).
He especially devoted himself to investigations of the radiation of heat from the sun and its absorption by the earth's atmosphere, and to that end devised various delicate methods and instruments, including his electric compensation pyrheliometer, invented in 1893, and apparatus for obtaining a photographic representation of the infra-red spectrum (1895).
It is curious, however, to find that an ancient nation of the East, so wise in geometrical proportions, should have followed what by modern experience may be regarded as an inverse method, that of obtaining a unit of length by deducing it through weights and cubic measure, rather than by deriving cubic measure through the unit of length.
Salvation is to the Hindu simply deliverance from the power of karma, and each of the philosophic systems has its own method of obtaining it.
It was now all-important for Caesar to secure practical irresponsibility by obtaining a military command.
A medusa with a remarkable habit of life is Mnestra parasites, which is parasitic on the pelagic mollusc Phyllirrhoe, attaching itself to the host by its subumbral surface; its tentacles, no longer required for obtaining food, have become rudimentary.
A part was also played in this movement by a free theology which arose within the Church, itself a kind of Gnosticism which aimed at holding fast whatever was good in the Gnostic movement, and obtaining its recognition within the limits of the Church (Clement of Alexandria, Origen).
Juarez's continued re-election was regarded as unconstitutional, and no party obtaining a clear majority, the matter was thrown into Congress, which elected him.
He undertook in the latter part of September and the first three weeks of October a circular tour to the different courts of Europe in the hope of obtaining some intervention, or at least some good offices.
The mission was unsuccessful; but the negotiator was on its conclusion immediately charged with another - that of obtaining, if possible, an armistice directly from Prince Bismarck.
Brandenburg laid the foundations of her dominion in Westphalia by obtaining the counties of Mark and Ravensberg in 1614 (confirmed 1666), to which the bishopric of Minden was added by the peace of Westphalia.
When he was twentythree, however, he received permission to go to Poitiers to study law, no doubt with a view to his obtaining perferment through his kinsman the Cardinal Jean du Bellay.
The product obtained after burning is known either as kelp or varec. Another method of obtaining kelp is to heat the seaweed in large retorts, whereby tarry and ammoniacal liquors pass over and a very porous residue of kelp remains.
The great public service corporations have, in particular, frequentiy succeeded in obtaining franchises of large pecuniary value without making any adequate payment therefor.
Defeated in her object of obtaining employment in the Russian secret service, she resumed her efforts to gain converts to theosophy.
Moreover, by adding (Politics, H 7, 1327 b 29-33) that the Greek race could govern the world by obtaining one constitution (was Tvy X b.vov 7roXtmeias), he indicated some leaning to a universal monarchy under such a king as Alexander.
With infinite exertion he succeeded in obtaining from government a promise of 20,000, and after four years spent in preparation, sailed in September 1728, accompanied by some friends and by his wife, daughter of Judge Forster, whom he had married in the preceding month.
He took his degree in January 1848, obtaining double-first honours.
After obtaining his degree, Westcott remained for four years in residence at Trinity.
He was a strong supporter of Church reform, especially in the direction of obtaining larger powers for the laity.
No doubt he was waiting for an opportunity of recovering the portion of Bessarabia which had been ceded by the treaty of Paris, and he perceived in the disturbed state of Eastern Europe a possibility of obtaining the desired rectification of frontier, but he hoped to effect his purpose by diplomatic means in conjunction with Austria.
All rodents are vegetable-feeders, and this uniformity in their food and in the mode of obtaining it, namely by gnawing, has led to that general uniformity in structure observable throughout the group; a feature which renders their classification difficult.
- With the so-called strand-moles of South Africa, forming the section Bathyergoidea, and the family Bathyergidae, which were formerl y placed with the Spalacidae, we come to the first of two sections in which the lower jaw has a totally different form to that obtaining in all the preceding groups.
But in that year Lombe of Derby, disguised as a common workman, and obtaining entrance as such into one of the Italian throwing mills, made drawings of the machinery used for this process.
In order to form a relative idea of the importance of the various countries engaged in silk manufacture, a tabulation of the number of looms employed in each country would prove an inadequate guide, owing to the variations from time to time of the fabrics woven, as also to the difficulty in obtaining trustworthy statistics of the number in active operation.
had interests in the preservation of the status quo, and wars were waged and treaties concluded to adjust the strength of states in the common interest of preventing any one of them from obtaining undue predominance.
(f) To present, if expedient, to the governments, for their approval, measures for the protection of the common interests of agriculturists and for the improvement of their condition, after having previously taken every means of obtaining the necessary information, e.g.
for the purpose of obtaining smaller deviation, one part of the compound acts in opposition to the other, the resolving power of the opposing portion must be deducted in calculating the power of the whole.
The usual method of obtaining spectra by the discharges from a Ruhmkorff coil or Wimshurst machine needs no description.
C. Pickering' used in a special case, presently to be referred to, was put into a more general form by Thiele, who, however, assumes N to have the same value for all spectra, and not obtaining sufficient agreement, rejects the formula.
In the summer of 1818 he resigned his mastership, and, in order to increase the probability of obtaining a permanent appointment in the church, took up his residence in Edinburgh.
Although his exceptional method of address seems to have gained him the qualified approval of certain dignitaries of the church, the prospect of his obtaining a settled charge seemed as remote as ever, and he was meditating a missionary tour in Persia when his departure was arrested by steps taken by Dr Chalmers, which, after considerable delay, resulted, in October 1819, in Irving being appointed his assistant and missionary in St John's parish, Glasgow.
With a view to obtaining answers to them, it is necessary to consider the reception of the Gospels in the early Church, and also to examine and compare the Gospels themselves.
The work contains a large amount of information, and shows that its compilers were men of great industry; but its chief interest lies in the fact that it was largely used by Shakespeare and other Elizabethan dramatists; Shakespeare, who probably used the edition of 1587, obtaining from the Chronicles material for most of his historical plays, and also for Macbeth, King Lear and part of Cymbeline.
Of old, a tenant thus obtaining half the produce to himself was held to be co-owner of the soil to the extent of one-fourth; and if he had three-fourths of the crop, his ownership came to one-half.
In 1763 he became king's counsel and bencher of Lincoln's Inn, and for a short time went the northern circuits, but was more successful in obtaining business in the Court of Chancery.
He began life as a clerk, but, obtaining an appointment to a cadetship at West Point in 1825, he graduated there in 1829, and acted as assistant professor of mathematics 1829-1832.
The method of measuring the horizontal component which is almost exclusively used, both in fixed observatories and in the field, consists in observing the period of a freely suspended magnet, and then obtaining the angle through which an auxiliary suspended magnet is deflected by the magnet used in the first part of the experiment.
Hence the above observation gives us a means of obtaining the ratio of the magnetic moment of the needle' b to the value of the earth's total force.
In 1741-1742 he was in England collecting for his mission and obtaining the sanction of the archbishop of Canterbury.
In the later years of his life he applied himself to the problem of obtaining alumina in the crystalline form, and succeeded in making rubies identical with the natural gem not merely in chemical composition but also in physical properties.
(3) Foreign law can only be proved in English courts - and the same rule applies in Scotland - (a) by obtaining an opinion on the subject from a superior court of the country whose laws are in dispute under the Foreign Law Ascertainment Act 1861 or the British Law Ascertainment Act 1859, or (b) by the evidence of a lawyer of the country whose law is in question, or who has studied it in that country, or of an official whose position requires, and therefore presumes, a sufficient knowledge of that law.
of water, but in 1899 the Federal government adopted a project for obtaining a channel having a minimum depth of 30 ft.
The secretariate of memorials (Secretaria Memorialium), through which pass requests addressed to the pope for the purpose of obtaining certain favours, was formerly of great importance; it is now suppressed and the requests are addressed to the proper departments.
One way in which this has been secured is by obtaining the under cooling by temporary cooling of the air space by a spiral tube in which ether may be evaporated, the outer vessel being filled with ice in contact with a solution of equivalent concentration to that within.
Thus the pious Hindu, confronted by the impossibility of obtaining perfect knowledge by the senses or by reason, finds his sole perfection in the contemplation of the infinite (Brahma).
So long as the metal was principally regarded as a necessary ingredient of aluminium-bronze, the Cowles process was popular, but when the advantages of aluminium itself became more apparent, there arose a fresh demand for some chief method of obtaining it unalloyed.
The original Deville process for obtaining pure alumina from bauxite was greatly simplified in 1889 by K.
The elector was very fond of pomp, and, striving to model his court upon that of Louis XIV., he directed his main energies towards obtaining for himself the title of king.
In 1886 he succeeded in obtaining the element fluorine in the free state by the electrolysis of potassium fluoride and anhydrous hydrofluoric acid at a low temperature.
In connexion with these experiments he developed the electric furnace as a convenient means of obtaining very high temperatures in the laboratory; and by its aid he prepared many new compounds, especially carbides, silicides and borides, and melted and volatilized substances which had previously been regarded as infusible.
at Legnano, and the consequent destruction of his plans for obtaining complete authority over Italy.
The colour and markings of a flower often serve to guide the insects to the honey, in the obtaining of which they are compelled either to remove or to deposit pollen.
In July 1662 he was elected professor of geometry in Gresham College, on the recommendation of Dr John Wilkins, master of Trinity College and afterwards bishop of Chester; and in May 1663 he was chosen a fellow of the Royal Society, at the first election made by the council after obtaining their charter.
At last, after long negotiations, exhaustion compelled the French king to sign the peace of Ryswick in 1697, in which William was recognized by France as king of England, the Dutch obtaining a favourable commercial treaty, and the right to garrison the Netherland barrier towns.
The sensation of fear or the restriction of movement and the obtaining of food without exertion evidently prevent the normal development of the creature.
The Viennese have been particularly successful, and their method has been to dye the skins a good brown and then not put in the dark stripes, which exist in sable and mink, until the garment or article is finished, thus obtaining as perfectly symmetrical effects as if the articles were made of small skins instead of large ones.
have been preserved in cold storage, but it is only within a recent period, owing to the difficulty there was in obtaining the necessary perfectly dry atmosphere, that dressed and madeup furs have been preserved by freezing.
He is known to have paid a visit to France, with the purpose of obtaining aid for his country from the French king.
A small group had for some time discussed the means for obtaining for Conservative principles the su p port of the people.
Old lions, whose teeth have become injured with constant wear, become "man-eaters," finding their easiest means of obtaining a subsistence in lurking in the neighbourhood of villages, and dashing into the tents at night and carrying off one of the sleeping inmates.
In 1839 on the final dissolution of the kingdom of the Netherlands, Holland gave definite form to this right by fixing the toll, and by obtaining the assent of the powers to the arrangement which fettered the trade of Antwerp. In 1863 after long negotiations Belgium bought up this right - each of the powers interested in the trade contributing its quota - and the navigation of the Scheldt was then declared free.
It is the law of diminishing returns from land, involving as it does - though only hypothetically - the prospect of a continuously increasing difficulty in obtaining the necessary sustenance for all the members of a society, that gives the principal importance to population as an economic factor.
He studied medicine at Edinburgh, and, on obtaining his M.D.
Machinery was invented for disintegrating the leaves and freeing the fibre, and at the same time experiments were made with the view of obtaining it by water-retting, and by means of alkaline solutions and other chemical agencies.
He received the degree of doctor of laws from the university of La 'Sapienza, but archaeology gradually absorbed his attention, and with the view of obtaining better opportunities for his researches in 1798 he took orders.
Obtaining an unbound copy of the De corpore, he saw by the mutilated appearance of the sheets that Hobbes had repeatedly altered his demonstrations before he issued them at last in their actual form, grotesque as it was, rather than delay the book longer.
Obtaining also a copy of the work as it had been printed before Hobbes had any doubt of the validity of his solutions, Wallis was able to track his whole course front the time of Ward's provocation - his passage from exultation to doubt, from doubt to confessed impotence, yet still without abandoning the old assumption of confident strength; and all his turnings and windings were now laid bare in one of the most trenchant pieces of controversial writing ever penned.
He studied law in the office of Langdon Cheves(1 776-1857)in Charleston, S.C., and in November 1812 was admitted to the bar there, soon obtaining a large practice.
O'Higgins at first tried to maintain his position by calling a congress and obtaining a constitution which invested him with dictatorial powers.
In his researches on the bleaching compounds of chlorine he was the first to advance the view that bleaching-powder is a double compound of calcium chloride and hypochlorite; and he devoted much time to the problem of economically obtaining soda and potash from seawater, though here his efforts were nullified by the discovery of the much richer sources of supply afforded by the Stassfurt deposits.
The officers are recruited either from the Cadet Corps at Berlin or from amongst those men, of sufficient social standing, who join the ranks as avantageurs with a view to obtaining commissions.
Other objects found in the graves are small flint knives, stone axes, flint and lumps of pyrites for obtaining fire, and, in the womens graves, hand-mills for grinding corn.
The Golden Bull, promulgated in January 1356 and again after some tedious negotiations in December of the same year, fixed the number of electors at seven, SaxeWittenberg and not Saxe-Lauenburg obtaining the Saxon vote, and the vote of the Wittelsbachs being given to the ruler of the Rhenjsh Palatinate and not to the duke of Bavaria.
Pope Leo, by his incessant demands for money and his unscrupulous methods of obtaining it, awakened bitter hostility in every class of the community.
They asked for a renewal of their ancient rights of fishing and hunting freely, for a speedier method of obtaining justice, and for the removal of new and heavy burdens.
The result was that Protestant princes, including the three temporal electors, united in placing their grievances before the emperor; obtaining no redress they met at Torgau in 1591 and offered help to Henry IV.
As Ferdinand II., however, he succeeded in obtaining the imperial crown in August 1619, and from that time he was dominated by a fixed resolve to secure the triumph of his church throughout the Empire, a resolve which cost Germany, ~ihe Thirty Years War.
Meanwhile, alarmed at this tendency, and hopeless of obtaining any general system from the federal diet, the middle states had drawn together; by a treaty signed on the 18th of January 1828 Wurttemberg and Bavaria formed a tariff union, which was joined in the following year by the Hohenzollern principalities; and on the 24th of September 1828 was formed the so-called Middle German Commercial Union (Handelsverein) between Hanover, HesseCassel, the Saxon duchies, Brunswick, Nassau, the principalities of Reuss and Schwarzburg, and the free cities of Frankfort and Bremen, the object of which was to prevent the extension of the Prussian system and, above all, any union of the northern Zollverein with that of Bavaria and WUrttemberg.
After the war Bismarck in fact succeeded in obtaining the signature of the smaller states to the treaty; and Austria, her protests having proved unavailing, was fain to sign a commercial treaty with the Zoilverein, essentially the same as that of 1853.
Immense booty was secured, the Venetians obtaining among other treasures the four bronze horses which adorn the facade of St Mark's.
The commercial and naval successes of the Genoese during the middle ages were the more remarkable because, unlike their rivals, the Venetians, they were the unceasing prey to intestine discord - the Genoese commons and nobles fighting against each other, rival factions amongst the nobles themselves striving to grasp the supreme power in the state, nobles and commons alike invoking the arbitration and rule of some foreign captain as the sole means of obtaining a temporary truce.
He gradually departed from the Miirzsteg basis, and in January 1908 deliberately undermined the Austro-Russian agreement by obtaining from the sultan a concession for a railway from the Bosnian frontier through the sanjak of Novibazar to the Turkish terminus at Mitrovitza.
In 1845, at which time there was a flourishing trade in slaves between Cameroon and America, the Baptist Missionary Society made its first settlement on the mainland of Africa, Alfred Saker (1814-1880) obtaining from the Akwa family the site for a mission station.
For obtaining an open diagram of an earthquake the best type of apparatus consists of a pair of horizontal pendulums writing their movements upon a moving surface.
The natives of the coast region cultivate yams and other food plants, but in that district agriculture proper scarcely exists, the fruit of the oil-palm supplying an easy means of obtaining almost everything that the natives require.
shows the system obtaining at that period.
The defect of this arrangement consisted in the necessity of obtaining the consent of the commissionersa consent sometimes withheld on purely political grounds.
Obtaining accurate and timely information continued to be our Achilles heel.
"False identities aren't easy to get," I said, remembering Daniel Brennan obtaining ours.
The head of the college, the abbe Antoine Faure, who was from the same part of the country as himself, befriended the lad, and continued to do so for many years after he had finished his course, finding him pupils and ultimately obtaining for him the post of tutor to the young duke of Chartres, afterwards the regent duke of Orleans.
The parlements thereupon condemned several private persons for obtaining bulls from Rome.
Besides these, three or perhaps four groups, though widely distributed throughout the world, arrive in the Australian region at their culmination, presenting an abundance of most varied forms. These are the weaver-birds (Ploceidae), and the moreporks (Podargidae), but especially the kingfishers (Alcedinidae) and the pigeons (Columbidae), the species belonging to the two last obtaining in this region a degree of prominence and beauty which is elsewhere unequalled.
While he was in London he had a personal interview with the king, with the view of obtaining assistance for the Scottish universities from the money formerly applied to the support of the bishops.
In 1815 he represented him at the congress of Vienna, and succeeded in obtaining for the Netherlands a considerable augmentation of territory.
Stimulated by such causes and obtaining formal permission from the Persian government, they would arise as a new Israel and enter on a new phase of national life and divine revelation.
and the empress Eugenie, he succeeded in rousing the patriotism of the French and obtaining by their subscriptions more than half of the capital of two hundred millions of francs which he needed in order to form a company.
After a prolonged struggle, Alva succeeded in obtaining a subsidy of 2,000,000 fl.
Crete was constantly in turmoil, the Greeks were dissatisfied, and from about 1890 the Armenians began a violent agitation with a view to obtaining the reforms promised them at Berlin.
1861), who made important investigations concerning clouds, and attracted attention by his use of kites for obtaining meteorological data.
The military rule excited universal hostility; there was an earnest desire for a settled and constitutional government, and the revival of the monarchy in the person of Cromwell appeared the only way of obtaining it.
Cromwell's government seemed now established on the firmer footing of law and national approval, he himself obtaining the powers though not the title of a constitutional monarch, with a permanent revenue of £1,300,000 for the ordinary expenses of the administration, the command of the forces, the right to nominate his successor and, subject to the approval of parliament, the members of the council and of the new second chamber now established, while at the same time the freedom of parliament was guaranteed in its elections.
in regard to interests outside its scope, especially as there was no possibility of obtaining protection for such interests from those who by the alliance had not undertaken to protect them.
The attitude of several of his colleagues was more equivocal, but though they coquetted with French financiers in the hope of obtaining the support of the Paris Bourse for Italian securities, the precipitate renewal of the alliance destroyed all probability of a close understanding with France.
After obtaining the establishment of an apostolic prefecture in Eritrea under the charge of Italian Franciscans, Baratieri expelled from the colony the French Lazarist missionaries for their alleged complicity in the Bath-Agos insurrection; and in March 1895 undertook the conquest of Tigr.
With approved conduct, however, he may be absolutely released after twenty to twenty-five years in the settlement; and throughout that time, though possessing no civil rights, a quasi-judicial procedure controls all punishments inflicted upon him, and he is as secure of obtaining justice as if free.
There has been a renewed activity in the study of existing forms from the point of view of obtaining evidence as to the nature and origin of species.
Moreover, the present act nullifies the object of the previous act of 1868, which was to reduce the facilities for obtaining poisons.
In England indeed a variety of causes hindered nobility or gentry from ever obtaining the importance which they obtained, for instance, in France.
The larvae of the beautiful, elongate, metallic Donaciae live in the roots and stems of aquatic plants, obtaining thence both food and air.
the latter aspired to obtaining a firm footing on the Baltic coast and establishing direct relations, diplomatic and commercial, with the Western Powers.
He met with such a favourable reception from the tsar that on his return to England a special envoy was sent to Moscow by Queen Mary, and he succeeded in obtaining for his countrymen the privilege of trading freely in Russian towns.
The problem of obtaining a firm footing on the Baltic coast, on which Ivan the Terrible had squandered his resources to no purpose, was now solved satisfactorily.
In the fulfilment of this supposed mission he was not very successful, because his conception of national happiness and the means of obtaining it differed widely from that of the peoples whom he wished to benefit.
Subsequently, by obtaining from the Tsungli-Yaman a long lease of Port Arthur and Talienwan and a concession to unite those ports with the Trans-Siberian by a branch line, she tightened her hold on that portion of the Chinese empire and prepared to complete the work of aggression by so-called " spontaneous infiltration."
As a result it has been far easier for the American than for the European railway builder to take advantage of the speculative instinct in obtaining money.
Most spiritualists know that much fraud in connexion with them has been discovered - frequently by spiritualists themselves - and that the conditions favourable to obtaining them are often such as favour fraud.
Public sittings are apt to be means of obtaining money by false pretences, and the great scandal of spiritualism is undoubtedly the encouragement it gives to the immoral trade of fraudulent mediumship.
He went up to Christ Church, Oxford, in 1830, but his father's subsequent pecuniary embarrassments compelled him in 1833 to try for a scholarship at Lincoln College, which he succeeded in obtaining.
The French assembly did not succeed in obtaining formal assent to these decisions (except from Frankfort and Holland), but they gained the practical adhesion of the majority of Western and American Jews.
While some of these " guest " insects produce secretions that furnish the ants with food, some seem to be useless inmates of the nest, obtaining food from the ants and giving nothing in return.
The condition is interesting as a persistence of the conditions obtaining in the provisional nephridia of e.g.
Perhaps the most important act of his second term was obtaining the release of Kossuth and other Hungarian refugees who had fled to Turkey, and whose surrender had been demanded by the Austrian government.
It deals with "the means and instruments of obtaining every virtue, and the remedies against every vice, and considerations serving to the resisting all temptations, together with prayers containing the whole Duty of a Christian."
After obtaining the degree of doctor he returned to Ghent, and is said to have been the first to lecture there publicly on philosophy and theology.
old-fashioned system of guessing at the weight of an animal by the sounder method of obtaining the exact weight by means of the weighbridge.
To buy in the cheapest market and sell in the dearest; to secure cheapness by lowering the expenses of production; to adopt the less expensive rather than the more expensive method of obtaining a given result - these and other maxims are as old as human society.
The operations consisted almost entirely of manoeuvres which had for their object the obtaining or the denial to the enemy of food-supplies.
In 1796, on the refusal of Washington to accept another election, Adams was chosen president, defeating Thomas Jefferson; though Alexander Hamilton and other Federalists had asked that an equal vote should be cast for Adams and Thomas Pinckney, the other Federalist in the contest, partly in order that Jefferson, who was elected vice-president, might be excluded altogether, and partly, it seems, in the hope that Pinckney should in fact receive more votes than Adams, and thus, in accordance with the system then obtaining, be elected president, though he was intended for the second place on the Federalist ticket.
In aquatic insects various devices for obtaining or entangling air are found; these modifications are described in the special articles on the various orders of insects (Coleoptera, Hemiptera, &c.).
Here it need only be said that Sweden, during the course of the Great Northern War, had innumerable opportunities of obtaining an honourable and even advantageous peace, but they all foundered on the dogged refusal of Charles to consent to the smallest concession to his despoilers.
The herons, for instance, are much more Constrictipedes " than are the larks or the kingfishers, and, so far from the majority of " Inconstrictipedes " being polygamous, there is scarcely any evidence of polygamy obtaining as a habit among birds in a state of nature except in certain of the Gallinae and a very few others.
The necessity of accurate acquaintance with any foreign language and of obtaining good texts, is a subject Bacon is never weary of descanting upon.
All that Orosius succeeded in obtaining was John's consent to send letters and deputies to Innocent of Rome; and, after having waited long enough to learn the unfavourable decision of the synod of Diospolis or Lydda in December of the same year, he returned to north Africa, where he is believed to have died.
There can be no question that a deep soil is better for the cottonplant; but the expense of obtaining it, the risk of injuring the soil through leaching, and the danger of bringing poor soil to the surface, have led many planters to oppose this plan.
the artesian well system previously adopted for obtaining brine and water.
The process of distillation of lubricating oils under reduced atmospheric pressure is now in very general use, especially for obtaining the heavier products.
It has been found that variations in barometric pressure affect the flash-point and accordingly corrections have to be made in obtaining strictly comparative results at different pressures.
Whites and Indians are allowed to establish trading stations on obtaining special permits from the government, and the Indians absorb much of the retail trade.
Kelvin ampere balances are made in two types - (i) a variable weight type suitable for obtaining the ampere value of any current within their range; and (2) a fixed weight type intended to indicate when a current which can be varied at pleasure has a certain fixed value.
The city is still very favourably situated for obtaining supplies of oils both local and foreign, including sesame, ground nut, castor oil, &c. In England, during the reign of Charles I.
But the quarrel was settled when he was on the point of departure, and he undertook the difficult task of obtaining the pope's approval of the marriage.
He therefore put the finances in the best order he could, and set himself to mitigate the evil effects of the war by obtaining an early peace.
He at once succeeded in obtaining from Alexander III.
In 1874 the island was invaded by the Japanese for the purpose of obtaining satisfaction for the murder of a shipwrecked crew who had been put to death by one of the semi-savage tribes on the southern coast, the Chinese government being either unable or unwilling to punish the culprits.
Clarke, Gay Lussac and Stromeyer, published his masterly investigation of the various phosphoric acids and their salts, obtaining results subsequently employed by J.
In the 12th tablet Gilgamesh succeeds in obtaining a view of Eabani's shade, and learns through him of the sad fate endured by the dead.
2 A tenth of the produce is suggested to have been the normal tax by what the Romans found obtaining in the Attalid kingdom.
During these years Chastellain had ample opportunity of obtaining an intimate knowledge of French affairs, but on the further breach between the two princes, Chastellain left the French service to enter Philip's household.
Another process, photoor heliogravure, for obtaining an engraved image on a copper plate, was for the first time employed on a large scale for producing a new topographical map of the Austrian Empire in 718 sheets, on a scale of I: 75,000, which was completed in seventeen years (1873-1890).
Dying in 1243, he was succeeded as lord of Connaught by his son Richard, and then (1248) by his younger son Walter, who carried on the family warfare against the native chieftains, and added greatly to his vast domains by obtaining (c. 1255) from Prince Edward a grant of "the county of Ulster," in consequence of which he was styled later earl of Ulster.
Weak health, consequent on over-study, prevented him from obtaining the highest academical honours, but he graduated as doctor in theology at the age of twenty-two, and then entered the Accademia dei Nobili ecclesiastici, a college in which clergy of aristocratic birth are trained for the diplomatic service of the Roman Church.
died (7th February 1878) Cardinal Pecci was elected pope at the subsequent conclave with comparative unanimity, obtaining at the third scrutiny (loth February) forty-four out of sixty-one votes, or more than the requisite two-thirds majority.
The instincts of nest-building, incubation and the rearing of young, though they occur later in life than those concerned in locomotion and the obtaining of food, are none the less founded on a hereditary basis, and in some respects are less rather than more liable to modification by the experience gained by the carrying out of hereditarily definite modes of procedure.
Servia had long resented the occupation of her fortresses by Turkish troops; frequent collisions arising from this source resulted in June 1862 in the bombardment of Belgrade; some slight concessions were then made to Servia, but it was not until 1867 that, through the mediation of England and other powers, she succeeded in obtaining the withdrawal of the Turkish garrisons.
These succeeded in gaining over the Sheikh-ul-Islam, and in obtaining from him a fetva for the deposition of Abd-ul-Aziz.
On his return to Iceland in 985 he called the land Greenland in order to make people more willing to go there, and reported so favourably on its possibilities that he had no difficulty in obtaining followers.
There is a fine monument to Prince Michael (1860-1868) who succeeded in removing the Turkish garrison from the Belgrade citadel and obtaining other Turkish fortresses in Servia by skilful diplomacy.
America and in Mexico for incising the trees and obtaining the rubber are exceedingly primitive, but survive with little modification at the present day.
A firm adherent of the Church of Rome, Sigismund was successful in obtaining aid from the pope.
Others have arranged a means of obtaining high conductivity wire from cathode-copper without fusion, by depositing the metal in the form of a spiral strip on a cylinder, the strip being subsequently drawn down in the usual way; at present, however, the ordinary methods of wire production are found to be cheaper.
An Act of Assembly of 1753 declares pactions simoniacal whereby a minister or probationer before presentation and as a means of obtaining it bargains not to raise a process of augmentation of stipend or demand reparation or enlargement of his manse or glebe after induction.
In obtaining the minor Aik in the form of a determinant we erased certain rows and columns, and we would have erased in an exactly similar manner had we been forming the determinant associated with A2:8, since the deleting lines intersect rk in two pairs of points.
If a, a be the linear forms, above defined, he raises the identity ax(0) =ax(aJ3) - (3x(aa) to the fifth power (and in general to the power n) obtaining (aa) 5 f = (a13) 5 az - 5 (a0) 4 (aa) ax?3 -F...
At Rome, in the Jubilee year 1500, he himself lectured with applause; but having been nominated in 1497 canon of the cathedral of Frauenburg, he recrossed the Alps in 1501 with the purpose of obtaining further leave of absence for the completion of his academic career.
15); but we are yet in need of evidence as to the exact equivalence of margins, axis, &c., obtaining between the lung-book of Scorpio and the gill-book of Limulus.
v., 1892.) heart differs in Limulus from the arrangement obtaining in Scorpio, in that a pair of lateral commissural arteries exist in Limulus (as described by Alphonse Milne-Edwards (6)) leading to a suppression of the more primitive direct connexion of the four pairs of posterior II.
The Lettish Government decided to stop the advance on Dvinsk and Rezhitsa at any cost, as a danger to Latvia's independence, and succeeded in obtaining British and Esthonian support.
Foreign Governments lodged protests against their subjects being dispossessed before obtaining adequate compensation.
Otto appointed his younger son Dietrich as his successor and was attacked and taken prisoner by his elder son Albert; but, after obtaining his release by order of the emperor Frederick I., he had only just renewed the war when he died in 1190.
In 1855, ignorant of what Wailer had done ten years previously, he succeeded in obtaining metallic aluminium, and ultimately he devised a method by which the metal could be prepared on a large scale by the aid of sodium, the manufacture of which he also developed.
who, first searching whether their new country were rich in metals, soon began adventurous raids into the interior, making excursions also against the remote Indian tribes with a view to obtaining slaves, and from the year 1629 onwards repeatedly attacked the Indian reductions of the Jesuits in Paraguay, although both provinces were then nominally subject to the crown of Spain.
The electoral law was framed to prevent more than a very few natives obtaining the franchise.
Livingston, the resident minister, in obtaining by purchase the territory at the mouth of the Mississippi, including the island of New Orleans, and at the same time authorized him to co-operate with Charles Pinckney, the minister at Madrid, in securing from Spain the cession of East and West Florida.
processes which consist in obtaining an answer to the question " Upon what has a given operation to be performed in order to produce a given result?"
combine the separate quantities or numbers expressed in terms of x as unit into a single quantity or number so expressed, obtaining sx =10.
In this, as in almost all other cases, particular examples should be worked before obtaining a general formula.
Thus by adding 2 to aN we can subtract N from aN+2, obtaining 2000-0000, which is =2.
(v.) An alternative method of obtaining the rule of transposition is to change the zero from which we measure.
It has been mentioned in ï¿½ 41 (ix.) that the binomial theorem can be used for obtaining an approximate value for a power of a number; the most important terms only being taken into account.
But whereas Diophantus aimed at obtaining a single solution, the Hindus strove for a general method by which any indeterminate problem could be resolved.
The coalition maintained its majority, the Government only obtaining ten seats: but though this time the Diet was allowed to meet, no attempt was made to satisfy Yugoslav aspirations or to solve the real issues at stake between Hungary and Croatia.
The immediate result was, as pointed out above, a reconstruction of the classification of animals upon a genealogical basis, and an investigation of the individual development of animals in relation to the steps of their gradual building up by cell-division, with a view to obtaining evidence of their genetic relationships.
In 43 he attached himself to the party of Antony, apparently in the hope of obtaining the consulship.
Pretorius alleged that by this means the natives were obtaining firearms. At the same time the Transvaal Boers claimed that all the Bechuana country belonged to them, a claim which the British government of that day did not think it worth while to contest.
At the same time President Kruger revived the project of obtaining a seaport for the state, one of the objects of Boer ambitions since 1860 (vide supra).
The Boers, who had failed to fulfil the conditions under which they might have secured Kosi Bay, nevertheless resented this action, which took away from them all chance of obtaining a seaport.
Apart from the difficulty of obtaining arms, a serious question arose at the eleventh hour which filled some of the Uitlanders with mistrust.
WILLIAM STUBBS (1825-1901), English historian and bishop of Oxford, son of William Morley Stubbs, solicitor, of Knaresborough, Yorkshire, was born on the 21st of June 1825, and was educated at the Ripon grammar school and Christ Church, Oxford, where he graduated in 1848, obtaining a first-class in classics and a third in mathematics.
(13) They put no faith in rites or ceremonies, nor do they believe in penances as instrumental in obtaining the grace of God.
By accusing the generals engaged at Acragas in the war against Carthage, by obtaining the restoration of exiles (no doubt others of the partisans of Hermocrates), by high-handed proceedings at Gela, he secured his own election first as one of the generals, then as sole general (or with a nominal colleague), with special powers.
Further, every precept sent by an authority in London for the purpose of obtaining money (these authorities include the London County Council, the receiver of the Metropolitan Police, the Central Unemployed Body and the Boards of Guardians) which has ultimately to be raised out of a rate within a borough is sent direct to the council of the borough instead of filtering through other authorities before reaching the overseers.
Although the mortality caused by the different plagues had a great effect upon the population of the country at large the city soon recovered the losses by reason of the numbers who came to London from outside in hopes of obtaining work.
(The bay was not then occupied by the British, whose object in obtaining the cession was to prevent its acquisition by the Boers.
The difficulty he found in obtaining supplies was very great, for the coast towns - and notably Bilbao - were constitutional in politics.
The action is essentially that -of the common suction pump. The construction was subsequently improved by many experimenters, notably by Boyle, Hawksbee, Smeaton and others; and more recently two pump barrels were employed, so obtaining the same degree of exhaustion much more rapidly.
These books, except the Definitiones, mostly consist of directions for obtaining, from given parts, the areas or volumes, and other parts, of plane or solid figures.
He was accompanied by Captain (afterwards Sir Henry) Yule as secretary, and Mr Oldham as geologist, and his mission added largely to our knowledge of the state of the country; but in its main object of obtaining a treaty it was unsuccessful.
the further they depart from the ratio of refractive index to dispersive power found in the older glasses, the greater the difficulty found in obtaining them of either sufficient purity or stability to be of practical use.
In the Autobiography of Jahangir it is stated that the guru was imprisoned in the fortress of Gwalior, with a view to the realization of the fine imposed on his father Guru Arjan, but the Sikhs believe that the guru became a voluntary inmate of the fortress with the object of obtaining seclusion there to pray for the emperor who had been advised to that effect by his Hindu astrologers.
He continued attached to the regiment till 1 754, when, disappointed at not obtaining a living, he abandoned the clerical profession and resolved to devote himself to literary pursuits.
This text, however, is not a law, but rather an abstract of the special usages obtaining in those regions - what the Germans call a Weistum.
The terrible conditions obtaining there were due to the lack of food supplies in the Confederate States, the incompetence of the prison officials, and the refusal of the Federal authorities in 1864 to make exchanges of prisoners, thus filling the stockade with unlooked-for numbers.
When centrifugals were adopted for purging the whole crop (they had long been used for curing the second or third sugars), the system then obtaining of running the sugar into wagons or coolers, which was necessary for the second and third sugars' cooked only to string point, was continued, but latterly " crystallization in movement, a development of the system which forty years ago or more existed in refineries and in Cuba, has come into general use, and with great advantage, especially where proprietors have been able to erect appropriate buildings and machinery for carrying out the system efficiently.
Some crystallizers are made entirely cylindrical, and are connected to the condenser of the vacuum pan; in order to maintain a partial vacuum in them, some are fitted with cold-water pipes to cool them and with steam pipes to heat them, and some are left open to the atmosphere at the top. But the efficiency of all depends on the process of almost imperceptible yet continuous evaporation and the methodical addition of syrup, and not on the idiosyncrasies of the experts who manage them; and there is no doubt that in large commercial processes of manufacture the simpler the apparatus used for obtaining a desired result, and the more easily it is understood, the better it will be for the manufacturer.
There are various systems of purging refined, or socalled refined, sugar in centrifugals, all designed with a view of obtaining the sugar in lumps or tablets, so as to appear as if it had been turned out from moulds and not from centrifugals, and great ingenuity and large sums of money have been spent in perfecting these different systems, with more or less happy results.
For a time after entry they multiply, obtaining the nitrogen necessary for their nutrition and growth from the free nitrogen of the air, the carbohydrate required being supplied by the pea or clover plant in whose tissues they make a home.
The children of this marriage came to England in 1247 in the hope of obtaining court preferment.
In 1250 the king, by putting strong pressure upon the electors, succeeded in obtaining the see of Winchester for Aymer.
After spending nearly six years in the office of his uncle, Benjamin Austen, a solicitor, he was tempted to leave England for Ceylon by the prospect of obtaining an appointment in the civil service, and he started in 1839 with the intention of making an overland journey across Asia.
Sadlier to congratulate the pasha on the success of the Egyptian arms, and no doubt with the ulterior object of obtaining a first-hand report on the real situation.
Unsuccessful in obtaining redress from the English government, the German merchants finally, in 1374, appealed for aid to the home towns, especially to Lubeck.
He had the same difficulty in obtaining money for his northern charge that he had experienced in Wales.'
And, although Pisa had hitherto been able to oppose a glorious resistance to Genoa and Lucca, it was not so easy to continue the struggle when its enemies were backed by the arms and political wisdom of the Florentines, who were skilled in obtaining powerful allies.
His attention was directed to the question of the flow of glaciers in 1840 when he met Louis Agassiz at the Glasgow meeting of the British Association, and in subsequent years he made several visits to Switzerland and also to Norway for the purpose of obtaining accurate data.
Lavish expenditure followed and the government was soon anticipating its revenues by obtaining advances from guano consignees, usually on unfavourable terms, and then floating loans.
Some skirmishes occurred between these insurgents and the government troops, the latter generally obtaining the advantage in these encounters.
Moissan succeeded in obtaining a crystalline variety.
The life-history of Schistostomum haematobium is still unknown, but the difficulty in obtaining developmental stages in any of the numerous intermediate hosts that have been tried suggests that the ciliated larvae may develop directly in man and either gain access to him by the use of impure water for drinking or may perforate his skin when bathing.
As early as 1870 President Grant recommended measures of civil service reform, and succeeded in obtaining an act authorizing him to appoint a Civil Service commission.
Its origin dates back to 747, when the city of Mainz was made the seat of an archbishop, and a succession of able and ambitious prelates, obtaining lands and privileges from emperors and others, made of the district under their rule a strong and vigorous state.
Indeed the necessity for obtaining complete control over the church was one reason which induced him to obtain the imperial crown.
He continued his studies, and after obtaining the doctor's degree at the Sorbonne, he was appointed teacher of German in the Ecole militaire at St Cyr, and shortly afterwards, professor of foreign literatures at Douai.
The difficulty of obtaining clear, rich tints was nearly prohibitive, and though success, when achieved, seemed to justify the effort, this class of ware never received much attention in Japan.
Spencer, however, considers that he can not only anticipate such a state of complete adjustment, but even lay down the rules obtaining in it, which will constitute the code of "Absolute Ethics" and the standard for discerning the "least wrong" actions of relative ethics.
Of the causes which rendered his brilliant capacity useless for the purpose of obtaining practical success the most important, perhaps the only one of real importance, was his personal character.
The desirable effects produced by alcohol on the stomach are worth obtaining only in cases of acute diseases.
An attempt to intervene in the war of Russia and Austria against Turkey failed of its object; Prussia did not succeed in obtaining any concessions of territory from the alarms of the Allies, and the dismissal of Hertzberg in 17 9 1 marked the final abandonment of the anti-Austrian tradition of Frederick the Great.
But his negotiations yielded no definite result; and every other means of obtaining redress and security proving unsuccessful, the Assam Dwars were wrested from the Bhutias, and the British government consented to pay to Bhutan a sum of £l000 per annum as compensation for the resumption of their tenure, during the good behaviour of the Bhutias.
Ample arrangements were made for obtaining and circulating intelligence, and all lateral communications were improved and supplemented to the utmost.
One other sortie towards Noisseville followed on the 7th, the alleged reason for which was the hope of obtaining provisions in the neighbouring villages.
In the second protectorate parliament, summoned by Cromwell on the 17th of September 1656, Lenthall was again chosen member for Oxfordshire, but had some difficulty in obtaining admission, and was not re-elected speaker.
He accepted the dignity at any rate without demur, and there seems little doubt that the question of assuming, or obtaining, this title had previously been discussed.
Polar explorers making sections across the great expanses of water with everfrequently repeated those experiments in deep-sea soundings, increasing accuracy, and in that work the government surveying both William Scoresby and Sir John Ross obtaining notable ships have also been engaged, vast stretches of the Indian and results, though not reaching depths of more than 1200 fathoms. Pacific Oceans having been opened up to knowledge by H.M.SS.
This association offered a vigorous opposition to the movement, which succeeded only when it was too late, for obtaining alterations in the constitution limiting the power of the Emperor and laying the foundations of real parliamentary government in the Empire and in Prussia.
The arrangement is, in fact, a modification of the plug and feather system used in stone quarrying for obtaining large blocks, but with the substitution of the powerful rending force of the hydraulic press for handpower in driving up the wedges.
She was urgent in obtaining the dismissal of d'Aiguillon, and did all in her power to secure the recall of Choiseul, though without success.
Personal motives alone would lead her to interfere in public affairs, especially when it was a question of obtaining places or favours for her favourites and their friends.
This and the difficulty of obtaining accurate experimental results fully account for the differences inter se in the values of the quantities calculated.
" And conceiving God to be the fountain of wisdom," he " thought it right and necessary to solicit His assistance for obtaining it," and drew up the following prayer for daily use: " O powerful Goodness!
Ambassadors from the Allobroges being at the time in Rome, the bearers of a complaint against the oppressions of provincial governors, Lentulus made overtures to them, with the object of obtaining armed assistance.
Happily for him, however, he was able to acquire in his youth a knowledge of English and Dutch, and by the help of some missionaries he succeeded in obtaining books in those languages on both scientific and political subjects.
p. 119) the following definition is given of sacramentalia: " Sacramentals are certain things or actions instituted or consecrated by the Church for the production of certain spiritual effects, and sometimes for the obtaining of a temporal effect."
In January 1762 Bute was compelled to declare war against Spain, though now without the advantages which the earlier decision urged by Pitt could have secured, and he supported the war, but with no zeal and no definite aim beyond the obtaining of a peace at any price and as soon as possible.
Geoffrey Greytunic succeeded in making the count of Nantes his vassal, and in obtaining from the duke of Aquitaine the concession in fief of the district of Loudun.
daughter and heiress of Conrad, burgrave of Nuremberg, and about 1192 he succeeded his father-in-law as burgrave, obtaining also some lands in Austria and Franconia.
They sailed in a single ship, the "Mayflower," and landed near Cape Cod, where they founded the colony of Plymouth, afterwards (1621) obtaining a patent from the council for New England.
The result was close, but Cleveland carried New York, and was elected, obtaining a majority in the electoral college of 219 to 182.
The face has the ordinary gazelle-markings; but the rather short horns - which are wanting in the female - have a peculiar upward and forward curvature, unlike that obtaining in the gazelles FIG.
Hence his ability to concentrate hung on the mere good luck of obtaining timely information of Napoleon's plans, which in fact he failed to obtain.
The notion of obtaining a periodical record of population and its movement, dissociated from fiscal or other liabilities, originated, as stated above, in Sweden, where, in 1686, the birth and death registers, till then kept voluntarily by the parish clergy, were made compulsory and general, the results for each year being communicated to a central office.
That large party which advocates a strict and jealous construction of the constitution would certainly oppose any independent legislation by the national Congress for providing a registration of births, marriages and deaths, or for obtaining social and industrial statistics, whether for the satisfaction of the publicist or for the guidance of the legislature.
In 1539 Las Casas was sent to Spain to obtain Dominican recruits, and through Loaysa, general of the order, and confessor of Charles V., he was successful in obtaining royal orders and letters favouring his enterprise.
Mensuration, then, is mainly concerned with quadratureformulae and cubature formulae, and, to a not very clearly defined extent, with the methods of obtaining such formulae; a quadrature-formula being a formula for calculating the numerical representation of an area, and a cubature-formula being a formula for calculating the numerical representation of a volume, in terms, in each case, of the numerical representations of particular data which determine the area or the volume.
The above is a particular case of a general principle that the obtaining of an expression such as Ih(uo+4u1+u2) or lk(vo-1-3v 1 +3v 2 +v 3) is an operation performed on uo or vo, and that this operation is the suns of a number of operations such as that which obtains 3huo or 1kvo.
Another question to which he devoted much attention was that of obtaining rectilinear motion by linkage.
1280 metres arid 2445 metres, obtaining from the first U 0 =331.37 met./sec.; but the number of experiments over the longer distance was greater, and he appears to have put more confidence in the result from them, viz.
Young's modulus may be obtained for the material of a rod by clamping it in the middle and obtaining the frequency of the fundamental when Y = 412n2p.
This prince succeeded after some fighting in temporarily obtaining the duchy of Luneburg for his house; he took part in the election of Wenceslaus as German king in 1376; and was followed in 1388 by his eldest son Rudolph III.
He had a chance, however, of obtaining the gift, or at least of eating the food and drinking the water which makes the gods ageless and immortal.
Cromwell's policy in this respect was continued under the Restoration, and in 1660 a committee of the privy council was appointed for the purpose of obtaining information as to the imports and exports of the country and improving trade.
The only valid reason for preferring women to attend men rather than members of their own sex is the difficulty of obtaining a supply of equally well qualified and satisfactory male nurses.
This brought him into conflict with the aristocratic party, who prevented him from obtaining the aedileship. When about forty years of age he married a lady of patrician rank, Julia, the aunt of Julius Caesar.
The constitution of 1814 set up a common form of government for the city and the canton, the city not obtaining its municipal independence till the constitution of 1842.
The reform movement had originally no connexion with ecclesiastical politics; but that came later when the leaders turned their attention to the abuses prevalent among the clergy, to the conditions obtaining in the Church in defiance of the ecclesiastical law.
Foreign chapmen eagerly competed for special privileges of Skanor and Falsterbo, and the Hanseatic merchants in particular aimed at obtaining a monopoly there.
In January 1910 the Liberal government was again returned to power; but the Unionist party was now committed to Tariff Reform, which had made great strides in obtaining popular support.
Excited to emulation and employing the more rapid wet-collodion process, he succeeded before long in obtaining exquisitely defined lunar pictures, which remained unsurpassed until the appearance of the Rutherfurd photographs in 1865.
In 1854 he turned his attention to solar physics, and for the purpose of obtaining a daily photographic representation of the state of the solar surface he devised the photo-heliograph, described in his report to the British Association, "On Celestial Photography in England" (1859), and in his Bakerian Lecture (Phil.
External pressure, here as elsewhere, created a patriotic military caste, and the subsequent partitional period, when every little prince had his own separate court, still further established the growing influence of the szlachta, or gentry, who were not backward in claiming and obtaining special privileges in return for their services.
It meant the excision of an alien element which fed like a cancer on the body politic; it meant the recovery, at comparatively little cost, of the command of the principal rivers of Poland, the Vistula and the Niemen; it meant the obtaining of a seaboard with the corollaries of sea-power and world-wide commerce.
Disappointed in his hope of obtaining the great seal on the death of Zamoyski, he at once conceived that the whole of the nobility had been insulted in his person, and proceeded to make all government impossible for the next three years.
He himself was an alchemist; and believing the transmutation of metals to be a possibility, he carried out experiments in the hope of effecting it; and he was instrumental in obtaining the repeal, in 1689, of the statute of Henry IV.
As might be expected, his views are biased by personal considerations and his intimacy with the royal family, which at the same time, however, afforded him unusual facilities for obtaining material.
For the Gymnasium the aim of the new scheme is, in Latin, " to supply boys with a sound basis of grammatical training, with a view to their understanding the more important classical writers of Rome, and being thus introduced to the intellectual life and culture of the ancient world "; and, in Greek, " to give them a sufficient knowledge of the language with a view to their obtaining an acquaintance with some of the Greek classical works which are distinguished both in matter and in style, and thus gaining an insight into the intellectual life and culture of Ancient Greece."
The impossibility of obtaining any.
This feeling had been instinctive, and it found expression in several ways, each one of them partial, when taken alone, but obtaining their full effect in combination.
of the 1 1th century, 200-2 99 of the 12th century, and so on; as this is insufficient, the range of numbers is increased by prefixing a 1, and so obtaining another hundred, e.g.
Quiros returned to Europe, and, obtaining command of a fleet, made a voyage in1605-1607during which he observed some of the Paumotu and Society Islands, and later discovered the small Duff group of the Santa Cruz Islands, passing thence to the main island of the New Hebrides, which he hailed as his objective, the southern continent.
supported the claim of his candidate with force of arms, obtaining as the price of his assistance several towns in which the suzerainty of the Egyptian sultan had been acknowledged.
interview with Klbcr and succeeded in obtaining from him the government of Upper Egypt.
He also saw in the campaign a means of getting rid of the disaffected troops, and of obtaining a sufficient number of captives to form the nucleus of the new army.
measures for obtaining accurate information as to his (General Gordons) position, and, if necessary, for rendering him assistance, should be adopted.
Still bent on obtaining Parga, he sent a special mission to London, backed by a letter from Sir Robert Liston, the British ambassador at Constantinople, calling the attention of the government to the pasha's supereminent qualities " and his services against the French.
Pouqueville, who spent no less than ten years as French General Consul at Iannina, had special facilities for obtaining firsthand information and although his observations and deductions seemed at times somewhat suspect to the British they were later recognized as being truest to the realities of the epoch.
He succeeded, however, in obtaining priest's orders at Rome in 1832, and returned to Ireland, but subsequently went to London, officiating for some time in the chapel of the Bavarian Legation.
Though the Danish party won a signal victory at the outset, by obtaining the insertion in the charter of provisions stipulating that only native-born Danes should fill the highest dignities of the state, the king's German counsellors continued paramount during the earlier years of his reign.
In 1897 a Bulgarian proposal for joint pacific action with a view to obtaining reforms in Macedonia was rejected by Greece.
s The method of obtaining water (v.
By the Reform Act of 1832 the number of Scottish representatives in the Commons was raised to fifty-three, the counties under a slightly altered arrangement returning thirty members as before, and the burghs, reinforced by the erection of various towns into parliamentary burghs, twenty-three; the second Reform Act (1867) increased the number to sixty, the universities obtaining representation by two members, while two additional members were assigned to the counties and three to the burghs; by the Redistribution of Seats Act in 1885 an addition of seven members was made to the representation of the counties and five to that of the burghs, the total representation being raised to seventy-two.
On this wording it has been maintained that British naturalization is not really naturalization at all; but leaves the naturalized person as he was with the addition of a certain quality within the United Kingdom; and on that ground it has been considered in France that a Frenchman, obtaining naturalization in England, does not fall within the French law (Code Civil, Art.
Here the sect had gained considerable influence, through the adhesion of Rothmann, the Lutheran pastor, and several prominent citizens; and the leaders, Johann Matthyszoon or Matthiesen, a baker of Haarlem, and Johann Bockholdt, a tailor of Leiden, had little difficulty in obtaining possession of the town and deposing the magistrates.
After obtaining the Ireland scholarship and Newdigate prize for an English poem (The Gypsies), he was in 1839 elected fellow of University College, and in the same year took orders.
This placed the pilgrimage to Rome on a level with the crusades - the only mode of obtaining a plenary indulgence.
In 1905 the Opposition made an effort to effect a change of policy, and were successful in obtaining the election of Lizaro Garcia, a well-to-do merchant and a director of the Banco commercial y Agricola.
But this version of the idea of Antichrist, hostile to the Jews and better expressing the relation of Christianity to the Roman empire, was prevented from obtaining an absolute ascendancy in Christian tradition by the rise of the belief in the ultimate return of Nero, and by the absorption of this outcome of pagan superstition into the Jewish-Christian apocalyptic conceptions.
After obtaining this Gardiner returned home; but early in the following year, 1529, when proceedings were delayed on information of the brief in Spain, he was sent once more to Rome.
The Athenian, Thrasybulus, after obtaining contributions from Aspendus in 389, was murdered by the inhabitants.
In spite of this he succeeded in obtaining the chair of biblical antiquities in the philosophical faculty at Erfurt.
In 1817 he commenced his studies at Leiden University, proving a brilliant scholar, and twice obtaining a gold medal for his prize essays.
Loftus was constantly occupied in attempts to improve his financial position by obtaining additional preferment.
Consequently, for a certain focal length, much deeper curves must be resorted to if the new glasses are to be employed; this means not only greater difficulties in workmanship, but also greater thickness of glass, which militates against the chance of obtaining large disks quite free from striae and perfect in their state of annealing.
The mere size of the apparent field of view depends upon obtaining the oblique pencils of light emerging from it to cross the axis at the great possible angle, and to this end the presence of a field-lens is indispensable, which is separated from the eye-lens by a considerable interval.
As regards the true jerboas, there is a curious resemblance in the structure of their hind-legs to that obtaining among birds.
This is a very good method of comparing the mean specific heats over two ranges of temperature such as 0-50, and 50-100, or 0-20 and 20-40, but it is not so suitable as the electric method described below for obtaining the actual specific heat at any point of the range.
He accompanied his uncle Marcus to Cilicia, and, in the hope of obtaining a reward, repaid his kindness by informing Caesar of his intention of leaving Italy.
The remainder of the Visigoths, under Alavivus and Fritigern, now began to seek, and ultimately were successful in obtaining (376), the permission of the emperor Valens to settle in Thrace; Athanaric meanwhile took refuge in Transylvania, thus abandoning the field without any serious struggle to the irresistible Huns.
He stayed at Sarai, their Volgan capital, all the winter, and not only succeeded in obtaining a mitigation of the tribute, but also the abolition of the military service previously rendered by the Russians to the Tatars.
Thenard, who had no battery at their disposal, to search for a chemical method of obtaining those metals, and by the action of red-hot iron on fused potash - a method of which Davy admitted the advantages - they succeeded in 1808 in preparing potassium, going on to make a full study of its properties and to use it, as Davy also did, for the reduction of boron from boracic acid in 1809.
(2) The partisans of Ali, the Shia (Shi`ites), who in proportion as their influence with the Arabs declined, contrived to strengthen it by obtaining the support of the non-Arabic Moslems, aided thereto, especially in the latter period, by the Abbasids, who at the decisive moment succeeded in seizing the supreme power for themselves.
A brother of Abdarrahman, Ilyas, saw in this revolt an opportunity of obtaining the government of Africa for himself.
He entered the navy in 1767 as a midshipman on board the "Yarmouth," under the command of his uncle; and, his family interest obtaining for him rapid promotion, he was raised in 1778 to the rank of post-captain, and appointed to the "Raleigh," a fine 32-gun frigate.
In 1747 he published an account of experiments undertaken with the definite view of obtaining true sugar from indigenous plants, and found that for this purpose the first place is taken by beetroot and carrot, that in those plants sugar like that of cane exists ready formed, and that it may be extracted by boiling the dried roots in alcohol, from which it is deposited on cooling.
He explained and simplified the process of obtaining phosphorus from urine, and made some admirable observations on phosphoric acid; but though he noted the increase in weight that attends the conversion of phosphorus into phosphoric acid he was content to remain an adherent of the phlogistic doctrine.
Finding, however, that there was little chance of obtaining instruments suitable for the work which he wished to undertake, he resigned that appointment and established in 1853 an observatory of his own at Redhill.
The constitution also forbids the creation of a state debt in excess of i% of the assessed value of the taxable property in the state; of a county debt in excess of 2 of the assessed value of the taxable property in the county; or of a municipal debt for any other purpose than obtaining a water supply in excess of unless for building sewerage, when a debt of 4% may be authorized.
This view is strengthened by what we can gather of the conditions obtaining in such districts as Aetolia, Acarnania and Samnium, as in modern times among primitive peoples and tribes.
Obtaining from Henry II.
curve to a scale enlarged in the ratio ab: ac. This property of the parallelogram is utilized in the construction of the pantograph, an instrument used for obtaining a copy of a map or drawing on a different scale.
The doctrines and practices of these sects clearly verge upon those obtaining in the third principal division of Indian sectarians which will now be considered.
Irrespective of the wish of women between 25 and 40 to return themselves as under 25, there appears to be the more practical motive of obtaining better terms in industrial insurance, whilst an overstatement of age often has, it.
This conservative spirit and extreme reverence for authority pervades the whole Roman Catholic Church in exact proportion to the degree of effective control which the see of Rome has succeeded in obtaining over its branches in various countries.
With regard to the actual making of the wine, this does not appear to have differed very much in principle from the methods obtaining at the present day.
The fermenting operations in wine-making differ radically from those obtaining in the case of beer or of spirits in that (if we except certain special cases) no yeast is added from without.
The finest varieties of Tokay are made entirely or mainly from Furmint grapes which have been allowed to become over-ripe in a manner somewhat similar to that obtaining in the Sauternes districts.
The opportunities for obtaining a liberal education in the remote districts of South Carolina at that time were scanty.
Over and above the peculiar revenues of local bodies there is the further resource - which emphasizes the subordinate position of local finance - of obtaining supplemental revenue from the central treasury, either by taxes additional to the charges of the state, and collected at the same time; or by donations from its funds, in the shape of grants for special services, or assignments of certain parts of the state's receipts.
In 1806 Davy communicated to the Royal Society of London a celebrated paper on some " Chemical Agencies of Electricity," and after providing himself at the Royal Institution of London with a battery of several hundred cells, he announced in 1807 his great discovery of the electrolytic decomposition of the alkalis, potash and soda, obtaining therefrom the metals potassium and sodium.
He had written on the condition of parties in the church; he had set down his thoughts on philosophical reform in the lost tract, Temporis Partus Maximus; but he had failed in obtaining the position which he looked upon as an indispensable condition 1 See Nic. Eth.
His jealousy and ill-temper had been so roused that the only course open to him seemed to be the obtaining a powerful military force, the possession of which would compel the queen to reinstate him in her favour.
On the other hand, even if it be admitted to be possible and conceivable that a present should be given by a suitor simply as seeking favourable consideration of his cause, and not as desirous of obtaining an unjust decree, and should be accepted by the judge on the same understanding, this would not entitle one absolutely to accept Bacon's statement.
Several other attempts have been made with a view of obtaining a quick and practical method of retting flax.
But for this sudden revival of Cymric literature under the patronage of Elizabeth (for the obtaining of which Wales must ever owe a deep debt of gratitude to Bishop Richard Davies, " her second St David "), there is every reason to believe that the ancient language of the Principality must either have drifted into a number of corrupt dialects, as it then showed symptoms of doing, or else have tended to ultimate extinction, much as the Cornish tongue perished in the 17th century.
In 1647 we find him receiving the confiscated goods of his uncle Pussort, in 1648 obtaining 40,000 crowns with his wife Marie Charron, in 1649 appointed councillor of state.
The sheets were laid in from eight different feed-boards, placed horizontally, and they passed through tapes, when they were seized by another series of tapes and then turned sideways between their corresponding impression and type cylinder, thus obtaining sheets printed on one side only.
This preparation is technically called " making-ready," and is an operation requiring much time and care, especially in the case of illustrated work, where artistic appreciation and skill on the part of the workman is of great assistance in obtaining satisfactory and delicate results.
It is still the best method for obtaining first-rate results in fine work, where hand-made or other rough paper is used.
President Buchanan soon afterward made him secretary of state, and in this position he at last had the satisfaction of obtaining from the British government an acknowledgment of the correctness of the American attitude with regard to the right of search (or " visitation," as Great Britain euphemistically termed it).
The portion, however, of the letter of the 19th of July, cited above, in which Louvois uses the words "ce n'est qu'un valet," does not, in the present writer's judgment, refer to Dauger at all, but to something which had been mooted in the meanwhile with a view to obtaining a valet for Fouquet.
The advances in stellar photography made by Paul and Prosper Henry and others suggested to him the magnificent idea of obtaining, through the collaboration of astronomers in all parts of the world, an autographic picture of the entire sphere containing more than fifty million stars, which should faithfully record in future ages the state of the sky at the end of the i 9th century.
Obtaining a large tract (which was called Jerusalem in 1789) in the present Yates county, she founded in 1788 the village of Hopeton on the outlet of Keuka Lake about a mile from Seneca Lake.
It took three years to get the bill for the London-Birmingham railway, which was passed at last in the session of 1833, obtaining the royal assent on the 8th of May.
The outbreak of the war with France gave him his first opportunity of obtaining marked distinction.
In 1875, resigning the office of dean but retaining the title of honorary dean, he became the first occupant of the chair of organic chemistry, which he induced the government to establish at the Sorbonne; but he had great difficulty in obtaining an adequate laboratory, and the building ultimately provided was not opened until after his death, which happened at Paris on the 10th of May 1884.
Towards the close of the 18th century Mr Hugh Boyd, obtaining the estate, devoted himself to the extension and improvement of the town, establishing manufactures, endowing charities and building churches; and succeeded in producing a temporary vitality.
A motion for an inquiry into the conduct of the war was skilfully evaded by obtaining precedence for the succession question (Queen Ulrica Leonora had lately died childless and King Frederick was old); and negotiations were thus opened with the new Russian empress, Elizabeth, who agreed to restore the greater part of Finland if her cousin, Adolphus Frederick of Holstein, were elected successor to the Swedish crown.
21, 1793), Sweden, in the hope of obtaining considerable subsidies, recognized the new French republic; and secret negotiations for contracting an alliance were actually begun in May of the same year, till the menacing protests of Catherine, supported as they were by all the other European powers, finally induced Sweden to suspend them.
Much difficulty was experienced in obtaining the necessary arms and ammunition.
The first political act of national importance of the new government was the grant of control to the municipalities, which hitherto had possessed little power to direct local affairs, and were not even permitted to dispose of the municipal revenues to any important amount without first obtaining the co,nsent of the central government.
The president of the republic has no power to dissolve the chambers, to endeavour to remedy the evil by one or another political party obtaining a substantial working majority, but must wait to see the results of the triennial elections.
Michell described it in his proposal of a method for obtaining the mean density of the earth.
In 1891 another Belgian company, Socit anonyme des verreries nationales de Perse, opened a glass factory in Teherr~, but the difficulty of obtaining the raw material cheaply and in large quantities was too ereat to make it a paving concern~ and the factory had to be closed.
and it is possible that the primeval empire of the Saga is only a reflection of the Achaemenid and Sassanid empires of reality, whose existence legend dates back to the beginning of the world, simply because legend is pervaded by the assumption that the conditions obtaining in the present are the natural conditions, and, as such, valid for all time.
An ordinary formula for obtaining it is 1 S for highpressure engines, and S for condensing engines, where D is the diameter of the piston in inches and S the length of the stroke in feet, though varying numbers are used for the divisor.
Bunsen in 1854 electrolysed a thick paste of barium chloride and dilute hydrochloric acid in the presence of mercury, at 10o C., obtaining a barium amalgam, from which the mercury was separated by a process of distillation.
It is, indeed, the care with which the diet of patients is regulated and the difficulty that patients find in obtaining forbidden foods at hotels and restaurants, that make Carlsbad better for the liver than any other watering-place.
Its object was to provide the dead with the means of obtaining light in the next world, a wholly material conception; and the lamps were for the most part unlighted.
They thought, in obtaining their discharge, that they had much improved their condition, but they soon discovered the reverse to be the fact.
The events of 1830 had unmuzzled him, and had put him in a better position for study by obtaining for him a place in the Record Office, and a deputy-professorship under Guizot irk the literary faculty of the university.
The experience of the 18th century disclosed defects in the procedure for obtaining liberty in cases not covered by the act of 167 9.
The above forms are now of little or no importance; but the procedure for obtaining them and the forms of writ are included in the Crown Office Rules 1906.
In spite of the many efforts in the direction of obtaining a resistant variety no great measure of success has been attained.
1 He gives a very accurate account of this forlorn tract, its general aridity and the necessity of obtaining water by digging in the beds of torrents; describes the food of the inhabitants as dates and fish; and adverts to the occasional occurrence of fertile spots, the abundance of aromatic and thorny shrubs and fragrant plants, and the violence of the monsoon in the western part of Makran.
Accordingly, in 1766, John Scott entered University College with the view of taking holy orders and obtaining a college living.
He had no difficulty in obtaining his election to the presidency without opposition.
Bolivia was in no position to venture upon hostilities or to compel the Chileans to make concessions, and the final settlement of the boundary dispute between Argentina and Chile deprived the Bolivians of the hope of obtaining the support of the Argentines.
Operating in this way there is no difficulty in obtaining surfaces upon which a drop of water spreads, although from causes that cannot always be traced, a certain proportion of failures is met with.
Thus frequency - d (2ti) (4) 4.508d But the most certain method of obtaining complete regularity of resolution is to bring the reservoir under the influence of an external vibrator, whose pitch is approximately the same as that proper to the jet.
The readiest method of obtaining instantaneous illumination is the electric spark, but with this Magnus was not successful.
Other features of these parks are a small botanical garden in Cwmdonkin, a good collection of waterfowl in Brynmill, and a small aviary of the rarer British birds in Victoria Park, which also has a meteorological station in connexion with the meteorological office, and a statue of Mr William Thomas of Lan erected in 1905 in appreciation of the work done by him in preserving and obtaining "open spaces" for Swansea.
In 1300 the theological professors of Paris agreed in the rejection of sixteen propositions taken from Lombard, but their decision was far from obtaining universal currency.
The principal objections to this system are the following: - (1) The extraordinary difficulty in obtaining satisfactory preparations showing the cilia, and the discovery that these motile organs are not formed on all substrata, or are only developed during short periods of activity while the organism is young and vigorous, render this character almost nugatory.
In other words these bacteria can build up organic matter from purely mineral sources by assimilating carbon from carbon dioxide in the dark and by obtaining their nitrogen from ammonia.
(i) the discovery of a bacterium in the affected tissues by means of the microscope; (2) the obtaining of the bacterium in pure culture; and (3) the production of the disease by inoculation with a pure culture.
Possibly he was embittered at the time by the fact that, owing to the strong personal dislike of the king, caused chiefly by the contemptuous tone in which he had spoken of Hanover, he did not by obtaining a place in the new ministry reap the fruits of the victory to which he had so largely contributed.
He thus made it possible for the half-converted and rude tribes to remain Buddhists while they brought offerings, and even bloody offerings, to these more congenial shrines, and while their practical belief had no relation at all to the Truths or the Noble Eightfold Path, but busied itself almost wholly with obtaining magic powers (Siddhi), by means of magic phrases (Dhdrani), and magic circles (Mandala).
In these quarrels both nations aimed at obtaining the support of the emperor Justinian, who, in pursuance of his policy of playing off one against the other, invited the Langobardi into Noricum and Pannonia, where they now settled.
He studied the formation of aldehyde from alcohol by various methods, also obtaining its crystalline compound with ammonia, and he was the discoverer of furfurol.
In later years, however, hope of obtaining aid from Poland in his struggle against King Matthias induced him to offer the succession to the Bohemian throne to Vladislav (Wladislaus, Ladislaus), son of Casimir, king of Poland.
In one of the last years of his life (1562) Ferdinand succeeded in obtaining the coronation of his eldest son Maximilian as king of Bohemia, thus ensuring to him the succession to the Bohemian throne.
Though he published new decrees against the Bohemian Brethren, he generally refused to sanction any measures against the Protestants, in spite of the advice of the Jesuits, who were gradually obtaining great influence in Bohemia.
Leopold succeeded in obtaining possession of part of the town of Prague, but his army was defeated by the troops which the Bohemian estates had hurriedly raised, and he was obliged to leave Bohemia.
The kings of Cilicia and the Tabal offered their daughters to the harem of Assur-bani-pal; embassies came from Ararat, and even Gyges of Lydia despatched envoys to "the great king" in the hope of obtaining help against the Cimmerians.
Flavoured syrups are made by adding flavouring matter to a simple syrup. For instance, syrupus aromaticus is prepared by adding certain quantities of orange and cinnamon water to simple syrup. Similarly, medicated syrups are prepared by adding medicaments to, or dissolving them in, the simple syrup. Golden syrup is the uncrystallizable fluid drained off in the process of obtaining refined crystallized sugar.
Its comparative cheapness, one dollar's worth being equal to three dollars' worth of opium in the effect produced, its portability and the facilities offered in obtaining it, are all in its favour.
In 1830 Young, a surgeon at Edinburgh, succeeded in obtaining 56 lb of opium from an acre of poppies, and sold it at 36s.
of Bithynia; furnished a contingent during the Third Punic War; and aided the Romans in obtaining possession of Pergamum, bequeathed to them by Attalus III., but claimed by Aristonicus, a natural son of 1 There is much difference of opinion in regard to the kings of Pontus called Mithradates to the accession of Mithradates Eupator.
But the western method of obtaining the impression has differed from the eastern method.
under the name of barragania, the contract being lifelong, the woman obtaining by it a right to maintenance during life, and sometimes also to part of the succession, and the sons ranking as nobles if their father was a noble.
and of pursuing and obtaining safety and happiness."
DIVINATION, the process of obtaining knowledge of secret or future things by means of oracles, omens or astrology.
It is not, therefore, surprising to find that he exerted his influence in several quarters with the view to obtaining the honours of a public coronation.
As this arrangement extends also to the margins, the wings are more or less twisted upon themselves and present a certain degree of convexity on their superior or upper surface, and a corresponding concavity on their inferior or under surface, - their free edges supplying those fine curves which act with such efficacy upon the air in obtaining the maximum of resistance and the minimum of displacement.
Thus the modern Hindu, though using civilized means for lighting his household fires, retains the savage " fire-drill " for obtaining fire by friction of wood when what he considers pure or sacred fire has to be produced for sacrificial purposes; while in Europe into modern times the same primitive process has been kept up in producing the sacred and magical " need-fire," which was lighted to deliver cattle from a murrain.
Palaeologus, whom he accompanied to Italy in order to bring about a union between the Greek and Latin churches with the object of obtaining help from the West against the Turks.
In the following year, 1718, after some fruitless negotiations with a view to the conclusion of peace, he again took the field; but the treaty of Passarowitz (July 21, 1718) put an end to hostilities at the moment when the prince had well-founded hopes of obtaining still more important successes than those of the last campaign, and even of reaching Constantinople, and dictating a peace on the shores of the Bosporus.
Obtaining promotion in the army, he served with distinction in Ireland and in the Netherlands, and was made major-general in 1693 and lieutenant-general in 1702.
Hincmar experienced another check when he endeavoured to prevent Wulfad, one of the clerks deposed by Ebbo, from obtaining the archbishopric of Bourges with the support of Charles the Bald.
In default of direct evidence, it remains for us to compare these scattered notices of Speusippus's teaching with what we know of its original, the teaching of Plato, in the hope of obtaining at least a general notion, firstly, of Speusippus's system, and, secondly, of its relations to the systems of Plato, of contemporary Platonists, such as Aristotle, and of the later Academy.
It is agreed that the first step in the preservation of metal-work against deterioration or corrosion is the obtaining of absolute cleanness of metal before the application of paint or oil.
ad eundem at Oxford) quitted Temple, who had, he considered, delayed too long in obtaining him preferment.
Francesco changed the traditional policy of his house by quarrelling with the Venetians, in the hope of obtaining more advantages from the Visconti of Milan.
Garnet, it is true, claimed to limit the justification of equivocation to cases " of necessary defence from injustice and wrong or of the obtaining some good of great importance when there is no danger of harm to others," and he could justify his conduct in lying to the council by their own conduct towards him, which included treacherous eavesdropping and fraud, and also threats of torture.
Its preparation was assiduously sought for, and Kunckel in 1678 and Boyle in 1680 succeeded in obtaining it by the same process as was discovered by Brand, i.e.
The limited size of their farms, and the necessity for buying wood and paying for pasturage, both of which were formerly free, prevented them from obtaining complete independence of the large proprietors, on whose estates they still had to work for payment in money or kind, while their improvidence soon got them into the hands of Jewish money-lenders, who, fortunately for the peasants, were by law unable to become proprietors of the soil.
The Rumanians, although obtaining complete independence, agreed to recognize the patriarch at Constantinople as the chief dignitary of the Orthodox Church.
Without obtaining a hearing, he was banished at the end of 335 to Treves in Gaul.
At first he purposed to study law; but this he abandoned on his father's death in 1794, and entered the army, obtaining a commission in the 12th regiment of foot, then stationed in India, where he rendered valuable assistance in the great trigonometrical survey.
He had several interviews with the Italian patriot, and persuaded him of the impracticable nature of his plan, thereby obtaining for the government leisure to devise a more reasonable scheme.
The Cape sparrow has completely acclimatized itself to town life and prevented the English sparrow obtaining a footing.
On the advice of the missionaries, who exercised great influence with all the non-Dutch races, a number of native states were recognized and subsidized by the Cape government, with the object - not realized - of obtaining peace on this northern frontier.
The cost, however - to say nothing of the uncertainty - where large volumes of water are concerned, much exceeds the cost of obtaining initially safe water.
The secretary, however, was not averse to increasing his popularity and his chances for the presidency by obtaining Cuba in an honourable manner, and it was at his suggestion that James Buchanan, J.
He achieved the rare distinction of obtaining an optime for both Greek and for physics.
- There were matters in which the local English and Irish canon law, even before the 16th century, differed from that obtaining on the western part of the European continent.
The expectation of obtaining these sinecures drew young men towards the church in considerable numbers, and the class of abbes so formed - abbes de tour they were sometimes called, and sometimes (ironically) abbes de sainte esperance, abbes of St Hope - came to hold a recognized position.