by all observers in magnetic observatories, who are every day making measurements of magnetic quantities, and who obtain results which would be inconsistent with each other if the law of force had been erroneously assumed.
The presence, however, of apparatus or observers upsets the conditions, while above uneven ground or near a tree or a building the equipotential surfaces cease to be horizontal.
cells treated by reagents, has been interpreted by many observers as a network of threads embedded in a homogeneous ground-substance.
She reached the circle where A'Ran fought and joined the observers.
The man A'Ran fought was more than a foot taller, with light skin and black hair resembling one of the observers.
The sword implanted next to the downed man's ear, and her small gasp drew the attention of the observers.
A'Ran's intense gaze swept over her before turning to the observers.
These first unscientific ideas of a genesis of the permanent objects of nature took as their pattern the process of organic reproduction and development, and this, not only because these objects were regarded as personalities, but also because this particular mode of becoming would most impress these early observers.
The relation of the chlorophyll to light has been studied by many observers.
The starch grain may thus be regarded as a crystalline structure of the nature of a spherecrystal, as has been suggested by many observers.
Many observers hold the view that the chromosomes are pulled apart by the contraction of the fibres to which they are attached.
Rosenberg (1909) adduces evidence fox the existence of chromosomes or prochromosomes in resting nuclei in a large number of plants, but most observers consider that the chromosomes during the resting stage become completely resolved into a nuclear network in which no trace of the original chromosomes can be seen.
The central body probably plays the part of a nucleus and some observers consider that it has the characters of a typical nucleus with mitotic division.
Some observers consider that the yeast nucleus possesses a typical nuclear structure, and exhibits division by mitosis, but the evidence for this is not very satisfactory.
From time to time there have been observers who have maintained a belief in the opposite theory, to which the name heterogenesis has been given.
Yet, if there is not a mass of scientific evidence, there are a number of witnesses - among them distinguished men of science and others of undoubted intelligence --who have convinced themselves by observation that phenomena occur which cannot be explained by known causes; and this fact must carry weight, even without careful records, when the witnesses are otherwise known to be competent and trustworthy observers.
The strange contrast between the succession of dynasties and kings cut off by assassination in the northern kingdom, ending in the tragic overthrow of 721 B.C., and the persistent succession through three centuries of the seed of David on the throne of Jerusalem, as well as the marvellous escape of Jerusalem in 701 B.C. from the fate of Samaria, must have invested the seed of David in the eyes of all thoughtful observers with a mysterious and divine significance.
From the time of Hippocrates onwards the malarial or periodical fevers have engaged the attention of innumerable observers, who have suggested various theories of causation, and have sometimes anticipated - vaguely, indeed, but with surprising accuracy - the results of modern research; but the true nature of the disease remained in doubt until the closing years of the 19th century.
Thus we get a complete scientific demonstration of the causation of malaria in three stages: (1) the discovery of the parasite by Laveran; (2) its life-history in the human host and connexion with the fever demonstrated by the Italian observers; (3) its life-history in the alternate host, and the identification of the latter with a particular species of mosquito by Ross and Manson.
Some observers maintain that Anopheles does not "sing," like the common mosquito, and its bite is much less irritating.
In the other animals several parasites have been described by different observers, but the alternate hosts are not known.
C. McCook in the American genus Myrmecocystus, and by later observers in Australian and African species of Plagiolepis and allied genera.
In all probability the actions of ants are for the most part instinctive or reflex, and some observers, such as A.
England's commercial relations with Charles V.'s subjects in the Netherlands put war with the emperor almost out of the question; and cool observers thought that England's obvious policy was to stand by while the two rivals enfeebled each other, and then make her own profit out of their weakness.
At low tide the limpet (being a strictly intertidal organism) is exposed to the air, and (according to trustworthy observers) quits its attachment and walks away in search of food (minute encrusting algae), and then once more returns to the identical spot, not an inch in diameter, which belongs, as it were, to it.
These views are not, however, supported plate is not, however, very definite, and the segmentation does not by other recent observers.
The work of de Reaumur and de Geer on the bionomics and life-history of insects has been continued by numerous observers, among whom may be especially mentioned in France J.
16-18, be not over-righteous (over-attentive to details of ritual and convention) or over-wicked (flagrantly neglectful of established beliefs and customs); here "righteous" and "wicked" appear to be technical terms designating two parties in the Jewish world of the 2nd and 1st centuries B.C., the observers and the non-observers of the Jewish ritual law; these parties represent in a general way the Pharisees and the Sadducees; viii.
These, it will be observed, are all Japanese names, and the heights have been determined by Japanese observers.
Stromeyer detected a new metallic element, cadmium, in certain zinc ores; it was rediscovered at subsequent dates by other observers and its chemical resemblance to zinc noticed.
Physico-chemical properties have also been drawn upon to decide whether double unions are present in the benzene complex; but here the predilections of the observers apparently influence the nature of the conclusions to be drawn from such data.
From 1881 till 1904 meteorological observations were taken from the summit of Ben Nevis, the observers at first making the ascent daily for the purpose.
Numerous determinations of the atomic weight of nitrogen have been made by different observers, the values obtained varying somewhat according to the methods used.
Hittorf and many other observers have made experiments to determine the unequal dilution of a solution round the two electrodes when a current passes.
It was not until the middle of the 18th century that the trees which yielded caoutchouc were identified, chiefly by French observers.
Discrepancies difficult to account for were found among the estimates of even the best observers.
In each case the results of the observations may be systematically in error, not only from the uncertain diameter of the moon, but in a still greater degree from the varying effect of irradiation and the personal equation of the observers.
Both observers noticed analogous effects in the residual magnetization.
These bodies had been erroneously supposed by Newport (12) and other observers to be glandular outgrowths of the alimentary canal.
This is not the conclusion of many observers, but it may be due to the excessive infant mortality among the lower classes, where an observance of the simplest sanitary laws is practically unknown.
The moral character of churchmen in Brazil has been severely criticized by many observers, and the ease with which disestablishment was effected is probably largely due to their failings.
The astonishing colours and grotesque forms of some animals and plants which the museum zoologists gravely described without comment were shown by these observers of living nature to have their significance in the economy of the organism possessing them; and a general doctrine was recognized, to the effect that no part or structure of an organism is without definite use and adaptation, being designed by the Creator for the benefit of the creature to which it belongs, or else for the benefit, amusement or instruction of his highest creature - man.
1 The anatomical error in reference to the auricles of Reptiles and Batrachians on the part of Linnaeus is extremely interesting, since it shows to what an extent the most patent facts may escape the observation of even the greatest observers, and what an amount of repeated dissection and unprejudiced attention has been necessary before the structure of the commonest animals has become known.
It is astonishing how many good observers it requires to dissect and draw and record over and over again the structure of an animal before an approximately correct account of it is obtained.
One more point must be considered: there is the evidence of competent observers to show that members of a tribe accustomed to nudity, when made to assume clothing for the first time, exhibit as much confusion as would a European compelled to strip in public. This fact, considered together with what has been said above, compels the conclusion that modesty is a feeling merely of acute self-consciousness due to appearing unusual, and is the result of clothing rather than the cause.
There is considerable difference of opinion as to the chronology of the succeeding beds, and the boundary between the Cretaceous and Tertiary systems is drawn at various horizons by different observers.
These observers maintain that the cells from some cause lose, or may never have had developed, their functional activity, and thus FIG.
Widal, Lemierre and other French observers have noted a diminution in the excretion of chlorides in nephritis associated with oedema; Widal and Javal found that a chloride-free diet caused diminution in the oedema and a chloride containing diet an increase of oedema.
Some other observers, however, have not got such good results with a chloride-free diet, and Marishler, Scheel, Limbecx, Dreser and others, dispute Widal's hypothesis of a retention of chlorides as being the cause of oedema, in the case of renal dropsy at all events; they assert that the chlorides are held back in order to keep the osmotic pressure of the fluid, which they assume to have been effused, equal to that of the blood and tissues.
In Italy the tradition of the great anatomists and physiologists of the 17th century produced a series of accurate observers and practitioners.
These observers, and others who cannot be mentioned here, belong to the period when English medicine was still little influenced by the French school.
And it is not alien from the present point of view to turn for a moment to the light thrown on the cardio-arterial pulse and the measurement of its motions by the more intimate researches into the phenomena of the circulation by many observers, among whom in the 19th century James Hope, E.
Lardaceous disease, however, here and in other regions, now appears to be due to the specific toxins of pyogenetic micro-organisms. In stone of the kidney a great advance has been made in treatment by operative means, and the formation of these stones seems to recent observers to depend less upon constitutional bent (gout) than upon unhealthy local conditions of the passages, which in their turn again may be due to the action of microorganisms.
The coloration is generally sombre, but to this there are exceptions; the fruit-bats are brownish yellow or russet on the under surface; two South American species are white; Blainville's chin-leafed bat is bright orange; and the Indian painted bat (Cerivoula pieta) with its deep orange dress, spotted with black on the wing-membranes, has reminded observers of a large butterfly.
448 et seq.), at another to the Turks (c. 580), which would sufficiently explain the signs of Tatar influence in their polity, and also by the testimony of all observers, Greeks, Arabs and Russians, that there was a double strain within the Khazar nation.
He notes the convenience of the method for solar observations and its previous use by some of the observers already mentioned, as well as its advantages for easily and accurately copying on an enlarged or reduced scale, especially for chorographical or topographical documents.
There exists among many foreign observers an impression that Japan is comparatively poor in wild-flowers; an impression probably due to the fact that there are no flowery meadows or lanes.
On the other hand, some observers hold that the education of this stoicism was effected at the cost of the feelings it sought to conceal.
To many Japanese observers i seemed that the restoration of 1867 had merely transferred the ad ministrative authority from the Tokugawa Shogun to the clans c Satsuma and ChOshC. The KOko Shimbun severely attacked th two clans as specious usurpers.
There are very considerable differences between the values assigned by different observers, sometimes no doubt due to differences in method, but in most cases unquestionably depending on variations in the quality of the specimens examined.
The Maltese are strict adherents to the Roman Catholic religion, and enthusiastic observers of festivals, fasts and ceremonials.
2 It is somewhat surprising that, after Kaiser's investigations, observers should continue, as many have done, to discuss their observations with this instrument as if the screw-value were constant for all angles.
The solubility of the gas in various liquids, as given by different observers, is zoo Volumes of Brine Water Alcohol Paraffin Carbon disulphide Fusel oil Benzene Chloroform Acetic acid Acetone It will be seen from this table that where it is desired to collect and keep acetylene over a liquid, brine, i.e.
Here, wedged in among the ruder Papuans, who reappear at the extremity of the peninsula, a very different-looking people are found, whom competent observers, arguing from appearance, language and customs, assert to be a branch of the fair Polynesian race.
It has been in the past a source of much perplexity to observers of transits, but is now understood to be a result of irradiation, produced by the atmosphere or by the aberration of the telescope.
This personal equation is different for different observers.
Regnault in the years 1862 to 1866 on the velocity of sound in open air, in air in pipes and in various other gases in pipes, he sought to eliminate personal equaticn by dispensing with the human element in the observations, using electric receivers as observers.
In this experiment the personal equations of the observers were determined and allowed for.
His remarkable result that two waves give some sense of pitch, in fact a tone with wavelength equal to the interval between the waves, has been confirmed by other observers.
The amplitude found by the other observers was of the same order.
Other firsthand narratives of importance are the American officers' reports (Reports of Military Observers, General Staff, U.S.A.); Major v.
Maine's power of swiftly assimilating new ideas and appreciating modes of thought and conduct remote from modern Western life came into contact with the facts of Indian society at exactly the right time, and his colleagues and other competent observers expressed the highest opinion of his work.
From the first the social side of the congress impressed observers with its wealth and variety, nor did the statesmen disdain to use the dining-table or the ballroom as the instruments of their diplomacy.
Many animals of great zoological interest, from their nocturnal habits, or natural disposition, display themselves so seldom that their possession is valueless from the point of view of the public, whilst closely allied species are not distinguished except by trained observers.
Dupuy's new cabinet would be strong enough to reconcile public opinion to such a result; but, to the surprise of outside observers, it was no sooner discovered how the judges were likely to decide than M.
Successive observers in Italy, notably Fracastoro (1483-1553), Fabio Colonna (1567-1640 or 1650) and Nicolaus Steno (1638 - c. 1687), a Danish anatomist, professor in Padua, advanced the still embryonic science and set forth the principle of comparison of fossil with living forms. Near the end of the 17th century Martin Lister (1638-1712), examining the Mesozoic shell types of England, recognized the great similarity as well as the differences between these and modern species, and insisted on the need of close comparison of fossil and living shells, yet he clung to the old view that fossils were sports of nature.
This proof has been reached quite independently by a very large number of observers studying a still greater variety of animals.
Recent observers, however, deny the assertion that the Indians are now decreasing in number except where local conditions are exceptionally unfavourable.
A great variety of forms were described by other observers, but they were not separated as a class from the unicellular organisms (Protozoa) with which they usually occur, until the appearance of C. G.
This appearance puzzled the older observers, who were led thereby to give the name" wheel-bearers "to the group, until the true character of ciliary motion was recognized; for a wheel cannot be i i organic continuity with the support on which it rotates..
During this time the illusion of a wheel or wheels produced by the ciliary action of the disk had puzzled all observers.
In the two or three years following several other observers recorded the occurrence of similar haematozoa in various fishes.
Nevertheless, the fact, commented upon by several observers, that even here an infected fly is only infectious for a comparatively short period suggests that this species of fly, at any rate, is not the true alternate host in which the life-cycle of that particular Trypanosome is completed.
The details of the process are somewhat differently described, however, by different observers.
Such a theory, like its modern rival of the sun-myth, may of course be pushed till it becomes absurd; yet in India critical observers, like Sir Alfred C. Lyall, attest innumerable examples of the gradual elevation into gods of human beings, the process even beginning in their lifetime.
in height, and the smaller Hetch-I-Ietchy Valley not far away, are regarded by some observers as owing their peculiar forms to glacial modifications of normal preglacial valleys.
In the present article, for the sake of convenience, all the insects which have been regarded by Linnaeus and others as "Neuroptera " are included, but they are distributed into the orders agreed upon by the majority of modern observers, and short characters of these orders and their principal families are given.
Many observers claimed to have determined such parallaxes, but Tycho Brahe and G.
Riccioli concluded that they existed only in the minds of the observers, and were due to instrumental and personal errors.
The atomic weight of magnesium has been determined by many observers.
For this reason some observers use a thin strip of phosphor bronze to suspend the magnet, considering that the absence of a variable torsion more than compensates for the increased difficulty in handling the more fragile metallic suspension.
Modifications of this method have been used by many observers, among others by Raoult, Loomis, H.
The older observers, noticing the heat effects which often accompany dissolution, regarded solutions as chemical compounds of varying composition.
Even when Athens had developed a rival navy Greek observers noted with admiration the discipline kept on board the Phoenician ships and the skill with which they were handled (Xen.
Subsequent observers (A.
The occurrence of hybrids in nature explains the difficulty experienced by botanists in deciding on what is a species, and the widely different limitations of the term adopted by different observers in the case of willows, roses, brambles, &c. The artificial process is practically the same in hybridization as in cross-fertilization, but usually requires more care.
The electromotive force is practically constant no matter what the velocity of the disks, but according to some observers the internal resistance decreases as the velocity increases.
The conductivity probably changes with temperature in the same way, being proportional to the product of the viscosity and the specific heat; but the experimental investigation presents difficulties on account of the necessity of eliminating the effects of radiation and convection, and the results of different observers often differ considerably from theory and from each other.
Their final result was k - 001433 at 20° C., which may be compared with the results of other observers, G.
And it was clear to impartial observers Pi~i,s~j~ that, in the event of any great strain upon the power and of the governments, the absolutist system would Switxerbreak down.
The very homely looks of his wife were thought by observers to cause the prince a visible shock when he was first presented to her.
There is much discrepancy as to the ordinary food of the lammergeyer, some observers maintaining that it lives almost entirely on carrion, offal and even ordure; but there is no question of its frequently taking living prey, and it is reasonable to suppose that this bird, like so many others, is not everywhere uniform in its habits.
(morning) occurrences of the principal forms as recorded by the Arctic observers at Cape Thorsden, Jan Mayen and Tasiusak.
Wolfer's frequencies with data obtained by other observers for areas of sun-spots, and his figures show unquestionably that the unit in one or other set of data must have varied appreciably from time to time.
Arctic observers, both Danish and British, have repeatedly reported displays of aurora unaccompanied by any special magnetic disturbance.
On the other hand, Arctic observers have reported an apparent connexion of a particularly definite character.
The Danish observers at Tasiusak (10) in 1898-1899 observed this phenomenon occasionally in a slightly altered form.
If a very long base is taken, it becomes increasingly open to doubt whether the portions of space emitting auroral light to the observers at the two ends are the same.
(about 3 and 15 m.), the motion being sometimes towards, sometimes away from the observers, but not apparently exceeding 3 km.
In confirmation of this view reference may be made to a number of instances where observers - e.g.
Thus the differences in the wave-lengths of presumably the same lines as measured by different Arctic observers may be only partly due to unfavourable observational conditions.
Several Arctic observers,however,especially Paulsen (18) have observed a diminution of positive potential, or even a change to negative, for which they could suggest no explanation except the presence of a bright aurora.
Other Arctic observers have failed to find any trace of this phenomenon.
Although such apparatus is far too cumbersome to be used by ordinary observers, it yields valuable results.
The results of the labors of the preced-, ing six years began to manifest themselves with a rapidity which surprised the most sanguine observers.
Some observers report that steam is to be seen rising from fissures in the bottom of the crater, and all are united in speaking of the fumes of burning sulphur that rise from its depths.
From the analogy of the higher plants observers have justly argued that when they have seen and marked the characters of the reproductive organs they have found the plant at the stage when it exhibits its most noteworthy features, and they have named and classified the species in accordance with these observations.
On the other hand, it has been held by Bernhard Frank and other observers that atmo spheric nitrogen is fixed by the agency of Green Algae in the soil.
Scotland, to political observers of the middle of the 16th century, seemed destined by nature to form one homogeneous kingdom with England.
The question of the mental fatigue produced by examinations has been studied by certain German observers, but has not yet been fully investigated.
This is the explanation of all the varied forms of riveted joints, which to casual observers often appear to be of a fanciful character.
But in addition to these general causes of unrest the condition of the native army had long given cause for uneasiness to acute observers.
use, and must have taxed to the utmost the skill and patience of the observers.
In order to be independent of the accuracy of the thermometer employed for observing the initial temperature of the water introduced, it has been usual to employ water at ioo° C., adopting as unit of heat the " mean calorie," which is one-hundredth part of the heat given up by one gramme of water in cooling from ioo° to o° C. The weight of mercury corresponding to the mean calorie has been determined with considerable care by a number of observers well skilled in the use of the instrument.
Trans., 18 93, P. 361), Whose Work Threw A Great Deal Of Light On The Failure Of Previous Observers To Secure Consistent Results, Corresponded To The Last Expression E 2 T/R, And Consisted In Regulating The Current By A Special Rheostat, So As To Keep The Potential Difference E On The Terminals Of The Resistance R Balanced Against A Given Number Of Standard Clark Cells Of The Board Of Trade Pattern.
This Correction Had Been Neglected By Previous Observers Employing Similar Methods.
For purposes of precise scientific investigation the study of spectra is generally more suitable than the vague and unsatisfactory estimates of colour, which differ with different observers.
The occurrence of change, either periodic or irregular, in the colour of individual stars, has been suspected by many observers; but such a colour-variability is necessarily very difficult to establish.
Although the parallaxes hitherto measured have added greatly to our general knowledge of stellar distances and absolute luminosities of stars, a collection of results derived by various observers choosing specially selected stars is not suitable for statistical discussion.
Even at the boiling-points the discrepancies between different observers are frequently considerable.
Contemporary observers agree that the disease was introduced from the East; and one eyewitness, Gabriel de Mussis, an Italian lawyer, traced, or indeed accompanied, the march of the plague from the Crimea (whither it was said to have been introduced from Tartary) to Genoa, where with a handful of survivors of a Genoese expedition he landed probably at the end of the year 1347.
Nothing is known of its natural history outside the body, but on cultivation it is apt to undergo numerous involution forms. Its presence in a patient is regarded as positive diagnostic proof of plague; but failure to find or to identify it does not possess an equal negative value, and should not be too readily accepted, for many instances are recorded in which expert observers have only succeeded in demonstrating its presence after repeated attempts.
The results in India obtained by British and various foreign observers were uniformly unfavourable, and the verdict of the Research Committee (1900) was that the serum had " failed to influence favourably the mortality among those attacked."
Attention has been concentrated on rats, and some observers seem disposed to lay upon them the whole blame for the propagation and spread of plague, which is held to be essentially a rat-borne disease.
There is no question about the weak resistance of certain units in line, nor can it be denied that other troops, among the reserves, became temporarily infected with a spirit that led to what many observers likened to a strike.
As they have been found in all zones and chiefly by a very few observers, it is probable that a great many more species remain to be discovered.
His last official act was to carry out his intention by passing through parliament resolutions, which even his colleagues deprecated in the cabinet, for taxing several articles, such as glass, paper and tea, on their importation into America, which he estimated would produce the insignificant sum of L40,000 for the English treasury, and which shrewder observers prophesied would lead to the loss of the American colonies.
Many observers have given attention to the exact determination of Verdet's constant of rotation for standard substances, e.g.
Finally, these observers traced the variation to the fact that the wire supporting the aluminium needle as well as the wire which connects the needle with the sulphuric acid in the Leyden jar in the White pattern of Leyden jar is enclosed in a metallic guard tube to screen the wire from external action.
This incident was considered by some British observers to have been brought about by Russian intrigue, and the fact that Ala ad-daula was dismissed in 1904, after the Japanese had achieved several initial successes in the Russo-Japanese war, was held to confirm this opinion.
By screening the various parts with metallic plates in connexion with earth, Beetz further proved that, contrary to the opinion of earlier observers, the seat of sensitiveness is not at the root of the jet where it leaves the orifice, but at the place of resolution into drops.
The supposed constancy of forms in Cohn's species and genera received a shock when Lankester in 1873 pointed out that his Bacterium rubescens (since named Beggiatoa roseo-persicina, Zopf) passes through conditions which would have been described by most observers influenced by the current doctrine as so many separate " species " or even " genera," - that in fact forms known as Bacterium, Hicrococcus, Bacillus, Leptothrix, &c., occur as phases in one life-history.
In the meantime, while various observers were building up our knowledge of the morphology of bacteria, others were laying the foundation of what is known of the relations of these organisms to fermentation and disease - that ancient will-o'-the-wisp " spontaneous generation " being revived by the way.
The work of numerous observers has shown that the free nitrogen of the atmosphere is brought into combination in the soil in the nodules filled with bacteria on the roots of Leguminosae, and since these nodules are the morphological expression of a symbiosis between the higher plant and the bacteria, there is evidently here a case similar to the last.
Other observers have brought forward other cases.
Yersin (1888), and in the case of tetanus a little later by various observers.
A considerable amount of work has been done in connexion with this subject, and many observers have found that fluids taken from the living body in which the organisms have been growing, contain toxic substances, to which the name of aggressins has been applied.
A later research by Brieger along with Fraenkel pointed to the extracellular toxins of diphtheria, tetanus and other diseases being of proteid nature, and various other observers have arrived at a like conclusion.
The fact that agglutinins appear in the body at an early stage in a disease has been taken by some observers as indicating that they have nothing to do with immunity, their development being spoken of as a reaction of infection.
Various observers had previously found that the serum of an animal immunized against (a) Lysogenic action.
Wyrouboff, and other observers.
The peninsula of Angeln, between the Gulf of Flensburg and the Schlei, is supposed to have been the original seat of the English, and observers profess to see a striking resemblance between this district and the counties of Kent and Surrey.
After everything had been got in readiness, careful observers were stationed along the track, and the machine was connected to a dynamometer.
The mean temperature during Climate the month of January recorded by Russian observers at the Murghabi - or Pamirski - post is - 13° F.
Later observers have found similar occurrences in the cases of small nematodes, rotifers and bacteria.
Philosophy, even under its most discredited name of metaphysics, has no other subjectmatter than the nature of the real world, as that world lies around us in everyday life, and lies open to observers on every side.
Other observers have in recent years demonstrated a similar relation in other genera between the number of chromosomes in the nuclei of the two generations.
This is not a uniform shade over the whole length of the spectrum, but shows in bands or flutings of greater or less darkness, which in places and at intervals have been resolved by Young, Duner and other unquestionable observers into hosts of dark lines.
Whatever be the subsequent method of reduction, the instant is required when the planet's disk is in internal contact with that of the sun; but after contact has plainly passed it still remains connected with the sun's rim by a " black drop," with the result that trained observers using similar instruments set up a few feet from one another sometimes differed by half a minute of time in their record.
Some 15,000 observations, from 1851 to 1883, taken by one hundred observers at Greenwich, Washington, Oxford and Neuchatel, cleared as far as possible of personal equation, showed no sign of change that could with probability be called progressive or periodic, particularly there was no sign of adhesion to the sun-spot period.
Kinneir, Fraser and other observers speak unfavourably of the Mazandarani people, whom they describe as very ignorant and bigoted, arrogant, rudely inquisitive and almost insolent towards strangers.
It is seldom that one nation under Th stands the tendencies and difficulties of another; and French the mere fact that power was being transferred from Revolu- an absolute monarch to a representative assembly tiOfl,, h led superficial observers to imagine that they were ~ witnessing a mere repetition of the victory of the English parliament over the Stuart kings.
To foreign observers it seemed impossible that the British monarchy could survive.
The practice was the reverse in Greece; the observers of signs looked towards the north, so that signs on the right were regarded as the favourable ones, and this is frequently adopted in the Roman poets.
Most observers consider that Actinotrocha is a highly modified Trochosphere, and this would give it some claim to be regarded as distantly related to the Entoproct Polyzoa and to other groups which have a Trochosphere larva.
The results, however, of modern observers and scholars must be sought for in the periodicals, Safn, Felagsrit, Ny Felagsrit and others.
The development of this branch has infused life and interest into what might a few years ago have been regarded as the most lifeless mass of figures possible, expressing merely the positions and motions of innumerable individual stars, as determined by generations of astronomical observers.
From the resulting elements of the orbit the positions of the body from day to day may be computed and tabulated in an ephemeris for the use of observers.
Galileo was nevertheless by far the ablest and most versatile of these early telescopic observers.
The early observers seem to have been under the impression that the dark regions might be oceans; but this impression must have been corrected as soon as the telescope began to be improved, when the whole visible surface was found to be rough and mountainous.
The work of drawing up a detailed description of the lunar surface, and laying its features down on maps, has from time to time occupied telescopic observers.
The taking of photographs of the moon then excited much interest among astronomical observers of various countries.
HARUSPICES, or Aruspices (perhaps "entrail observers," cf.
"The impassibility of his face and his lifeless glance" showed observers that he was still the obstinate dreamer that he had been in youth, absorbed in his Idea.
" To this we may answer that the human mind had to pass through the savage stage of thought, that this stage was for all practical purposes " identically the same " everywhere, and that to civilized observers it does resemble " a temporary madness."
Roth in Ethnological Studies, and many other close observers.
Different observers have chosen different metals as the standard of reference.
The following formulae are some of those employed for this purpose by different observers E t = bt +ct 2..
P. Avenarius is generally sufficient, and has been employed by many observers.
Experimental Results.-In the following comparative table of the results of different observers the values are referred to lead.
The work of the other three observers dates from 1894-95.
Later observers have generally employed a balance method (some modification of the potentiometer or Poggendorf balance) for measuring the E.M.F.
Pt.-Pt.- couple, if we calculate three formulae of the above types to satisfy the same pair of observations at ° -445° and 0°-z000° C., we shall find that the formula s =constant lies midway between that of Tait and that of Stansfield, but the difference between the formulae is of the same order as that between different observers.
A comparison of the results of different observers would also suggest that the law of variation may be different in different metals, although the differences in the values of d 2 E/dP may be due in part to differences of purity or errors of observation.
We are told that some of these ancient scientists passed years of their lives studying the wonders of bee-life, and left accurate records of their observations, which on many points agree with the investigations of later observers.
But the few observations made show that, after ordinary twilight has ended in the evening, the northern base of the zodiacal light extends more and more toward the north as the hours pass until, towards midnight, it merges into the light of the sky described by the two observers mentioned.
It has been seen to stretch across the sky at midnight by several observers, especially Barnard, to whom it appears 3° to 4° wide.
It has even been said that observers at great elevations have failed to see the zodiacal light; but it is scarcely credible that this failure could arise from any other cause than not knowing what it was or where to look for it.
He was unable to see any marked deviation of the spectrum from that of the sun; but it does not appear that either he or any other of the observers distinctly saw the dark lines of the solar spectrum.
As with the simple microscope, different observers see differently in the same compound microscope; and hence the magnification varies with the power of accommodation.
The eye-lens can be adjusted for the thread-plate, so that different observers can see the cross clearly.
Flora and Faunx.-Although the vegetation of the Nicobars has received much desultory attention from scientific observers, it has not been subjected to a systematic examination by the Indian Forest Department like that of the Andamans, and indeed the forests are quite inferior in economic value to those of the more northerly group; besides fruit trees - such as the coco-nut (Cocos nucifera), the betel-nut (Areca catechu), and the mellori (Pandanus leeram) - a thatching palm (Nipa fruticans) and various timber trees have some commercial value, but only one timber tree (Myristica irya)would be considered first-class in the Andamans.
The fecundity in the genus Lepas has struck many observers.
Penhallow maintains that these smaller tubes arise as branches from the larger, but other observers have failed to confirm this.
The UN acquiesced when the governments of Colombia, Mexico, and Central America invited the United States to send observers.
They were astute observers of the twentieth century world scene.
Careful observers picked up on the nuances of his gestures.
There was a tide so strongly in his favor as to excite the astonishment of all observers.
This Piggyback Mount is a great accessory for all observers interested in deep-sky astrophotography, particularly beginners.
Some observers 3 maintain that India could have produced an atom bomb before China, had it wished so to do.
attend as observers and should contact the Honorary Secretary for further details.
church tower to Artillery observers, men who could rain death upon advancing troops.
For most observers, the idea of US involvement in the attacks still strains credulity beyond breaking point.
foreign ministers ' meeting also produced agreement on foreign (but non-United States) observers to supervise the demobilization.
Observers of celebrity crisis cringe at the pathetic attempts to seek a safe bolt hole.
Most of all, we are not impotent observers outside nature subject to the slings and arrows of outrageous fortune.
kappa statistic was used to quantify the degree of agreement among observers.
noxious substance, observers have started to question the tactics used.
They were not there as entirely detached observers, tho some did their best to be.
observers invited from around the world.
The OSCE has sent 10,000 observers to more than 150 elections in the past 10 years.
Although the election results surprised many observers, both sides began conversations to bring a peaceful transfer of power.
Is in theory officials saysnarky observers private contractors which.
The main body the the Russians moved forward, with infantry, tanks and artillery observers at the front.
The UK has also provided substantial numbers of election observers through OSCE Election Observer Mission.
They are also perceptive observers of social groups, of different cultures and the community and society they live in.
Are some observers right to be concerned that foreign language learning is again becoming an elitist prerogative?
One was the dawning realization among some observers that economic growth was slowing down.
Since the energy response and spectral resolution of the two grating assemblies differ, separation of the output may be important for some observers.
Full membership of the Federation remained restricted to veterinary organizations of EEC Member States, while other European countries could become observers.
Teachers and observers involved report pupils ' increased self-esteem and ability to work as a team.
sharp-eyed observers will notice even the copper sulfate.
stymie growth as many observers have been saying.
He said Warner believes that the format war between HD DVD and Blu-ray would not stymie growth as many observers have been saying.
We can also train your people to act as observers, and help you to develop tailored learning plans.
wiz kid, even the most cynical of observers must agree that he has been charitable.
Some observers when giving mean values take 1(a_la +) as the mean value of q, while others take E(a_)Ãƒâ€ (a+).
It is usual to observe with this cover on, but some observers, e.g.
On this account, observers have until now limited themselves to a partial treatment of such spectra, measuring only a small number of lines, whereby the major part of the rich material present in the plate remains unutilized."
Before the classical researches of Hertz in 1886 and 1887, many observers had noticed curious effects due to electric sparks produced at a distance which were commonly ascribed to ordinary electrostatic or electro-magnetic induction.
The accurate investigation of the lowest forms of animal life, commenced by Leeuwenhoek and Swammerdam, and continued by the remarkable labours of Reaumur, Abraham Trembley, Bonnet, and a host of other observers in the latter part of the 17th and the first half of the 18th centuries, drew the attention of biologists to the gradation in the complexity of organization which is presented by living beings, and culminated in the doctrine of the echelle des titres, so powerfully and clearly stated by Bonnet, and, before him, adumbrated by Locke and by Leibnitz.
Closely allied to the study of symmetry is the study of the direct effect of the circumambient media on embryonic young and adult stages of living beings (see Embryology: Physiology; Heredity; and Variation And Selection), and a still larger number of observers have added to our knowledge of these.
Wallace's studies of island life, and the work of many different observers on local races of animals and plants, marine, fluviatile and terrestrial, have brought about a conception of segregation as apart from differences of environment as being one of the factors in the differentiation of living forms.
The so-called vegetable physiology of a generation ago was in ~rrear of animal, and particularly of human, physiology, the study of the latter being followed by many more observers, and from its relative degree of advancement being the more capable of rapid development.
The power of fixing atmospheric nitrogen by the higher plants seems to be confined to this solitary group, though it has been stated by various observers with more or less emphasis that it is shared by others.
Some observers consider that it represents a longitudinal half of the original segment of the spireme, others that it is a half of the segment produced by transverse division by means of which a true qualitative separation of the chromatin is brought about.
It has since been shown by other observers that this double fertilization Occurs in many other Angiosperms, both Dicotyledons and Monocotyledons, so that it is probably of general occurrence throughout the group (see ANGIOSPERMS).
rend., 1888, 106, p. 1357.) The gas may be liquefied by a pressure of about 17 atmospheres, the liquid so obtained boiling at - 61.8Ã‚° C.; and by further cooling it yields a solid, the melting point of which is given by various observers as - 82Ã‚° to - 86Ã‚° C. (see Ladenburg, Ber., 1900, 33, p. 6 37).
To the first belong what may be called the physical phenomena (q.v.) of spiritualism - those, namely, which, if correctly observed and due neither to conscious or unconscious trickery nor to hallucination or illusion on the part of the observers, exhibit a force acting in the physical world hitherto unknown to science.
Probably most persons who have studied the subject would now be inclined to go this length; and there is some evidence, notably in connexion with the trances of an American medium, Mrs Piper,' which has convinced some good observers that the hypothesis of occasional communication from deceased persons must be seriously entertained.
quartan and malignant types of fever, have been described by Italian observers, and the classification is generally accepted;.
Wagner made his classical observations on the production of larvae from unfertilized eggs developed in the precociouslyformed ovaries of a larval gall-midge (Cecidomyid), and subsequent observers have confirmed his results by studies on insects of the same family and of the related Chironomidae.
Nitzsch's work on feathers has been carried farther by many later observers, and its value is now generally accepted (see Feather).
While some observers have studied in detail the structure and life-history of a few selected types (insect anatomy and development), others have made a more superficial examination of large series of insects to classify them and determine their relationships (systematic entomology), while others again have investigated the habits and life-relations of insects (insect bionomics).
Improved means of communication have enabled many acute observers to apply the test of scrutiny on the spot to theories and conclusions mainly based on literary evidence; five foreign schools of archaeology, directed by eminent scholars, lend valuable aid to students of all nationalities, and lectures are frequently delivered in the museums and on the more interesting and important sites.
Most observers, such as Admiral Sir Cyprian Bridge and Mr Le Hunte, agree that these structures could not possibly be the work of any of the present Polynesian peoples, and attribute them to a now extinct prehistoric race, the men of the New Stone Age from the Asiatic mainland.
Putting aside fantastic theories, these observers endeavoured to give in their classifications a strictly objective representation of the facts of animal structure and of the structural relationships of animals to one another capable of demonstration.
Influenza, again, was well known to us in 1836-1840, yet clinical observers had not traced out those sequels which, in the form of neuritis and mental disorder, have impressed upon our minds the persistent virulence of this infection, and the manifold forms of its activity.
Some observers lay the blame at th door of Buddhism, a creed which promotes pessimism by beget ting the anchorite, the ascetic and the shuddering believer ii seven hells.
In habits the kakapo is almost wholly nocturnal, 3 hiding in holes (which in some instances it seems to make for itself) under the roots of trees or rocks during the day time, and only issuing forth about sunset to seek its food, which is solely vegetable in kind, and consists of the twigs, leaves, seeds and fruits of trees, grass and fern roots - some observers say mosses also.
Their final result was k - 001433 at 20Ã‚° C., which may be compared with the results of other observers, G.
In order to be independent of the accuracy of the thermometer employed for observing the initial temperature of the water introduced, it has been usual to employ water at iooÃ‚° C., adopting as unit of heat the " mean calorie," which is one-hundredth part of the heat given up by one gramme of water in cooling from iooÃ‚° to oÃ‚° C. The weight of mercury corresponding to the mean calorie has been determined with considerable care by a number of observers well skilled in the use of the instrument.
The conclusion to which the above observers came was that any quadrant electrometer made in any manner does not See Maxwell, Electricity and Magnetism (2nd ed., Oxford, 1881), vol.
While closely occupied with the exacting duties of that office, he still found time to prosecute many original inquiries - as into the application of acoustics to public buildings, and the best construction and arrangement of lecture-rooms, into the strength of various building materials, &c. Having early devoted much attention to meteorology, both in observing and in reducing and discussing observations, he (among his first administrative acts) organized a large and widespread corps of observers, and made arrangements for simultaneous reports by means of the electric telegraph, which was yet in its infancy (Smithson.
Hartwig in 1885, and subsequently spectroscopically examined by many observers; R Andromedae, a regularly variable star; and the Andromedids, a meteoric swarm, associated with Biela's comet, and having their radiant in this constellation (see Meteor).
The mean temperature during Climate the month of January recorded by Russian observers at the Murghabi - or Pamirski - post is - 13Ã‚° F.
Pt.-Pt.- couple, if we calculate three formulae of the above types to satisfy the same pair of observations at Ã‚° -445Ã‚° and 0Ã‚°-z000Ã‚° C., we shall find that the formula s =constant lies midway between that of Tait and that of Stansfield, but the difference between the formulae is of the same order as that between different observers.
It has been seen to stretch across the sky at midnight by several observers, especially Barnard, to whom it appears 3Ã‚° to 4Ã‚° wide.
In the Italian Renaissance, only a thin veneer of society's elites participated in the creation or ownership of the frescos, music, statues, and paintings; most were only passive observers.
On the Internet are far fewer passive observers.
Only the most sharp-eyed observers will notice even the copper sulfate.
Soon, ground observers visually confirmed it even tho all they could see was a silver speck in the sky.
It is manned at this time of year by Spanish observers monitoring the raptor and stork migration.
Love or hate the Californian wiz kid, even the most cynical of observers must agree that he has been charitable.
Amazon started with the narrow market of book buyers, and many observers were outraged at its high stock price when it went public; it was only a bookseller, after all.
The ultimate goal of a unique pet name is to garner attention from observers and also give the pet owner a strong sense of individuality.
Generally, it is preferred to allow additional room for players to shoot and for observers to undertake other activities while the players shoot.
Regarding the matter of determining if a teen is experimenting or moving more deeply into the drug culture, parents must be careful observers, particularly of the little details that make up a teen's life.
Diagnosis relies on a physical examination of the victim, reports of observers, and a wide range of tests and other procedures.
Would your decorating skills ever place your tree among those award-winning decorated Christmas trees that draw ooohs and aaahs from crowds of observers?
Personality type - Narrow your selection to explorers, idealists, leaders, traditionalists, individualists, rebels, givers, creators, champions, protectors, equalizers, or observers.
While casual observers may not be able to discern whether the gem is a diamond or another stone, many people will assume that it is not a diamond simply because fancy colors are so rare.
Most casual observers cannot distinguish between a .25 and a .33 carat stone, nor can they tell at a glance which stone may have a small flaw or be a slightly less desirable color.
There is no conscious interaction between the spirits involved and their human observers.
This leads many observers to question whether the creatures could be misidentified bears.
While many observers have labeled Hutchison as more of a performance artist than a scientist, other researchers believe that these controversial findings could explain the strange phenomena observed in the Bermuda Triangle.
Most casual observers can't even tell the difference between a newer used vehicle and a brand new automobile, and you'll save thousands of dollars on your purchase.
With social media being a buzzword over recent years, many keen observers try to pinpoint to the answer to: "What are the dangers of social networking."
cypriotes; but since their molar teeth are essentially miniatures of those of the African elephant, it has been suggested by later observers that these animals are nothing more than dwarf races of the latter.
In a series of repetitions of the experiment, by different observers, the following numbers were obtained for the ratio of the copper in the two chlorides: 1.98, 1.97, 2.03, 2.003, the mean value being 1.996.
The date of the evidence, however, has not been fixed with unanimity, and this very The musical service of the temple has no place in the Pentateuch, but was considerably developed under the second temple and attracted the special attention of Greek observers (Theophrastus, apud Porphyry, de Abstin.
It is impossible here to give even a list of the names of the many observers who in recent times have made empirical study of the effects of growth-forces and of the symmetrical limitations and definitions of growth.
The nucleus was definitely recognized in the plant cell by Robert Brown in 1831, but its presence had been previously indicated by various observers and it had been seen by Fontana in some animal cells as early as 1781.
In Spirogyra the pyrenoids are distinctly connected by cytoplasmic strands to the central mass of cytoplasm, which surrounds the nucleus, and according to some observers, they increase exclusively by division, followed by a splitting of the cytoplasmic strands.
The development of these structures has been studied by many observers, both in England and on the continent of Etirope.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.