As a traveller and observer his merits are conspicuous.
In fact, the casual observer might think he was actually courting her.
By the end of October the last Turkish regular had quitted Magyar soil, and, to use the words of a contemporary observer, one quarter of Hungary was as utterly destroyed as if a flood had passed over it.
Latitudes from the observations of travellers may generally be trusted, but longitudes should be accepted with caution; for so competent an observer as Captain Speke placed the capital of Uganda in longitude 32° 44' E., when its true longitude as determined by more trustworthy observations is 32° 26' E., an error of 18'.
The third and fourth bows are situated between the observer and the sun, and hence, to be viewed, the observer must face the sun.
It is this peculiar " waist " that catches the eye of the observer, and makes the insects so easy of recognition.
Here his abilities were speedily recognized, and in 1823 he was appointed meteorological observer to the Academy of Sciences.
In reference to their first observer they were formerly called " Stiebel's canals."
(With this method of observation it often happens that the observer, influenced by the direction he himself prefers, regards those as leaders who, owing to the people's change of direction, are no longer in front, but on one side, or even in the rear.)
When the shell is taken away (best effected by immersion in hot water) the surface of the visceral dome is found to be covered by a black-coloured epithelium, which may be removed, enabling the observer to note the posi.
At the end of 1099 any contemporary observer must have believed that the capital of Latin Christianity in the East was destined to be Antioch.
Mahommed in fact represented a revolt against the anthropomorphism of commonplace Mahommedan orthodoxy, but he was a rigid predestinarian and a strict observer of the law.
The colours are much fainter, and according to Aristotle, who claims to be the first observer of this phenomenon, the lunar bows are only seen when the moon is full.
The obvious remedy is to make all measures on opposite sides of the fixed web before reversing in position-angle - a precaution, however, which no careful observer would neglect.
No serious observer, acquainted with modern microscopic technical methods, has been able to confirm the explanation of their observations.
An ant is easily recognized both by the casual observer and by the student of insects.
With all his faults, and in spite of no slight amount of personal vanity, President Faure was a shrewd political observer and a good man of business.
A close observer of the multifarious low life of Hungary, Mikszath has, in his short stories, given a delightful yet instructive picture of all the minor varied phases of the peasant life of the Sla y s, the Palocok, the Saxons, the town artisan.
Robert James Graves (1796-1853) was a most eminent clinical teacher and observer, whose lectures are regarded as the model of clinical teaching, and indeed served as such to the most popular teacher of the Paris school in the middle of this century, Trousseau.
The colour usually deepens toward the zenith and also with the elevation of the observer.
Thus the slow motion would take place I the observer.
Sound is then not so well heard along the level, but may still reach an elevated observer.
Dropping the role of Solomon and speaking as an observer of life, the author declares (iv.
Of the work of Cyriac of Ancona, written about 1450, only some fragments remain, which are well supplemented by the contemporaneous description of the capable observer known as the " Anonymus of Milan."
He was a naturalist, but absolutely devoid of the pedantry of science; a keen observer, but no retailer of disjointed facts.
Preserved merely as taxpayers necessary to supply the funds for the maintenance of the dominant and military class, according to a foreign observer in 1571, they had been so degraded and oppressed that they dared not look a Turk in the face.
If the observer takes up a suitable position near water, his coat is often seen to be covered with the cast sub-imaginal skins of these insects, which had chosen him as a convenient object upon which to undergo their final change.
The Hungarian diet frantically opposed every Austrian alliance as endangering the national independence, but to any unprejudiced observer a union with the house of Habsburg, even with the contingent probability of a Habsburg king, was infinitely preferable to the condition into which Hungary, under native aristocratic misrule, was swiftly drifting.
Northumberland was thus a Jacobite stronghold; and in Manchester, where in 1777 according to an American observer Jacobitism "is openly professed," a Jacobite rendezvous known as "John Shaw's Club" lasted from 1735 to 1892.
Next, as all investigation proceeds from that which is known best to that which is unknown or less well known, and as, in social states, it is the collective phenomenon that is more easy of access to the observer than its parts, therefore we must consider and pursue all the elements of a given social state together and in common.
Although exceedingly near-sighted, Tennyson was a very close observer of nature, and at the age of eighty his dark and glowing eyes, which were still strong, continued to permit him to enjoy the delicate features of country life around him, both at Aldworth and in the Isle of Wight.
It must be clear to every observer that the economists of the classical period, with the one exception of Adam Smith, will speedily share the fate of nearly all scientific writers.
The observer will, therefore, see a coloured band, about 2° in width, and coloured violet inside and red outside.
A still further facility was given to the use of the filar micrometer by the introduction of clockwork, which caused the telescope automatically to follow the diurnal motion of a star, and left the observer's hands entirely at liberty.'
These lamps, although shown in the figure, are in reality covered so as not to shine upon the observer's eye.
2940, Dr Repsold proposed a method of meridian observing which consists in causing a web to follow the image of a star in transit by motions communicated by the observer's hands alone, whilst electrical contacts on the drum of the micrometer screw register on the chronograph the instants corresponding to known intervals from the line of collimation.
In the case of the original Repsold plan without clockwork the description is not quite exact, because both the process of following the object and correcting the aim are simultaneously performed; whilst, if the clockwork runs uniformly and the friction-disk is set to the proper distance from the apex of the cone, the star will appear almost perfectly at rest, and the observer has only to apply delicate corrections by differential gear - a condition which is exactly analogous to that of training a modern gun-sight upon a fixed object.
A good deal perhaps depends on each observer's view of what religion really is.
For the first nine years of his reign his youth prevented him from taking more than an observer's part in affairs.
The discovery of a single fossil creature in a geological stratum of a wrong period, the detection of a single anatomical or physiological fact irreconcilable with origin by descent with modification, would have been destructive of the theory and would have made the reputation of the observer.
For other areas we have often no description of the procedure at all, but merely the briefest outline of the actual process of slaughter, and we are ignorant whether the form of the rite is in reality simple (either from a loss of primitive elements or from never having advanced beyond the stage at which we find it), or whether the absence of detail is due to the inattention or lack of interest of the observer.
- The following are recent determinations of the magnetic susceptibility of water: Observer.
They are formed by parallel rays of light emanating from two sources, as, for example, the sun and its image in a sheet of water, which is situated between the observer and the sun.
A shrewd observer at the time pronounced him indispensable.
The monthly reviews include the Christian Observer (1802-1857), conducted by members of the established church upon evangelical principles, with Zachary Macaulay as the first editor; Monthlies.
Among those which also include political and social topics, and are more particularly dealt with under Newspapers, may be mentioned, the Examiner (1808-1881), the Spectator (1828), the Saturday Review (1855), the Scots or National Observer (1888-1897), Outlook (1898), Pilot (1900-1903), and Speaker (1890), which became the Nation.
6, 1787), Mackenzie, Craig, Abercromby, Tytler; Observer (1785 to 1790), Cumberland; Looker-on (March 10, 1792 to Feb.
Among other early Calcutta magazines were the Asiatic Observer (1823-1824), the Quarterly Oriental Magazine (1824-1827), and the Royal Sporting Magazine (1833-1838).
After experiments in the Zeiss works, the erecting of Porro's prisms simultaneously permitted a convenient adaptation to the eye-distance of the observer.
65) is less than Persius a pure Stoic, and more of a moralist and pathological observer of man's inner life.
Occasionally, in hypnagogic illusions, the observer can see the picture develop rapidly out of a blot of light or colour, beheld by the closed eyes.
Liberal, courteous, a shrewd observer, loyal and watchful in the cause of Russia, he maintained the best possible relations with Lord Lansdowne and Sir Edward Grey, and became a favourite at Court and in London society.
The brightness of the image is sometimes in creased by silvering the glass; and on removing a small portion of the silver the observer can Object see the image with part of the pupil while he sees the paper through the unsilvered aperture with the remaining part.
He was a regular observer of religious rites, took great pains to secure decorum in the services of the church, and was generous in almsgiving both within his empire and without.
3 Manuel Johnson, M.A., Radcliffe observer, Astronomical Observations made at the Radcliffe Observatory, Oxford, in the Year 1850, Introduction, p. iii.
to), for the purpose of interposing at pleasure the prism it in the axis of the reading micrometer; this enables the observer to view the graduations on the face of the metallic thermometer TT (composed of a rod of brass and a rod of zinc).
This wheel is acted on by a tangent screw whose bearings are attached to the cradle; the screw is turned by means of a handle supported by bearings attached to the cradle, and coming within convenient reach of the observer's hand.
With similar bevel-gear and rods the tangent screw is connected to the hand-wheel, 79, by which the observer communicates the fourth or slowest motion in position angle.
Thus the scales, the positionand declination-circles, the field of view, the heads of all the micrometer-microscopes, the focusing scale, &c., are read without the aid of a hand-lamp and with an amount of illumination that can be regulated at the observer's pleasure.
(c) A button in the centre of the position-angle handle (74) connects with a chronograph which enables the observer to record the instant of observation.
and Dec. of the object to be observed, the scale divisions to be pointed upon, and thus, in measures of distance, with the aid of the chronograph and printing micrometer, enable the observer to adjust the instrument for observation and obtain a record of his observations without the aid of a hand-lamp or the necessity to make any records in his notebook.
It enables the observer to compare any division-interval on one half of either scale with any corresponding interval on the other scale.
(e) A position-micrometer is attached to the finder to enable the observer to select comparison stars for observation with some unexpected object.
Of course, for many purposes, mean conditions may be adopted and mean scale-values be found which are applicable with considerable pre cision to small angles or to comparatively crude observations of large distances; but the highest refinement is lost unless means are provided for determining the scale-value for each observer at each epoch of observation.
Gill introduced a powerful auxiliary to the accuracy of heliometer measures in the shape of a reversing prism placed in front of the eye-piece, between the latter and the observer's eye.
If measures are made by placing the image of a star in the centre of the disk of a planet, the observer may have a tendency to do so systematically in error from some acquired habit or from natural astigmatism of the eye.
Practically the difficulty of making these diaphragms for the different powers of the exact required equality is insuperable; but, if the observer is content to lose a certain amount of light, we see no reason why they may not readily be made slightly less.
The same observer considers Boghead coal, kerosene shale and similar substances used for the production of mineral oils to be mainly alteration products of gelatinous fresh water algae, which by a nearly complete elimination of oxygen have been changed to substances approximating in composition to C 2 H 3 and C 3 H 5, where C: H = 7.98 and C: O ±N = 46.3.
The latter observer found the gases given off tion of gas by coal from the district of Newcastle and Durham evolved by to contain carbonic acid, marsh gas or light carburetted coal.
How hard it must have been to obtain a footing there while he was a mere student and observer!
An obvi us method of determining the velocity of sound in air consists in starting some sound, say by firing a gun, and stationing an observer at some measured distance from the gun.
The observer measures by a clock or chronometer the time elapsing between the receipt of the flash, which passes practically instantaneously, and the receipt of the report.
observer, his " personal equation " comes in to affect the estimation of the quantity.
It is different, too, for different senses with the same observer, and different even for the same sense when the external stimuli differ in intensity.
An observer with his ear to the tube noted the interval between the arrival of flash and sound.
In the first case the waves are more likely to reach and be perceived by an observer level with the source, while in the second case they may go over his head and not be heard at all.
As these " secondary waves " return to S their distance apart is nearly equal to twice the distance between the rails, and the observer then hears a note of wave-length nearly 2EF.
But if an observer is stationed at S' the waves will be about half as far apart and will reach him with nearly twice the frequency, so that he hears a note about an octave higher.
If both forks vibrate, an observer looking through the microscope sees the bright point describing Lissajous figures.
A very noticeable illustration of the alteration of pitch by motion occurs when a whistling locomotive moves rapidly past an observer.
An observer in the plane of the motion can easily hear a change in the pitch as the pitch-pipe moves to and from him.
But there is no doubt that it is very difficult to detect the summation tone by the ear, and many workers have doubted the possibility, notwithstanding the evidence of such an observer as Helmholtz.
Whether in form addressed to Diognetus, the tutor of Marcus Aurelius, as a typical cultured observer of Christianity, or to some other eminent person of the same name in the locality of its origin, or, as seems more likely, to cultured Greeks generally, personified under the significant name "Diognetus" ("Heaven-born," cf.
Michaud, Guillaume de Champeaux et les ecoles de Paris au XII e siecle (2nd ed., 1868); "William of Champeaux and his Times" in Christian Observer, lxxii.
If the surrounding aether is thereby disturbed, the waves of light arriving from the stars will partake of its movement; the ascertained phenomena of the astronomical aberration of light show that the rays travel to the observer, across this disturbed aether near the earth, in straight lines.
Eminent among the novelists of this generation were Nemcova, a good observer of social conditions who reproduced in her works the charm of Bohemian peasant life; her kinswoman Svetla, Arbes and Zeyer.
p. 550) mentions a willow-gall which provides no less than sixteen insects with food and protection; these are preyed upon by about eight others, so that alltogether some twenty-four insects, representing eight orders, are dependent for their existence on what to the common observer appears to be nothing but " an unmeaning mass of leaves."
His literary standing meantime improved, and he became a regular contributor to The Intellectual Observer, Chambers's Journal and the Popular Science Review.
Charcot, who was a good linguist and well acquainted with the literature of his own as well as of other countries, excelled as a clinical observer and a pathologist.
(1659), describing the customs of the country as they would appear to a foreign observer, reprinted in Somers' Tracts (ed.
In 1842 he went to Stockholm Observatory in order to gain experience in practical astronomical work, and in the following year he became observer at Upsala Observatory.
It is sluggish in its movements, and so harmless that its armature and (to a casual observer) repulsive appearance are its sole means of defence.
He has moreover elaborated a method for preserving Rotif era for microscopic observation, so that the types of each observer are now as readily available for comparison as the plant-specimens of the botanist's herbarium.
From 1813 to 1820 he was extraordinary professor of astronomy and mathematics at the new university and observer at the observatory, becoming in 1820 ordinary professor and director.
1858) studied at Dorpat, Bonn and Leipzig, and became observer at the Dorpat observatory in 1886.
To the inventive activity of the discoverer he had already united the patient skill of the observer and the practical sagacity of the experimentalist.
Born In 1784, And Brought Up Among Reminiscent Eye Witnesses Of The Old Regime, He Was An Eager Listener, With A Wonderful4 Memory And Whole Hearted Pride In The Glories Of His Race And Family, A Kindly Seigneur, Who Loved And 'Was Loved By All His Censitaires, A Keen Observer Of Many Changing Systems, Down, To The Final Confederation Of 1867, And A Man Who Had Felt' Both Extremes Of Fortune (Memoires, 1866).
He was also a diligent and skilful observer, and busied himself not only with astronomical subjects, such as the double stars, the satellites of Jupiter and the measurement of the polar and equatorial diameters of the sun, but also with biological studies of the circulation of the sap in plants, the fructification of plants, infusoria, &c.
Sometimes a distinction is made between the rational and the apparent horizon, the former being the horizon as determined by a plane through the centre of the earth, parallel to that through the station of an observer.
It is due to the rotundity of the earth, and the height of the observer's eye above the water.
The dip of the horizon and its distance in sea-miles when the height of the observer's eye above the sea-level is h feet, are approximately given by the formulae: Dip=o' 97 -slh; Distance =1 m.
This apparent motion is due to the finite velocity of light, and the progressive motion of the observer with the earth, as it performs its yearly course about the sun.
The diagonal AD of the parallelogram, of which AB and AC are adjacent sides, will represent, both in direction and magnitude, the motion of the rain as apparent to the observer.
2) be a star and the s observer be carried along the line AB; let SB be perpendicular to AB.
If the observer be stationary at B, the star will appear in the direction BS; if, however, he traverses the distance BA in the same time as light passes from the star to his eye, the star will A B appear in the direction AS.
with the earth in its orbit, the star appears to have a displacement which is at all times parallel to the motion of the observer.
BASIL LANNEAU GILDERSLEEVE (1831-), American classical scholar, was born in Charleston, South Carolina, on the 23rd of October 1831, son of Benjamin Gildersleeve (1791-1875) a Presbyterian evangelist, and editor of the Charleston Christian Observer in 1826-1845, of the Richmond (Va.) Watchman and Observer in 1845-1856, and of The Central Presbyterian in 1856-1860.
Unfortunately considerations of luminosity compel the observer often to widen the slit much beyond the range within which the theoretical value of resolving power holds in practice.
Every observer should not only record the resolving power of the instrument he uses, but also the purity-factor as defined above.
Lecoq de Boisbaudran has applied this method with considerable success, and it is to be recommended whenever only small electric power is at the disposal of the observer.
A limit to homogeneity of radiation is ultimately set by the so-called Doppler effect, which is the change of wave-length due to the translatory motion of the vibrating molecule from or towards the observer.
If N be the frequency of a homogeneous vibration sent out by a molecule at rest, the apparent frequency will be N (1 v/ V), where V is the velocity of light and v is the velocity of the line of sight, taken as positive if the distance from the observer increases.
He agrees with Fechner that physical process of nerve and psychical process of mind are really the same psychophysical process as appearing on the one hand to an observer and on the other hand to one's own consciousness; and that physical phenomena only produce physical phenomena, so that those materialists and realists are wrong who say that physical stimuli produce sensations.
Apart from his sophistical defence of Spanish colonial policy, Acosta deserves high praise as an acute and diligent observer whose numerous new and valuable data are set forth in a vivid style.
A trained observer acting under the superintendent of compasses is charged with this important work.
The deflector is an instrument designed to enable an observer to reduce the deviations of the compass to an amount not exceeding 2 0 during fogs, or at any time when bearings of distant objects are not available.
were manifest even to a contemporary observer.
But besides being a true educator, and perhaps the greatest popular teacher of natural philosophy in his generation, he was an earnest and original observer and explorer of nature.
Homer was a close observer of expression and of appearance as correlated with character, as is shown by his description of Thersites 3 and elsewhere.
- An optical instrument used in land warfare and in submarine navigation, enabling an observer to see in all directions while remaining under cover or submerged.
Essentially it consists in an optical system of lenses and mirrors, or mirrors alone, the upper part of which projects from cover, or from the deck of a submarine, while the observer looks into the lower end, receiving an image of the surrounding country or sea by reflection down a tube.
The simplest form of periscope, and that most generally used by troops, consisted of a tube, rectangular in section, provided with two mirrors, the upper of which, inclined at an angle of 45° to the axis of the tube, reflected the image of the foreground vertically downwards to a second mirror, also inclined to the axis at 45° into which the observer looked.
Continuous use of a periscope is very trying for the observer's eyes, and for use in bright weather light-filter screens are provided to reduce the glare.
surface, and is gradually converted into glacier-ice, which descends by a slow secular motion into the deeper valleys, where it goes to swell perennial streams. As on a mountain the snow does not lie in beds of uniform thickness, and some parts are more exposed to the sun and warm winds than others, we commonly find beds of snow alternating with exposed slopes covered with brilliant vegetation; and to the observer near at hand there is no appearance in the least corresponding to the term limit of perpetual snow, though the case is otherwise when a high mountain-chain is viewed from a distance.
To the ordinary spectator Tinamous have much the look of partridges, but the more attentive observer will notice that their Rufous Tinamou (Rhynchotus rufescens).
ARCULF, a Gallican bishop and pilgrim-traveller, who visited the Levant about 680, and was the earliest Christian traveller and observer of any importance in the Nearer East after the rise of Islam.
How far the different forms indicate real difference in the nature of the phenomenon, and how far they are determined by the position of the observer, it is difficult to say.
Auroral Meridian.-It is a common belief that the summit of an auroral arc is to be looked for in the observer's magnetic meridian.
Thus there must in general be a difference between the observer's magnetic meridian - answering to the mean position of the magnetic needle at his station - and the direction the needle would have at a given hour, if undisturbed by the aurora, at any spot where the phenomena which the observer sees as aurora exist.
- Another auroral direction having apparently a close relation to terrestrial magnetism is the imaginary line drawn to the eye of an observer from the centre of the corona - i.e.
Heights have been calculated in various less direct ways, by observing for instance the angular altitude of the summit of an arc and the angular interval between its extremities, and then making some assumption such as that the portion visible to an observer may be treated as a circle whose centre lies over the so-called auroral pole.
Estimates of the intensity of the light have been based on various arbitrary scales, such for instance as the size of type which the observer can read at a given distance.
For the two shorter wave-lengths, for whose measurement he claims the highest precision, the observer, J.
Escobar himself is said to have been simple in his habits, a strict observer of the rules of his order, and unweariedly zealous in his efforts to reform the lives of those with whom he had to deal.
The passage of the long hand of a watch across the end of the slit every hour cuts off the light, and gives hour marks enabling the observer to learn the time at which a disturbance has taken place.
He contributed to various periodicals, notably to the National Observer and the Bookman, and also to the Book of the Rhymers Club - the English Parnasse Contemporain of the early 'nineties.
Equally unfounded is the assertion first made by Thurlow Weed in the London Observer (gth of February 1862) that the president was prevented from ordering Anderson back to Fort Moultrie only by the threat of four members of the cabinet to resign.
Shortly after the death of Main on the 9th of May 1878, Stone was appointed to succeed him as Radcliffe Observer at Oxford, and he left the Cape on the 27th of May 1879.
He is an acute thinker and observer, misled by his systematic misanthropy and by his fantastic literary theories.
He also founded (in 1833) and edited the American Quarterly Observer; in 1836-1841 edited the Biblical Repository (after 1837 called the American Biblical Repository) with which the Observer was merged in 1835; and was editor-in-chief of the Bibliotheca Sacra from 1844 to 1851.
At any moment in the history of a nation such customs seem, to a superficial observer, to be fixed and immutable.
He rode about Epping Forest, sometimes in a toy suit of armour, became a close observer of animal nature, and was able to recognize any bird upon the wing.
avOi / Xcos, opposite the sun), the luminous ring or halo sometimes seen in Alpine or polar regions surrounding the shadow of the head of an observer cast upon a bank of cloud or mist.
Under favourable conditions four concentric rings may be seen round the shadow of the observer's head, the outermost, which seldom appears, having an angular radius of 40°.
If we desire to, utilize all the parallel rays which fall upon an object-glass it is necessary that the full pencil of emerging rays should enter the observer's eye.
The best speculum metal and the greatest care are no guarantee of freedom from tarnish, and, if such a mirror is much exposed, as it must be in the hands of an active observer, frequent repolishing will probably be necessary.
The hour circle has two toothed circles cut upon it, one acted upon by a worm screw mounted on the pier and driven by clockwork, the other by a second worm screw attached to the polar axis, which can be turned by a handle in the observer's hand and thus a slow movement can be given to the telescope in right ascension inde FIG.
The peculiar form of the tube is eminently suited for rigid preservation of the relative parallelism of the axes of the two telescopes, so that,;i the image of a certain selected star is retained on the intersection of two wires of the micrometer, by means of the driving clock, aided by small corrections given by the observer in right ascension and declination (required on account of irregularity in the clock movement, error in astronomical adjustment of the polar axis, or changes in the star's apparent place produced by refraction), the image of a star will continue on the same spot of the photographic film during the whole time of exposure.
Telescopes of such dimensions can be conveniently directed to any object by the circles without the observer being under the necessity to climb a special ladder.
The observer's eye is applied to the small telescope E, which (by means of prisms numbered I, 2, 3, 4) views the vernier attached to the cross-head simultaneously with the hour circle attached to the upper end of the polar axis.
The declination circle reads from the eye-end, and four handles for clamping and slow motion in right ascension and declination are situated near the observer's hands.
For the great refractor more recently erected at Potsdam, Messrs Repsold arranged a large platform mounted on a framework which is moved in azimuth by the dome, so that the observer on the platform is always opposite the dome-opening.
This framework is provided with guides on which the platform, whilst preserving its horizontality, is V the observer has to follow the eye-end in a comparatively small circle; another good point is the flattening of the cast-iron centrepiece of the tube so that the flange of the declination axis is attached as near to the axis of the telescope tube as is consistent with free passage of the cone of rays from the object-glass.
The observer at the eye-end can also read off the hour and declination circles and communicate quick or slow motions, to the telescope both in right ascension and declination by conveniently Pulkovo, placed handles.
in diameter, should be raised and lowered by water power, under control of the observer by means of electric keys which act on secondary mechanism that in turn works the valves and reversing gear of the water engines.
Other water engines, similarly connected, with keys at the observer's hands, rotate the dome and perform the quick motions in right ascension and declination.
(An illustration showing these arrangements appeared in The Engineer of July 9, 1886.) Grubb's suggestion of the "rising floor" was adopted, although his original plans for the mounting were not carried out; the construction of the mounting, dome, floor, &c., having been entrusted to Messrs Warner & Swasey of Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A. It has been contended that it is undesirable to move so great a mass as a floor when a platform alone is required to carry the observer.
per second or as slowly as the observer desires - whilst in all the large platforms we have seen (Potsdam and Paris), the rate of shift is tedious and time-consuming.
The telescope is moved in right ascension and declination by electric motors controlled from positions convenient for the observer.
In Lassell's instrument (a reflector of the Newtonian type) the observer is mounted in the open air on a supplementary tower capable of motion in any azimuth about the centre of motion of the telescope, whilst an observing platform can be raised and lowered on the side of the tower.
In Lord Rosse's instrument (also of the Newtonian type) the observer is suspended in a cage near the eye-piece, and the instrument is used in the open air.
96, pp. 735-74 1, Loewy gives an account of an instrument which he calls an "equatorial coude," designed (I) to attain greater stability and so to measure larger angles than is generally possible with the ordinary equatorial; (2) to enable a single astronomer to point the telescope and make observations in any part of the sky without changing his position; (3) to abolish the usual expensive dome, and to substitute a covered shed on wheels (which can be run back at pleasure), leaving the telescope in the open air, the observer alone being sheltered.
The easy position of the observer, the convenient position of the handles for quick and slow motion, and the absolute rigidity of the mounting leave little to be desired.
The observer is, therefore, at the bottom of the tube instead of the top and looks upward instead of downward.
Thus, as in the equatorial coude, the observer remains in a fixed position looking down the polar tube from above.
In those of type E the eye-piece has a fixed position and the observer may even occupy a room maintained at uniform temperature, but he must submit to a certain loss of light from one or more reflecting surfaces, and from possible loss of definition from optical imperfection or flexure of the mirror or mirrors.
But if it be possible to mount a fixed telescope by which a solar or stellar image can be formed within a laboratory we give the following advantages: - (1) There is no mechanical limit to the length of the telescope; (2) the clockwork and other appliances to move the mirror, which reflects the starlight along the axis, are much lighter and smaller than those required to move a large telescope; (3) the observer remains in a fixed position, and spectroscopes of any weight can be used on piers within the laboratory; and (4) the angular value of any linear distance on a photographic plate can be determined by direct measurement of the distance of the photographic plate from the optical centre of the object-glass.
Thus, any fixed telescope directed towards the mirror of a properly adjusted coelostat in motion will show all the stars in the field of view at rest; or, by rotating the polar axis independently of the clockwork, the observer can pass in review all the stars visible above the horizon whose declinations come within the limits of his original field of view.
Devins, An Observer in the Philippines (Boston, 1905); R.
The heavens presenting a constant change even to the superficial observer, the conclusion was drawn of a connexion between the changes and the everchanging movement in the fate of individuals and of nature as well as in the appearance of nature.
Two years later he went to Berlin to study astronomy under Encke, and in 1859 was appointed assistant observer at Pulkova, a post which he resigned in 1860 for a similar one at Brera, Milan.
Fortunately the birds soon become tame in confinement, and a little patience will enable an attentive observer to satisfy himself as to the process, the result of which at first seems almost as unaccountable as that of a clever conjuring trick.
In1858-1859he was a member of the council of the Northern Reform Union; and to the last he was a keen observer of political events.
Though intended for the Church, his studies and tastes inclined him to astronomy, and with a view to gaining experience in the routine of an observatory he accepted the post of observer in the university of Durham.
In spite of his chance victories, he was too shrewd an observer not to recognize the superiority of European methods of warfare; and as the first step towards the empire of which he dreamed he determined to create an army and a fleet on the European model.
Helical motion and screws adapted to it are said to be right- or left-handed according to the G appearance presented by the rotation to an observer looking towards the direction of the translation.
A couple is said to be right or left handed with reference to the observer, according to the direction in which it tends to turn the body, and is a driving couple or a resisting couple according as its tendency is with or against that of the actual rotation.
On the general effect of the manner of life led by Sadhus or" holy men,"a recent observer (J.
It was, however, never so abundant as its smaller congeners, the so-called common and the arctic tern - two species that are so nearly alike as to be beyond discrimination on the wing by an ordinary observer, and even in the hand require a somewhat close examination?
As a careful, judicious and accurate observer, both of man and nature, he had few superiors.
Of his amours and mistresses the same shrewd observer of human character, who was also well acquainted with the king, declares " that his inclinations to love were the effects of health and a good constitution with as little mixture of the seraphic part as ever man had..
Whatever the truth or fable of the first forty years of his life, he had certainly been a close and accurate observer, and had made himself acquainted with many curious and little-known phenomena, which he had stored up in a most tenacious memory.
He learned from him to be not a mere scholar, but something more - an acute observer, never losing sight of the actual world, and aiming not so much at correcting texts as at laying the foundation of a science of historical criticism.
An observer of very different mettle, the great lawyer d'Aguesseau, dwells on the "noble singularity, that gave him an almost prophetic air.
These are styled pits or domes, according to the position occupied by the observer.
To a superficial observer the prosperity of Portugal might.
The jet should be situated between the sparks and the eye, and the observation is facilitated by a piece of ground glass held a little beyond the jet, sO as to diffuse the light; or the shadow of the jet may be received on the ground glass, which is then held as close as possible on the side towards the observer.
Huntington's inhabitants were mostly strong patriots, notably Ebenezer Prime (1700-1779), pastor of the First Presbyterian Church, which the British used as a barracks, and his son Benjamin Young Prime (1733-1791), a physician, linguist and patriot poet, who was the father of Samuel Irenaeus Prime (1812-1885), editor of the New York Observer.
I 2.3 3'9 9.5 The same observer established the following relation between fineness p and specific gravity of alloys containing from 375 to 875 of silver per 1000: - sp. gr.
He was a critical observer, who tested his evidence.
The model was forced by its propellers along a wire at a great speed, but so far as an observer could determine, failed to lift itself, notwithstanding its extreme lightness and the comparatively very great power employed.
He was a sporadic observer.
In the eyes of a Roman observer, however, even downright slavery was turned into serfdom by the force of circumstances.
It was found that personality played an I mportant part; the average effect might be t", but frequently it reached 3", 4", 5" or even 10", with the same instrument and method, ndr was it fixed for the same observer.
Livingstone was no hurried traveller; he did his journeying leisurely, carefully observing and recording all that was worthy of note, with rare geographical instinct and the eye of a trained scientific observer, studying the ways of the people, eating their food, living in their huts, and sympathizing with their joys and sorrows.
From 1904 he was editor of the Raleigh News and Observer, with which his former paper was consolidated.
Dr Edleston, in his preface to Newton's correspondence with Cotes, justly remarks: " If Flamsteed the Astronomer-Royal had cordially co-operated with him in the humble capacity of an observer in the way that Newton pointed out and requested of him.
There was still another thinker who influenced him at this early period, - Maine de Biran, whom Cousin regarded as the unequalled psychological observer of his time in France.
The observer begins by moving the slider until the galvanometer shows no current.
- Diagram of a simple form of Crinoid, with five arms, each forking once; the one nearest the observer is removed to expose the tegmen of five orals.
The observer cannot long continue his researches in the field without discovering that the rocks of the earth's crust have been almost everywhere thrown into curves, usually so broad and gentle as to escape observation except when specially looked for.
The observer in passing northwards along the axis of that anticline finds himself getting into progressively higher strata as the fold sinks down.
i There is no doubt that auspex=avi-spex (" observer of birds"), but the derivation of augur is still unsettled.
As a satirist and observer he is simply the "Cooper who 's written six volumes to prove he's as good as a Lord" of Lowell's clever portrait; his enormous vanity and his irritability find vent in a sort of dull violence, which is exceedingly tiresome.
His narrative is of unique interest as giving a picture of medieval Europe at the close of the Crusading period, painted by a keenly intelligent, broadminded and statesmanlike observer.
And though reflection upon conduct may lead us to suppose that our past acts were determined, that desire of pleasure or the wish to avoid pain controlled our wills, the unphilosophical observer interprets, in offenders against morality, such arguments as a mere excuse.
Thus it comes about that the observer, the computer, and the mathematician have in astronomical science a practically unlimited field for the exercise of their powers.
We conceive its position to be that occupied by an observer.
The position of a heavenly body is then defined by its direction and distance from the supposed observer.
This point, though it can never be occupied by an observer, is used because the positions of the heavenly bodies in relation to it are more readily computed than they can be from a point on the earth's surface.
Taking as origin the position of an observer, the direction of a heavenly body is defined by the point in which he sees it in the sky; that is to say, on the celestial sphere.
The relation of geocentric to apparent co-ordinates depends upon the latitude of the observer.
Imagine an observer starting from the North Pole to travel towards the equator, carrying his zenith with him.
The obliquity continually increases until the observer reaches the equator.
Continuing his journey towards the south, the north celestial pole sinks below the horizon; the south celestial pole rises above it; or to speak more exactly, the zenith of the observer approaches that pole.
An observer on board of her would notice no motion except this.
In this plane are a pair of cross threads or spider lines which, as the observer looks into the telescope, are seen as AB and CD (fig.
When the basin of quicksilver is used, the telescope, either before or after being directed toward P, is pointed directly downwards, so that the observer mounting above it looks through it into the reflecting surface.
Measures made on the various systems which we have described give the apparent direction of a celestial object as seen by the observer.
This is one of the most troublesome problems in astronomy because, owing to the ever varying density of the atmosphere, arising from differences of temperature, and owing to the impossibility of determining the temperature with entire precision at any other point than that occupied by the observer, the amount of refraction must always be more or less uncertain.
The result of astronomical observations which is ordinarily wanted is not the direction of an object from the observer, but from the centre of the earth.
To an observer on the moon our earth would present a surface more than ten times as large as the moon presents to us, consequently this earth-light is more than ten times brighter than our moonlight, thus enabling the lunar surface to be seen by us.
It was in connexion with this group that he then occupied himself with a plan for a religious periodical which should admit "a moderate degree of political and common intelligence," the result being the appearance in January 1801 of the Christian Observer.
In 1836 the Rev. Elijah P. Lovejoy(1802-1837), a native of Albion, Maine, removed the Observer, a religious (Presbyterian) periodical of which he was the editor, from St Louis to Alton.
The press of the Observer was three time destroyed, and on the 7th of November 1837 E.
Since the Spanish conquest their huacas have been opened and rifled, and many of the larger masses of ruins have been extensively mined in search of treasure, but enough still remains to impress upon the observer the magnitude of the city and the genius of the people who built it.
Further, by means of such motion these actual occurrences, which are in themselves timeless, fall for an observer in a definite time - a time which becomes continuous through the partial coincidence of events.
The path of the extremity of the vector is then in general an ellipse, traversed in a right-handed direction to an observer receiving the light when a - (3 is between o and 7r, or between - 7r and - air, and in a left-handed direction if this angle be between 7r and 27, or between o and - 7r.
Biot further ascertained that this rotation of the plane of polarization varies as the distance traversed in the plate and very nearly as the inverse square of the wave-length, and found that with certain specimens of quartz the rotation is in a clockwise or right-handed direction to an observer receiving the light, while in others it is in the opposite direction, and that equal plates of the rightand lefthand varieties neutralize one another's effects.
A web in the focal plane of telescope marks the point in the field at which the bands are to be made to disappear; this is effected by turning the polarizer by means of a rack and pinion worked by an arm from the observer's end of the instrument.
The natural geographical and ethnical southern frontier of Egypt is the First Cataract; Egyptian scribes of the Old Empire recognized this truth no less clearly than Diocletian, and Juvenal anticipates the verdict of every modern observer when he describes the " porta Syenes " as the gate of Africa.
In their numerous allusions to the subtle mercury, which the one makes when treating of a means of measuring time by the efflux of the metal, and the other in a treatise on the transit of the planet, we see traces of the school in which they served their first apprenticeship. Huygens, moreover, in his great posthumous work, Cosmotheoros, seu de terris coelestibus, shows himself a more exact observer of astrological symbols than Kircher himself in his Iter exstaticum.
If the observer is struck with the remarkable prominence of any one feature, it is probable that the remaining parts are deficient.
The point of the wedge is quite indefinite, the extremely diffuse light gradually fading into invisibility at a height which may range from 50° to 70° or even more, according to the keenness of the observer's vision.
If it did not extend so far as this it could not be seen as frequently as it is at a distance of 90 from the sup. The accompanying figure shows the form of the outline, as it would appear to an observer on an outer planet were the light of the sun cut off.
Barnard, the most successful observer, assigns diameters of 5° or even 10° or more.
We are therefore forced to the conclusion that either he must have been a quite untrustworthy observer, or that there are anomalies in the phenomena which are yet to be explained.
The former refers to the earth, which is continually changing the point of view of the observer as he is carried around the sun, while the latter relates to the invariable position of the matter which reflects the light.
Owing to the varying latitude of the ship, and the fact that the observer attempted to draw curves of equal brilliancy instead of the central line, the required conclusions cannot be drawn with certainty from these observations.
He found that as the observer moved to the north or south the axis of the light appeared to be displaced in the direction of the motion, which is the opposite of the effect due to parallax, but in the same sense as the effect of the greater atmospheric absorption of the light on the side nearest the horizon.
Some evidence has also been found by the same observer of polarization, showing that a considerable portion of the light must be reflected sunlight.
He is thus an observer, witness, and participant in the incident, and the work is then complete."
White not only notes the homes and ways, the times and seasons, of plants and animals - comparing, for instance, the different ways in which the squirrel, the fieldmouse and the nuthatch eat their hazel-nuts - or watches the migrations of birds, which were then only beginning to be properly recorded or understood, but he knows more than any other observer until Charles Darwin about the habits and the usefulness of the earthworms, and is certain that plants distil dew and do not merely condense it.
In 1905 he went to Japan as military attache to the American embassy, and during the Russo-Japanese War spent several months as military observer with the Japanese army in Manchuria.
On the other hand, as the observer recedes from the object, the apparent size, and also the image on the retina diminishes; details become more and more confused, and gradually, after a while, disappear altogether, and ultimately the external configuration of the object as a whole is no longer recognizable.
Since this shortsighted observer can view the object with the naked eye with no inconvenience to himself at 4 in.
In addition it will be supposed that the centre of the pupil of the observer coincides with the back focal point of the system.
On the other hand, it is even of greater use to the hypermetropic than to the observer of normal sight.
From this it appears that each observer obtains specific advantages from one and the same simple microscope, and also the individual observer can obtain different magnifications by either using different accommodations, or by viewing in passive accommodation.
So long as the pupil of the observer alone undertakes the regulation of the rays there is no perceptible diminution of illumination in comparison with the naked eye vision.
The image viewed through the eyepiece appears then to the observer under the angle w", and as with the single microscope tan w" = I /f 2 ' (4) where f' 2 is the image-side focal length of the eyepiece.
13 that the objective's exit pupil P'P1' is portrayed by the positive eyepiece, the image P"P i " limits the pencils P ', double microscope; these inverting prisms permit a convenient adaptation of the instrument to the interpupillary distance of the observer.
The exit pupil, often called Ramsden's circle, is thus accessible to the observer, who by headand eye-movements may survey the whole field.
the centre of the exit pupil, is accessible to the eye of the observer.
Moreover, with such exceptionally narrow pencils shadows are formed on the retina of the observer's eye, from the irregularities in the eye itself.
But, owing to the various partial reflections which the illuminating cone of rays undergoes when traversing the surfaces of the lenses, a portion of the light comes again into the preparation, and into the eye of the observer, thus veiling the image.
Since many of the rays coming from the exit-pupil of the objective would not reach the eye of the observer at all, it is necessary, in order to make use of all of them, to direct the diverging rays forming the real image so that the whole of the light enters the eye of the observer.
Both lenses together form the exit-pupil of the objective behind the eyelens, so that this image, the exit-pupil of the total system or the Ramsden circle, is accessible to the eye of the observer.
The cones must be so directed through the divided system that the two exit pupils correspond to the interpupillary distance of the observer.
In the oldest microscope by Cherubin d'Orleans the observer receives a pseudoscopic impression in consequence of the reversed image.
Taking a stand near Lake Fergus, to the east of Lake St Clair, the observer will find himself nearly in the centre of an extensive plateau, with an elevation, especially on the northern side, of between three and five thousand feet above the sea-level.
Arthur Young was the greatest of all English writers on agriculture; but it is as a social and political observer that he is best known, and his Tour in Ireland and Travels in France are still full of interest and instruction.
He's not there; he's only an observer, I offered.
As an observer, I can tell you there's a great deal of motivation for someone in his position to betray you.
A casual observer wouldn't have noticed but the door was ajar and the phone was on the wrong side of the hall table.
Dean's damaged bike was stowed in the trunk and in a matter of minutes he went from being an integral part of a wide and wonderful biking world to just another simple observer seated behind glass and peeking at life at 50 miles an hour.
Combating apathy can be difficult, whether you are the passive being in question, or merely the observer.
The narrative was constructed from the experiences of a fractured French family and their main observer, a lost family member.
The annual aberration is the aberration correction for an imaginary observer at the Earth's center.
antislavery views he expressed in the Observer.
assiduous observer of culture, he showed precocious artistic talent and fierce ambition.
attentive observer, the situation is globally very different.
Unveiled from the dusty backroom of a Bangkok shop last week, the pair were offered to The Observer for £ 3,500.
The 12 World Cup cities The Observer Sunday 21 May 2006 Where can you get the best bratwurst in Berlin?
casual observer, ALI's timing looked bang on.
The United Nations Observer Mission in Sierra Leone (UNOMSIL) was retained to help monitor the cease-fire.
celestial equator at a meridian is a function of the latitude of the observer.
identifying cetaceans at sea is never easy; when watching from a ferry the observer is faced with some significant difficulties.
characterization of the physical structure of an observer.
chromaticity classes shows how many component hues an observer employed in their decision making.
comprehensible manner for the observer.
And nobody has dared to seriously challenge it. · William Keegan is the Observer's senior economics correspondent.
cosmology page 1 This does not mean the universe seems isotropic to every possible observer.
dialectic relationship between observer and observation creates the object.
disinterested observer that the cost of purchasing a PC has fallen considerably.
dispassionate observer of what's going on.
Interesting to compare with the Observer's top 100, which is much more elitist.
The altitude of the celestial equator at a meridian is a function of the latitude of the observer.
fair-minded, objective observer must surely smell grave maladministration.
Zimbabwean deportation halted at last minute The Observer, UK - ... removal.
Beside not giving a hoot about the story, the disinterested observer is often hoodwinked and subject to public-relations manipulations.
election UPDATE SPECIAL FIVE politicians were put on the spot on Monday night at an election hustings hosted by the Dunoon Observer.
A remaining 5mm focus of focal nodular hyperplasia was not detected by either observer on any technique.
The coded moral and religious messages contained in Bosch's strange worlds are mostly indecipherable to the modern observer.
independent of an observer nor imply a purpose.
Systems neither exist independent of an observer nor imply a purpose.
inexpert observer has found it quite difficult to orient oneself in them.
inkblot test, on which the observer projects his own inner life.
With due deference to this great observer, I think he was mistaken, owing to his not having secured the internodes.
Observation may seem more intrusive to the people being observed than to the observer.
What is classed as a severe eye irritant by one observer may be dismissed as a mild irritant by another.
European lawmakers also reiterated their support for Taiwan's bid to rejoin the World Health Organization as an observer.
Hence the observer feels the pain, the anguish or the smoke filled lungs and passes that memory on to their progeny.
meeting as an observer.
Recovering Data Although not the main purpose, 24 nights ' data had been recovered following observer mishaps after the first year.
Page 3 of the Observer had this charming headline: " Violence blamed on teenage mums " .
Time in a moving system will be observed by a stationary observed by a stationary observer to be running slower by the following factor.
Indeed, the isolated sytem does not absorb or emit anything... and, as a result, cannot be perceived by any observer.
Time in a moving system will be observed by a stationary observer to be running slower by the following factor.
However, this cameo from Jones is starting to remind this observer of the NatWest Series final when England managed to scramble a draw.
To walk is to thrust oneself into the melee rather than maintain the distance of a casual observer.
What seems criminality on a grand scale to the impartial observer was to the British simply a matter of getting on with the job.
It is clear to even the most disinterested observer that the cost of purchasing a PC has fallen considerably.
But the Empress was more than just a passive observer.
When times are hard, a seasoned observer might be inclined to say that shoppers will head for the value end of the market.
Personally, I think Kev Howitt's past words and actions preclude him from being regarded as a neutral observer.
observer status from a safe distance.
observer mission with the Japanese army fighting the Russians.
Assessment During the program, you will progress from participant observer, via support teacher and sharing teacher, to lead teacher.
The UK has also provided substantial numbers of election observers through OSCE Election Observer Mission.
A bottle containing a parchment with an account of the undertaking, a copy of the Leighton Buzzard Observer of July 18 th.
perceived by any observer.
perceptive observer with an eye for essential detail.
The way to use the phantasy is to let it act itself out during reverie whilst trying to be a neutral observer of it.
preponderater can any fair-minded observer discount the preponderating influence exerted by religion on the vital expressions of civilization.
radial velocity The speed at which an object is moving away or toward an observer.
real timeperiments require accurate real-time tracking of the observer's head in order to render the virtual scene.
reticle pattern, the observer measures the number of mils traveled to the nearest 5 mils.
Each observer will need to focus the reticule to allow for their own eye.
sad to say I saw at least 2 names in the Watford Observer of people no longer with us.
From Herriot's Bridge or Heron's Green a patient observer may be rewarded with view of returning common or green sandpipers.
To the casual observer it appears self-evident that there can be no peace without an end to violence.
setback for the government was last month's acquittal of Andrew Meldrum, correspondent of the Guardian and The Observer.
For example Will Hutton, in last week's Observer, argued the secular world must object to Islamic sexism.
shrewd observer of human nature.
On the interim Ceredigion local access forum a number of organizations were given observer status (for example Forest Enterprise, Wildlife Trusts ).
An observer in the present can only theorize concerning the origin of the universe that he sees on the basis of assumptions made.
unbiased observer; he grew up isolated from absolutely everybody.
Any observer in any place, but not time, must see the same, i.e. spatial uniformity exists, temporal doesn't.
unreality of war, I was always aware of my role as an observer.
R radial velocity The speed at which an object is moving away or toward an observer.
Contemporary observer of French handloom weavers, late 18th century.
Moreover, in the opinion of the same observer, it is in no wise an abnormally dwarfed or illgrown representative of the normal type of African elephant, but a well-developed adolescent animal.
Such, in brief, are the methods devised by that brilliant investigator Hansen; and these methods have not only been the basis on which our modern knowledge of the Saccharomycetes is founded, but are the only means of attack which the present-day observer has at his disposal.
The result for Mattsee seems less open to doubt, for the observer, von Schweidler, had obtained a normal value for q during the previous year at Seewalchen.
Indeed, in those days, the difficulties attached to such measures, and to the measurement of distances with the filar micrometer, were exceedingly great, and must have taxed to the Utmost the skill and patience of the observer.
For, on account of the diurnal motion, the direction of the axis of the telescope when pointed to a star is always changing, so that, to follow a star with an altazimuth mounting, the observer requires to move continuously the two handles which give slow motion in altitude and azimuth.
The head f is a switch which enables the observer to illuminate lamp a or c at pleasure.
Repsolds in more recent micrometers under construction give a second motion to the eyepiece at right angles to the axis of the micrometer screw; this enables the observer to determine the zero of position-angle for his movable webs with the same accuracy as he formerly could only do for the so-called position-angle webs.
One drawback to this form of instrument is that the two webs cannot be viewed simultaneously, and therefore the observer must rely on the steadiness of rate of the clockwork and uniformity in the conditions of refraction whilst the eye is moved from one eyepiece to the other.
This interpolation can, of course, be accomplished with the aid of a micrometer-microscope whose optical axis is normal to the plate, provided that the plate is mounted on slides which enable the observer to bring the reseau-squares successively under the microscope.
The purpose of his paper was to show that if the axis, by which the observer imparts motion to the slide on which the travelling web is mounted, is provided with two disks at its extremities, so that the observer can use the thumb and finger of both hands in rotating it, there is no difficulty, after a little practice, in keeping the web constantly bisecting the star in transit, and that with a little practice the mean of the absolute errors in following the star becomes nearly zero.
To derive the stellar velocity in the line of sight relative to the observer it was then necessary to assume that the normal wave-lengths of the stellar and terrestrial spectra are accurately known.
A prism half silvered in this way is provided, which enables the observer to compare the equality of scale of both photographs.
This has the effect of forming the image of the latter farther from the observer's eye, and so it becomes necessary to turn the handle of the rack-pinion V in such a way as to move the prisms P3 and P4 nearer to P2 till the lines of the stellar spectrograph are again sharply in focus.
It is obvious that these two conditions can be produced at the will of the observer by simply turning the screw S, and that the difference of the readings of the screw-head, which are required to reproduce the two conditions in question, gives a measure of the displacement of the stellar lines relative to the solar lines.
Lyell points out that the eye of an observer placed above a point between Pembroke and Wexford, lat.
Some ghettos (as in Moravia) were actually not founded till the 18th century, but the careful observer can perceive clearly that at that period the ghetto was a doomed institution.
If, at this moment, the animal were placed with mouth and ventral surface turned towards the observer, this torsion carries the circumanal complex in a clockwise direction (along the right side in dextral forms) through 180Ã‚° as compared with its primitive condition.
He believes in an allpowerful but indifferent God, and is himself an observer of society, standing aloof from its passions and ambitions, and interested only in pointing out their emptiness.
A more plausible theory is that the author is an honest thinker, a keen observer and critic of life, who sees that the world is full of miseries and unsolved problems, regards as futile the attempts of his time to demonstrate an ethically active future life, and, recognizing a divine author of all, holds that the only wise course for men is to abandon the attempt to get full satisfaction out of the struggle for pleasure, riches and wisdom, and to content themselves with making the best of what they have.
Latitudes from the observations of travellers may generally be trusted, but longitudes should be accepted with caution; for so competent an observer as Captain Speke placed the capital of Uganda in longitude 32Ã‚° 44' E., when its true longitude as determined by more trustworthy observations is 32Ã‚° 26' E., an error of 18'.
Each discovery in turn was, according to the prevailing custom, announced to the learned world under the veil of an anagram - removed, in the case of the first, by the publication, early in 1656, of the little tract De Saturni luna observatio nova; but retained, as regards the second, until 1659, when in the Systema Saturnium the varying appearances of the so-called "triple planet" were clearly explained as the phases of a ring inclined at an angle of 28Ã‚° to the ecliptic. Huygens was also in 1656 the first effective observer of the Orion nebula; he delineated the bright region still known by his name, and detected the multiple character of its nuclear star.
We may consider this to be about the limit of closeness at which there could be any decided appearance of resolution, though E doubtless an observer accustomed to his instrument would recognize the duplicity with certainty.
The bows assume the form of concentric circular arcs, having their common centre on the line joining the eye of the observer to the sun.
The observer will, therefore, see a coloured band, about 2Ã‚° in width, and coloured violet inside and red outside.
In 1871 the Anatomical Act of 1832 was amended; and in 1876 the Vivisection Act was passed, a measure which investigators engaged in the medical sciences of physiology and pathology resented as likely to prevent in England the advance of knowledge of living function, both in its normal balance and in its aberrancies, and moreover to slacken that habit of incessant reference of propositions to verification which is as necessary to the clinical observer as to the experimentalist.
The exhibitions of vice and cruelty that were Growth And Population constantly to be seen in the capital have been reproduced by Hogarth, and had they not been set down by so truthful an observer it would have been almost impossible to believe that such enormities could have been committed in the streets of a great city.
(iv.) The state of adaptation of the observer's eye is dependent on his state of health, on a con dition of greater or less fatigue, or Circle of position ni ////fie on the inclina e,, ,,,y„ head Circle tion of the (,?ccleofdedinataon: in consequence of, ?
Plain in plumage, being greyish brown above and dull white below, while its quills are dingy black, variegated with white, there is little about the mocking-bird's appearance beyond its graceful form to recommend it; but the lively gesticulations it exhibits are very attractive, and therein its European rival in melody is far surpassed, for the cock-bird mounts aloft in rapid circling flight, and, alighting on a conspicuous perch, pours forth his ever-changing song to the delight of all listeners; while his actions in attendance on his mate are playfully demonstrative and equally interest the observer.
This enabled the observer to make exposures of any desired length, and, through the cumulative action of light on extremely sensitive surfaces, to obtain permanent accurate pictures of celestial objects so faint as to be completely invisible to the eye, even when aided by the most powerful telescopes.
Suppose now an observer to be looking from a fixed point at the bead through the hole in the phonic wheel, he will see the bead as 8 bright points flashing out in each beat, and in succession at intervals of k second.
While a student he was not unaccustomed " to make good cheer and be merry," but at the same time he was a punctilious observer of the minutest rites of his faith and "as obstinate a Papist as any in England."
If innumerable numbers of such crystals fall in any manner between the observer and the sun, light falling upon these crystals will be refracted, and the refracted rays will be crowded together in the position of minimum deviation (see Refraction Of Light).
The simplest form of periscope, and that most generally used by troops, consisted of a tube, rectangular in section, provided with two mirrors, the upper of which, inclined at an angle of 45Ã‚° to the axis of the tube, reflected the image of the foreground vertically downwards to a second mirror, also inclined to the axis at 45Ã‚° into which the observer looked.
It is probable that one explanation - namely, that of protection - covers all cases of ant-mimicry; and this explanation lies in all probability in the immunity from the attacks of most insectivorous enemies that ants enjoy, and especially from predaceous wasps of the family Pompilidae which annually destroy thousands upon thousands of spiders to feed their larvae; and since more than one observer has testified to the fear and abhorrence these wasps have of ants, it is needless to look farther for the benefit ant-mimicry is to spiders.
In this case the pillars need only be high enough for the counterpoise to pass freely over the plate of the horizontal circle; but the observer has always € WI a Iniiia: f ??
Nordahl Brun, Claus Frimann (1746-1829), Claus Fasting (1746-1791), who edited a brilliant aesthetic journal, The Critical Observer, Christian H.
Under favourable conditions four concentric rings may be seen round the shadow of the observer's head, the outermost, which seldom appears, having an angular radius of 40Ã‚°.
probably no other astronomers have worked for so many hours on end for so many nights as they did, and they emphasize the easy position of the observer in using this form of instrument.
Struve's skill as an observer was such that he used to complete the bisection on the fixed wire of the micrometer by a pressure of the finger on the side of the tube - a method of proved efficiency in such hands, but plainly indicative of the want of rigidity in the instrument and of the imperfection of the slow motions (see Micrometer).
Indeed, according to a recent account by a close observer of the religious practices prevalent in southern India, fully four-fifths of the people of the Dravidian race, whilst nominally acknowledging the spiritual guidance of the Brahmans, are to this day practically given over to the worship of their nondescript local village deities (grama-devata), usually attended by animal sacrifices frequently involving the slaughter, under revolting circumstances, of thousands of victims. Curiously enough these local deities are nearly all of the female, not the male sex.
Moreover, sadhuism, by the multiplicity of the independent sects which have arisen in India, has engendered and favoured a spirit of tolerance which cannot escape the notice of the most superficial observer."An independent Saiva sect, or, indeed, the only strictly Saiva sect, are the Vira Saivas, more commonly called Lingayats (popularly Lingaits) or Lingavats, from their practice of wearing on their person a phallic emblem of Siva, made of copper or silver, and usually enclosed in a case suspended from the neck by a string.
Is the regeneration of India to be brought about by the modern theistic movements, such as the Brahma-samaj and Arya-samaj, as so close and sympathetic an observer of Hindu life and thought as Sir A.
1, 1670), when he writes: "Leroy se remet a vous d'en uzer comme vous le jugerez a propos a l'esgard des valets de Monsieur Foucquet; it faut seulement observer que si vous luy donnez des valets que 1' on vous amenera d'icy, it pourra bien arriver qu'ils seront gaignez par avance, et qu'ainsy ils feroient pis que ceux que vous en osteriez presentement."
A suspicious observer might have detected something ominous in the first act of his reignthe arrest and attainder of his fathers unpopular ministers, Empson and Dudley, whose heads he flung to the people in order to win a moments applause.
The point of the wedge is quite indefinite, the extremely diffuse light gradually fading into invisibility at a height which may range from 50Ã‚° to 70Ã‚° or even more, according to the keenness of the observer's vision.
Barnard, the most successful observer, assigns diameters of 5Ã‚° or even 10Ã‚° or more.
(See also Binocular Instruments and Stereoscopy.) The observer has a stereoscopic impression of an object, when different perspective representations are presented to both eyes, which, through the action of the central nerve system, resolve into one impression.
Greater success attended the efforts of the Capuchin Cherubin d'Orleans, who flourished at about the same time, and constructed large double telescopes of the Dutch type of high magnification, for use in war, and smaller instruments of lower magnification; these instruments were provided with mechanism for adjusting to the interval between the eyes of the observer (fig.
Such experiments require accurate real-time tracking of the observer 's head in order to render the virtual scene.
As the target moves across the reticle pattern, the observer measures the number of mils traveled to the nearest 5 mils.
Sad to say I saw at least 2 names in the Watford Observer of people no longer with us.
From Herriot 's Bridge or Heron 's Green a patient observer may be rewarded with view of returning common or green sandpipers.
A serious setback for the government was last month 's acquittal of Andrew Meldrum, correspondent of the Guardian and The Observer.
For example Will Hutton, in last week 's Observer, argued the secular world must object to Islamic sexism.
A great man to have around in a crisis, he is also a shrewd observer of human nature.
An observer watching from the nearest hill could have told this from her staggering gait.
A simple analogy is to imagine a steady stream of equally spaced traffic passing a stationary observer.
On the interim Ceredigion local access forum a number of organizations were given observer status (for example Forest Enterprise, Wildlife Trusts).
He claims that being Irish makes him an unbiased observer; he grew up isolated from absolutely everybody.
Any observer in any place, but not time, must see the same, i.e. spatial uniformity exists, temporal does n't.
However, perhaps because of that six-year period of the unreality of war, I was always aware of my role as an observer.
Richard Ingrams of the Observer wrote There are many explanations for the vehement opposition to Rev Blair, which grows daily.
Today, any reasonably well-informed observer would be struck by how deeply this brotherhood of Muslims is divided.
To an observer at O, the zenith angle of object S appears to be z '.
The key to finding a good gift is to be a good observer.
Telescopes come in two basic types: Simple telescopes you buy at a department store and those for the budding amateur, intermediate observer and the professional expert.
Moreover, a cat is a truly curious animal and fancies itself a keen observer.
As accurate and acceptible as they may be when describing your kitten's coat, they are also painfully obvious to the observer.
Also like Greg, he seems to be a social observer who enjoys studying the behavior of others.
Steve could attend the wedding at the church as an observer, stop in at the reception for dinner and be on his way to the bowling alley in plenty of time for his game.
In The Observer, he urged the UK government, which he credits as successfully having protected gay rights in the UK, to work with other nations to make gay rights a global issue.
The choice of term appears to be related to the country of origin or discipline of the observer.
Foster mentions as the only one he has seen in cultivation, is often mistaken by a casual observer for I. susiana.
Jung studied and spoke extensively about symbols and the powerful impact they have upon the observer.
A sheer robe shows and obscures at once, forcing the observer to look more closely.
Above all, a parent must be a careful observer, particularly of the little details that make up a teen's life.
The child may be influenced by the presence of an observer.
However, researchers report that younger children often become engrossed in their activities and thus are relatively unaffected by the presence of an observer.
Observer biases and inconsistencies have been identified through study of the assessment procedures.
In the halo effect, the observer evaluates the child's behavior in a way that confirms his general previous impression of the child.
For example, the observer believes a particular child is happy and loving.
If, when the observer assesses that child, the child lays a doll face down on the table, the observer interprets this act as parenting behavior.
On the other hand, if the observer believes the child is angry and hostile, when this child is observed laying the doll face down on the table, the observer may interpret the action as aggression.
The expectations of the observer conveyed directly or through body language and other subtle cues may also influence how the child performs and how the observer records and interprets his or her observations.