It will be observed that in fig.
Prince Andrew listened and observed in silence.
Her little hands felt every object and observed every movement of the persons about her, and she was quick to imitate these movements.
She observed Xander's fangs as they grew.
Yeah, that's what I've observed him looking at the most – her eyes.
He observed the car's interior with the clinical distance of a scientist.
Of course, there were two sides to every story, but from what he had observed first hand, she was right.
"This seems to be their time of rest," observed the Wizard.
Aside from what we observed ourselves, everything we thought we knew about Jerome Shipton came from his wife, a dedicated liar.
My hands felt every object and observed every motion, and in this way I learned to know many things.
"It is not necessary for me to eat," observed the Sawhorse.
Mortals who stand upon the earth and look up at the sky cannot often distinguish these forms, but our friends were now so near to the clouds that they observed the dainty fairies very clearly.
"No bodies, no blood," she observed of the living room.
"You're quiet," he observed when she leaned back in her chair.
"This is where you want me to be anyway," she observed glumly.
The Lord's Supper, as generally observed throughout the various Presbyterian churches, is a close 1 Principal Rous's version is the best known and most widely used.
"You forget that stairs are unnecessary," observed the Wizard.
As Denzel Washington's character observed in the movie Crimson Tide, "In the nuclear world, the true enemy is war itself."
"Charming, charming!" observed Prince Vasili.
She pulled up the bodice as she observed her image in the bathroom mirror.
I observed that the vitals of the village were the grocery, the bar-room, the post-office, and the bank; and, as a necessary part of the machinery, they kept a bell, a big gun, and a fire-engine, at convenient places; and the houses were so arranged as to make the most of mankind, in lanes and fronting one another, so that every traveller had to run the gauntlet, and every man, woman, and child might get a lick at him.
"Nothing like a good storm to wake you up," the old man observed as he maneuvered around a tight switchback.
The condition of the operatives is becoming every day more like that of the English; and it cannot be wondered at, since, as far as I have heard or observed, the principal object is, not that mankind may be well and honestly clad, but, unquestionably, that corporations may be enriched.
According to one story, Archimedes was puzzled till one day, as he was stepping into a bath and observed the water running over, it occurred to him that the excess of bulk occasioned by the introduction of alloy could be measured by putting the crown and an equal weight of gold separately into a vessel filled with water, and observing the difference of overflow.
" I can say with truth," he writes to the princess Elizabeth, 9 " that the principle which I have always observed in my studies, and which I believe has helped me most to gain what, knowledge I have, has been never to spend beyond a very few hours daily in thoughts which occupy the imagination, and a very few hours yearly in those which occupy the understanding, and to give all the rest of my time to the relaxation of the senses and the repose of the mind."
What I have observed of the pond is no less true in ethics.
"You're starting from scratch," Deidre observed, pitying the woman.
As I observed a few pages ago in "Let Robots Be Robots," an intelligent system like this won't be creepy because we do not want it to be creepy.
At several stations enjoying a wide prospect the dissipation has been observed to be specially high on days of great visibility when distant mountains can be recognized.
Gockel observed similar effects at Freiburg-though he seems doubtful whether the relationship is direct-but the influence of temperature on I + seemed reduced when the ground was covered with snow.
"Thought that train would never come," observed the boy.
The small bands that had started their activities long before and had already observed the French closely considered things possible which the commanders of the big detachments did not dare to contemplate.
It may be true, as some maintain, that language cannot express to us much beyond what we have lived and experienced; but I have always observed that children manifest the greatest delight in the lofty, poetic language which we are too ready to think beyond their comprehension.
I've known it for months, since I was observed when no one was there to see me.
This was afterwards identified with the D3 line of the solar chromosphere, observed in 1868 by Sir J.
After having her wiggle her toes and move her ankle this way and that, he finally stepped back and observed her with a frown.
Daniela observed her for a moment then replaced the cup with a glass filled with the alcohol.
The salter waters apparently tend to make their way westwards close to the African coast, and at the bottom the highest salinities have been observed south of Crete.
Anthropologists, indeed, have recently observed a large proportion of individuals of exceptionally small stature, not found in Sardinia only, but elsewhere in south Italy also; though in Sardinia they are distributed over the whole island, and especially in the southern half.
"I do not doubt it," the Sawhorse observed, with a tone of pride.
"Ah, my friend!" said he, taking Pierre by the elbow; and there was in his voice a sincerity and weakness Pierre had never observed in it before.
It has been justly observed by many that this continuous cyclical movement entirely excludes the progress of humanity towards a better future.
Philip Carteret first observed this settlement in May 1767, and on account of the hostility of the Spaniards preferred to put in at Masa-Fuera.
The steepest slope observed occurs off the island of Sapienza, near Navarino, where 1720 fathoms has been obtained only 10 miles from land.
Summer Observations On Mountains Have Shown Diurnal Variations Very Large And Fairly Regular, But Widely Different From Those Observed At Lower Levels.
"Rhyn didn't do this," he observed, handing her the juice.
He carefully establishes the necessity of revelation as a source of knowledge, not merely because it aids us in comprehending in a somewhat better way the truths already furnished by reason, as some of the Arabian philosophers and Maimonides had acknowledged, but because it is the absolute source of our knowledge of the mysteries of the Christian faith; and then he lays down the relations to be observed between reason and revelation, between philosophy and theology.
What they hadn't observed was how she could quietly and respectfully maintain her importance in the spousal role.
O'Neill observed that scrutiny of government had become so intense that officials never could have gotten away with that—and he was writing in the late 1980s.
This was probably the same phenomenon to which I have referred, which is especially observed in the morning, but also at other times, and even by moonlight.
At one rod from the shore its greatest fluctuation, when observed by means of a level on land directed toward a graduated staff on the ice, was three quarters of an inch, though the ice appeared firmly attached to the shore.
But presently the traveller's horse sank in up to the girths, and he observed to the boy, "I thought you said that this bog had a hard bottom."
He was unpleasantly struck, too, by the excessive contempt for others that he observed in Speranski, and by the diversity of lines of argument he used to support his opinions.
Princess Mary as she sat listening to the old men's talk and faultfinding, understood nothing of what she heard; she only wondered whether the guests had all observed her father's hostile attitude toward her.
After breakfast Ozma announced that she had ordered a holiday to be observed throughout the Emerald City, in honor of her visitors.
"You have observed that?" said Princess Mary.
He observed the glass for a minute then dipped his index finger and touched it to his tongue.
France, he observed, needed the spur to practical energy which the Americans had at hand in the effort to subdue the difficulties placed in their way by nature.
c.c., embryos are hatched in an in early stage, but their meta- ov, morphosis has not been plch, observed.
This is at least of the order observed, which is all that can be expected from a calculation which assumes I + and I_ equal.
His dissertation on the "barometric light," first observed by Jean Picard, and discussed by Jean Bernoulli under the name of mercurial phosphorus, or mercury shining in vacuo (Diss.
The observed facts as to polarization are thus readily explained, and the general law connecting the intensity of the scattered light with the wave-length follows almost as easily from considerations of dimensions.
Of this nature are the neutral points, where the polarization changes character, observed by F.
For the measurement of wider stars he invented his lamp-micrometer, in which the components of a double star observed with the right eye were made to coincide with two lucid points placed io ft.
It must be observed that the denunciation of a concordat by a nation does not necessarily entail the separation of the church and the state in that country or the rupture of diplomatic relations with Rome.
It must be observed that from 639 there were generally separate mayors of Neustria, Austrasia and Burgundy, even when Austrasia and Burgundy formed a single kingdom; the mayor was a sign of the independence of the region.
This condition is never observed by the universal historians, and so to explain the resultant forces they are obliged to admit, in addition to the insufficient components, another unexplained force affecting the resultant action.
So whatever trends we have observed so far are only getting started.
I would cling to my mother's dress as she went about her household duties, and my little hands felt every object and observed every motion, and in this way I learned a great many things.
Mache thinks that the ionization observed in the atmosphere may be wholly accounted for by the radioactive emanation.
"Uncle," Rostov, and Ilagin kept stealthily glancing at one another's dogs, trying not to be observed by their companions and searching uneasily for rivals to their own borzois.
"The cease-fire must make it easier to travel," she observed, recalling the enemy positions around the spacecraft launch sites.
"You trust Wynn more than Gabriel," Andre observed.
per hour no further decided rise was observed.
It will be observed from the figures of the lower jaws, which are in most cases the only parts known, that in many instances the number of cheek-teeth exceeds that found in modern marsupials except Myrmecobius.
of Israel, it may be observed that no adequate interpretation has yet been found of the ethnological traditions of Levi and other sons of Leah in their historical relation to one another or to the other tribes.
So far no evidence is forthcoming that the same days of each month were observed as these of this special rarely occurring month.
These abstentions are prescribed for the king and a few other persons; there is no evidence that they were observed by all the people.
For it is obvious that if each 7th day during the year was observed as above, it would, like our Sunday or a Jewish Sabbath, fall on a different day of the month in different months.
- The Jews under the second temple observed every seventh year as a Sabbath according to the (post-exilic) law of Lev.
That this law was not observed before the captivity we learn from Lev.
21); indeed, so long as the Hebrews were an agricultural people, in a land often ravaged by severe famines, the law of the Sabbatical year could not have been observed.
A curious property is to be observed when a crystal of pharmacosiderite is placed in a solution of ammonia - in a few minutes the green colour changes throughout the whole crystal to red; on placing the red crystal in dilute hydrochloric acid the green colour is restored.
Even in casual amours these class laws were invariably observed, and the young man or woman who defied them was punished, he with death, she with spearing or beating.
The custom is vouched for by travellers as still observed in Borneo, Burma, Uganda and elsewhere, the animal chosen being a pig or a fowl.
Lastly, to pass over unnecessary details, the markings of various kinds to be observed on the lobes of the livers of freshly-slaughtered animals, which are due mainly to the traces left by the subsidiary hepatic ducts and hepatic veins on the liver surface, were described as "holes," "paths," "clubs" and the like.
He showed that the heat motion of particles, which is too small to be perceptible when these particles are large, and which cannot be observed in molecules since these themselves are too small, must be perceptible when the particles are just large enough to be visible and gave complete equations which enable the masses themselves to be deduced from the motions of these particles.
He declared, when answering a complaint that a certain captain in his regiment was a better preacher than fighter, that he who prayed best would fight best, and that he knew nothing could" give the like courage and confidence as the knowledge of God in Christ will."The superiority of these men - more intelligent than the common soldiers, better disciplined, better trained, better armed, excellent horsemen and fighting for a great cause - not only over the other parliamentary troops but over the royalists, was soon observed in battle.
But Leslie descended the hill to complete his triumph, and Cromwell immediately observed the disadvantages of his antagonist's new position, cramped by the hill behind and separated from his left wing.
On the 26th of June 1657 he was once more installed as Protector, this time, however, with regal ceremony in contrast with the simple formalities observed on the first occasion, the heralds proclaiming his accession in the same manner as that of the kings.
It is therefore profoundly true, as observed by S.
At the time of his death The Times observed that "it is acknowledged on all hands that in him the Dominion has lost one of the ablest men that it has yet produced."
The paddle was driven by weights, and the temperature of the water was observed by thermometers which could indicate 2 kuth of a degree Fahrenheit.
Frohnleichnamsfest), a festival of the Roman Catholic Church in honour of the Real Presence of Christ in the sacrament of the altar, observed on the first Thursday after Trinity Sunday.
On the same shaft with P is fixed a brake-wheel furnished with a powerful brake B, by the proper manipulation of which the speed of paying out is regulated, the pull on the cable being at the same time observed by means of D.
It will be observed that the circuit is not in this case actually open; the meaning of the expression " open circuit " is " no battery to line."
Some curious distance-phenomena connected with electric sparks were observed in 1875 by Edison (who referred them to a supposed new " aetheric force "), and confirmed by Beard, S.
Its deflexion was observed by an attached mirror in the usual way.
Thomson (Lord Kelvin) observed in 1863 3 that when a condenser is charged or discharged, a sharp click is heard, and a similar observation was made by Cromwell F.
Large herds have also been observed in the deserts near Altyntagh.
It must be observed that the name Italians was at one time confined to the Oenotrians; indeed, according to Antiochus of Syracuse (apud Dion.
Practically, therefore, the law has remained a one-sided enactment, by which Italy considers herself bound, and of which she has always observed the spirit, even though the exigencies of self-defence may have led in some minor respects to non-observance of the letter.
As a thinker, he shows little sympathy with that strain of medieval mysticism which is to be observed in all the poetry of his contemporaries.
It has been truly observed' that the lineaments of Cicero intuitionalism are very clear in him.
The Ontological argument is omitted; but we have already observed that there is a discussion of divine ' Paul Janet's Final Causes seems to follow Mill in this (" the fact of Finality "), but without naming him.
All then took an oath to keep its terms, and orders were sent to the sheriffs to publish it, and to see that its provisions were observed, two or three days being taken up with making and sending out copies for this purpose.
is a general statement that the aforesaid customs and liberties are to be observed by all classes.
Cuvier on anatomical, and Von Baer on embryological grounds, made the further step of proving that, even in this limited sense, animals cannot be arranged in a single series, but that there are several distinct plans of organization to be observed among them, no one of which, in its highest and most complicated modification, leads to any of the others.
It will be observed that the king does not hear the cause or adjudicate upon it.
customary to fast during Holy Week; and earlier still the Montanists boasted that they observed a two weeks' fast instead of one.
Gradually, however, the fast as observed in East and West became more rigorously defined.
The Lenten fast was retained at the Reformation in some of the reformed Churches, and is still observed in the Anglican and Lutheran communions.
In England a Lenten fast was first ordered to be observed by Earconberht, king of Kent (640-664).
In Gloucestershire simnel cakes are still common; and at Usk, Monmouth, the custom of mothering is still scrupulously observed.
with another similar protoplast, which constitutes what we call fertilization, the next stage in complexity already noted may be observed, the protoplasm becoming clothed by a cell-membrane.
One of the constant features of respirationthe exhalation of carbon dioxide can still be observed.
The time during which these regular changes in the rate can be observed is generally spoken of as the grand period of growth.
Such small granules have been observed in the sensitive cells, and there is an evident correlation between these and the power of receiving the geotropic stimulus.
The existence of rhythm of this kind has been observed and studied with some completeness.
Nor is it only in growing organs that the rhythm can be observed, for many plants exhibit it during a much longer period than that of growth.
dealing with amateur descriptions of such symptoms, especially when the untrained eye has taken no cognisance of, or has only vaguely observed, the numerous collateral circumstances of the case.
If a mass of living plant-tissue is cut, the first change observed is one of color: the white flesh of a potato or an apple turns biown as the air enters, and closer examination shows that cell walls and contents are alike affected.
In these, under favorable conditions, streaming movements of the cytoplasm in various directions can be observed.
here structures have been observed which resemble nuclei in some of their characteristics.
2, C, D), and appearances are observed which suggest a second longitodinal division, but which are more ~ ~--~ ~
The union of the germ nuclei has now been observed in all the main groups of Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, Ferns, Mosses, Algae and Fungi, and presents a striking resemblance in all.
He observed that the appendicular organs, as he called the leaves, are developed in the same way, whether they be foliageleaves, or parts of the flower, and stated his conclusions thus:
The effect can also be demonstrated experimentally: thus it has been observed that a xerophyte grown in moist air will lose its characteristic adaptive features, and may even assume those of a hygrophyte.
Bacon argued keenly on geographical matters and was a lover of maps, in which he observed and reasoned upon such resemblances as that between the outlines of South America and Africa.
The apparent opposition of the observed fact to the assigned theory he overcame by looking upon the forms of the land and the arrangement of land and sea as instruments of Divine Providence for guiding the destiny as well as for supplying the requirements of man.
The transit was observed on the 3rd of June 1769.
While the tendency is for the living forms to come into harmony with their environment and to approach the state of equilibriumby successive adjustments if the environment should happen to change, it is to be observed that the action of organisms themselves often tends to change their organisms environment.
The discovery of their true nature was made by Dr William Buckland, who observed that certain convoluted bodies occurring in the Lias of Gloucestershire had the form which would have been produced by their passage in the soft state through the intestines of reptiles or fishes.
These are reduced, in all birds, to three, but traces of the fourth have been observed in embryos.
A very long period of isolation must have been required to produce the differences so manifestly to be observed, but a few forms seem at rare intervals to have immigrated, and this immigration would appear to be kept up to our own day, as shown by the instance of Zosterops lateralis, which is said to have lately made its first appearance, and to have established itself in the country, as well as by the fact of two cuckoos, Charadriiformes 650 (incl.
As observed above, it was the duty of the teachers to show the connexion of practical rules with the written Law, the more so since the Sadducees rejected the authority of the oral law as such.
Begriff), in philosophy, a term applied to a general idea derived from and considered apart from the particulars observed by the senses.
The boundaries, it will be observed, were wholly artificial.
It is to be observed, moreover, that as Alembert confined himself chiefly to mathematical articles, his work laid him less open to charges of heresy and infidelity than that of some of his associates.
Great differences in the general form of the body may be observed in the family.
It has been observed by J.
It should be observed that the tyranny of Peisistratus is one of the many epochs of Greek history on which opinion has almost entirely changed since the age of Grote.
But a return of cold weather, injurious to vegetation, is very frequently observed in central and E.
Reckless of consequences, he swept away the venerated ceremonial formalities which his ancestors had scrupulously observed, openly scoffed at ancient usage, habitually dressed in foreign costume, and generally chose foreign heretics as his boon companions.
The result of this policy of repression, associated as it was with gross incompetence and corruption in the organs of the administration, was the rapid spread of the revolutionary movement, which gradually permeated the intelligent classes and ultimately " Tolstoi - observed that that was argument and reason, and that he paid no attention to them; he only guided himself (he said) by sentiment, which he felt sure told him what was good and right!
Thus it will be observed that the five great cities of the Pacific coast-Seattle and Tacoma, Wash., Portland, Ore., and San Francisco and Los Angeles, Cal.-were already well supplied with railways; but the growth of the fertile region lying west of the transcontinental divide was most attractive to American railway builders; and railways serving this district, almost all of them in trouble ten years before, were showing great increases in earnings.
It will be observed that Belgium leads all the countries of the world in what may be called its railway density, with the United Kingdom a far-distant second in the list, and Persia last.
It is usual to subtract these resistances from the observed pull, so as to obtain the draw-bar pull reduced to what it would be at a uniform speed on the level.
(24) G g This expression may be used to find r„ when the total draw-bar pull is observed as well as the speed, the changes of speed and the gradient.
Joseph Maxwell, of Bordeaux, has published accounts 8 of raps and movements of objects without contact, witnessed with private and other mediums, which he appears to have observed with care, though he does not describe the conditions sufficiently for others to form any independent judgment about them.
After excuses made to the animal or to the species in general, the victim was placed in position, and silence observed by all who were present.
Stray specimens of the great king penguin have been observed, and there are also mollymauks (a kind of albatross), Cape pigeons and many carrion birds.
24) would be observed.
The religion of the Hebrew race - properly the Jews - now enters on a new stage, for it should be observed that it was Amos, Isaiah and Micah - prophets of Judah - who laid the actual foundations.
It is, of course, true that the ethical conception of sin as violation of righteousness and an act of rebellion against the divine righteous will had been developed since the days of Amos and Isaiah; but, as we have already observed, cultus and prophetic teaching were separated by an immense gulf, and in spite of the reformation of 621 B.C. still remain separated.
4 For a very complete exposition of the operation of valves in the horn, and of the mathematical proportions to be observed in construction, see Victor Mahillon's "Le Cor," also the article by Gottfried Weber in Caecilia (1835), to which reference was made above.
In this connexion it should be observed that the old Milesian nobles traced their descent back to the Phoenician or one of his companions.
Trans., 1802, p. 378), were independently discovered, and, by means of the telescope of a theodolite, between which and a distant slit admitting the light a prism was interposed, were for the first time carefully observed by Fraunhofer, and have on that account been designated "Fraunhofer's lines."
" I think you have observed a very prudent temperament; but it was impossible to treat the subject so as not to give grounds of suspicion against you, and you may expect that a clamour will arise."
In judging the Decline and Fall it should carefully be observed that it falls into two parts which are heterogeneous in the method of treatment.
The terms, arranged through the intervention of John, archbishop of Ravenna, were not observed by 1 The great pinewood to the east of the city, which is still one of the great glories of Ravenna, must therefore have been in existence already in the 5th century.
Their remains were buried at Soissons, but were afterwards removed, partly by Charlemagne to Osnabruck (where a festival is observed annually on the 10th of June) and partly to the chapel of St Lawrence in Rome.
(?) and viii., and the satellite of Neptune.); while, to make the argument complete, the planets, so far as they can be observed, rotate on their axes in the same manner.
Gregory founded the Congregation of the Propaganda, encouraged missions, fixed the order to be observed in conclaves, and canonized Ignatius Loyola, Francis Xavier, Philip Neri and Theresa de Jesus.
Glaciation was formerly much more extensive, old moraines being observed down to 12,000 ft.
Hess now observed that in the process of mixing such neutral solutions no thermal effect was produced - that is, neutral salts in aqueous solution could apparently interchange their radicals without evolution or absorption of heat.
The change of temperature of the solutions after the mixing has taken place is then observed with the usual precautions.
The observed heat of combustion of sugar is, however, 1354000, so that the error of the rule is here 20 per cent.
different from the observed heat of combustion of sugar.
In addition to this, the further regularity has been observed that when the powerful monobasic acids are neutralized by the powerful monacid bases, the heat of neutralization is in all cases the same.
The true nature of this relation can be readily observed in other fields (ancient Britain, Greece, Egypt, &c.), where, however, the native documents and sources have not that complexity which characterizes the composite biblical history.
The sabbath, once a festival, had become more strictly observed, and when he found the busy agriculturists and traders (some of them from Tyre) pursuing their usual labours on that day, he pointed to the disasters which had resulted in the past from such profanation, and immediately took measures to put down the evil (Neh.
3 The various tendencies which can be observed in the later pseudepigraphical and apocalyptical writings are of considerable value in any consideration of the development of thought illustrated in the Old Testament itself.
The reforms of Nehemiah were directed towards the establishment of a religious community at Jerusalem, in which the rigour of the law should be observed.
The suppression of the Pharisaic ordinances and the punishment of those who observed them led to some disturbance.
So there was once more a king of Judaea, and a king who observed the tradition of the Pharisees and protected the Jewish religion.
This preeminence may perhaps be due to an early infusion of Fijian blood: it has been observed that such crosses are always more vigorous than the pure races in these islands; and this influence seems also traceable in the Tongan dialect, and appears to have been partially transmitted thence to the Samoan.
In 1893, however, Arthur Evans observed some signs on scripMinot,an seal-stones from Crete which led him to believe that a hieroglyphic system of writing had existed in Minoan times.
His name is preserved in the Sicilian Minoa, and his tomb was pointed out in the neighbourhood of Agrigentum, with a shrine above dedicated to his native Aphrodite, the lady of the dove; and in this connexion it must be observed that the cult of Eryx perpetuates to much later times the characteristic features of the worship of the Cretan Nature goddess, as now revealed to us in the palace of Cnossus and elsewhere.
It was owing to the want of this that the Cretans scarcely figure in Greek history as a people, though the island, as observed by Aristotle, would seem from its natural position calculated to exercise a preponderating influence over Greek affairs.
EASTER, the annual festival observed throughout Christendom in commemoration of the resurrection of Jesus Christ.
This month, Bede says, was the same as the mensis paschalis, " when the old festival was observed with the gladness of a new solemnity."
Thus the Passover, with a new conception added to it of Christ as the true Paschal Lamb and the first fruits from the dead, continued to be observed, and became the Christian Easter.
This difference of calculation led to Easter being observed on different Sundays, in certain years, in England, by the adherents of the two churches.
The Gregorian correction of the calendar in 1582 has once more led to different days being observed.
(r) the preparatory fast of the forty days of Lent; (2) the fifteen days, beginning with the Sunday before and ending with the Sunday after Easter, during which the ceremonies of Holy Week and the services of the Octave of Easter were observed; this period, called by the French the Quinzaine de Pdques, was specially observed in that.
Wherever stratification is observed in these formations in Mississippi, it shows a dip west and south of 20 or 30 ft.
C. Janet observed that in a nest of Lasius alienus, established by a single female, the first workers emerged from their cocoons on the 102nd day.
Webster has observed ants, foreseeing this emigration, to carry aphids from apple trees to .grasses.
Others again play the part of thieves in the ant society; C. Janet observed a small bristle-tail (Lepismima) to lurk beneath the heads of two Lasius workers, while one passed food to the other, in order to steal the drop of nourishment and to make off with it.
above the zero of Fahrenheit; the lowest mean tem perature anywhere observed is about 4° Fahr., at Melville Island, north of the American continent.
The summers are hot, though short in the northern latitudes, the maximum of summer heat being comparatively little less than that observed in the tropical countries farther south.
The very high summer temperatures of the area north of the tropic of Cancer are sufficiently accounted for, when compared with those observed south of the tropic, by the increased length of the day in the higher latitude, which more than compensates for the loss of heat due to the smaller mid-day altitude of the sun.
Although the foregoing account of the temperatures of Asia supplies the main outline of the observed phenomena, a very important modifying cause, of which more will be said hereafter, comes into operation over the whole of the tropical region, namely, the periodical summer rains.
On the other islands similar characteristics are to be observed, Australian genera extending to the Philippines, and even to southern China.
A bone bed has also been observed at the base of the Carboniferous limestone series in certain parts of the south-west of England.
But his presence was not observed until they reached their destination, when the jealousy of the Philistines overrode his protestations of fidelity and he was ordered to return.
where this condition is usually not to be observed, there is embryological evidence that the existing state of affairs is derived from this.
This stage has at any rate been observed in Rhynchelmis and Lumbricus (in its widest sense) by Vezhdovsky.
A stage exactly comparable to the stage in the leeches, where the ovary is surrounded by a closed sac, has been observed in Eudrilus.
He went over every part of the translation with me, observed on every passage in which justice was not done to the thought or the force of the expression lost, and made many useful criticisms. During this occupation we had occasion to see one another often, and became very intimate; and, as he had read much, had seen a great deal of the world, was acquainted with all the most distinguished persons who at that time adorned either the royal court or the republic of letters in France; had a great knowledge of French and Italian literature, and possessed very good taste, his conversation was extremely interesting and not a little instructive.
When this great convention met the king must show himself ready to recognize that great changes have taken place, that feudalism and absolutism have for ever disappeared, and that a new relation between king and people has arisen, which must be loyally observed on both sides for the future.
In their celebration of the communion service they aim exactly to imitate the forms observed by Christ.
It is celebrated in the evening, and is accompanied by the ancient love feast (partaken by all communicants seated at a common table), by the ceremony of the washing of feet and by the salutation of the holy kiss, the three last-named ceremonies being observed by the sexes separately.
The different behaviour of these two acids to a ray of polarized light was subsequently observed by J.
On the other hand he is quoted by Theon of Alexandria (who observed an eclipse at Alexandria in A.D.
Attracted to astronomy by the solar eclipse of the 12th of May 1706, he obtained permission in 1710 to lodge in the dome of the Luxembourg, procured some instruments, and there observed the total eclipse of the 22nd of May 1724.
In the legend of Nisus and Scylla there is a trace of the custom which was still observed in classical times in the sacrifice of animals.
Ray, who made a tour along the eastern coast in that year, says, " We observed little or no fallow ground in Scotland; some ley ground we saw, which they manured with sea wreck.
These beasts, it will be observed, were all under two years old.
It is much more likely than not that some principle which for the moment seems new, some distinction which we may flatter ourselves has not been observed before, has been pointed out over and over again by previous writers, although, owing to special circumstances, it may not have received the notice it deserved.
The gill-lamellae of Patella are processes of the mantle comparable with the plait-like folds often observed on the roof of the branchial chamber in other Gastropoda (e.g.
36) to the adult form has not been properly observed, and many interesting points as to the true nature of folds (whether parapodia or mantle or velum) have yet to be cleared up by a knowledge of such development in forms like Tethys, Doris, Phyllidia, &c. As in other Molluscan groups, we find even in closely-allied genera (for instance, in Aplysia and Pleurobranchidium, and other genera), the f operculum.
° at this stage, so (as sp, Visceral ganglion of the left side; op observed by A.
In several churches the office of St Veronica, matron, is observed on various dates.
It is to be observed that, before the punishment was inflicted, evidence was forthcoming which brought home the outrage of Nivose to the royalists; but this was all one to Bonaparte; his aim was to destroy the Jacobin party, and it never recovered from the blow.
The aim in all these changes, it will be observed, was to acquire control over the seaboard, or, failing that, the commerce of all European states.
On the 29th of December 1790 Camille had married Lucile Duplessis, and among the witnesses of the ceremony are observed the names of Brissot, Petion and Robespierre.
Representations of ships are not common, but several have been observed on Aegean gems, gem-sealings and vases.
Now the second type, the "megaron" arrangement, characterizes peculiarly the palaces discovered in the north of the Aegean area, at Mycenae, Tiryns and Hissarlik, where up to the present no signs of the first type, so characteristic of Crete, have been observed.
In all these cases baptism is performed by total immersion in running water, but during the five days' baptismal festival the rite is observed wholesale by mere sprinkling of large masses of the faithful at once.
He even details the rules to be observed for the lending and care of the books, and he had already taken the preliminary steps for the foundation.
Polar bodies were first observed in the eggs of Hexapoda by F.
Ritter (1890) have since observed a similar early origin for the germ-cells in the midge Chironomus and in the Aphidae.
An interesting feature is the difference often to be observed between an aquatic larva and pupa of the same insect in the matter of breathing.
The travels of Le Vaillant in South Africa having been completed in 5785, his great Oiseaux d'Afrique began to appear in Paris in 1797; but it is hard to speak properly of this work, for several of the species described in it are certainly not, and never were in his time, inhabitants of that country, though he sometimes gives a long account of the circumstances under which he observed them.1° From travellers who employ themselves in collecting the animals of any distant country the zoologists who stay at home and study those of their own district, be it great or small, are really not so much divided as at first might appear.
Meanwhile in England Dr Bree had in 1858 begun the publication of The Birds of Europe not observed in the British Isles (4 vols.
But it must be observed that the classification of Nitzsch, just given, rests much more on characters furnished by the general structure than on those furnished by the carotid artery only.
But it was now made to appear that the struthious birds in this respect resembled, not only the duck, but a great many other groups - waders, birds-of-prey, pigeons, passerines and perhaps all birds not gallinaceous - so that, according to Cuvier's view, the five points of ossification observed in the Gallinae, instead of exhibiting the normal process, exhibited one quite exceptional, and that in all other birds, so far as he had been enabled to investigate the matter, ossification of the sternum began at two points only, situated near the anterior upper margin of the side of the sternum, and gradually crept towards the keel, into which it presently extended; and, though he allowed the appearance of detached portions of calcareous matter at the base of the still cartilaginous keel in ducks at a certain age, he seemed to consider this an individual peculiarity.
In accordance with the judicious policy which he had observed in Asia Minor and at Antioch, he granted full pardon to the citizens; only the chief officials and advisers were put to death; Zenobia and her son were captured and reserved for his triumph when he returned to Rome.
If an aperture for ingress and egress, for purposes of feeding, were left in the wall of such a chamber, there would arise in a rudimentary form what is known as the tubular nest or web; and the next important step was possibly the adoption of such a nest as a permanent abode for the spider., Some spiders, like the Drassidae and Salticidae, have not advanced beyond this stage in architectural industry; but next to the cocoon this simple tubular retreat - whether spun in a crevice or burrow or simply attached to the lower side of a stone - is the most constant feature to be observed in the spinning habits of spiders.
a-, without; 0,un, leaven), a name given by the Orthodox Eastern to the Western or Latin Church, because of the latter's use of unleavened bread in the Eucharist, a practice which arose in the 9th century and is also observed by Armenians and Maronites following the Jewish passover custom.
C. Bonnet indeed observed in 1745 the virgin-reproduction of Aphids, but it was not until 1842 that R.
Each group, it will be observed, except " current futures," culminates in two defined months.
Egyptian futures, it will be observed, run out in single months.
Mr Hooker has shown with reference to the wheat market how close is the correlation between prices in different places,' and the same has been observed of the cotton market, though the Conceivably some indication of the working of " futures " might be gleaned from observation of the relations of near and distant " futures " to one another and of both to spot."
As we pass from the " future " of the month in which the quotation is made to the most distant "future" it will be observed that in the first and second cases price rises continuously, in the second case even passing "spot," whereas in the third case it falls first and then rises.
The quality in greatest demand in England, it should be observed, is worth about 4d.
Let the truce of God be observed at home; and let the arms of Christians be directed to the winning of Jerusalem in an expedition which should count for full and complete penance.
Poggio, it may be observed, was a fluent and copious writer in the Latin tongue, but not an elegant scholar.
Young Nick's Head, the southern horn of the bay, was named from Nicholas Young, his ship's boy, who first observed it.
The difference in the appearance of the basement membrane - sometimes wholly homogeneous, sometimes eminently fibrillar = can more especially be observed in differently preserved specimens of the genus Polia.
It can then at the same time be observed, too, that the compact mass of connective tissue (" reticulum," Barrois) which lies between the muscular bodywall and the intestine is directly continuous with that in which the muscular layers are embedded.
Organs of hearing in the form of capsules containing otoliths have only been very rarely observed, apparently only in Metanemertini.
Small tufts of tactile hairs or papillae are sometimes observed in small number at the tip of the head; sometimes longer hairs, apparently rather stiff, are seen on the surface, very sparingly distributed between the cilia, and hitherto only in a very limited number of small specimens.
In the Metanemertini, as far as they have been investigated, a direct development without metamorphosis has been observed.
This can be then compared with the observed scale reading and the error of the ammeter noted.'
He fancies that he has tried or observed everything in human experience, and his deliberate conclusion is that nothing is worth doing.
The Fast of Ramadhan, however, is generally observed with some faithfulness.
in height are stated to have been observed in Chicago.
Since the distance of a body from the observer cannot be observed directly, but only the right ascension and declination, calling these a and 6 we conceive ideal equations of the form a = f (a, b, c, e, f, g, t) and 5=0 (a, b, c, e, f, g, t), the symbols a, b,.
The sesqui-centennial of Pittsburgh, elaborately observed in 1908, marked the beginning of a new period of corporate, educational, social and material development.
These, it will be observed, are all Japanese names, and the heights have been determined by Japanese observers.
"Feast of Ingathering") and is to be observed "at the end of the year," i.e.
But when the properties of the elements are carefully contrasted together it is found that no strict line of demarcation can be drawn dividing them into two classes; and if they are arranged in a series, those which are most closely allied in properties being placed next to each other, it is observed that there is a more or less regular alteration in properties from term to term in the series.
Mitscherlich, who also observed the similarity of the crystallographic characters of selenates and sulphates, which afforded valuable corroboration of his doctrine of isomorphism.
Its crimson flame-coloration was observed by C. G.
N"Ecv, to smell) observed in 1785 by Martin van Marum to be formed by the action of a silent electric discharge on the oxygen of the air; he showed it to be an allotropic modification of oxygen, a view subsequently confirmed by Marignac, Andrews and Soret.
A historic example is that of the condensation of three molecules of acetone, CH 3 CO CH 3, in the presence of sulphuric acid, to s-trimethylbenzene or mesitylene, C 6 H 3 (CH 3) 3, first observed in 1837 by R.
It is difficult to determine which configuration most accurately explains the observed facts; Kekule's formula undoubtedly explains the synthetical production of benzenoid compounds most satisfactorily, and W.
Another type of dry reaction, namely, the flame coloration, had been the subject of isolated notices, as, for example, the violet flame of potassium and the orange flame of sodium observed by Marggraf and Scheele, but a systematic account was wanting until Cartmell took the subject up. His results (Phil.
Beilstein determines their presence by heating the substance with pure copper oxide on a platinum wire in the Bunsen flame; a green coloration is observed if halogens be present.
It is apparent that the law of Dulong and Petit is not rigorously true, and that deviations are observed which invalidate the law as originally framed.
In the first case the thermal effect of 58.58 calories actually observed must be increased by 2d to allow for the heat absorbed in splitting off two gramme-atoms of carbon; in the second case the thermal effect of 96.96 must be increased by d as above.
methylene oxide if we assign to it the formula H 2 C O CH 2, but if the formula H 2 C O CH 2 (which assumes the presence of two free valencies) be accepted, the calculated and observed heats of formation are in agreement.
By taking appropriate differences the following facts will be observed: (1) the replacement of potassium by rubidium occasions an increase in the equivalent volumes by about eight units, and of rubidium by caesium by about eleven units; (2) replacement in the same order is attended by a general increase in the three topic parameters, a greater increase being met with in the replacement of rubidium by caesium; (3) the parameters x and, p are about equally increased, while the increase in w is always the greatest.
If, on the other hand, the sulphur system be replaced by a corresponding selenium system, an element of higher atomic weight, it would be expected that a slight increase would be observed in the vertical parameter, and a greater increase recorded equally in the horizontal parameters.
Its phenomena are, however, perfectly real, and can be observed wherever artistic conditions make the tone of a mass of harmony more important than the interior threads of its texture.
On the 8th of May a holiday is still observed in Helston and known as Flora or Furry day.
There can be no doubt that Eabani, who symbolizes primeval man, was a figure originally entirely independent of Gilgamesh, but his story was incorporated into the epic by that natural process to be observed in the national epics of other peoples, which tends to connect the favourite hero with all kinds of tales that for one reason or the other become embedded in the popular mind.
After large doses haematuria has been observed in a few cases.
The drug must be at once withheld if haemorrhages (subcutaneous, retinal, &c.) are observed.
In 1814 Tassaert observed the spontaneous formation of a blue compound, very similar to ultramarine, if not identical with it, in a soda-furnace at St Gobain, which caused the Societe pour l'Encouragement d'Industrie to offer, in 1824, a prize for the artificial production of the precious colour.
A few latitudes had indeed been observed, but although Hipparchus had shown how longitudes could be determined by the observation of eclipses, this method was in reality not available for want of trustworthy time-keepers.
The latter would, indeed, be gradually affected; and accordingly we have observed a change in the policy of the law, indicating a change in sentiment with respect to the slave class, which does not appear to have been at all due to Christian teaching.
A circular was soon after sent to the governors and marshals of the nobility all over Russia proper, informing them of this desire of the Lithuanian nobles, and setting out the fundamental principles which should be observed " if the nobles of the provinces should express a similar desire."
The birds of the genus Leucosticte seem to be more terrestrial in their habit than those of Linota, perhaps from their having been chiefly observed where trees are scarce; but it is possible that the mutual relationship of the two groups is more apparent than real.
It has, however, been observed that in practice the width of extant rolls does not tally in any satisfactory degree with Pliny's measurements; and a more plausible explanation has been offered (Birt, Antik.
Although the character of the reforms throws remarkable light upon the condition of religion in Judah in the time of Josiah, it is to be observed that the writings of the contemporary prophets (Jeremiah, Ezekiel) make it very questionable whether the narratives are thoroughly trustworthy for the history of the king's measures.
It is the commonest cetacean in the seas round the British Isles, and not infrequently ascends the Thames, having been seen as high as Richmond; it has also been observed in the Seine at Neuilly, near Paris.
in thickness, they probably at one time covered the whole island except the summits of the Sierra Maestra, where they have been observed, resting upon the older rocks, up to a height of 2300 ft.
Although the publication of the budget had only taken place at very irregular intervals, it must also be observed that the published budgets were by no means accurate.
Passing now to the examination of the budget, it should be observed that the method of estimating the revenues - a matter of great difficulty owing to the previous want of method - is described by Laurent as follows: " For every nature of receipts the total effective collections for the five last known years were set out, the averages were taken of these and the increase or decrease of the yearly average of those same years was worked out and added to or deducted from the figure previously obtained.
No other items in the budget call for special remark, but in order that the information given may be complete, each head of expenditure is shown separately below, and the budget for 1910-1911, as first placed before the Turkish parliament, presents the following picture, from which it may be observed that the public debt absorbs 26% of the revenue, war service 38% and civil services 36%.
For the remainder of the reign the Persian War was continued fitfully, a treaty of peace, signed in 1611, not being observed.
The treaties as to the principalities were renewed; and though Servia was restored to the direct rule of Turkey it was stipulated that clemency was to be observed in the Porte's dealings with the country, which was given the power of regulating its own affairs.
Though the provisions of the Tanzimat were not fully observed, they afforded convincing proof that reform was entirely practicable in Turkey.
Towards nightfall Napoleon reached the scene, and the Russians being now clear the troops began to enter, but already fires were observed in the farther part of the city.
The facts as to the position of an opponent accurately observed and correctly reported at a given moment, afford no reliable guarantee of his position 48 hours later, when the orders based on this information enter upon execution.
Within the limits of the city itself, on the west bank of the Tigris, are the remains of a quay, first observed by Sir Henry Rawlinson, at a period of low water, in 1849, built of bricks laid in bitumen, and bearing an inscription of Nebuchadrezzar, king of Babylon.
Many discrepancies have been observed among critics in the different portions of this series of enactments.
It may be observed however that the absence of a definite date in Deuteronomy must be accidental, since a common pilgrimage feast must be on a fixed day, and the reference to the seven weeks elapsing between Passover and Pentecost also implies the fixing of the date.
The complex of observances connected with the Passover and the very want of systemization observed in the literary sources would seem to vindicate the primitive character of the feast, which indeed is recognized by all inquirers.
At any rate the Samaritans have, throughout their history, observed the Passover with all its Pentateuchal ceremonial and still observe it down to the present day.
and 39° 30' E., the most northerly point of land till then observed.
The coast-line of Melville Bay (the northern part of the west coast) is to some degree an exception, though the fjords may here be somewhat filled with glaciers, and, for another example, it may be noted that Peary observed a marked contrast on the north coast.
There seem to be periodical oscillations in the extension of the glaciers and the inland ice similar to those that have been observed on the glaciers of the Alps and elsewhere.
8 The highest marine terrace observed in Scoresby Fjord, on the east coast, was 240 ft.
Feilden notes as suggestive that, though the explorers have not met with this formation on the northern shores of Greenland, yet it was observed that a continuation of the direction of the known strike of the limestones of Feilden peninsula, carried over the polar area, passes through the neighbourhood of Spitsbergen, where the formation occurs, and contains certain species identical with those of the Grinnell Land rocks of this horizon.
A few other minerals may be noticed, and some have been worked to a small extent - graphite is abundant, particularly near Upernivik; cryolite is found almost exclusively at Ivigtut; copper has been observed at several places, but only in nodules and laminae of limited extent; and coal of poor quality is found in the districts about Disco Bay and Umanak Fjord.
The empirical data on which the hydrodynamical investigations are based are: (I) observed velocities and directions of oceanic currents and drifts; (2) salinity; (3) density; (4) temperature of the sea water in situ; (5) oceanic soundings.
By the pulsation of the pericardial vesicle (best observed in the larva) the blood is driven into the glomerulus, from which it issues by efferent vessels which effect a junction with the ventral (sub-intestinal) vessel in the trunk.
Wellington's left, under Hope, watched Bayonne, while Beresford, with Hill, observed the Adour and the Joyeuse, the right trending back till it reached Urcuray on the St Jean Pied de Port road.
If some of the anions, instead of being simple iodine ions represented chemically by the symbol I, are complex structures formed by the union of iodine with unaltered cadmium iodide - structures represented by some such chemical formula as I(CdI 2), the concentration of the solution round the anode would be increased by the passage of an electric current, and the phenomena observed would be explained.
The results go to show that, where the existence of complex ions is not indicated by varying transport numbers, the observed velocities agree with those calculated on Kohlrausch's theory.
But when we pass to solutions of mineral salts and acids - to solutions of electrolytes in fact - we find that the observed values of the osmotic pressures and of the allied phenomena are greater than the normal values.
(I) In very dilute solutions of simple substances, where only one kind of dissociation is possible and the dissociation of the ions is complete, the number of pressure-producing particles necessary to produce the observed osmotic effects should be equal to the number of ions given by a molecule of the salt as shown by its electrical properties.
52 volt, and observed as 0.51 volt.
By experiments on diffusion this constant has been found by Scheffer, and the numbers observed agree with those calculated (HC1= 2.30, HNO 3 = 2 22, NaCI = I II).
The existence of caoutchouc or rubber was first observed soon after the discovery of America.
Ejections of basaltic lava have been observed on the southern slope vo of this range, extending over wide areas on the plateau itself, over a stretch of more than 600 m.
At the polar meteorological station of Sagastyr, in the delta of the Lena (73° 23' N.), the following average temperatures have been observed: January - 34.3° F.
Of birds no less than 285 species have been observed in Siberia, but of these forty-five only are absent from Europe.
Inclusions of other minerals are frequently to be observed in mica.
Artificially formed crystals of the various species of mica have been observed in furnace-slags and in silicate fusions.
In 1861, while conducting a spectroscopic examination of the residue left in the manufacture of sulphuric acid, he observed a bright green line which had not been noticed previously, and by following up the indication thus given he succeeded in isolating a new element, thallium, a specimen of which was shown in public for the first time at the exhibition of 1862.
It was long a matter in discussion whether the animal could displace its valves sideways when about to open its shell, but this has been actually observed by Professors K.
Thus in 1857 he went to Peru in order to determine the magnetic equator; in1861-1862and 1864, he studied telluric absorption in the solar spectrum in Italy and Switzerland; in 1867 he carried out optical and magnetic experiments at the Azores; he successfully observed both transits of Venus, that of 1874 in Japan, that of 1882 at Oran in Algeria; and he took part in a long series of solar eclipse-expeditions, e.g.
It was observed above that the square of a determinant when expressed as a determinant of the same order is such that its elements have the property expressed by aik = aki.
Moreover, if we add the first to the fourth we obtain aj 2w ak = 7 1=6, j, =0j, where 0 is the degree of the invariant; this shows, as we have before observed, that for an invariant w= - n0.
Immediately before arrest the heart may beat much faster than normally, though with extreme irregularity, and in the lower animals the auricles may be observed occasionally to miss a beat, as in poisoning by veratrine and colchicum.
Death usually supervenes before a numbing effect on the intestine can be observed.
Up to about the middle of the 19th century it was supposed that transits of Venus across the disk of the sun afforded the most trustworthy method of making the determination in question; and when Encke in 1824 published his classic discussion of the transits of 1761 and 1769, it was supposed that we must wait until the transits of 1874 and 1882 had been observed and discussed before any further light would be thrown on the subject.
Doubt was first thrown on the accuracy of this number by an announcement from Hansen in 1862 that the observed parallactic inequality of the moon was irreconcilable with the accepted value of the solar parallax, and indicated the much larger value 8.97".
The second method is in principle extremely simple, consisting merely in multiplying the observed velocity of light by the time which it takes light to travel from the sun to the earth.
The transits of Venus observed in 1874 and 1882 might be expected to hold a leading place in the discussion.
In the preceding century reliance was placed entirely on the observed moments at which Venus entered upon or left the limb of the sun, but in 1874 it was possible to determine the relative positions of Venus and the sun during the whole course of the transit.
Unfortunately these eclipses are not sudden but slowly changing phenomena, so that they cannot be observed without an error of at least several seconds, and not infrequently important fractions of a minute.
The indirect method is based upon the observed constant of aberration or the displacement of the stars due to the earth's motion.
From the observed motion of the node of Venus, as shown by the four transits of 1761, 1769, 1874 and 1882, is found Mass of (earth +moon) _Mass of sun 332600 In gravitational units of mass, based on the metre and second as units of length and time, Log.
Up to the end of the 15th century only two magnetic phenomena of importance, besides that of attraction, had been observed.
L (48)] a current having been B B brought to any desired value, is suddenly re versed, and the observed throw taken as measur ing twice the actual in duction.
Taylor Jones subsequently found a good agreement between the theoretical and the observed values of the tractive force in fields ranging up to very high intensities (Phil.
The behaviour of nickel in weak fields has been observed by Ewing (Phil.
On the application of a small magnetizing force to a bar of soft annealed iron, a certain intensity of magnetization is instantly produced; this, however, does not remain constant, but slowly increases for some seconds or even minutes, and may ultimately attain a value nearly twice as great as that observed immediately after the force was applied.'
When the magnetizing current is broken, the magnetization at once undergoes considerable diminution, then gradually falls to zero, and a similar sudden change followed by a slow one is observed when a feeble current is reversed.
Nickel exhibited retraction from the very beginning (as observed by Barrett), its greatest change of length considerably exceeding that undergone by iron; in a field of Boo the original length was diminished by as much as 1/40,000 part, but stronger forces failed to produce any further effect.
Little or no change of length was observed until the strength of the field Ho reached about 50; then the rod began to contract, and after passing a minimum at Ho= 000, recovered its original length at Ho = 750; beyond this point there was extension, the amount of which was still increasing fast when the experiment was stopped at Ho= 1400.
Honda subjected tubes of iron, steel and nickel to the simultaneous action of circular and longitudinal fields, and observed the changes of length when one of the fields was varied while the other remained constant at different successive values from zero upwards.
Taylor Jones showed in 1897 that only a small proportion of the contraction exhibited by a nickel wire when magnetized could be accounted for on Kirchhoff's theory from the observed effects of pulling stress upon magnetization; and in a more extended series of observations Nagaoka and Honda found wide quantitative divergences between the results of experiment and calculation, though in nearly all cases there was agreement as to quality.
The following table shows the values of I and H corresponding to the Villari critical point in some of Ewing's experiments: The effects of pulling stress may be observed either when the wire is stretched by a constant load while the magnetizing force is varied, or when the magnetizing force is kept constant while the load is varied.
Analogous changes are observed in the residual magnetization which remains after the wire has been subjected to fields of different strength.
Thomson, who, from the results of Bidwell's observations on the magnetic deformation of cobalt, was led to expect that that metal would exhibit a reversal opposite in character to the effect observed in iron.
For each of the metals tabulated in the first column all the effects hitherto observed have the same sign; there is no single instance in which some are positive and others negative.
Nagaoka and Honda have succeeded in showing that the observed relations between twist and magnetization are in qualitative agreement with an extension of Kirchhoff's theory of magnetostriction.
Phys., 1900, 2, 798) observed a well-defined Hall effect in incandescent gases.
Electro-Thermal Relations.-The Hall electromotive force is only one of several so-called " galvano-magnetic effects " which are observed when a magnetic field acts normally upon a thin plate of metal traversed by an electric current.
A small but decided tendency to a decrease of susceptibility in very strong fields was observed.
Although the amended theory as worked out by Maxwell is in rough agreement with certain leading phenomena of magnetization, it fails to account for many others, and is in some cases at variance with observed facts.
It has been supposed that certain electrons revolve like satellites in orbits around the atoms with which they are associated, a view which receives strong support from the phenomena of the Zeeman effect, and on this assumption a theory has been worked out by P. Langevin, 2 which accounts for many, of the observed facts of magnetism.
910-915) by the Roman poet, Lucretius (96-5555 B.C.), in which it is stated that the stone can support a chain of little rings, each adhering to the one above it, indicates that in his time the phenomenon of magnetization by induction had also been observed.
The downward tendency of the north pole of a magnet pivoted in the usual way had been observed by G.
In particular, he found that the calculated velocity with which it transmitted electromagnetic disturbances was equal to the observed velocity of light; hence he was led to believe, not only that his medium and the ether were one and the same, but, further, that light itself was an electromagnetic phenomenon.
Scorpions of various species have been observed to make a hissing noise when disturbed, or even when not disturbed.
It should further be observed that the Vulgate adds the Prayer of Manasses and 3 and 4 Ezra after the New Testament as apocryphal.
Returning to the question of the Jewish origin of i., ii., iii., we have already observed that these spring from a common original.
It will be observed that the legality of the trial, in so far as the jurors were not properly qualified and the law of treason was shamefully strained, was denied in the act of William & Mary which annulled the attainder.
These four (none of whom, it will be observed, was of the nationality of either party in difference) chose for their umpire Professor Matzen, of Copenhagen, president of the Landsthing there.
St Elmo's fire is most frequently observed at low levels through the winter season during and after snowstorms.
In this connexion it should be observed that the word patrimonium gradually changed in meaning.
Bergman also observed that the addition of potash or ammonia made the solution of alumina in sulphuric acid crystallize, but that the same effect was not produced by the addition of soda or of lime (De confectione aluminus, Bergman's Opusc. i.
The Tupinoquins at first offered some opposition; but having made peace, they observed it faithfully, notwithstanding that the oppression of the Portuguese obliged them to forsake the country.
has been observed.
This rule as to using brackets is not always observed, the convention sometimes adopted being that multiplications or divisions are to be performed before additions or subtractions.
- It should be observed that the radix of the scale is exactly the same thing as the root mentioned under (ii.) above; and it is better to use the term " root " throughout.
It should be observed that, by analogy with the definition of a fraction, a P l q mean (al/q)P, not (aP)llq.
It should be observed that, for r=o, (4) is replaced by n (o) _ (n - I)(o) (9), and similarly, for the final terms, we should note that P0)= 0 if 4> p (io).
It should be observed that while the use of special units, or extraordinaries, in a linear algebra is convenient, especially in applications, it is not indispensable.
through the centre of Kafiristan, has never been accurately traced; but: its topographical conformation is evidently a continuation of that which has been observed in the districts of Badakshan to the west of the Khawak.
The effect of the Linnaean system upon the general conceptions of zoologists was no less marked than were its results in the way of stimulating the accumulation of accurately observed details.
The whole question as to the mixture of characters in offspring thus produced was - and remains - very imperfectly observed.
Its first beginnings are seen in the imitative tendencies of animals by which the young of one generation acquire some of the habits of their parents, and by which gregarious and social animals acquire a community of procedure ensuring the advantage of the group. " Taboo," the systematic imposition by the community of restrictions upon the conduct of the individual, is one of its earliest manifestations in primitive man and can be observed even in animal communities.
Thus in the case of the circular disk, equidistant (r) from the source of light and from the screen upon which the shadow is observed, the width of the first exterior zone is given by = X(2r)/4(2x), 2x being the diameter of the disk.
u 2 u It will be observed that, while the total intensity is proportional to ab, the intensity at the focal point is proportional to a 2 b 2.
The diminution of the star disks with increasing aperture was observed by Sir William Herschel, and in 1823 Fraunhofer formulated the law of inverse proportionality.
Observed through this the structure of some wire gauze just disappeared at a distance from the eye equal to 17 in., the gauze containing 46 meshes to the inch.
of light of assigned wave-length in one spectrum, and as illustrating the frequently observed unsymmetrical character of the spectra on the two sides of the central image.'
We will now consider the important subject of the resolving power of gratings, as dependent upon the number of lines (n) and the order of the spectrum observed (m).
Cornu (C.R., 1875, 80, p. 655), who thus explains an anomaly observed by FIG.
2 " In the same way we may conclude that in flat gratings any departure from a straight line has the effect of causing the dust in the slit and the spectrum to have different foci - a fact sometimes observed " (Rowland, " On Concave Gratings for Optical Purposes," Phil.
or the bands comes about in a very curious way, as is shown by a circumstance first observed by Brewster.
If a telescope be employed there is a distinction to be observed, according as the half-covered aperture is between the eye and the ocular, or in front of the object-glass.
We have hitherto supposed that the shadow of a diffracting obstacle is received upon a diffusing screen, or, which comes to nearly the same thing, is observed with an eye-piece.
According to this notation, the three equations of motion are dt2 = b2v2E + (a2 - b2) d.s dt =b2v2rj+(a2 - b2) dy d2 CIF - b2p2+(a2_b2)dz It is to be observed that denotes the dilatation of volume of the element situated at (x, y, z).
RAINBOW, formerly known as the iris, the coloured rings seen in the heavens when the light from the sun or moon shines on falling rain; on a smaller scale they may be observed when sunshine falls on the spray of a waterfall or fountain.
Sometimes an outer bow, the secondary rainbow, is observed; this is much fainter than the primary bow, and it exhibits the same play of colours, with the important distinction that the order is reversed, the red being inside and the violet outside.
Snellius) to calculate the radii of the bows, and his theoretical angles were in agreement with those observed.
But the illumination of the bow is so weakened by the repeated reflections, and the light of the sun is generally so bright, that these bows are rarely, if ever, observed except in artificial rainbows.
The smaller the drops, the greater the distance; hence it is that the spurious bows are generally only observed near the summits of the bows, where the drops are smaller than at any lower altitude.
Intersecting rainbows are sometimes observed.
But the increase of size which constitutes growth is the result of a process of molecular intussusception, and therefore differs altogether from the process of growth by accretion, which may be observed in crystals and is effected purely by the external addition of new matter - so that, in the well-known aphorism of Linnaeus, the word "grow" as applied to stones signifies a totally different process from what is called "growth" in plants and animals.
Modesty therefore is highly conventional, and to discover its origin the most primitive tribes must be observed.
war, tribute-bearers, captives) will represent varieties of dress which are consistently observed in other scenes or which can be substantiated from native sources.'
In early Egypt men of rank would be followed by a servant carrying a pair of sandals in case of need; but in the New Kingdom they were in common use, although a typical difference is observed when princes appear unshod in the presence of the Pharaoh, who wears sandals him self.
Pelouze in 1838, who observed that when paper or cotton was immersed in cold concentrated nitric acid the materials, though not altered in physical appearance, became heavier, and after washing and drying were possessed of self-explosive properties.
Foreign usage of the term, as in French, is different, and where the word is kept with this foreign application, the distinction should be observed.
Diagnosis, or recognition of the disease, must have been necessarily imperfect, when no scientific nosology or system of disease existed, and the knowledge of anatomy was quite inadequate to allow of a precise determination of the seat of disease; but symptoms were no doubt observed and interpreted skilfully.
By similar methods nature, unassisted, betrays herself but too often; in many instances - probably originating primarily in the nervous tissues themselves - the course of disease is observed to follow certain paths with remarkable consistency, as for instance in diseases of particular tracts of the spinal cord.
He twice visited his wife in disguise; was himself visited by his stepfather, Ogilvie, and generally observed less caution than his situation required.
He published a charter confirming in genera] terms the one granted by Henry, and commanding that the good laws of Edward the Confessor should be observed.
Stubbs denounced suburban gardens and garden houses in his Anatomy of Abuses, and another writer observed " how happy were cities if they had no suburbs."
Distinct rank was accorded to aldermen, and in the Liber Albus we are told that " it is a matter of experience that ever since the year of our Lord 1350, at the sepulture of aldermen, the ancient custom of interment with baronial honours was observed."
He had lived in Cape Colony, and there, as is supposed, had observed the manner in of the which the whites formed their soldiers into disciplined regiments.
or more has been observed.
A similar condition of strain has been observed in deep mines in different parts of the world - perhaps due to geological movements.
The utmost secrecy was observed by the Allied staff.
This is probably never completely attained, variations in the sixth significant figure of the refractive index being observed in different parts of single large blocks of the most perfect glass.
If the glass is very badly annealed, the lenses made from it may fly to pieces during or of ter manufacture, but apart from such extreme cases the optical effects of internal strain are not readily observed except in large optical apparatus.
But as Mariotte observed similar obstructions even in glass pipes where no transverse currents could exist, the cause assigned by Guglielmini seemed destitute of foundation.
A certain critical temperature is observed in a gas, above which the liquefaction is impossible; so that the gaseous state has two subdivisions into (i.)a true gas, which cannot be liquefied, because its temperature is above the critical temperature, (ii.) a vapour, where the temperature is below the critical, and which can ultimately be liquefied by further lowering of temperature or increase of pressure.
The stability of a ship is investigated practically by inclining it; a weight is moved across the deck and the angle is observed of the heel produced.
In the Eulerian method the attention is fixed on a particular point of space, and the change is observed there of pressure, density and velocity, which takes place during the motion; but in the Lagrangian method we follow up a particle of fluid and observe how it changes.
The vortex advances with a certain velocity; and if an equal circular vortex is generated coaxially with the first, the mutual influence can be observed.
Since then a number of other monuments have been found, some on new sites, others on sites already known to be Hittite, the distribution of which can be seen by reference to the accompanying map. It will be observed that, so far as at present known, they cluster most closely in Commagene, Cappadocia and S.
So far, the majority of our Hittite inscriptions, like those first found at Hamah, are in relief (cameo); but the incised characters, first observed in the Tyana district, have since been shown, by discoveries at Marash, Babylon, &c., to have had a wider range.
Exclusively female flowers without stamens do not appear to have been observed.
Anthracnose has been known in Europe for many years, but has only been observed in America since 1881, whither it was probably imported from the old world.
It has been known and observed there since 1848, but appeared for the first time in France in 1885.
When they were observed the house purposely adjourned for dinner.
The habit of snuff-taking was observed and described by Ranton Pane, a Franciscan who accompanied Columbus on his second voyage (1494-1496), and the practice of tobacco-chewing was first seen by the Spaniards on the coast of South America in 1502.
It is to be observed that she appears far more conspicuously in the Apolline myths than in those which grew round the great centres of Artemis worship, the reason being that the idea of Apollo and Artemis as twins is one of later growth on Greek soil.
On the other side, the great men coveted the wide estates of bishop and abbot, and were ready without persuasion to annex portions of them to their own on the easy terms of this tenure, not always indeed observed by the holder, or able to be enforced by the Church.
At Aden at the sea-level the mean temperature for the year is 83°; the highest observed temperature in 1904 was 97.3°, the lowest 67.4°.
The line of division along the spine, it wifi be observed, is not perfectly continuous or defined, but in part suggested; and each radiating stripe on either side is full of variety in size, direction, and to some extent in color and depth of shade.
This distribution is not, however, observed very strictly.
All the old republican formalities were most punctiliously observed - even those attendant on the emperor's election to the consulate, so far as they did not involve a restoration of the old order of voting at the comitia.
It should be observed that this last circumstance is ignored by all the historians, and that St Athanasius, who knew all the notable bishops of the period, never mentions Nicholas, bishop of Myra.
In the war with Pisa he had observed the insubordination and untrustworthiness of soldiers gathered from the dregs of different districts, serving under egotistical and irresponsible commanders.
The name was first given in 1834 to a plant-louse which was observed to "dry up the leaves" of oaks in Provence.