Regular observations were made of both elements.
For a further discussion founded upon the observations of Q.
Still, you must have some personal observations... thoughts... feelings?
The magnetic observations he made during his travels were utilized by C. F.
It never occurred to me that it might be worth while to make my own observations and describe the experiences peculiarly my own.
From the observations at Trieste in 1902-1903 E.
may be felt as to the earlier observations there.
These include the mutual distances of some of the stars in the Pleiades, a few observations of the apparent diameter of the sun, others of the distance of the moon from neighbouring stars, and a great number of measurements of the diameter of the moon.
Observations on mountain tops generally show high potentials near the ground.
Observations have usually been limited to a portion of the year, or to a few hours of the day, whilst the results from different stations differ much in details.
The observations were usually confined to a few hours of the day, very commonly between II A.M.
Every once in a while, the half-demon surprised him with the depth of his observations and compassion.
Annual Variation.-When observations are made at irregular hours, or at only one or two fixed hours, it is doubtful how representative they are.
This will turbocharge science, which will no longer rely exclusively on slow observations in real time.
These observations have given me a clue to the method to be followed in teaching Helen language.I SHALL TALK INTO HER HAND AS WE TALK INTO THE BABY'S EARS.
I have always accepted other peoples experiences and observations as a matter of course.
Observations on the Sonnblick agree with those at low-level stations in showing a diminution of dissipation with increase of relative humidity.
The doctor who attended Pierre and visited him every day, though he considered it his duty as a doctor to pose as a man whose every moment was of value to suffering humanity, would sit for hours with Pierre telling him his favorite anecdotes and his observations on the characters of his patients in general, and especially of the ladies.
Sir William Abney has found that the above law agrees remarkably well with his observations on the transmission of light through water in which particles of mastic are suspended (Prot.
Of late years many observations have been made of the ionic charges in air.
Some sensible observations by the editor were added to the original biography.
If you were a scientist in Salk's time, you did calculations by hand and wrote observations in notebooks.
In the island of Juist, off the Friesland coast, from three weeks' observations they obtained only 5.2 as the mean.
Gockel, have made long series of observations without it.
Summer Observations On Mountains Have Shown Diurnal Variations Very Large And Fairly Regular, But Widely Different From Those Observed At Lower Levels.
Observations between 6 and 7 P.M.
The same observer from four weeks' observations at Hammerfest got the considerably lower mean value 58, with a maximum of 252.
Or early climatologists who made their own daily observations of precipitation and barometric pressure, interpreting as well as collecting readings.
While the last words, "sleeping, just sleeping," said prior to the interruption by Grasso seemed to denote failure, the earlier recorded observations suggest otherwise.
All right then, not the cavalry, but a marshaling of arguments and observations that will show how the end of war is inevitable, or nearly so.
On the other hand, at Altjoch, an Alpine station, from nine days' observations in July 1903 they obtained a mean of 137, the maximum being 224, and the minimum 92.
The existence of double salts, and the observations of L.
to determine the solar parallax by observations of Mars in 1877.
Still, the close relationship of the existing Liberian pigmy hippopotamus to the fossil Mediterranean species is significant, in relation to the foregoing observations on the elephant.
Thunder.-Trustworthy frequency statistics for an individual station are obtainable only from a long series of observations, while if means are taken from a large area places may be included which differ largely amongst themselves.
It was used by him in his earliest observations of double stars (1779-1783); but, even in his hands, the measurements were comparatively crude, because of the difficulties he had to encounter from the want of a parallactic mounting.
In delicate researches two divisions of the scale should always be read, not merely for increased accuracy but to obtain the corrections for " run " from the observations themselves.
Their absolute freedom from diffraction, the perfect control of the illumination and thickness of the lines, and the accuracy with which it will be possible to construct scales for zone observations will be important features of the new method.
According to his observations, in the Egyptian wild cat the pads of the toes are wholly black, while the black extends back either continuously or in long stripes as far as the calcaneum or heel-bone.
The foregoing opinion as to the dual parentage of our domesticated cats receives support from observations made many years ago by E.
According to these observations, two distinct types of so-called tabby cats are recognizable.
In 1636 Descartes had resolved to publish some specimens of the fruits of his method, and some general observations on its 7 lb.
Nothing more seems to have been known of it in Europe till 1803, when Azara published at Madrid his observations on the birds of Paraguay (Apuntamientos, No.
Vera's remark was correct, as her remarks always were, but, like most of her observations, it made everyone feel uncomfortable, not only Sonya, Nicholas, and Natasha, but even the old countess, who--dreading this love affair which might hinder Nicholas from making a brilliant match-- blushed like a girl.
If his experiences and observations hadn't led him to the concepts, SMALL, LARGE, GOOD, BAD, SWEET, SOUR, he would have nothing to attach the word-tags to.
These fine jet droppers with a mixture of alcohol and water have proved very effective for balloon observations.
Some of the earliest balloon observations made the gradient increase with the height, but such a result is now regarded as abnormal.
From observations during twelve balloon ascents, Linke concludes that below the 1500-metre level there are numerous sources of disturbance, the gradient at any given height varying much from day to day and hour to hour; but at greater heights there is much more uniformity.
In the cases where the observations were confined to a few months the representative nature of the results is more doubtful.
One reply to this is that it is not difficult to determine from time to time the errors of the screws and to apply the necessary corrections to the observations.
He entered the army, merely because the position gave a vantage-ground from which to make his observations.
In it we find the principles of a general interpretation, formed without the assistance of any particular philosophy, but consisting of observations and rules which, though already enunciated, and applied in the criticism of the profane writers, had never rigorously been employed in biblical exegesis.
With this end in view he expounded to the Berlin academy in 1849 a mode of determining an elliptic orbit from three observations, and communicated to that body in 1851 a new method of calculating planetary perturbations by means of rectangular coordinates (republished in W.
At Sydney, the average rainfall, since observations were commenced, has been 50 in.
The difference between summer and winter is, however, less at Melbourne than at any of the places mentioned, the result of a long series of observations being spring 57°, summer 65.3°, autumn 58.7°, and winter 49-2'.
Of the Dutch discoverers, Pelsaert was the only one who made any detailed observations of the character of the country inland, and it may here be remarked that his journal contains the first notice and description of the kangaroo that has come down to us.
Mr Charles Green was commissioned to conduct the astronomical observations, and Sir Joseph Banks and Dr Solander were appointed botanists to the expedition.
The observations of Captain Furneaux, however, did not strengthen this belief, and when making his final voyage, the great navigator appears to have definitely concluded that it was part of the mainland of Australia.
Much has also been done by the discussion of observations made on board vessels belonging to the mercantile marine of various countries.
These zone observations afforded 3 6 3,93 2 separate places of stars, and form the groundwork of the catalogue of 133,659 stars between 2° and 23° south declination, which was published in 1886 as the eighth volume of the Bonn observations.
The average speed is obtained very accurately from solar and stellar observations for the position of the ship. The difference between the speed of the ship and the rate of paying out gives the amount of.
Hughes made some remarkable observations and experiments in or between the years 1879 and 1886 though he did not describe them till some twenty years afterwards.
On the latter hypothesis it has been generally assumed that the wild camels are the descendants of droves of the domesticated breed which escaped when certain central Asian cities were overwhelmed by sand-storms. This theory, according to Professor Leche, is rendered improbable by Dr Sven Hedin's observations on the habits and mode of life of the wild camel.
His advocacy of an American episcopate, in connexion with which he wrote the Answer to Dr Mayhew's Observations on the Charter and Conduct of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts (London 1764), raised considerable opposition in England and America.
The weight of Malpighi's observations therefore fell into the scale of that doctrine which Harvey terms metamorphosis, in contradistinction to epigenesis.
363; the observations of Kelly, C.B., in Mordaunt v.
Similar observations have been made in the case of various compounds of nitrogen, though these have not been so complex as the proteids.
is a flat disk, circular or elliptical in outline, had in the ideas time of Homer acquired a special definiteness by the introduction of the idea of the ocean river bounding the whole, an application of imperfectly understood observations.
The problems of geography had been lightened by the destructive criticism of the French cartographer D'Anville (who had purged the map of the world of the last remnants of traditional fact unverified by modern observations) and rendered richer by the dawn of the new era of scientific travel, when Kant brought his logical powers to bear upon them.
If on each occasion he himself made the observations his voyage must have extended over six years; but it is not impossible that he ascertained the approximate length of the longest day in some cases by questioning the natives.
The earliest Arabian traveller whose observations have come down to us is the merchant Sulaiman, who embarked in the Persian Gulf and made several voyages to India and China, in the middle of the 9th century.
The Observations of Sir Richard Hawkins in his Voyage into the South Sea, published in 1622, are very valuable.
He started once more in December 1771, and at length reached the Coppermine river, which he surveyed to its mouth, but his observations are unreliable.
precision on the surface and angular observations of the graphy positions of the heavenly bodies.
The motions of the earth as a planet must be taken into account, as they render possible the determination of position and direction by observations of the heavenly bodies.
Parker, " Observations on the Anatomy and Development of Apteryx," Phil.
The most careful observations are those by Fiirbringer.
Yarrell, " Observations on the tracheae of Birds," Trans.
His mind was as well cultivated as his bodily powers; he wrote well, and his observations are generally acute and accurate; he was brave, kindly and generous.
The rainfall on the summit is heavy, 72.14 inches a year being the average of twelve years' observations.
By the adoption of a regular system of work, and a careful plan of reduction, he was able to keep his observations reduced practically up to date, and published them annually with a degree of punctuality which astonished his contemporaries.
Before long a mural circle was installed, and regular observations were instituted with it in 1833.
He remodelled the volumes of observations, put the library on a proper footing, mounted the new (Sheepshanks) equatorial and organized a new magnetic observatory.
In 1847 an altazimuth was erected, designed by Airy to enable observations of the moon to be made not only on the meridian, but whenever she might be visible.
Shortly afterwards he undertook the further laborious task of reducing the enormous mass of observations of the moon made at Greenwich during the same period under the direction, successively, of J.
This value, although considerably in excess of that previously found by different methods, was held by Airy, from the care and completeness with which the observations were carried out and discussed, to be "entitled to compete with the others on, at least, equal terms."
All patent logs have errors, the amounts of which should be ascertained by shore observations when passing a well surveyed coast in tideless waters on a calm day.
A Log Book is a marine or sea journal, containing, in the British navy, the speed, course, leeway, direction and force of the wind, state of the weather, and barometric and thermometric observations.
In 1752 he published an Essai d'une nouvelle theorie sur la resistance des / g uides, which contains a large number of original ideas and new observations.
In 1880, according to the observations of M.
The inspector, after making his investigation, is required to make a report to the Board of Trade as to the causes of the accident and the circumstances attending the same, with any observations on the subject which he deems right, and the Board " shall cause every such report to be made public in such manner as they think expedient."
The indicated horse-power developed by a cylinder may always be ascertained from an indicator diagram and observations of the speed.
No biological generalization rests on a wider series of observations, or has been subjected to a more critical scrutiny than that every living organism has come into existence from a living portion or portions of a pre-existing organism.
of heterogenesis have limited themselves to cases of microscopic animals and plants, and in most cases, the observations that they have brought forward have been explained by minuter observation as cases of parasitism.
No serious observer, acquainted with modern microscopic technical methods, has been able to confirm the explanation of their observations.
Sir William Crookes has published accounts of striking experiments and observations with D.
Penrose, Account of the last Expedition to Port Egmont in the Falkland Islands (1775); Observations on the Forcible Occupation of Malvinas by the British Government in 1833 (Buenos Ayres, 1833); Reclamacion del Gobierno de las provincias Unidas de la Plata contra el de S.
Westermarck has shown from his observations in Morocco that the blood of the victim was considered to visit a curse upon the object to whom the sacrifice is offered and thereby the latter is made amenable to the sacrificer.
History had always been a favourite study with him, and Mably's Observations sur l'histoire appears to have had considerable influence in determining him to the choice of some special period for historic research.
This theory Gibbon completely exploded in his Critical Observations (1770) - no very difficult task, indeed, but achieved in a style, and with a profusion of learning, which called forth the warmest commendations both at home and abroad.
He arranges a selection from his observations on the nebulae in such a way as to give great plausibility to his view of the gradual transmutation of nebulae into stars Herschel begins by showing us that there are regions in the heavens where a faint diffused nebulosity is all that can be detected by the telescope.
On the 6th of November in that year he plainly saw the living parasites under the microscope in the blood of a malarial patient, and he shortly afterwards communicated his observations to the Paris Academie de Medecine.
This deduction harmonized the observations of Andrews and of Hess previously alluded to, and also accounted satisfactorily for the Law of Thermoneutrality.
His next publication was Observations on the Ancient and Present State of the Islands of Scilly, and their Importance to the Trade of Great Britain (Oxford, 1756).1756).
When her brother accepted the office of astronomer to George III., she became his constant assistant in his observations, and also executed the laborious calculations which were connected with them.
In 1797 she presented to the Royal Society an Index to Flamsteed's observations, together with a catalogue of 561 stars accidentally omitted from the "British Catalogue," and a list of the errata in that publication.
Thompson, From the Cotton Field to the Cotton Mill, a Study of the Industrial Transition in North Carolina (New York, 1906), contains some interesting observations on the changes in social conditions resulting from the growth of the cotton-manufacturing industry.
aus den Tropen, (1893), contain classical observations on American species.
His observations of the great comet of January 1672 supplied the basis of modern cometary astronomy.
One view of the origin of the latter (largely based upon observations upon the development of Polygordius) sees in the blood system a persistent blastocoel.
Lord Capel, who was much beloved, and who was a man of deep religious feeling and exemplary life, wrote Daily Observations or Meditations: Divine, Morall, published with some of his letters in 1654, and reprinted, with a short life of the author, under the title Excellent Contemplations, in 1683.
The records of Delisle's observations at St Petersburg are preserved in manuscript at the Pulkowa observatory.
In 1639 he accompanied Pedro Texiera in his second exploration of the Amazon, in order to take scientific observations, and draw up a report for the Spanish government.
His remarks on horses, cattle, &c., are not less interesting; and there is a very good account of the diseases of each species, and some just observations on the advantage of mixing different kinds on the same pasture.
Norden's work contains many judicious observations on the " different natures of grounds, how they may be employed, how they may be bettered, reformed and amended."
In Clausilia, according to the observations of C. Gegenbaur, the primitive shell-sac does not flatten out and disappear, but takes the form of a flattened closed sac. Within this closed sac a plate of calcareous matter is developed, and after a time the upper wall of the sac disappears, and the calcareous plate continues to grow as the nucleus of the permanent shell.
The external form of the embryo goes through the same changes as in other Gastropods, and is not, as was held previously to Lankester's observations, exceptional.
These results were confirmed by the observations of K.
140, and compiled in Greek (though he was an Italian by birth) a number of miscellaneous observations on the peculiarities of animals.
Hence his work, written in French, contains a far greater amount of original matter; and his personal observations made in many countries, from England to Egypt, enabled him to avoid most of the puerilities which disfigure other works of his own or of a preceding age.
Most of the birds he describes are characterized with accuracy sufficient to enable them to be identified, and his observations upon them have still some interest; but he was innocent of any methodical system, and was not exempt from most of the professional fallacies of his time.'
Of still wider interest are the accounts of Cook's three famous voyages, though unhappily much of the information gained by the naturalists who accompanied him on one or more of them seems to be irretrievably lost: the original observations of the elder Forster were not printed till 1844, and the valuable collection of zoological drawings made by the younger Forster still remains unpublished in the British Museum.
Observations on birds form the principal though by no means the whole theme of this book, which may be safely said to have done more to promote a love of ornithology in England than any other work that has been written, nay more than all the other works (except one next to be mentioned) put together.
The views of neither of these systematizers pleased Temminck, who in 1817 replied rather sharply to Vieillot in some Observations sur la classification methodique des oiseaux, a pamphlet published at Amsterdam, and prefixed to the second edition m i nd.
" Observations on the Natural Affinities that connect the Orders and Families of Birds," read before the Linnean Society of London in 1823, and afterwards published in its Transactions (xiv.
Further on (pp. 101, 102) we find observations :as to the number of ribs which are attached to each of the " annexes " - there being sometimes more of them articulated to the anterior than to the posterior, and in certain forms no ribs belonging to one, all being applied to the other.
Cuvier's first observations on the subject seem to have appeared in the Magazin encyclopedique for 3795 (ii.
As regards the struthious birds, they could not be likened to the duck, for in them at no age was there any indication of a single median centre of ossification, as Geoffroy had satisfied himself by his own observations made in Egypt many years before.
Cuvier seems to have acquiesced in the corrections of his views made by Geoffroy, and attempted no rejoinder; but the attentive and impartial student of the discussion will see that a good deal was really wanting to make the latter's reply effective, though, as events have shown, the former was hasty in the conclusions at which he arrived, having trusted too much to the first appearance of centres of ossification, for, had his observations in regard to other birds been carried on with the same attention to detail as in regard to the fowl, he would certainly have reached some very different results.
2 It would occupy more space than can here be allowed to give even the briefest abstract of the numerous observations which follow the statement of his theory and on which it professedly rests.
By way of examples of L'Herminier's observations, what he says of the two groups that had been the subject of Cuvier's and the elder Geoff roy's contest may be mentioned.
While furnishing - almost unconsciously, however - additional evidence for overthrowing that classification, there is, nevertheless, no attempt made to construct a better one; and the elaborate tables of dimensions, both absolute and proportional, suggestive as is the whole tendency of the author's observations, seem not to lead to any very practical result, though the systematist's need to look beneath the integument, even in parts that are so comparatively little hidden as birds' feet, is once more made beyond all question apparent.
Carrying on the work from the anatomical point at which he had left it, correcting his errors, and utilizing to the fullest extent the observations of Keyserling and Blasius, to which reference has already been made, Muller, though hampered by mistaken notions of which he seems to have been unable to rid himself, propounded a scheme for the classification of this group, the general truth of which has been admitted by all his successors, based, as the title of his treatise expressed, on the hitherto unknown different types of the vocal organs in the Passerines.
In the evolution of these laws Dr Cornay had most laudably studied, as his observations prove, a vast number of different types, and the upshot of his whole labours, though not very clearly stated, was such as to wholly subvert the classification at that time generally adopted by French ornithologists.
Blanchard published some Recherches sur les caracteres osteo- logiques des oiseaux appliquees a la classification naturelle de ces animaux, strongly urging the superiority of such characters over those drawn from the bill or feet, which, he remarks, though they may have sometimes given correct notions, have mostly led to mistakes, and, if observations of habits and food have sometimes afforded happy results, they have often been deceptive; so that, should more be wanted than to draw up a mere inventory of creation or trace the distinctive outline of each species, zoology without anatomy would remain a barren study.
Blanchard's animadversions on the employment of external characters, and on trusting to observations on the habits of birds, called forth a rejoinder from A.
Newton accepted the three subclasses of Huxley, Saururae, Ratitae and Carinitae, and made a series of cautious but critical observations on the minor divisions of the Carinates.
Oberlin published several manuals on archaeology and ancient geography, and made frequent excursions into different provinces of France to investigate antiquarian remains and study provincial dialects, the result appearing in Essai sur le patois Lorrain (1775); Dissertations sur les Minnesingers (1782-1789); and Observations concernant le patois et les mceurs des gens de la campagne (1791).
Swammerdam's Biblia naturae, issued in 1737, fifty years after its author's death, and containing observations on the structure and lifehistory of a series of insect types.
Hartley's Observations on Man and A.
His chief books on chemistry were six volumes of Experiments and Observations on different Kinds of Air, published between 1774 and 1786; Experiments on the Generation of Air from Water (1793) Experiments and Observations relating to the Analysis of Atmospheric Air, and Considerations on the Doctrine of Phlogiston established and that of the Composition of Water refuted (1800).
Except for Jerusalem, we have hardly any accurate meteorological observations; there the mean annual temperature is about 63° F.; in Beirut it is about 68°.
It has been pointed out that the cavity of the sacs corresponds in many particulars with the coelom of higher animals, and in Lebidinsky's observations on the development there is some support to the view that a coelom exists.
Some positive idea of his speculations may be derived from two of his observations: the one in which he notices that the parts of animals and plants are in general rounded in form, and the other dealing with the sense of hearing, which, in virtue of its limited receptivity, he compares ' If this be the proper translation of Aulus Gellius, Noctes Atticae, x.
The book, as it stands, is a collection of the discourses, observations and aphorisms of a sage called Koheleth, a term the precise meaning of which is not certain.
This general view is set forth in a number of particular observations.
But it is more probable that we have it in the form in which it grew up - a series of observations by the original author with interspersed editorial remarks; and it is better to preserve the existing form as giving a record of the process of growth.
Wallace notes the resemblance which he traced between the Malays and the Mongolians, and others have recorded similar observations as to the physical appearance of the two races.
He was especially interested in questions relating to the polarization of light, and his observations in this field, which gained him the Rumford medal of the Royal Society in 1840, laid the foundations of the polarimetric analysis of sugar.
The modern method of determining orbits from three or four observations was first developed by C. F.
Pickering also records Galen's observations (De Alim.
The first step in this direction was effected by the co-ordination of Gay Lussac's observations on the combining volumes of gases.
The solution came abOut by arranging the elements in the order of their atomic weights, tempering the arrangement with the results deduced from the theory of valencies and experimental observations.
Vauquelin in 1797, and Klaproth's investigation of tellurium in 1798, the next important series of observations was concerned with platinum and the allied metals.
Balard discovered chlorine monoxide in 1834, investigating its properties and reactions; and his observations on hypochlorous acid and hypochlorites led him to conclude that " bleaching-powder " or " chloride of lime " was a compound or mixture in equimolecular proportions of calcium chloride and hypochlorite, with a little calcium hydrate.
The purity of the compounds thus obtained is checked by spectroscopic observations.
These observations were generalized by J.
Dumas went no further that thus epitomizing his observations; and the next development was made in 1836 by Auguste Laurent, who, having amplified and discussed the applicability of Dumas' views, promulgated his Nucleus Theory, which assumed the existence of " original nuclei or radicals " (radicaux or noyaux fondamentaux) composed of carbon and hydrogen, and " derived nuclei " (radicaux or noyaux derives) formed from the original nuclei by the substitution of hydrogen or the addition of other elements, and having properties closely related to the primary nuclei.
These observations may be summarized by saying that the benzene nucleus is more negative in character than the aliphatic residues.
Torray's observations on nitromalonic aldehyde, N02 CH(CHO)2,formed by acting on mucobromic acid, probably CHO CBr:CBr:000H, with alkaline nitrites; this substance condenses with acetone to give p-nitrophenol, and forms [I.3.5]-trinitrobenzene when its sodium salt is decomposed with an acid.
More important are Kekule's observations that nitrous acid oxidizes pyrocatechol or [I.2]-dioxybenzene, and protocatechuic acid or [3.4]- dioxybenzoic acid to dioxytartaric acid, (C(OH) 2 COOH) 2 (Ann., 1883, 221, p. 230); and 0.
But, at the same time, the constants in the above relation are not identical with those in the corresponding relation empirically deduced from observations on fatty hydrocarbons; and we are therefore led to conclude that a benzene union is considerably more stable than an ethylene union.
Bamberger's observations on reduced quinoline derivatives point to the same conclusion, that condensed nuclei are not benzenoid, but possess an individual character, which breaks down, however, when the molecule is reduced.
We may, however, notice Heinrich Rose i and Friedrich WShler, 2 who, having worked up the results of their teacher Berzelius, and combined them with their own valuable observations, exerted great influence on the progress of analytical chemistry by publishing works which contained admirable accounts of the then known methods of analysis.
A physicist, however, does more than merely quantitatively determine specific properties of matter; he endeavours to establish mathematical laws which co-ordinate his observations, and in many cases the equations expressing such laws contain functions or terms which pertain solely to the chemical composition of matter.
According to the law of Avogadro, equal volumes of different gases under the same conditions of temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of molecules; therefore, since the density depends upon the number of molecules present in unit volume, it follows that for a comparison of the densities of gases, the determinations must be made under coincident conditions, or the observations reduced or re-computed for coincident conditions.
By actual observations it has been shown that ether, alcohol, many esters of the normal alcohols and fatty acids, benzene, and its halogen substitution products, have critical constants agreeing with this originally empirical law, due to Sydney Young and Thomas; acetic acid behaves abnormally, pointing to associated molecules at the critical point.
Their observations on the solid elements led to a remarkable generalization, now known as Dulong and Petit's law.
Nilson and Pettersson's observations on beryllium and germanium have shown that the atomic heats of these metals increase with rise of temperature, finally becoming constant with a value 5.6.
Neumann, who, in 1831, deduced from observations on many carbonates (calcium, magnesium, ferrous, zinc, barium and lead) that stoichiometric quantities (equimolecular weights) of compounds possess the same heat capacity.
Regnault confirmed Neumann's observations, and showed that the molecular heat depended on the number of atoms present, equiatomic compounds having the same molecular heat.
Kopp systematized the earlier observations, and, having made many others, he was able to show that the molecular heat was an additive property, i.e.
Laplace is due the theoretical proof that this function is independent of temperature and pressure, and apparent experimental confirmation was provided by Biot and Arago's, and by Dulong's observations on gases and vapours.
The subject was next taken up by Hans Landolt, who, from an immense number of observations, supported in a general way the formula of Gladstone and Dale.
This is shown by the following observations of Riihlmann on water, the light used being the D line of the spectrum: Eykmann's observations also support the approximate constancy of the Lorenz-Lorentz formula over wide temperature differences, but in some cases the deviation exceeds the errors of observation.
The superiority of the Lorenz-Lorentz formula over the Gladstone and Dale formula for changes of state is shown by the following observations of Briihl (Zeit.
The observations of Slavik (Zeit.
These observations admit of ready explanation in the following manner.
Isomorphism is most clearly discerned between elements of analogous chemical properties; and from the wide generality of such observations attempts have been made to form a classification of elements based on isomorphous replacements.
According to observations extending from 1706 to 1899, the mean day of the freezing of the Neva is November 25th, the earliest October 28th, the latest January 9th, and the next latest December 26th.
These materials generally include reconnaissance survey of small districts, route surveys and astronomical observations supplied by travellers, and information obtained from native sources.
Latitudes from the observations of travellers may generally be trusted, but longitudes should be accepted with caution; for so competent an observer as Captain Speke placed the capital of Uganda in longitude 32° 44' E., when its true longitude as determined by more trustworthy observations is 32° 26' E., an error of 18'.
On the other hand he unwisely rejected the results of the observations for latitude made by Pytheas in 326 B.C. at his native town, Massilia, and during a subsequent voyage to northern Europe.
He moreover accuses Eratosthenes, (whose determination of a degree he accepts without hesitation) with trusting too much to hypothesis in compiling his map instead of having recourse to latitudes and longitudes deduced by astronomical observations.
Such observations, however, were but rarely available at the time.
1719), and these were utilized in a Carte de France " as corrected from the observations of the members of the Academy of Sciences " (1666-1699), in a map of the world (1694) by D.
In biological chemistry he worked at the problems of animal heat and at the phenomena accompanying the growth of plants, and he also devoted much time to meteorological questions and observations.
He is best known by the five volumes of Medical Inquiries and Observations, which he brought out 'at intervals from 1789 to 1798 (two later editions revised by the author).
In 1776 it was moved in the House of Commons by David Hartley, son of the author of Observations on Man, that " the slave trade was contrary to the laws of God and the rights of men "; but this motion - the first which was made on the subject - failed.
and Mrs Peckham's minute observations on the habits and instincts of the solitary wasps.
Furthermore, the observations on American wasps render it probable that the earlier accounts of the instinctive behaviour of such wasps are exaggerated.
But the Peckhams' careful observations and experiments show that, with the American wasps, the victims stored in the nests are quite as often dead as alive; that those which are only paralysed live for a varying number of days, some more, some less; that wasp larvae thrive just as well on dead victims, sometimes dried up, sometimes undergoing decomposition, as on living and paralysed prey; that the nerve-centres are not stung with the supposed uniformity; and that in some cases paralysis, in others death, follows when the victims are stung in parts far removed from any nerve-centre.
Observations in temperature and salinity have only been taken during summer.
From 1881 till 1904 meteorological observations were taken from the summit of Ben Nevis, the observers at first making the ascent daily for the purpose.
Observations conducted during several months have shown that, whilst the mean temperature at Fort William was 57° F., at the summit of Ben Nevis it was 41° F., and that though the rainfall at the fort amounted to 24 in., it was as much as 43 in.
In a series of observations of winds about one half have been found to indicate a direction from north-east or east.
It was there stated that, on the most favourable estimate, the normal deficit of the Turkish treasury was T2,725,000, (upwards of £T,1,700,000 below the truth as now declared.) and the following observations were appended: " This budget represents the normal situation of Ottoman finance; it does not tally with the budget published in 1897, which was prepared with a special object in view, and was obviously full of inaccuracies, nor indeed does it agree with figures which could be officially obtained from the Porte.
It is thought better here, for the sake of clearness, to reserve observations on revenues specially assigned to the international administration of the Ottoman Public Debt, and on the expenditure of that administration, and to deal with that subject separately, while, however, including the total figures of both in the general figures in order to reproduce exactly the totals shown in the budget of the empire.
de Cabrera de Cordova, Felipe Segundo (Madrid, 1619); James Wadsworth, Further Observations of the English Spanish Pilgrime (London, 1629, 1630); Ilario Mazzorali de Cremona, Le Reali Grandezze del Escuriale (Bologna, 1648); De los Santos, Descripcion del real monasterio, &c. (Madrid, 1657); Andres Ximenes, Descripcion, &c. (Madrid, 1764); Y.
Palmen's memoirs Zur Morphologie des Tracheensystems (Leipzig, 1877) and Cber paarige Ausfuhrungsgange der Geschlechtsorgane bei Insekten (Helsingfors, 1884), contain important observations on may-flies.
The most important were: the Australian Antarctic expedition of 1911-4 under Sir Douglas Mawson; the Danish Oceanographical expeditions in the Mediterranean and adjacent seas of 1908-10; a short cruise made by Sir John Murray and Dr. Johan Hjort in the Norwegian Fishery exploring vessel " Michael Sars " in 1910, the general results of which were published as The Depths of the Ocean (1912) by the leaders of the expedition; and a short special cruise made by the " Scotia " in 1913 (after the loss of the " Titanic ") under the leadership of Dr. Matthews, which made observations upon the distribution of ice in the North Atlantic.
Given that such observations at the surface of the sea, at intermediate levels and at the bottom are sufficiently numerous and are of a high degree of precision, general conclusions as to the movements of the ocean may be deduced from established theorems in hydrodynamics.
At the same time temperature observations are made.
This is really the case, for all observations show that the Antarctic and Arctic ice-bound seas are enormously rich in diatom life when compared with temperate and tropical regions: the great Antarctic zone of sea-bottom deposit, in which the skeletons of diatoms predominate, covers some ten millions of square miles.
These were met by Some Observations, &c., in a second letter to R.
Climatological Atlas of the Russian Empire, by the Physical Observatory (St Petersburg, 1900), gives data and observations covering the period 1849-1899.
This observatory, the foundations of which were fixed in the snow that appears to cover the summit to a depth of ten metres, was built in September 1893, and Janssen, in spite of his sixty-nine years, made the ascent and spent four days taking observations.
1074) to institute astronomical observations on a larger scale, and to aid him in his great enterprise of a thorough reform of the calendar.
Mention should also be made of a third method which has hardly yet been tried, namely, that of endeavouring to isolate one of the three "directions" by the method of suggestion or even hypnotic trance observations.
Transits of Venus and observations of Deterrnina- various kinds on Mars are all to be included in this tion.
No purely astronomical enterprise was ever carried out on so Transits of P large a scale or at so great an expenditure of money and labour as was devoted to the observations of these transits, and for several years before their occurrence the astronomers of every leading nation were busy in discussing methods of observation and working out the multifarious details necessary to their successful application.
These four nations sent out well-equipped expeditions to various quarters of the globe, both in 1874 and 1882, to make the required observations; but when the results were discussed they were found to be extremely unsatisfactory.
It had been supposed that, with the greatly improved telescopes of modern times, contact observations could be made with much greater precision than in 1761 and 1769, yet, for some reason which it is not easy to explain completely, the modern observations were but little better than the older ones.
The photographs led to no more definite result than the observations of contacts, except perhaps those taken by the Americans, who had adopted a more complete system than the Europeans; but even these were by no means satisfactory.
The combined result from both these methods is 8.857", while the combination of all the contact observations made by all the parties gave the much smaller result, 8.794".
the effect of parallax could be obtained as well as by observing from two different stations; in fact the rotation of the earth carried the observer himself round a parallel of latitude, so that the comparison of his own morning and evening observations could be used as if they had been made at different stations.
The failure of the method based on transits of Venus led to an international effort carried out on the initiative of Sir David Gill to measure the parallax by observations on those minor planets which approach nearest the earth.
The scheme of observations was organized on an extended scale.
The drawback of greater distance was, however, in Gill's opinion, more than compensated by the accuracy with which the observations could be made.
From the meridian observations of the same planets made for the purpose of controlling the elements of motion of the planets Auwers found it = 8.806".
0067" 40.0025" (Perrine); the micrometric observations gave the value 8.806"±0 004 (Hinks).1 II.
Serious doubt was first cast upon its accuracy by the observations of Nyren with the same instrument during the years 1880-1882, but on a much larger number of stars.
His result, from his observations alone, was 20.52"; and taking into account the other Puikowa results, he concluded the most probable value to be 20.492".
In 1895 Chandler, from a general discussion of all the observations, derived the value of 20.50".
Since then, two elaborate series of observations made with the zenith telescope for the purpose of determining the variation of latitude and the constant of aberration have been carried on by Professor C. L.
Meridian observations of the moon have been heretofore made by observing the transit of its illuminated limb.
In each case the results of the observations may be systematically in error, not only from the uncertain diameter of the moon, but in a still greater degree from the varying effect of irradiation and the personal equation of the observers.
In a refined form this method is often employed for measuring the intensity of a magnetic field at a given place, just as the intensity of gravity at different parts of the earth is deduced from observations of the rate at which a pendulum of known length vibrates.
Thomson (afterwards Lord Kelvin) in 1847, as the result of a mathematical investigation undertaken to explain Faraday's experimental observations.
All these observations may be accounted for by the fact first recognized by W.
These observations have an important bearing upon the molecular theory of magnetism, which will be referred to later.
Two sets of observations are taken, one when the blocks are fixed at the ends of the bars, and another when they are nearer together, the clear length of the bars.
Two groups of observations were recorded, one giving the induction in the inner coil and the other that in the outer coil.
Magnetization In Very Weak Fields Some interesting, observations have been made of the effects produced by very small magnetic forces.
1,300 [[[Dimensions And Magnetization]] The observations of Baur and Rayleigh have been confirmed and discussed by (amongst others) W.
His observations were for the most part confirmed by a number of subsequent workers, notably by A.
According to Joule's observations, the length of a bar of iron or soft steel was increased by magnetization, the elongation being proportional up to a certain point to the square of the intensity of magnetization; but when the " saturation point " was approached the elongation was less than this law would require, and a stage was finally reached at which further increase of the magnetizing force produced little or no effect upon the length.
and the results confirmed by other workers, some of whom have added fresh observations.
Taylor Jones showed in 1897 that only a small proportion of the contraction exhibited by a nickel wire when magnetized could be accounted for on Kirchhoff's theory from the observed effects of pulling stress upon magnetization; and in a more extended series of observations Nagaoka and Honda found wide quantitative divergences between the results of experiment and calculation, though in nearly all cases there was agreement as to quality.
Thomson, who, from the results of Bidwell's observations on the magnetic deformation of cobalt, was led to expect that that metal would exhibit a reversal opposite in character to the effect observed in iron.
It would hardly be safe to generalize from these observations; the effects may possibly be dependent upon the physical condition of the metals.
These observations have been verified and extended by Knott, whose researches have brought to light a large number of additional facts, all of which are in perfect harmony with Maxwell's explanation of the twist.
These last observations are, however, regarded as uncertain.
Morris's results for iron, and gives some additional observations for steel, nickel and cobalt.
Observations were also made of the changes of permeability which took place as the temperature of the sample slowly rose from - 186° to 15°, the magnetizing force being kept constant throughout an experiment.
Attempts have been made to explain these various effects by the electron theory.4 Thermo-electric Quality.-The earliest observations of the effect of magnetization upon thermo-electric power were those of W.
In the first experiments it was calculated from observations of the mutual induction of two conducting circuits in air and in the liquid; the results for oxygen at-182° C. were I 00287, 228 X IO-6.
Similar observations were made by Laurie (17) in Lankester's laboratory (1890) with regard to the early condition of the coxal gland of Scorpio, and by Bertkau (41) as to that of the spider Atypus.
In a year and a half the cubs attain their full development; and from observations on captive specimens it appears that the duration of life ought to extend to some thirteen or fourteen years.
An appeal made by Miller for observations on the development of the Caeciliae, and of those Amphibia which retain gills or gill-clefts throughout life, has unfortunately yielded no fruits.
The mean annual temperature at Goyaz (city), according to a limited number of observations, is about 77°.
Schunwald, &c.); Geza Gardonyi (several novels containing the adventures, observations, &c., of Mr Gabriel Gore; A kekszemii Davidkdne, " Blue-eyed Mrs Davidka "; A Kdtsa, scenes from gipsy life); Charles Murai (Vig tortenetek, " Jolly Stories "; Bandi, a collection of short tales); Stephen Barsony (Csend, " Silence "; A Kameleon-ledny, " The Chamaeleon Girl, and other Stories "; Erd3n-mez5n, " In Wood and Field ").
It may be added that he first examined the conditions of stability of the system formed by Saturn's rings, pointed out the necessity for their rotation, and fixed for it a period (Io h 33 m) virtually identical with that established by the observations of Herschel; that he detected the existence in the solar system of an invariable plane such that the sum of the products of the planetary masses by the projections upon it of the areas described by their radii vectores in a given time is a maximum; and made notable advances in the theory of astronomical refraction (Mec. cel.
Under the influence of the touchstone of strict inquiry set on foot by the Royal Society, the marvels of witchcraft, sympathetic powders and other relics of medieval superstition disappeared like a mist before the sun, whilst accurate observations and demonstrations of a host of new wonders accumulated, amongst which were numerous contributions to the anatomy of animals, and none perhaps more noteworthy than the observations, made by the aid of microscopes constructed by himself, of Leeuwenhoek, the Dutch naturalist (1683), some of whose instruments were presented by him to the society.
It is one of Darwin's great merits to have made use of these observations and to have formulated their results to a large extent as the laws of variation and heredity.
" Erroneous observations are in the highest degree injurious to the progress of science, since they often persist for a long time.
His true greatness can only be estimated by a consideration of the fact that he was a great teacher not only of human and comparative anatomy and zoology but also of physiology, and that nearly all the most distinguished German zoologists and physiologists of the period 1850 to 1870 were his pupils and acknowledged his leadership. The most striking feature about Johann Miller's work, apart from the comprehensiveness of his point of view, in which he added to the anatomical and morphological ideas of Cuvier a consideration of physiology, embryology and microscopic structure, was the extraordinary accuracy, facility and completeness of his recorded observations.
Mendel's observations constitute an ingenious attempt to throw light on the matter, and in the opinion of some biologists have led to the discovery of an important principle.
It has been maintained that this tendency to a severance of the hybrid stock into its components must favour the persistence of a new character of large volume suddenly appearing in a stock, and the observations of Mendel have been held to favour in this way the views of those who hold that the variations upon which natural selection has acted in the production of new species are not small variations but large and " discontinuous."
It is true that in 1823 Fraunhofer, inspired by his observations upon gratings, had very nearly hit the mark.'
Interesting observations upon particles, ultra-microscopic in the above sense, have been recorded by H.
In another respect the observations of Fraunhofer appear at first sight to be in disaccord with theory; for his measures of the diameters of the red rings, visible when white light was employed, correspond with the law applicable to dark rings, and not to the different law applicable to the luminous maxima.
Verdet's own observations, conducted with great care, fully confirm this view, and exhibit a complete agreement with theory.
The principle gives an instantaneous solution of the question of the ultimate optical efficienc y in the method of " mirror-reading," as commonly practised in various physical observations.
The above observations relate to transmitted light, but Fraunhofer extended his inquiry to the light reflected.
The position of the middle of the bright band representative of a mathematical line can be fixed with a spider-line micrometer within a small fraction of the width of the band, just as the accuracy of astronomical observations far transcends the separating power of the instrument.
In spite of the many improvements introduced by Rowland and of the care with which his observations were made, recent workers have come to the conclusion that .errors of unexpected amount have crept into his measurements of wave-lengths, and there is even a disposition to discard the grating altogether for fundamental work in favour of the so-called " interference methods," as developed by A.
26), who was perhaps the first of the Greeks to make observations on the Jews.
Primary, secondary and spurious bows were formed, and their radii measured; a comparison of these observations exhibited agreement with Airy's analytical values.
These observations have been verified in the rabbit, mouse, fowl, guinea-pig and cat by Davidsohn, occasionally in the dog by Lubarsch; and confirmatory observations have also been made by Czerny and Maximoff.
The most valuable intellectual possession was a large mass of recorded observations in individual cases and epidemics of disease.
Whether these observations were systematic or individual, and how they were recorded, are points of which we are quite ignorant, as the theory that the votive tablets in the temples supplied such materials must be abandoned.
The first of these works is the Compendium medicinae, also called Laurea or Rosa anglicana, of Gilbert (Gilbertus Anglicus, about 1290), said to contain good observations on leprosy.
He shared and defended many of Sydenham's principles, and in the few medical observations he has left shows himself to be even more thorough-going than the "English Hippocrates."
His works contain, however, many original experiments, and excellent practical observations.
The Swiss physician, Theophile Bonet (1620-1689) had published his Sepulcretum in 1679; and observations of post mortem appearances had been made by Montanus, P. Tulp, Raymond Vieussens, A.M.
In order to select remedies which should fulfil the indication of producing symptoms like those of the disease, Hahnemann made many observations of the action of drugs on healthy persons.
His work, entitled Observations on the Diseases of an Army, was translated into many European languages and became the standard authority on the subject.
Among the most ardent of his followers was Francois Joseph Victor Broussais (1772-1838), whose theoretical views, partly founded on those of Brown and partly on the so-called vitalist school of Theophile Bordeu (1722-1776) and Paul Joseph Barthez (1734-1806), differed from these essentially in being avowedly based on anatomical observations.
Starting from these men arose a school of physicians who endeavoured to give to the study of symptoms the same precision as belonged to anatomical observations, and by the combination of both methods made a new era in clinical medicine.
No aid to the trained eye was necessary for such observations, and for many other such; yet, if we take Sir Thomas Watson (1792-1882) as a modern Sydenham, we may find in his lectures no suspicion that there may be a palsy of muscular co-ordination apart from deprivation of strength.
The comparison of observations in various climates and peoples has had some weight; while in the better knowledge of their causes their treatment has found permanent advantage.
On the one hand he worked out the general theory of the magnetic circuit in the dynamo (in conjunction with his brother Edward), and the theory of alternating currents, and conducted a long series of observations on the phenomena attending magnetization in iron, nickel and the curious alloys of the two which can exist both in a magnetic and non-magnetic state at the same temperature.
There is a set of Annual Bills from 1658 (with the exception of the years 1756 to 1764) in the library of the British Museum.3 These bills were not analysed and general results obtained from them until 1662, when Captain John Graunt first published his valuable Natural and Political Observations upon the Bills of 1 In a valuable paper on " The Population of Old London" in Blackwood's Magazine for April 1891.
Observations in different parts of the world have shown that the increase of temperature in depth varies: in most localities the rise being at the rate of one degree for 50 to 100 feet of depth; while in the deep mines of Michigan and the Rand, an increase as low as one degree for each 200 ft.
Owing to the physical changes produced in the material exposed prolonged observations of temperature are impossible.
Little is known of the ministry of Angad except that he committed to writing much of what he had heard about Guru Nanak as well as some devotional observations of his own, which were afterwards incorporated in the Granth.
In 1776 appeared his (anonymous) pamphlet on the American revolution in opposition to Dr Price's Observations on the Nature of Civil Liberty, in which he sympathized with the views of the British legislature.
It is probable that the first collection of astronomical observations and terrestrial omens was made for a library established by Sargon.
The stars had been numbered and named at an early date, and we possess tables of lunar longitudes and observations of the phases of Venus.
Observations made at the most diverse parts of the globe, and the general distribution area of the disease, show that mere questions of elevation, or even configuration of the ground, have little or no influence.
On the other hand, the same observations go to show that the disease is met with oftener on the more recent formations than the older, and this fact, so far as concerns the physical characters of the soil, is identical with the questions of permeability to air and water.
Besides giving to the world the first accurate description of the holy city and the Haj ceremonies, he was the first to fix the position of Mecca by astronomical observations, and to describe the physical character of its surroundings.
Huber's journal, published after his death from his original notes, contains a mass of topographical and archaeological detail of the greatest scientific value: his routes and observations form, in fact, the first and only scientific data for the construction of the map of northern Arabia.
The general level of the Nafud was found by Huber's observations to be about 3000 ft.
From observations made at Sana by Manzoni, Defiers and Glaser, the mean temperature for the year of that city at an altitude of 7300 ft.
His observations led him to the view that a glacier is an imperfect fluid or a viscous body which is urged down slopes of a certain inclination by the mutual pressure of its parts, and involved him in some controversy with Tyndall and others both as to priority and to scientific principle.
Forbes was also interested in geology, and published memoirs on the thermal springs of the Pyrenees, on the extinct volcanoes of the Vivarais (Ardeche), on the geology of the Cuchullin and Eildon hills, &c. In addition to about 150 scientific papers, he wrote Travels through the Alps of Savoy and Other Parts of the Pennine Chain, with Observations on the Phenomena of Glaciers (1843); Norway and its Glaciers (1853); Occasional Papers on the Theory of Glaciers (1859); A Tour of Mont Blanc and Monte Rosa (1855).
By subsequent journeys in Hungary, Transylvania, Italy, Sicily, France and Germany he extended his knowledge of volcanic phenomena; and in 1826 the results of his observations were given in a work entitled A Description of Active and Extinct Volcanos (2nd ed., 1848).
The result of this would be seen in the motions of the planets around the sun; but the most refined observations show no such effect.
Astronomical observations extend over too brief a period of time to show any attraction between different stars except those in each other's neighbourhood.
From an investigation of all the observations upon Mercury and the other three interior planets, Simon Newcomb found it almost out of the question that any such mass of matter could exist without changing either the figure of the sun itself or the motion of the planes of the orbits of either Mercury or Venus.
The qualification " almost " is necessary because so complex a system of actions comes into play, and accurate observations have extended through so short a period, that the proof cannot be regarded as absolute.
But the combination of observations and theory on which this is based is not sufficient fully to establish so slight a motion.
He was the first correctly to solve Aristotle's problem, stated above, and to apply it practically to solar observations in a darkened room (Cosmographia, 1 535).
Moestlin and his pupil Kepler - the latter applying it in 1607 to the observation of a transit of Mercury - also by Johann Fabricius, in 1611, for the first observations of sun-spots.
Nothing is said about the use of a lens or of solar observations.
He notes the convenience of the method for solar observations and its previous use by some of the observers already mentioned, as well as its advantages for easily and accurately copying on an enlarged or reduced scale, especially for chorographical or topographical documents.
The first to take up the camera obscura after Porta was Kepler, who used it in the old way for solar observations in 1600, and in his Ad Vitellionem Paralipomena (1604) discusses the early problems of the passages of light through small apertures, and the rationale of the simple dark chamber.
In 1611 Johann Fabricius published his observations of sun-spots and describes how he and his father fell back upon the old method of projecting the sun's image in a darkened room, finding that they could observe the spots just as well as with the telescope.
It was the brilliant exhibition in November 1833 that, in modern times particularly, attracted earnest students to investigate the subject of meteors generally, and to make systematic observations of their apparitions on ordinary nights of the year.
More than a thousand observations in duplicate have been made of the paths of identical meteors seen from two stations many miles apart.
These pairs of observations have shown a parallax from which the elevation of the objects above the earth, the lengths and directions of their courses, &c. could be computed.
The real velocities derived from good observations are rarely, if ever, under 7 or 8 m.
These are not all the centres of separate systems, however: many of the positions being multiple observations of the same showers.
Crowther, who supplemented the often quoted observations of Dr George Bennett upon the habits of these animals in confinement, states: "They soon become very tame in captivity; in a few days the young ones appeared to recognize a call, swimming rapidly to the hand paddling the water; and it is curious to see their attempts to procure a worm enclosed in the hand, which they greedily take when offered to them.
palpalis exhibits an especial fondness for water and haunts more or less dense cover at the water's edge, recent observations in German East Africa show that G.
It has been abundantly demonstrated by careful observations that the east coasts of Japan are slowly rising.
At the most important stations observations are taken everyhour; at the less important, six observations daily; and at the least important, three observations.
At first an apothecary, he turned his attention to astronomy, and in 1826 commenced his observations on sun-spots.
that at every tenth year the number of spots reached a maximum), but it met with scant approval, and he continued his observations, which were afterwards utilized in 1851 by Humboldt in the third volume of his Kosmos.
He was the first to employ mercury for the air-pump, and devised a method of determining longitude at sea by observations of the moon among the stars.
In the Observations sur les ecrits modernes (1735-1743) Desfontaines held the gates of Philistia for eight years against the Encyclopaedists, and even the redoubtable Voltaire himself.
Among the contributors of Freron was another manufacturer of criticism, the abbe de la Porte, who, having quarrelled with his confrere, founded Observations sur la litterature moderne (1749-1752) and L'Observateur litteraire (1758-1761).
The Gundlingiana of the latter person, published at Halle (1715-1732), and written partly in Latin and partly in German by the editor, contained a miscellaneous collection of juridical, historical and theological observations and dissertations.
In addition, taking advantage of the accuracy with which the bolometer can determine the position of a source of heat by which it is affected, he mapped out in this infra-red spectrum over 700 dark lines or bands resembling the Fraunhofer lines of the visible spectrum, with a probable accuracy equal to that of refined astronomical observations.
But when we come to study his observations on the natural history of disease as presented in the living subject, we recognize at once the presence of a great clinical physician.
p. 299-this paper describes the cone condenser and methods used; " Further Observations on the Dielectric Constants of Frozen Electrolytes at and above the Temperature of Liquid Air," id.
167 [ii.], p. 599, containing many valuable observations on the residual charge of Leyden jars; W.
Perry, " A Preliminary Account of the Reduction of Observations on Strained Material, Leyden Jars and Voltameters," Proc. Roy.
Shakespear, "Observations regarding Bradheks and Thegs" (both treatises in vol.
Villele, who before the promulgation of the charter had written some Observations sur le projet de constitution opposing it, as too democratic in character, naturally took his place on the extreme right with the ultra-royalists.
There has also been a certain amount of geographical sketching combined with trigonometrical observations; and there are the route surveys of native explorers.
Journal of a Tour through North Wales and part of Shropshire; with observations in Mineralogy and other branches of Natural History (London, 1797); A Manual of Mineralogy (1814; ed.
(Lemgo, 1712), a selection from his papers giving results of his invaluable observations in Georgia, Persia and Japan.
It is believed to have been in use from the very time of its origin; for the observations of eclipses which were collected in Chaldaea by Callisthenes, the general of Alexander, and transmitted by him to Aristotle, were for the greater part referred to the beginning of the reign of Nabonassar, founder of the kingdom of the Babylonians.
His work also included observations on putrefaction and fermentation, which he spoke of as sisters, on the nature of salts, and on the preparation of pure metals.
This is corroborated by a Babylonian tablet with observations of the moon (Brit.
Valuable observations on the habits of these insects are due to J.
Considering the accuracy of these measures (an accuracy far surpassing that of any other contemporary observations), it is somewhat surprising that this form of micrometer was never systematically used in any sustained or important astronomical researches, although a number of instruments of the kind were made by Dollond.
In the discussion of these observations (Konigsberger Beobacht, Abt.
3 Manuel Johnson, M.A., Radcliffe observer, Astronomical Observations made at the Radcliffe Observatory, Oxford, in the Year 1850, Introduction, p. iii.
and Dec. of the object to be observed, the scale divisions to be pointed upon, and thus, in measures of distance, with the aid of the chronograph and printing micrometer, enable the observer to adjust the instrument for observation and obtain a record of his observations without the aid of a hand-lamp or the necessity to make any records in his notebook.
In observations of position angle one of the two tablets 81 can be used to record the readings.
A series of observations can be easily and more accurately accomplished with the Cape heliometer in half an hour; with the Oxford heliometer it would occupy 2 hours, and with the 4-in.
Heliometer observations of distance in their most refined sense cannot be considered absolute measures of angles.
Of course, for many purposes, mean conditions may be adopted and mean scale-values be found which are applicable with considerable pre cision to small angles or to comparatively crude observations of large distances; but the highest refinement is lost unless means are provided for determining the scale-value for each observer at each epoch of observation.
2 It is somewhat surprising that, after Kaiser's investigations, observers should continue, as many have done, to discuss their observations with this instrument as if the screw-value were constant for all angles.
ii., and Greenwich Observations (1840).
In recent times, especially since the rapid increase in the study of the exact sciences during the 19th century, observations at sea with accurate instruments have become common, and the ships' logs of to-day are provided with headings for entering daily observations of the phenomena of the seasurface.
By 1904 more than 6800 of these meteorological logs with 7,000,000 observations had been accumulated by the Meteorological Office in London; 20,000 with io,600,000 observations by the German Marine Observatory at Hamburg; 4700 with 3,300,000 observations by the Central Institute of the Netherlands at de Bilt near Utrecht.
While the sailors' logs supply the greater part of the scientific evidence available for the study of the surface phenomena of the ocean, they have been supplemented by the records of numerous scientific expeditions and latterly by publications embodying systematic observations on a permanent basis.
Valuable observations were made in oceanography during the expeditions of Captain James Cook and the polar explorers, especially those of Sir John Ross in the north and Sir James Ross in the south, but the voyage of H.M.S.
During Nansen's expedition on the " Fram " in 1894-1895, Scott Hansen made observations with a Sterneck's half-seconds pendulum on the ice where the sea was more than 1600 fathoms deep and found only an insignificant deviation from the number of swings corresponding to a normal ellipsoid.
31a level; thus fifteen years' observations at Aden show a maximum the first chart of the depths of the Atlantic between 52° N.
- The hand-lead attached to a line with samples of the deposits, and also observations of temperature divided into fathoms was a well-known aid to navigation even and salinity in different depths, as well as dredgings for the in high antiquity, and its use is mentioned in Herodotus (ii.
a line detached a float on striking the bottom, and it was proposed " Gazelle " conducted observations in the South Atlantic, Indian to calculate the depth by the time required for the float to reand South Pacific Oceans; and the U.S.S.
The existence of the latter, which extends to the African continent, was announced by Sir Wyville Thomson in 1876 as a result of his discussion of the deep-sea temperature observations of the " Challenger " expedition, though the fact was not confirmed by soundings until many years later.
Unfortunately no observations of evaporation from the surface of the open sea have been made and very few comparisons of the evaporation of salt and fresh water are on record.
The fact that sea-water does evaporate more slowly than fresh water has been proved by the observations of Mazelle at Triest and of Okado in Azino (Japan).
From isolated observations of J.
Mill has shown that in the North Sea off the Firth of Forth the average depth of visibility of a disk in the winter half-year was 4; fathoms and in the summer half-year 62 fathoms, and, although the greater frequency of rough weather in winter might tend to obscure the effect, individual observations made it plain that the angle of the sun was the main factor in increasing the depth to which the disk remained visible.
There are some observations on the transparency of sea-water of an entirely different character.
Schott gives the following as the result of measurements of transparency by means of a white disk at 23 stations in the open ocean, where quantitative observations of the plankton under i square metre of surface were made at the same time.
Observations with the xanthometer have not hitherto been numerous, but it appears that the purest blue (o--I on Forel's scale) is found in the Sargasso Sea, in the North Atlantic and in similarly situated tropical or subtropical regions in the Indian and Pacific Oceans.
a temperature of 40.1 ° F., the carbonic acid amounts to 51 J5 cc. per litre, and the oxygen only to 2.19 cc. Vegetable plankton in sunlight can reverse this process, assimilating the carbon of the carbonic acid and restoring the oxygen to solution, as was proved by Martin Knudsen and Ostenfeld in the case of diatoms. Little is known as yet of the distribution of carbonic acid in the oceans, but the amount present seems to increase with the salinity as shown by the four observations quoted: Water from Gulf of Finland of 3.2 per mille salinity =17.2 cc. C02 Western Baltic of 14.2 North Atlantic of .0, , 49'0 Eastern Mediter ranean of 39.o, , =53'0, , Unfortunately the very numerous determinations of carbonic acid made by J.
Buchanan from the " Challenger " observations.
The observations made on the " Challenger " and " Gazelle," though enabling some perfectly sound general conclusions to be drawn, require to be supplemented.
Since 1870 thermometers on this principle have been in use for regular observations at German coast and light-ship stations.
Following the suggestion of Cavendish, Irving made observations of deep temperature on Phipps's Spitsbergen voyage of 1773 with a valved water-bottle, insulated by non-conducting material.
Buchan's discussion of the two-hourly observations on the " Challenger " the total range between the daily maximum and minimum in the warmer seas is between o 7° and o 8° F., and for the colder seas still less (0.2° F.), compared with 3.2° F.
Aime showed that on a calm bright day in the Mediterranean the temperature rose o 1° C. between the early morning and noon at a depth of about 12 fathoms. Luksch deduced a much greater penetration of solar warmth from the comparison of observations at different hours at neighbouring stations in the eastern Mediterranean, but his methods were not exact enough to give confidence in the result.
We are still ignorant of the depth to.which the annual temperature wave penetrates in the open ocean, but observations in the Mediterranean enable us to form some opinion on the matter.
The observations of Aime in 1845 and of Semmola in the Gulf of Naples in 1881 show that the surface water in winter cools until the whole mass of water from the surface to the bottom, in 1600 fathoms or more, assumes the same temperature.
As the Arctic Basin is shut off from the North Atlantic by ridges rising to within 300 fathoms of the surface and from the Pacific by the shallow shelf of the Bering Sea, and as the ice-laden East Greenland and Labrador currents consist of fresh surface water which cannot appreciably influence the underlying mass, the Arctic region has no practical effect upon the bottom temperature of the three great oceans, which is entirely dominated by the influence of the Antarctic. The existence of deep-lying and extensive rises or ridges in high southern latitudes has been indicated by the deep-sea temperature observations of Antarctic expeditions.
Dickson's discussion of the observations of Wolfenden in the little sailing yacht " Silver Belle."
Although observations on marine currents were made near land or between islands even in antiquity, accurate observations on the high seas have only been possible since chronometers furnished a practicable method of determining longitude, i.e.
Direct observations of currents in the open sea are difficult, and even when the ship is anchored the veering and rolling of the vessel produce disturbances that greatly affect the result.
Benjamin Franklin in 1775 and Charles Blagden in 1781, by means of numerous observations of temperature made on board the packets plying on the Atlantic passage, determined the boundaries of these two currents and their seasonal variations with considerable precision.
Bjerknes have been usefully applied in many cases, but they cannot take the place of direct observations of currents and of the fundamental processes and conditions underlying them.
Richard, L'Oceanographie (Paris, 1907); List of Oceanic Depths and Serial Temperature Observations, received at the Admiralty in the year 1888 (et seq.) from H.M.
Observations were made on a ring in a pine-wood for a period of nine years, and it was calculated that it increased from centre to circumference about 82 in.
15), but we possess it entire with various concluding observations in several Greek MSS., and also in a Latin translation.
Like Horace he largely illustrated his own observations by personal anecdotes and fables.
Experiments and Observations on Electricity (London, 1769) was translated into French by Barbeu Dubourg (Paris, 1773); Vaughan attempted a more complete edition, Political, Miscellaneous and Philosophical Pieces (London, 1 779); an edition in three volumes appeared after Franklin's death (London, 1806); what seemed the authentic Works, as it was under the care of Temple Franklin, was published at London (6 vols., 1817-1819; 3 vols., 1818) and with some additional matter at Philadelphia (6 vols., 1818).
During his tenure of the latter chair he distinguished himself by observations on the lymphatics.
His chapter on the flea, in which he not only describes its structure, but traces out the whole history of its metamorphoses from its first emergence from the egg, is full of interest - not so much for the exactness of his observations, as for its incidental revelation of the extraordinary ignorance then prevalent in regard to the origin and propagation of "this minute and despised creature," which some asserted to be produced from sand, others from dust, others from the dung of pigeons, and others from urine, but which he showed to be "endowed with as great perfection in its kind as any large animal," and proved to breed in the regular way of winged insects.
His chief works are: Astronomical History of Observations of Heavenly Motions and Appearances (1634); Ecliptica prognostica (1634); Controversy with Longomontanus concerning the Quadrature of the Circle (1646?); An Idea of the Mathematics, 12m0 (1650); A Table of Ten Thousand Square Numbers (fol.; 1672).
Munro, Some Observations on the Persian Wars (in various vols.
Ctesibius of Alexandria, Hero and others, founded the science of pneumatics on observations on the physical properties of air.
The constancy of composition shown by repeated analyses of atmospheric air led to the view that it was a chemical compound of nitrogen and oxygen; but there was no experimental confirmation of this idea, and all observations tended to the view that it is simply a mechanical mixture.
The establishment of a system of magnetic observatories in various parts of British territory all over the globe was accomplished mainly on his representations; and a great part of his life was devoted to their direction, and to the reduction and discussion of the observations.
Nearly every one of the modern instruments used for the observations of physical astronomy is a part of the perfected astrolabe.
Meteorological statistics are collected at Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch, and Dunedin and eight other stations; and observations of rainfall, temperature, and wind-directions are received from eighteen stations of the second class.
The results of his observations during his journey through England and Scotland appeared in a tract De l'Angleterre et des Anglais; and his conversations with distinguished men in those countries contributed to greater correctness in the exposition of principles in the third edition of the Traite, which appeared in 1817.
On the side of the philosophy of science his observations are usually commonplace or superficial.
Syriam (1594); P. Belon, De admirabili operum antiquorum praestantia (1553); and Observations, &c. (1555) (Before earthquake of 1759) R.
It is convenient to give this calculation before proceeding to describe the experimental determination of the velocity in air, in other gases and in water, since the calculation serves to some extent as a guide in conducting and interpreting the observations.
Trans., 1708) made a series of observations, noting the time taken by the report of a cannon.
But when the wind is steady its effect may be eliminated by " reciprocal " observations, that is, by observations of the time of passage of sound in each direction over the measured distance..
There were also two intermediate stations at which observations were made.
Regnault in the years 1862 to 1866 on the velocity of sound in open air, in air in pipes and in various other gases in pipes, he sought to eliminate personal equaticn by dispensing with the human element in the observations, using electric receivers as observers.
19) made observations with a tube o.
Thus Helmholtz from certain observations (Sound, ii.
America, he made observations on the geology, published by the Geological Society in 1860.
An arbitrator (and the following observations apply mutatis mutandis to an umpire after he has entered on his duties) has power to administer oaths to, or take the affirmations of, the parties and their witnesses; and any person who wilfully and corruptly gives false evidence before him may be prosecuted and punished for perjury (Arbitration Act 1889, sched.
His name is chiefly known for his mineralogical observations and for his work on soluble glass.
As to the details, the following observations 2 may be made for the last phase of the empire which expired in 1918.
He established an astronomical observatory at Paramatta in 1822, and the Brisbane Catalogue, which was printed in 1835 and contained 7385 stars, was the result of observations made there in 1822-1826.
Important magnetic observations were begun at Makerstoun in 1841, and the results gained him in 1848 the Keith prize of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, in whose Transactions they were published.
Early in life he published observations on the Tertiary and Post-Tertiary deposits in the Thames valley, and on fossil plants and various invertebrata, in the Magazine of Natural History, the Annals of Nat.
The building was finished in 1832, and the instruments were ready for work in 1835, from which date the observations were published in 4to volumes (Annales de l'Observatoire Royal de Bruxelles), but Quetelet chiefly devoted himself to meteorology and statistics.
He made a great number of observations of stars with proper motion.
He organised extensive magnetical and meteorological observations, and in 1839 he started regular observations of the periodical phenomena of vegetation, especially the flowering of plants.
Only a few general observations can be made here.
Meyer's observations, they attain a length of from 17 to 18 mm.
sur la fatale catastrophe des infortunes Pilatre de Rozier et Romain, les aeronautes et l'aerostation (1785); Observations de M.
There he busied himself with philology, and published notably some works on the Basque language: Grammaire basque, Remarques sur plusieurs assertions concernant la langue basque (1876), Observations sur le basque Fontarabie (1878).
Alston's observations were founded on what occurred in certain unisexual plants, such as Mercurialis, Spinach, Hemp, Hop and Bryony.
The interesting observations of Morland, already quoted, seem to have been neglected, and no one attempted to follow in the path which he had pointed out.
The observations of Darwin as to the fertilization of orchids, Primula, Linum and Lythrum, and other plants, and the part which insects take in this function, gave an explanation of the observations of Christian Konrad Sprengel, made at the close of the 18th century, and opened up a new phase in the study of botany, which has been followed by Hermann Miller, Federico Delphic) and others, and more recently by Paul Knuth.
In his Statical Essays (1727) he gave an account of numerous experiments and observations which he had made on the nutrition of plants and the movement of sap in them.
Early in the 19th century Andrew Knight showed by experiment that the vertical growth of stems and roots is due to the influence of gravitation, and made other observations on the relation between the position assumed by plant organs and external directive forces, and later Dutrochet, H.
Among others who contributed valuable papers on the subject may be noticed Oswald Heer (1809-1883), who made observations on the Miocene flora, especially in Arctic regions; Gaston de Saporta (1823-1895), who examined the Tertiary flora; Sir J.
As early as 1831 (during the annular eclipse of the sun) she had been her father's assistant in his observations.
In this attempt he was unsuccessful, but the observations he made in the course of his experiments induced him, early in 1856, to try the effect of treating aniline sulphate with bichromate of potash.
He also edited Coeli et siderum in eo errantium observationes Hassiacae (1618), containing the astronomical observations of Landgrave William IV.