Observation sentence example

observation
  • I'll record the facts from my personal point of view, and my observation.

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  • It is a matter of common observation that the blue of the sky is highly variable.

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  • There was helpful information for us to improve observation techniques.

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  • This led Hooker to the striking observation already quoted.

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  • She realized that those noticing her liked her, and this observation helped to calm her.

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  • The observation mirrored Dean's thoughts precisely.

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  • They have made this observation the basis of a practical method of separating helium from the other inert gases.

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  • Besides what he learnt from his own observation, he collected much information from others concerning countries which he did not visit.

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  • Observation of germinating seedlings makes it clear that somehow they have a perception of direction.

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  • The danger lies not in forming such hypotheses, but in regarding them as final, or as more than an attempt to throw light upon our observation of the phenomena.

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  • The contrast between a campaign of Cromwell's and one of Turenne's is far more than remarkable, and the observation of a military critic who maintains that Cromwell's art of war was two centuries in advance of its time, finds universal acceptance.

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  • I didn't have a good come-back to that observation.

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  • The observation of the effects of varying conditions in modifying living organisms.

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  • If we examined simple actions and had a vast number of such actions under observation, our conception of their inevitability would be still greater.

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  • The observation of the existence of an analogy between the series of gradations presented by the species which compose any great group of animals or plants, and the series of embryonic conditions of the highest members of that group.

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  • Aristotle, Haller, Harvey, Kielmeyer, Autenrieth, and many others have either made this observation incidentally, or, especially the latter, have drawn particular attention to it, and drawn therefrom results of permanent importance for physiology."

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  • The Works of John Home were collected and published by Henry Mackenzie in 1822 with "An Account of the Life and Writings of Mr John Home," which also appeared separately in the same year, but several of his smaller poems seem to have escaped the editor's observation.

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  • Soon afterwards, William Cruickshank decomposed the magnesium, sodium and ammonium chlorides, and precipitated silver and copper from their solutions - an observation which led to the process of electroplating.

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  • This observation showed that nascent hydrogen was not, as had been supposed, the primary cause of the separation of metals from their solutions, but that the action consisted in a direct decomposition into metal and acid.

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  • Though not uncommonly frequenting gardens and orchards, in which as well as in woods it builds its nest, it is exceedingly shy in its habits, so as seldom to afford opportunities for observation.

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  • The most careful determinations are affected by systematic errors arising from those diurnal and annual changes of temperature, the effect of which cannot be wholly eliminated in astronomical observation; and the recently discovered variation of latitude has introduced a new element of uncertainty into the determination.

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  • On the whole it is probable that the value exceeds 20.50"; and so far as the results of direct observation are concerned may, for the present, be fixed at 20.52".

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  • The determination of the solar parallax through the parallactic inequality of the moon's motion also involves two elements - one of observation, the other of purely mathematical theory.

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  • For the practical observation of this phenomenon it is usual to employ a needle which can turn freely in the plane of the magnetic meridian upon a horizontal axis passing through the centre of gravity of the needle.

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  • Astronomy is of necessity a science of observation in the pursuit of which experiment can directly play no part.

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  • One characteristic of astronomy which tends to make its progress slow and continuous arises out of the general fact that, except in the case of motions to or from us, which can be determined by a single observation with the spectroscope, the motion of a heavenly body can be determined only by comparing its position at two different epochs.

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  • Even in the case of the planets, the variations in the form and position of the orbits are so slow that long periods of observation are required for their correct determination.

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  • When an astronomer has made an observation, it still has to be " reduced," and this commonly requires more labour than that involved in making it.

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  • Theoretical Astronomy,which may be considered as an extension of geometrical astronomy and includes the determination of the positions and motions of the heavenly bodies by combining mathematical theory with observation.

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  • Marsilius denies, not only to the pope, but to the bishops and clergy, any coercive jurisdiction or any right to pronounce on their own authority excommunications and interdicts, or in any way to impose the observation of the divine law.

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  • The details of the calculation are given in the article Electric conduction, § where also will be found an account of the methods which have been used to measure the velocities of many ions by direct visual observation.

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  • This " replacement " of a " weak " acid by a " strong " one is a matter of common observation in the chemical laboratory.

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  • The earliest formulation of the subject, due to Lord Kelvin, assumed that this relation was true in all cases, and, calculated in this way, the electromotive force of Daniell's cell, which happens to possess a very small temperature coefficient, was found to agree with observation.

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  • This result was soon apparently confirmed by several other researches founded both on theory and observation, and so strong did the evidence appear to be that the value 8.95" was used in the Nautical Almanac from 1870 to 1881.

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  • The ballistic method is largely employed for determining the relation of induction to magnetizing force in samples of the iron and steel used in the manufacture of electrical machinery, and especially for the observation of hysteresis effects.

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  • The greatest of Gilbert's discoveries was that the globe of the earth was magnetic and a magnet; the evidence by which he supported this view was derived chiefly from ingenious experiments made with a spherical lodestone or lerrella, as he termed it, and from his original observation that an iron bar could be magnetized by the earth's force.

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  • The stories of a scorpion stinging itself to death when placed in a circle of burning coals are due to erroneous observation.

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  • As his plays show, the spectacle struck Antonio's observation, but he had to criticize with caution.

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  • The most striking peculiarity of the empirics was that they rejected anatomy, regarding it as useless to inquire into the causes of things, and thus, as they contended, being the more minute in their observation of the actual phenomena of disease.

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  • Muqaddasi (Mokaddasi) at the end of the aoth century was one of the early travellers whose works were founded on their own observation.

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  • It must, however, be remembered that so important a generalization is as yet supported upon a somewhat narrow base of observation.

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  • With the view of examining this question, he undertook the reduction of every observation made before 1750 which appeared to be worthy of confidence.

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  • It is only in the present day that there are noticeable signs of dissatisfaction with current morality itself, and a tendency to substitute or advocate a new morality based ostensibly upon conclusions derived from the facts of scientific observation.

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  • Practical Astronomy, which comprises a description of the instruments used in astronomical observation, and of the principles and methods underlying their application.

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  • The importance of the general conclusions above formulated, as imposing a limit upon our powers of direct observation, can hardly be overestimated; but there has been in some quarters a tendency to ascribe to it a more precise character than it can bear, or even to mistake its meaning altogether.

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  • Verdet has, however, pointed out that the observation in this form is essentially different from that in which homogeneous red light is employed, and that the position of the red rings would correspond to the absence of blue-green light rather than to the greatest abundance of red light.

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  • Now, both the Korahite and Asaphic groups of psalms are remarkable that they hardly contain any recognition of present sin on the part of the community of Jewish faith - though they do confess the sin of Israel in the past - but are exercised with the observation that prosperity does not follow righteousness either in the case of the individual (xlix., lxxiii.) or in that of the nation, which suffers notwithstanding its loyalty to God, or even on account thereof (xliv., lxxix.).

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  • The Letters are brilliantly written - full of elegant wisdom, of keen wit, of admirable portrait-painting, of exquisite observation and deduction.

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  • Here we recognize the true Greek But this artistic completeness was closely connected with the third cardinal virtue of Hippocratic medicine - the clear recognition of disease as being equally with life a process governed by what we should now call natural laws, which could be known by observation, and which indicated the spontaneous and normal direction of recovery, by following which alone could the physician succeed.

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  • In the fourth place, these views of the "natural history of disease" (in modern language) led to habits of minute observation and accurate interpretation of symptoms, in which the Hippocratic school was unrivalled in antiquity, and has been the model for all succeeding ages, so that even in these days, with our enormous advances in knowledge, the true method of clinical medicine may be said to be the method of Hippocrates.

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  • Though the Hippocratic medicine was so largely founded on observation, it would be an error to suppose that dogma or theory had no place.

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  • This false precision can have had no practical value, but may have enforced habits of minute observation.

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  • Although it cannot be said that the science of medicine was advanced at Salerno, still its decline was arrested at a time when every other branch of learning was rapidly falling into decay; and there can be no doubt that the observation of patients in hospitals, and probably clinical instruction, were made use of in learning and teaching.

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  • The standard of excellence in the ancient writers was indeed far above the level of the 16th century; but the fatal habit of taking at second hand what should have been acquired by direct observation retarded progress more than the possession of better models assisted it, so that the fundamental faults of medieval science remained uncorrected.

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  • In the subject of diseases of the skin much has been done, in the minuter observation of their forms, in the description of forms previously unrecognized, and in respect of bacterial and other causation and of treatment.

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  • It was based on an accidental observation of the action of metallic aluminium on amyl chloride, and consists in bringing together a hydrocarbon and an organic chloride in presence of aluminium chloride, when the residues of the two compounds unite to form a more complex body.

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  • But much the greater mass of the illustrations of his philosophy indicate that, while engaged on his poem he must have passed much of his time in the open air, exercising at once the keen observation of a naturalist and the contemplative vision of a poet.

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  • On the other hand, they are constantly impressed by his power of reasoning both deductively and inductively, by the subtlety and fertility of invention with which he applies analogies, by the clearness and keenness of his observation, by the fulness of matter with which his mind is stored, and by the consecutive force, the precision and distinctness of his style, when employed in the processes of scientific exposition.

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  • The third and fourth books give evidence of acuteness in psychological analysis; the fourth and sixth of the most active and varied observation of natural phenomena; the fifth of original insight and strong common sense in conceiving the origin of society and the progressive advance of man to civilization.

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  • He was put on half pay by the new authorities and ordered to live under police observation at Pamplona.

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  • His pages abound in symbols representing unknown functions, the form of the function being left to be ascertained by observation of facts, which he does not regard as a part of his task, or only some known properties of the undetermined function being used as bases for deduction.

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  • A crystal lens, turned on the lathe, was discovered by Layard at Nimrud along with glass vases bearing the name of Sargon; this will explain the excessive minuteness of some of the writing on the Assyrian tablets, and a lens may also have been used in the observation of the heavens.

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  • It is a matter of common observation that stones of monuments, walls or buildings which are exposed to the air sooner or later become eaten away or broken up into small fragments under the influence of the weather.

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  • He, too, travelling as a Moslem pilgrim, noted the whole ritual of the pilgrimage with the same keen observation as Burckhardt, and while amplifying somewhat the latter's description of Medina, confirms the accuracy of his work there and at Mecca in almost every detail.

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  • The question whether this cause modifies gravitation admits of an easy test from observation.

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  • But this proves nothing because, in the case of distances so great, centuries or even thousands of years of accurate observation will be required to show any action.

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  • His pupil, Rainer Gemma-Frisius, used it for the observation of the solar eclipse of January 1544 at Louvain, and fully described the methods he adopted for making measurements and drawings of the eclipsed sun, in his De Radio Astronomico et Geometrico (1545).

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  • He says they can be used for observation of the moon and stars and also for longitudes.

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  • Moestlin and his pupil Kepler - the latter applying it in 1607 to the observation of a transit of Mercury - also by Johann Fabricius, in 1611, for the first observations of sun-spots.

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  • Meteoric observation has depended upon rough and hurried eye estimates in past years, but the importance of attaining greater accuracy by means of photography has been recognized.

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  • After a careful survey of Mr Gladstone's life, enlightened by personal observation, it is inevitable to attempt some analysis.

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  • It is often depicted with a flowing tail, which appendix attests close observation of nature; for the mino-game, as it is called, represents a tortoise to which, in the course of many scores of years, confcrvae have attached themselves so as to form an appendage of long green locks as the creature swims about.

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  • Thus though neither botanically nor ornithologically correct, their flowers and their birds show a ttuth to nature, and a habit of minute observation in the artist, which cannot be too much admired.

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  • During the long apprenticeship that educated Japanese serve to acquire the power of writing with the brush the complicated characters borrowed from Chinese, they unconsciously cultivate the habit of minute observation and the power of accurate imitation, and with these the delicacy of touch and freedom of hand which only long practice can give.

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  • The style was applied only to the representations of sacred personages and scenes, and as the traditional forms and attributes of the Brahmanic and Buddhist divinities were mutable only within narrow limits, the subjects seldom afforded scope for originality of design or observation of nature.

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  • The sculptures attributed to Jocho, the founder of the Nara school, although powerful in pose and masterly in execution, lack the truth of observation seen in some of the earlier and later masterpieces.

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  • He and the craftsmen of the school he established completely refute the theory that the anatomical solecisms commonly seen in the works of Japanese sculptors are due to faulty observation.

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  • It cannot be said, however, that Ramus's innovations mark any epoch in the history of logic. His rhetorical leaning is seen in the definition of logic as the "ars disserendi"; he maintains that the rules of logic may be better learned from observation of the way in which Cicero persuaded his hearers than from a study of the Organon.

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  • This principle more or less prevailed until it was overthrown by Lavoisier's doctrine that oxygen was the acid-producing element; Lavoisier being led to this conclusion by the almost general observation that acids were produced when non-metallic elements were burnt.

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  • The greatest size to which some species attain, according to positive observation, is about 12 ft., and therefore far short of the statements as to the length of the so-called sea-serpents (q.v.).

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  • Although the treatises IIEpi Kpwviuwv cannot be accepted as authentic, we find in the Ilpoyvwvr,KOV evidence of the acuteness of observation in the manner in which the occurrence of critical days in disease is enunciated.

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  • Corps, being left in observation of the troops visible on their front and of the garrison of Metz itself.

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  • In order to obtain observation and jumping-off ground for the attack on the main Hindenburg system it was necessary to clear the enemy from the positions still held by him forward of this line.

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  • The capture of these defences, which would afford observation over the greater part of the main Hindenburg line proper, was of course an essential preliminary to any operation against the latter.

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  • Corps of observation were formed in Roussillon and Lorraine.

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  • The resources of the French government were almost intact for the coming campaign; the corps of observation in Roussillon was continued, and its commander, Marshal Schomberg, made a successful campaign against the Spaniards, and the war was carried even into Sicily.

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  • To use the apparatus, the long tube is placed in a vapour bath (c) of the requisite temperature, and after the air within the tube is in equilibrium, the delivery tube is placed beneath the surface of the water in a pneumatic trough, the rubber stopper pushed home, and observation made as to whether any more air is being expelled.

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  • Two typical forms are in use; in one a liquid is prepared in which the crystal freely swims, the density of the liquid being ascertained by the pycnometer or other methods; in the other a liquid of variable density, the so-called "diffusion column," is prepared, and observation is made of the level at which the particle comes to rest.

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  • They not only introduced him to the subtleties of Italian diplomacy, but'also extended his observation over races very different from the Italians.

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  • Together with the Discorsi, the Principe contains the speculative fruits of his experience and observation combined with his deductions from Roman history.

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  • In 1863 it was independently discovered by Westwood in an English vinery at Hammersmith; he was ignorant of Fitch's observation, and called it Peritymbia vitisana.

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  • This construction would give all the advantage of the younger Dollond's object-glass micrometer, and more than its sharpness of definition, without liability to the systematic errors which may be due to want of homogeneity of the object-glass; for the lenses will not be turned with respect to each other, but, in measurement, will always have the same relation in position angle to the line joining the objects under observation.

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  • The third method is the most symmetrical of all, both in observation and reduction; but it was not employed by Bessel, on the ground that it involved the determination of the errors of two screws instead of one.

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  • Thus a comet may be encountered in the morning dawn or evening twilight, and without such an adjunct the astronomer may lose the whole available opportunity for observation in the vain endeavour to find a suitable comparison-star.

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  • The disk 32 operates the wire gauze screens for equalizing the brightness of the two stars under observation.

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  • Of course, for many purposes, mean conditions may be adopted and mean scale-values be found which are applicable with considerable pre cision to small angles or to comparatively crude observations of large distances; but the highest refinement is lost unless means are provided for determining the scale-value for each observer at each epoch of observation.

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  • The Hydrographic Office of the United States had collected 3800 meteorological logs with 3,200,000 entries before 1888; but since that time the logs have contained only one observation daily (at Greenwich noon) and of these 2,380.000 entries had been received by 1904.

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  • His pictures are magnificent in their composition and their draughtsmanship; and his keen observation and insight into character are evident, especially in his portraits, notably of Madame Recamier, of the Conventional Gerard and of Boissy d'Anglas.

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  • The same observation applies as to the requisites of an award, the mode of its enforcement and the grounds on which it will be set aside.

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  • In these works he shows how the numbers representing the individual qualities of man are grouped round the numbers referring to the "average man" in a manner exactly corresponding to that in which single results of observation are grouped round the mean result, so that the principles of the theory of probabilities may be applied to statistical researches on the subjects.

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  • The hopes he had aroused that, by a voluntary abdication, he would restore unity to the church, were vain; though called upon by the princes of France to carry out his plan, abandoned by his cardinals, besieged and finally kept under close observation in the palace of the popes (1398-1403), he stood firm, and tired out the fury of his opponents.

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  • The old monk's keen observation makes the book a far more valuable contribution to history than his professed chronicle.

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  • The active movement of his spirit spent itself, not in following out its own trains of thought, but in outward observation.

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  • Newton himself, however, endeavoured to account for gravitation by differences of pressure in an aether; but he did not publish his theory, ` because he was not able from experiment and observation to give a satisfactory account of this medium, and the manner of its operation in producing the chief phenomena of nature.'

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  • It thus appears that the doctrine of atomic material constitution and the doctrine of a universal aether stand to each other in a relation of mutual support; if the scheme of physical laws is to be as precise as observation and measurement appear to make it, both doctrines are required in our efforts towards synthesis.

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  • Dr Thomson first pointed out a process by synthesis, which has the advantage of being very simple, and at the same time rigidly accurate, resulting from his observation that when hydrochloric acid gas and ammonia gas are brought in contact with each other, they always combine in equal volumes.

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  • The views of Adler as to the alternation of generations of numerous gall-flies have been fully confirmed, it having been ascertained by direct observation that the galls and the insects produced from them in one generation are entirely different from the next generation; and it has also been rendered certain that frequently one of the alternate generations is parthenogenetic, no males being produced.

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  • His prominent use of Roman law and the wide range of his observation have made his works as intelligible abroad as at home, and thereby much valuable information - for example, concerning the nature of British supremacy in India, and the position of native institutions there - has been made the property of the world of letters instead of the peculiar and obscure possession of a limited class of British public servants.

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  • An observation is then taken of the reading of the amperemeter and of the fall of resistance down the low resistance when a certain steady current is passing through the strip and amperemeter.

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  • It was only after a fresh and keener observation of facts that the new theory made rapid progress.

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  • This sketch of the critical movement has now been brought down to the point at which the comprehensive conclusions which still dominate Old Testament study gained clear expression and were shown to be drawn from the observation of a large body of facts.

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  • Exactly what modifications were first made in the system under which each month began by simple observation of the new moon we do not know, and opinions are not agreed as to the historical value of the rabbinical traditions; but probably the first step in the direction of astronomical precision would be the rule that no month could consist of less than twenty-nine or more than thirty days - to which appears to have been added, but at what date is uncertain, the further rule that Adar, the month preceding Nisan, was always to be limited to twentynine.

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  • Yet in spite of his business cares he found time for an extraordinary amount of original research, and every year he published two or three papers, most of which contained some discovery or observation of importance.

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  • Whether the will of the gods is determined through the inspection of the liver of the sacrificial animal, through observing the action of oil bubbles in a basin of water or through the observation of the movements of the heavenly bodies, it is Shamash and Adad who, in the ritual connected with divination, are invariably invoked.

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  • Magic, astrology and alchemy - all the outgrowth of Neoplatonism - gave the first effectual stimulus to the observation of nature, and consequently to natural science, and in this way finally extinguished barren rationalism.

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  • What strikes us most in his book is his wide and keen observation of social facts, and his perpetual tendency to dwell on these and elicit their significance, instead of drawing conclusions from abstract principles by elaborate chains of reasoning.

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  • But there is another species of deduction which, as Cliffe Leslie has shown, seriously tainted the philosophy of Smith - in which the premises are not facts ascertained by observation, but the a priori assumptions which we found in the physiocrats.

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  • The dawn of the science covers the first observation of facts and the rudiments of true interpretation.

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  • It appears from comparison of the work in the two great divisions of vertebrate and invertebrate palaeontology made for the first time in this article that in accuracy of observation and in close philosophical analysis of facts the students of invertebrate palaeontology led the way.

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  • Thus the recapitulation law, which had been built up independently from the observations and speculations on vertebrates by Lorenz Ofen (1779-1851), Johann Friedrich Meckel (1781-1833), St Hilaire, Karl Ernst von Baer (1;92-1876) and others, and had been applied (1842-1843) by Karl Vogt (1817-1895) and Agassiz, in their respective fields of observation, to comparison of individual stages with the adults of the same group in preceding geological periods, furnished the key to the determination of the ancestry of the invertebrates generally.

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  • It should be remembered that palaeontology is the most unfavourable field of all for observation and demonstration of sudden saltations or mutations of character, because of the limited materials available for comparison and the rarity of genetic series.

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  • The net result of observation is not favourable to the essentially Darwinian view that the adaptive arises out of the fortuitous by selection, but is rather favourable to the hypothesis of the existence of some quite unknown intrinsic law of life which we are at present totally unable to comprehend or even conceive.

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  • We have shown that the direct observation of the origin of new characters in palaeontology brings them within that domain of natural law and order to which the evolution of the physical universe conforms. The nature of this law, which, upon the whole, appears to be purposive or teleological in its operations, is altogether a mystery which may or may not be illumined by future research.

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  • He has moreover elaborated a method for preserving Rotif era for microscopic observation, so that the types of each observer are now as readily available for comparison as the plant-specimens of the botanist's herbarium.

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  • The first observation of a trypanosome is usually ascribed to Valentin (55), who in 1841 announced his discovery of certain amoeboid parasites in the blood of a trout.

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  • Considering them first in a tolerant host, the trend of observation is to show that they are never abundant, but on the contrary usually somewhat scarce.

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  • Kolbe; this taken in conjunction with Melsens's observation provided the first synthesis of acetic acid.

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  • Notwithstanding the rude character of the apparatus at his disposal, Horrocks was enabled by his observation of it to introduce some important corrections into the elements of the planet's, orbit, and to reduce to its exact value the received estimate of its apparent diameter.

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  • But Supposing The Instant Of The Sun'S Entering Into The Sign Libra To Be Very Near Midnight, The Small Errors Of The Solar Tables Might Render It Doubtful To Which Day The Equinox Really Belonged; And It Would Be In Vain To Have Recourse To Observation To Obviate The Difficulty.

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  • Two Lunar Years Would Thus Contain 25 Months, Or 738 Days, While Two Solar Years, Of 3654 Days Each, Contain 7302 Days.V The `, Difference Of 72 Days Was Still Too Great To Escape Observation; It Was Accordingly Proposed By Cleostratus Of Tenedos, Who Flourished Shortly After The Time Of Thales, To Omit The Biennary Intercalation Every Eighth Year.

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  • Its principal, though perhaps least obvious advantage, consists in its being entirely independent of astronomical tables, or indeed of any celestial phenomena whatever; so that all chances of disagreement arising from the inevitable errors of tables, or the uncertainty of observation, are avoided, and Easter determined without the possibility of mistake.

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  • His true place in the history of speculation may be seen from the simple observation that the difficulties or obscurities in his scheme are really the points on which later philosophy has turned.

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  • Beyond sending a corps of observation to follow his movements, the new government did nothing to arrest his escape.

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  • Here Wellington supported the proposal for the immediate evacuation of France, and it was owing to his common-sense criticism that the proposal of Prussia, supported by the emperor Alexander and Metternich, to establish an "army of observation" at Brussels, was nipped in the bud.

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  • In this theory there can strictly be no "causation"; one thing is observed to succeed another, but observations cannot assert that it is "caused" by that thing; it is post hoc, but not propter hoc. The idea of necessary connexion is a purely mental idea, an a priori conception, in which observation of empirical data takes no part; empiricism in ethics likewise does away with the idea of the absolute authority of the moral law as conceived by the intuitionalists.

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  • In medicine, the term is applied to a school of physicians who, in the time of Celsus and Galen, advocated accurate observation of the phenomena of health and disease in the belief that only by the collection of a vast mass of instances would a true science of medicine be attained.

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  • The child was brought up under a rigid system of nursing, physical, moral and intellectual; kept without toys, not seldom whipped, watched day and night, but trained from infancy in music, drawing, reading aloud and observation of natural objects.

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  • One such star, however, with a right ascension nearly equal to that of -y Draconis, but in the opposite sense, was selected and kept under observation.

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  • Two hundred stars in the British Catalogue of Flamsteed traversed its field of view; and, of these, about fifty were kept under close observation.

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  • The application of this observation to the phenomenon which had so long perplexed him was not difficult, and, in 1727, he published his theory of the aberration of light - a corner-stone of the edifice of astronomical science.

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  • Lord Rayleigh, to whom we owe the first general discussion of the theory of the spectroscope, found by observation that if two spectroscopic lines of frequencies n1 and n, are observed in an instrument, they are just seen as two separate lines when the centre of the central diffraction band of one coincides with the first minimum intensity of the other.

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  • In importance next to visual observation, and in the opinion of some, surpassing it, is the photographic method.

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  • We are enabled by means of it to extend materially the range of our observation, especially if the ordinary kinds of glass, which strongly absorb ultraviolet light, are avoided, and, when necessary, replaced by quartz.

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  • This is confirmed by observation.

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  • The interpretation of spectroscopic observation seemed very simple when Kirchhoff and 1 Phil.

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  • Chromic acid itself showed the bands, but less distinctly, and Soret does not consider the purity of the acid sufficiently proved to allow him to draw any certain conclusions from this observation.

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  • In combustion the particulae nitro-aereae - either pre-existent in the thing consumed or supplied by the air - combined with the material burnt; as he inferred from his observation that antimony, strongly heated with a burning glass, undergoes an increase of weight which can be attributed to nothing else but these particles.

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  • In connexion with his psychological studies, it is interesting that in 1884 the French Anthropological Society reproduced his instructions for the observation of primitive peoples, and modern students of the beginnings of speech in children and the cases of deaf-mutes have found useful matter in his works.

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  • He refers to Hume as recognizing no causality but only a customary and habitual succession, but adds that Kant rightly recognizes that mere observation cannot teach the necessity of the conjunction.

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  • The magnet is protected from draughts by the box A, which is closed at the sides by two shutters when an observation is being taken.

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  • The time of transit of the sun or star across the vertical wire of the telescope having been observed by means of a chronometer of which the error is known, it is possible to calculate the azimuth of the sun or star, if the latitude and longitude, of the place of observation are given.

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  • In the case of the Kew pattern unifilar the same magnet that is used for the declination is usually employed for determining H, and for the purposes of the vibration experiment it is mounted as for the observation of the magnetic meridian.

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  • Hence the above observation gives us a means of obtaining the ratio of the magnetic moment of the needle' b to the value of the earth's total force.

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  • In an actual observation the deflecting needle would be reversed, as well as the deflected one, while different weights would be used to deflect the needle b..

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  • Following the first chart of lines of equal variation compiled by Edmund Halley in 1700, charts of similar type have been published from time to time embodying recent observations and corrected for the secular change, thus providing seamen with values of the variation accurate to about 30' of arc. Possessing these data, it is easy to ascertain by observation the effects of the iron in a ship in disturbing the compass, and it will be found for the most part in every vessel that the needle is deflected from the magnetic meridian by a horizontal angle called the deviation of the compass; in some directions of the ship's head adding to the known variation of the place, in other directions subtracting from it.

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  • Some vessels are more liable to become sub-permanently magnetized than others, and as no corrector has been found for this source of deviation the navigator must determine its amount by observation.

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  • Gyraldus, writing in 1540 (Libellus de re nautica), misunderstanding this reference, declared that this observation of the direction of the magnet to the poles had been handed down as discovered "by a certain Flavius."

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  • Such results may be tested by direct observation.

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  • The Visitation is the personal inspection of institutions, churches, religious establishments and their personnel, to correct abuses The Visit- p and enforce the observation of rules.

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  • It is a vast mine of experimental observation on the symptoms of poisoning of all kinds, on the appearances which poisons leave in the dead body, on their physiological action, and on the means of detecting them.

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  • In the North Sea, and usually, it might be said that once the boat is submerged, direct observation through the water is impossible.

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  • Although two periscopes are provided when attacking, one only would be shown for short periods to get check observation so as to prevent the wash of the upper tube revealing the proximity of the submarine.

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  • By observation and experiment it was discovered independently by Messrs Bates, Wallace and Bell that they are not attacked by birds nor by many other enemies that prey upon unprotected Lepidoptera.

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  • This theory, however superficial from the standpoint of observation, indicates considerable knowledge of geometry and gave a great impulse to the study of the science.

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  • For the germination of the spermatia in nature there is only the observation of Hedlund, that in Catillaria denigrata and C. prasena a thallus may be derived from the spermatia under natural conditions.

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  • In May 1844 he had another stroke; on the 26th of July he recorded with trembling hand his last meteorological observation, and on the 27th he fell from his bed and was found lifeless by his attendant.

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  • Aristotle's suggestion that Thales was led to his fundamental dogma by observation of the part which moisture plays in the production and the maintenance of life, and Simplicius's, that the impressibility and the binding power of water were perhaps also in his thoughts, are by admission purely conjectural..

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  • Experience, coupled with observation and reflection, as well as the more indirect teachings of tradition, are therefore of primary importance to the practical gardener.

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  • It is a matter of familiar observation that the ends of the shoots of brambles take root when bent down to the ground.

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  • The reciprocal adaptations of insects and flowers demand attentive observation on the part of the gardener concerned with the growing of grapes, cucumbers, melons and strawberries, or with the raising of new and improved varieties of plants.

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  • Returning to Beaune for a vacation, he made, on a large scale, a plan of the town, inventing the methods of observation and constructing the necessary instruments; the plan was presented to the town, and preserved in their library.

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  • Apart from this observation there is no other trace of sexuality in the group.

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  • De Bary brought forward very strong evidence for the origin of the ascocarp in Sphaerotheca and Erysiphe by a sexual process, but Harper in 1895 was the first to prove conclusively, by the observation of the nuclear fusion, that there was a definite fertilization in Sphaerotheca Humuli by the fusion of a male (antheridial) nucleus with a female, ascogonial (oogonial) nucleus.

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  • In all cognition, strictly so-called, there is involved a certain synthesis or relation of parts of a characteristic nature, and if we attempt to discuss this synthesis as though it were in itself but one of the facts forming the matter of knowledge, we are driven to regard this relation as being of the quite external kind discovered by observation among matters of knowledge.

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  • If the relations involved in the fact of cognition are only those discoverable by observation of any particular portion of known experience, then such relations are quite external and contingent.

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  • The first part of the first book contains a brief statement of the contents of mind, a description of all that observation can discover in conscious experience.

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  • The fourth part is virtually a consideration of the ultimate significance of this conscious experience, of the place it is supposed to occupy in the universe of existence, in other words, of the relations between the conscious experience of an individual mind as disclosed to observation and the supposed realities of self and external things.

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  • The foundations of cognition must be discovered by observation or analysis of experience so conceived.

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  • With regard to geometry, he holds emphatically that it is an empirical doctrine, a science founded on observation of concrete facts.

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  • The rough appearances of physical facts, their outlines, surfaces and so on, are the data of observation, and only by a method of approximation do we gradually come near to such propositions as are laid down in pure geometry.

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  • The properties of this individual subject, the idea of the triangle, are, according to him, discovered by observation, and as observation, whether actual or ideal, never presents us with more than the rough or general appearances of geometrical quantities, the relations so discovered have only approximate exactness.

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  • For in the latter case we possess, according to Hume, no standard of equivalence other than that supplied by immediate observation, and consequently transition from one premise to another by way of reasoning must be, in geometrical matters, a purely verbal process.

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  • If there is nothing in conscious experience save what observation can disclose, while each act of observation is itself an isolated feeling (an impression or idea), it is manifest that a permanent identical thing can never be an object of experience.

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  • The struggle with nature before the precious metals could be made of use impressed upon him more and more the importance of actual personal observation.

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  • This observation is closely related to the above-mentioned resistivity of the carbon-link, and corroborates it in a special case.

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  • Becquerel's observation in 1896 that certain uranium preparations emitted a radiation resembling the X rays observed by Rntgen in 1895.

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  • The heat Q transmitted in a given time T may be deduced from an observation of the rise of temperature of the water, and the amount which passes in the interval.

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  • Lorenz and others have employed similar methods, depending on the observation of the rate of change of temperature at certain points of bars, rings, cylinders, cubes or spheres.

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  • Both methods depend on the observation of the steady distribution of temperature in a bar or wire heated by an electric current.

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  • C. i treats of the finding of good water; c. 2 of rainwater and rivers - rivers in various countries; c. 3 of hot springs, mineral waters, with an account of the chief medicinal springs of the world; c. 4 of selection of water by observation and experiment; c. 5 of instruments for levelling used by aqueduct engineers; c. 6 of construction of aqueducts, pipes of lead, clay, &c., and other matter on the subject of water-supply.

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  • An apparatus of great value in measuring slight changes in the vertical which have a bearing upon seismometrical observation is the Darwin bifilar pendulum.

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  • In these remains of the tragedies of Ennius we can trace indications of strong sympathy with the nobler and bolder elements of character, of vivid realization of impassioned situations, and of sagacious observation of life.

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  • Michaelis says, it renders the race type with astounding keenness, and shows an excellent power of observation in the exact representation of the eyes.

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  • The Saitic heads in basalt show a school of close observation, with fair power of rendering the personal character; and even in Roman times there still were provincial artists who could model a face very truthfully, as is shown in one case in.

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  • After this peace was made, and for the next five years the Danes were occupied in other parts of England, Alfred merely keeping a force of observation on the frontier.

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  • Berzelius as to their composition; and his observation that corresponding phosphates and arsenates crystallize in the same form was the germ from which grew the theory of isomorphism which he communicated to the Berlin Academy in December 1819.

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  • The assertion of Areschoug that conjugation occurs among zoospores derived from unilocular sporangia, in the case of Dictyosiphon hippuroides, is no doubt to be ascribed to error of observation.

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  • He founded his generalization to a large extent upon the observation that in Gloeosiphonia capillaris two cells completely fuse, and that only one nucleus can be detected in the fused mass.

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  • Mottier's observation has been confirmed by Lloyd Williams, who has shown, moreover, that the single number occurs in germlings from the tetraspore, and also in the adult stages of all sexual plants, while the double number occurs in germlings from the oospore, and in adult stages of all asexual plants.

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  • Senn, pursuing the methods described by Klebs, has confirmed Chodat's observation of the passage of Raphidium into a Dactylococcus-stage, although he was unable to observe further metamorphosis.

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  • But until the conditions under which a particular transformation takes place have been ascertained and described, so that the observation may be repeated by other investigators, scant credence is likely to be given to the more extreme polymorphistic views.

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  • On this observation rests the whole of the present enormous employment of hydraulic cements.

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  • In the second place, it has been urged, particularly by de Vries, that experiment and observation have shown that the possible range of fluctuating variation is strictly limited.

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  • At Langar Kisht, a little to the east of the Oxus bend, there is a small Russian post of observation.

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  • At a very early age he distinguished himself by keen powers of observation and interest in all that was curious and beautiful.

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  • Those who deny the possibility of all non-empirical knowledge naturally hold that every axiom is ultimately based on observation.

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  • The wettest month, as indicated by meteorological observation, is January; February is second to it, and December third; March is also a very wet month.

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  • Prior to Young, halos and coronae had not been clearly differentiated; they were both regarded as caused by the refraction of light by atmospheric moisture and ice, although observation had shown that important distinctions existed between these phenomena.

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  • Duges's statement that there is a second species of Amblystoma, which is normal in its metamorphosis, near Mexico but at a higher altitude, which may explain Velasco's observation that regularly transforming Amblystomas occur near that city; and thirdly, he made a careful examination of the two lakes, Chalco and Xochimilco, where the axolotls occur in abundance and are procured for the market.

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  • There is no reason to believe that any transfer of air takes place across the Himalayas in a southerly direction, unless indeed in those most elevated regions of the atmosphere which lie beyond the range of observation; but a nocturnal flow of cooled air, from the southern slopes, is felt as a strong wind where the rivers debouch on the plains, more especially in the early morning hours; and this probably contributes in some degree to lower the mean temperature of that belt of the plains which fringes the mountain zone.

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  • Soon afterwards Megasthenes, as Greek ambassador resident at a court in Bengal (306-298 B.C.), had opportunities for the closest observation.

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  • Where accurate differential observations or photographs involving other than instantaneous exposures have to be made, the additional condition is required that the optical axis of the telescope shall accurately and automatically follow the object under observation in spite of the apparent diurnal motion of the heavens, or in some cases even of the apparent motion of the object relative to neighbouring fixed stars.

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  • A vertical plane passing through A A is therefore in the meridian, and the polar axis is inclined to the horizon at an angle equal to that of the latitude of the place of observation.

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  • If we now attach to the polar axis a graduated circle D D, called the" hour circle,"of which the microscope or vernier R reads o h when the declination axis is horizontal, we can obviously read off the hour angle from the meridian of any star to which the telescope may be directed at the instant of observation.

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  • If the local sidereal time of the observation is known, the right ascension of the star becomes known by adding the observed hour angle to the sidereal time if the star is west of the meridian, or subtracting it if east of the meridian.

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  • The readings of the levels k and 1 and the reading of the micrometer-drum are then entered, and the observation of the northern star is complete.

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  • If between the north and south observation there is a change in the level readings of the levels k and 1, this indicates a change in the zenith distance of the axis of the telescope.

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  • In the year ending August 1903 the amounts of rainfall at 41 observation stations widely distributed throughout the archipelago varied from 16.2 in.

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  • The most noteworthy outcome of this system in the realm of religious practice was, as already intimated, the growth of an elaborate and complicated method of divining the future by the observation of the phenomena in the heavens.

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  • The methods of measurement, founded on rise of temperature, may be classed as thermometric methods, since they depend on the observation of change of temperature with a thermometer.

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  • The Specific Heat Itself Can Be Deduced Only By Differentiating The Curve Of Observation, Which Greatly Increases The Uncertainty.

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  • The movements of the atmosphere, however, are upon a scale large enough to make this observation easy, and the simplest evidence is obtained from a study of the direction of the air movements in the great wind systems of the globe.

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  • Although the periodic outbursts of light have taken place without intermission during the two and a half centuries that the star has been under observation, they are somewhat irregular.

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  • Spectroscopic observation shows that the increased light accompanies an actual physical change or conflagration in the star.

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  • Halley was the first to suspect from observation the proper motions of the stars.

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  • The velocity in the line of sight can be determined by spectroscopic observation, so that in a few cases the motion of the star is completely known.

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  • His plan was to keep every inmate of every cell under constant close observation, and all were to be reformed by solitude and seclusion while constantly employed in remunerative labour, in the profits of which they were to share.

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  • The ministration to sense, aided by observation and experiment.

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  • The ministration to memory, aided by registering and arranging the data, of observation and experiment in tables of instances of agreement, difference and concomitant variations.

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  • When A, B and C are objects of sense, their relative positions are matters, not of inference, but of observation; when they are not, there is an inference, but a syllogistic inference with a major premise, induced from previous observations, " whenever of three things the first is to the right of the second, and the second to the right of the third, the first is to the right of the third."

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  • Knowledge of the implications of it does not depend on observation of all members of the class.

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  • In other words, the increase of pressure per degree (dp/d0) divided by p should be constant and equal to B; but observation shows that this ratio decreases, e.g.

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  • It was employed as a purely empirical formula by Bertrand and Barus, who calculated the values of the coefficients for several substances, so as to obtain the best general agreement with the results of observation over a wide range, at high as well as low pressures.

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  • The observation of isolated particulars gives not necessity, but merely strong probability; necessity is purely intellectual or "transcendental."

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  • To have recorded it in writing at all shows considerable progress in the observation of sounds.

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  • It did not fully gather way till 1896, when plague appeared in Bombay, but our modern knowledge of the disease dates from 1894, when it attacked Hong Kong and first presented itself to accurate observation.

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  • But verses 30, 31 are an appended observation.

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  • His work has the value that attaches to a record written by one chronicling the events of his own times, gifted with ordinary powers of observation, indubitable candour and independence of view.

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  • It is a matter of ordinary observation that different bodies acted on by the same force, or what is judged to be the same force, undergo different changes of velocity in equal times.

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  • Alcock (1901) describes from his own observation the newly hatched Phyllosoma larva of Thenus orientalis, Fabricius.

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  • Watson carried out elaborate experiments to discover how far the electric discharge of the jar could be conveyed along metallic wires and was able to accomplish it for a distance of 2 m., making the important observation that the electricity appeared to be transmitted instantaneously.

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  • The observation that certain animals could give shocks resembling the shock of a Leyden jar induced a closer examination of these powers.

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  • The proposition that our knowledge of nature necessarily begins with observation and experience, is common to Bacon and many contemporary reformers of science, but he laid peculiar stress upon it, and gave it a new meaning.

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  • What he really meant by observation was a competent natural history or collection of facts.

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  • Experience and observation are the only remedies against prejudice and error.

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  • The early Christian Fathers recorded many a valuable observation of the Gentile faiths around them from varying points of view, sympathetic or hostile; and Eusebius and Epiphanius, in the 4th century A.D., attributed to the librarian of Ptolemy Philad.elphus the design of collecting the sacred books of the Ethiopians, Indians, Persians, Elamites, Babylonians, Assyrians, Romans, Phoenicians, Syrians and Greeks.

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  • Observation of 0 with measurement of the value of 1 and r reckoned in centimetres and W in grammes gives us the potential difference of the balls in absolute C.G.S.

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  • Barium and its salts can be readily detected by the yellowishgreen colour they give when moistened with hydrochloric acid and heated in the Bunsenflame, or by observation of their spectra, when two characteristic green lines are seen.

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  • The testing of ideas by observation and experiment which was begun in anatomy by Vesalius.

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  • It cannot have escaped observation, that in the foregoing course of argument the conclusion is invariably from experience of the present order of things to the reasonableness or probability of some other system - of a future state.

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  • In this primitive Pneuma there must reside the utmost tension and heat; for it is a fact of observation that most bodies expand when heated, whence we infer that there is a pressure in heat, an expansive and dispersive tendency.

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  • The universal presence of Pneuma was confirmed by observation.

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  • The Relic conveys the impressions of a journey in Palestine and in parts suggests his indebtedness to Flaubert, but its mysticism is entirely new and individual; while the versatility of his talent further appears in The Correspondence of Fradique Mendes, where acute observation is combined with brilliant satire or rich humour.

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  • He thus found for the pressure at a point in the interior of the fluid an expression of the form p =K+ZH(1/R+i/R'), where K is a constant pressure, probably very large, which, however, does not influence capillary phenomena, and therefore cannot be determined from observation of such phenomena; H is another constant on which all capillary phenomena depend; and R and R' are the radii of curvature of any two normal sections of the surface at right angles to each other.

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  • The jet should be situated between the sparks and the eye, and the observation is facilitated by a piece of ground glass held a little beyond the jet, sO as to diffuse the light; or the shadow of the jet may be received on the ground glass, which is then held as close as possible on the side towards the observer.

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  • The observation that it is possible for soap to be in excess may here have significance.

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  • The second obstacle is surmounted by the aid of the stroboscopic method of observation, the light being intermittent in the period of vibration, so that practically only one phase is seen.

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  • B, C. Similar series of phases in the order of the small letters in each case, and with the times of observation attached.

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  • This being the case, and having regard to the minuteness and ubiquity of these organisms, we should be very careful in accepting evidence as to the continuity or otherwise of any two forms which falls short of direct and uninterrupted observation.

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  • If we place the base of the filament in each case on a base line in the order of the successive times of observation recorded, and at distances apart proportional to the intervals of time (8.30, 10.0, 10.30, 11.40, and so on) and erect the straightened-out filaments, the proportional length of each of which is here given for each period, a line joining the tips of the filaments gives the curve of growth.

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  • In the case of any bacterium discovered, observation must be made in a long series of instances in order to determine its invariable presence.

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  • A large number of favourable results obtained by such treatment controlled by the observation of the opsonic index have already been published, but it would be unwise at present to offer a decided opinion as to the ultimate value of the method.

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  • In 1809 he published at Hamburg his Theoria motus corporum coelestium, a work which gave a powerful impulse to the true methods of astronomical observation; and his astronomical workings, observations, calculations of orbits of planets and comets, &c., are very numerous and valuable.

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  • Sympathy and symbolism, association of ideas and analogy, together with a certain amount of observation, are the explanation of the great mass of heteroscopic divinatory formulae.

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  • Divination of this sort, therefore, may be due to observation and experiment of a rude sort, rather than to the unchecked play of fancy which resulted in heteroscopic divination.

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  • Gruel entered the service of the earl of Richmond about 1425, shared in all his campaigns, and lived with him on intimate terms. The chronicle covers the whole period of the duke's life, but the earlier part, up to 1425, is much less full and important than the later, which is based on Gruel's personal knowledge and observation.

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  • These books are based on study and observation; the novels are crowded with characters.

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  • That the wings invariably strike forwards during the down and up strokes in aerial flight is proved alike by observation and experiment.

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  • That creatures should exist so nearly approaching to each other in all the particulars of their physical structure, and yet differing so immeasurably in their endowments and capabilities, would be a fact hard to believe, if it were not manifest to our observation.

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  • Taken altogether, the features have a typical character which popular observation seizes with some degree of correctness, as in the recognition of the Jewish countenance in a European city.

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  • Preyer's view, however, enlarges the conception of life until it can be applied to the phenomena of incandescent gases and has no relation to ideas of life derived from observation of the living matter we know.

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  • The French immediately abandoned the Low Countries, and, remaining in observation, made no attempt whatever to prevent Eugene's army, covered by that of Marlborough, making the siege of Lille.

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  • This conclusion is further confirmed by the observation that the amount of carbonic acid excreted by the lungs is also diminished.

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  • In one of the sections of his projected Treatise on Painting, Leonardo has detailed at length, and obviously from his own observation, the pictorial aspects of a battle.

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  • A hundred years before Bacon, say those who can judge best, he showed a firmer grasp of the principles of experimental science than Bacon showed, fortified by a far wider range of actual experiment and observation.

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  • How the positive method of observation and verification of real facts has landed us in this, and much else of the same kind, is extremely hard to guess.

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  • Thus while Plato hoped to ascend through classificatory science to the knowledge of eternal and immutable laws of thought and being, Speusippus, abandoning ontological speculation, was content to regard classificatory science not as a means but as an end, and (6) to rest in the results of scientific observation.

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  • The power of minute observation displayed is most remarkable, as also in Polite Conversation (written in 1731, published in 1738), a surprising assemblage of the vulgarities and trivialities current in ordinary talk.

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  • It is a classification for convenience' sake, adopted upon a rough observation of conspicuous, or apparently conspicuous, differences in the mode of levying taxes, and nothing more.

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  • In the extent of his knowledge, in keenness of observation, in variety of style, in his literary output, he has been compared to Voltaire; but it is perhaps as the forerunner of the great Renaissance Platonists that he will be chiefly remembered.

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  • Frederick Slare noticed that the luminosity increased when the air was rarefied, an observation confirmed by Hawksbee and Homberg, and which was possibly the basis of Berzelius's theory that the luminosity depended on the volatility of the element and not on the presence of oxygen.

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  • But fifteen years of thought, observation and commerce with the world had made him wiser.

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  • With the help of theory and observation the part played by this atmosphere is tolerably precise.

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  • It is the atmosphere of Venus that spoils the observation.

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  • The treatise on "Mechanics" in Lardner's Cyclopaedia was partly written by him; and his interest in more purely astronomical questions was evidenced by two communications to the Astronomical Society's Memoirs for 1831-1833 - the one on an observation of Saturn's outer ring, the other on a method of determining longitude by means of lunar eclipses.

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  • Of European descriptions of Mecca from personal observation the best is Burckhardt's Travels in Arabia (cited above from the 8vo ed., 1829).

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  • Nothing but long observation and experience can help the hydraulic engineer to judge of the configuration of the ground favourable to such phenomena.

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  • The three great results of psychological observation are Sensibility, Activity or Liberty, and Reason.

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  • The reason given to us by psychological observation, the reason of our consciousness, is impersonal in its nature.

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  • This was the point which Kant missed in his analysis, and this is the fundamental truth which Cousin thinks he has restored to the integrity of philosophy by the method of the observation of consciousness.

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  • This long and varied service gave him extensive opportunities for observation, which he supplemented by constant study of naval authorities and reflection on the interpretation of the problems of maritime history.

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  • The observer cannot long continue his researches in the field without discovering that the rocks of the earth's crust have been almost everywhere thrown into curves, usually so broad and gentle as to escape observation except when specially looked for.

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  • The augures were originally called auspices, but, while auspex 1 fell into disuse and was replaced by augur, auspicium was retained as the scientific term for the observation of signs.

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  • For public affairs it was, by the time of Cicero, superseded by the fictitious observation of lightning.

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  • A spot being selected, the official charged to make the observation pitched his tent there some days before.

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  • The execution was as excellent as the conception, and if we reflect that it was begun in the midst of that momentous war which raised England to her climax of territorial greatness in East and West, we may easily realize how the task of describing these portentous and far-reaching events would be likely to strengthen Burke's habits of wide and laborious observation, as well as to give him firmness and confidence in the exercise of his own judgment.

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  • Yet Disraeli's range of observation must have been not only brief but limited when he sat down at twenty or twenty-one to write Vivian Grey.

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  • There was a great deal too (though little to his blame) in Lord Malmesbury's observation that he was not only disliked in the House of Commons for his mysterious manner, but prejudiced by a pronounced foreign air and aspect.

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  • The immediate cavities or pits into which the tracheal stigmata open appear to be in many cases ectodermic in sinkings, but there seems to be no reason (based on embryological observation) for regarding the tracheae as an ingrowth of the ectoderm.

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  • Anything, as far as " constant observation " tells us, might a priori have been the natural cause of anything; and no finite number of " observed " sequences, per se, can guarantee universality and necessity.

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  • Several years before this appointment he had made himself a name by an elegant solution of the problem to find the sun's equator and determine the period of its rotation by observation of the spots on its surface.

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  • Among these subjects were the transit of Mercury, the Aurora Borealis, the figure of the earth, the observation of the fixed stars, the inequalities in terrestrial gravitation, the application of mathematics to the theory of the telescope, the limits of certainty in astronomical observations, the solid of greatest attraction, the cycloid, the logistic curve, the theory of comets, the tides, the law of continuity, the double refraction micrometer, various problems of spherical trigonometry, &c. In 1742 he was consulted, with other men of science, by the pope, Benedict XIV., as to the best means of securing the stability of the dome of St Peter's, Rome, in which a crack had been discovered.

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  • In expounding these, he gives throughout the pure result of analytical observation of the common moral consciousness of his age.

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  • The abundant store of just and close analytical observation contained in Aristotle's account of these notions give it a permanent interest, even beyond its historical value as a delineation of the Greek ideal of " fair and good " life.

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  • With the generation of moralists that followed, the consideration of abstract rational principles falls into the background, and its place is taken by introspective study of the human mind, observation of the actual play of its various impulses and sentiments.

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  • Co-ordinates referred to.a point of observation as the origin are termed " apparent," those referred to the centre of the earth are " geocentric," those referred to the centre of the sun, " heliocentric."

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  • At the base of every system of astronomical observation is the law that, in the voids of space, a ray of light moves in a right line.

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  • In the first system of co-ordinates already described the fundamental axis is the vertical line or direction of gravity at the point of observation.

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  • It is therefore necessary to correct the observation for this effect.

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  • Having effected this reduction, and computed the correction to be applied to the observation in order to eliminate all known errors to which the instrument is liable, the work of the practical astronomer is completed.

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  • But these, to the untutored imagination, present a mystical, as well as a mechanical aspect; and barbaric familiarity with the heavens developed at an early age, through the promptings of superstition, into a fixed system of observation.

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  • Records dating from the reign of Sargon of Akkad (3800 B.C.) imply that even then the varying aspects of the sky had been long under expert observation.

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  • He perfected the art of pre-telescopic observation.

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  • Hence, the preparation of a catalogue recording the " mean " positions of a number of stars for a given epoch involves considerable preliminary labour; nor do those positions long continue to satisfy observation.

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  • In recent times photography has been so successfully applied to the mapping of our satellites as nearly to supersede visual observation.

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  • Still, the question whether everything on the moon's surface is absolutely unchangeable is as yet an open one, with the general trend of opinion toward the affirmative, so far as any actual proof from observation is concerned.

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  • The parallax of the moon is determined by observation from two widely separated points; the most accurate measures are those made at Greenwich and at the Cape of Good Hope.

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  • After the establishment of universal gravitation as the primary law of the celestial motions, the problem was reduced to that of integrating the differential equations of the moon's motion, and testing the completeness of the results by comparison with observation.

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  • His first recorded observation was made before he was sixteen, and the presentation of an elaborate lunar map procured for him admission to the Academy, on the 21st of April 1736, at the early age of twenty.

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  • He had a most retentive memory and a very keen power of observation.

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  • Its elevation as at present determined by trigonometrical observation is 2 9, 002 ft., but it is possible that further investigation into the value of refraction at such altitudes will result in placing the summit even higher.

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  • Fittig and Erdmann's observation that phenyl isocrotonic acid readily yielded a-naphthol by loss of water was of much importance, since it afforded valuable evidence as to the constitution of naphthalene.

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  • The lateness of the season forced him to round Cape Horn in very stormy weather, and the navigating instruments of the time did not allow of exact observation.

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  • Among its results were determinations of the lunar and of the solar parallax (Mars serving as an intermediary), the first measurement of a South African arc of the meridian, and the observation of io,000 southern stars.

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  • A refuge of Italian pauperism in the time of the Gracchi, after the triumph of the oligarchy the Narbonnaise became a field for shameless exploitation, besides providing, under the proconsulate of Caesar, an excellent point of observation whence to watch the intestine quarrels between the different nations of Gaul.

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  • The reformers shook off the yoke of systems in order boldly to renovate both knowledge and faith; and, instead of resting on the abstract a priori principles within which man and nature had been imprisoned, they returned to the ancient methods of observation and analysis.

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  • Thus Hume is a positivist in the sense that he specifically restricts philosophy to the sphere of observation, and regards the causal relation as being nothing more than what we have been accustomed to expect.

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  • In Germany many of the followers of Kant have in greater or less degree maintained the view that all true knowledge depends upon the observation of objective phenomena.

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  • The climate of the higher grounds is healthy, and meteorological observation does not justify the reputation for cold and damp often given to the county as a whole.

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  • By way of concrete illustration Herbart instances "the common observation that the properties of things exist only under external conditions.

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