His observance was not only dead-on, it was disturbing.
This observance was maintained from James II.'s coronation to that of George III.
Cannibalism seems also to have sometimes been in the nature of a funeral observance, in honour of the deceased, of whom the relatives reverently ate portions.
Nothing is more remarkable than their minute care as to observance of rules of procedure.
The Babylonian calendars contain explicit directions for the observance of abstention from certain secular acts on certain days which forms a close parallel to the Jewish Sabbatical rules.
16, which enjoins the duty of study and of scrupulousness in the observance of religious ordinances, only a very remarkable characterization of the different natures of the scholars remains (Aboth di R.
By the time when Latin literature begins, the genuine Roman religion had already been overlaid by foreign cults and modes of thought, by the classical period it was - except in formal observance - practically buried and to a large extent fossilized.
Many religious teachers and many revolutionaries were crucified within this period; and the early Christians were outwardly distinguished from other Jews only by their scrupulous observance of religious duties.
Their eastern boundary, in the teeth of the spirit of the conventions, and with but scant observance of the letter, was by this means considerably extended.
No system of doctrine and observance, no manuals containing authoritative rules of morality, were ever transmitted in documentary form.
On the other hand, complete indentity of regulations and observance in Babylonia and Israel at one period need not show more than development on the same lines.
complete observance of Sunday rest was not generally possible to the early Christians before Christendom obtained civil recognition.'
The new covenant of redeeming grace - the righteousness which is in the heart and not in externalities of legal observance or ceremonial - are once more proclaimed, and the exalted ideals of the suffering servant of Isa.
At that time the Syrians and Antiochenes were the solitary champions of the observance of the fourteenth day.
No real attempt has ever been made to observe the decree, and indeed observance has been impossible seeing the dangers which never cease to menace the empire.
The centre of gravity in Hebrew religion was shifted from ceremonial observance and local sacra to righteous conduct.
He says: "The apostles had no thought of appointing festival days, but of promoting a life of blamelessness and piety"; and he attributes the observance of Easter by the church to the perpetuation of an old usage, "just as many other customs have been established."
the observance of Easter, viz.
In place of the old covenant based on external observance, which had been violated, there was to be a new covenant which was to consist not in outward prescription, but in the law which God would place in the heart (Jer.
The enormous number of dated documents has induced some scholars to attempt a statistical research into the observance of the 7th, 14th, 21st, 28th and 19th days of the months as Sabbaths.
With the one the observance of the day of the month, with the other the observance of the day of the week, was the guiding principle.
The observance of such days was a bar to attending even to important diplomatic business or setting out on a journey Such nubattu days fell on the 3rd, 7th and 16th of the intercalary month of Elul, and were noted as the nubattu of Marduk and his consort.
On this occasion he vindicated the sanctity of the temple by expelling Tobiah, reorganized the supplies for the Levites, took measures to uphold the observance of the Sabbath, and protested energetically against the foreign marriages.
The steps by which the practice of resting from labour on the Lord's day instead of on the Sabbath was established in Christendom and received civil as well as ecclesiastical sanction are dealt with under Sunday; it is enough to observe here that this practice is naturally and even necessarily connected with the religious observance of the Lord's day as a day of worship and religious gladness, and is in full accordance with the principles laid down by Jesus in His criticism of the Sabbath of the Scribes.
This mullah, Mahommed bin Abdullah by name, had made several pilgrimages to Mecca, where he had attached himself to a sect which enjoined strict observance of the tenets of Islam and placed an interdiction on the use of the leaves of the kat plant - much sought after by the coast Arabs and Somali for their stimulating and intoxicating properties.
Refusing to be crowned, or even to take the usual oaths of observance, he simply announced his accession to the Hungarian counties, and then deliberately proceeded to break down all the ancient Magyar institutions.
The danger of loss from forest fires, such as that of 1894, emphasized the necessity of forest preservation, and resulted (1895) in the creation of a special state department with a forest commissioner and five wardens with power to enforce upon corporations and individuals a strict observance of the forestry laws, the good effects of the law being evidenced by the fact that the fire losses in forest lands for the first twelve years of its operation averaged only $31,000 a year.
A stricter life was introduced into the papal court; the regular observance of the services of the Church was enjoined; many of the grosser abuses were prohibited.
This is not the conclusion of many observers, but it may be due to the excessive infant mortality among the lower classes, where an observance of the simplest sanitary laws is practically unknown.
To him, as to the Deuteronomic legislation, the forms of legal observance are of value only as the fitting expression of Israel's peculiar sonshin and service, and he shows himself a true prophet when he contrasts the worthless ministry of unwilling priests with the pure offering of prayer and praise that rises from the implicit monotheism of even Gentile worship 2 (i.
From that time I have spent the whole of my life within that monastery devoting all my pains to the study of the scriptures; and amid the observance of monastic discipline, and the daily charge of singing in the church, it has ever been my delight to learn or teach or write.
There is no indication of the observance of the Easter festival in the New Testament, or in the writings of the apostolic Fathers.
Although the observance of Easter was at a very early period the practice of the Christian church, a serious difference as to the day for its observance soon arose between the Christians of Jewish and those of Gentile descent, which led to a long and bitter controversy.
They did not dedicate each day in turn to its astrological planet; and it is therefore precarious to assume that the Sabbath was in its origin what it is in the astrological week, the day sacred to Saturn, and that its observance is to be derived from an ancient Hebrew worship of that planet.4 The week, however, is found in various parts of the world in a form that has nothing to do with astrology or the seven planets, and with such a distribution as to make it pretty certain that it had no artificial origin, but suggested itself independently, and for natural reasons, to different races.
Such business as did not profane the Sabbath according to Babylonian ideas cannot be quoted against their observance of their Sabbath.
Modern criticism of the history of Sabbath observance among the Hebrews has done nothing more than follow out these arguments in detail, and show that the result is in agreement with what is known as to the dates of the several component parts of the Pentateuch.
Reverting to the origin and the meaning of the feast, modern criticism draws attention to the different nature of the two observances combined with the name Passover, the pastoral sacrifice of the paschal lamb and the agricultural observance of a seven days' abstention from unleavened bread.
In addition to the encyclical letter, nineteen resolutions were put forth, and the reports of twelve special committees are appended upon which they are based, the subjects being intemperance, purity, divorce, polygamy, observance of Sunday, socialism, care of emigrants, mutual relations of dioceses of the Anglican Communion, home reunion, Scandinavian Church, Old Catholics, &c., Eastern Churches, standards of doctrine and worship. Perhaps the most important of these is the famous "Lambeth Quadrilateral," which laid down a fourfold basis for home reunion - the Holy Scriptures, the Apostles' and Nicene creeds, the two sacraments ordained by Christ himself and the historic episcopate.
The Long Parliament had ordered a strict observance of Sunday, punished swearing severely, and made adultery a capital crime; Cromwell issued further ordinances against duelling, swearing, racemeetings and cock-fights - the last as tending to the disturbance of the public peace and the encouragement of "dissolute practices to the dishonour of God."
The steady dependence of Sparta on the Delphic oracle, for example, is best explained as an observance inherited from Parnassian ancestors.
At the same time he mitigated the Francophil tendencies of some of his colleagues, accompanied King Humbert and Queen Margherita on their visit to Homburg in September 1897, and, by loyal observance of the spirit of the triple alliance, retained for Italy the confidence of her allies without forfeiting the goodwill of France.
At all stages of religious development, however, and more especially in the case of the more primitive types of cult, prayer as thus understood occurs together with, and shades off into, other varieties of observance that bear obvious marks of belonging to the same family.
Further evidence of the antiquity of Australian man is to be found in the strict observance of tribal boundaries, which would seem to show that the tribes must have been settled a long time in one place.
By this instrument the deputies of Hainault, Artois and Douay formed themselves into a league for the defence of the Catholic religion, and, subject to his observance of the political stipulations of the Union of Brussels, professed loyal allegiance to the king.
Although measures had thus been taken to secure uniformity of observance, and to put an end to a controversy which had endangered Christian unity, a new difficulty had to be encountered owing to the absence of any authoritative rule by which the paschal moon was to be ascertained.
These latter unfairly attempted to fix the stigma of the Quartodeciman observance on the British and Celtic churches, and they are even now sometimes ignorantly spoken of as having followed the Asiatic practice as to Easter.
He then removed to Bury St Edmunds, where he acted as lecturer for ten years, retiring when his bishop (Wren) insisted on the observance of certain ceremonial articles.
In conditional baptism the Latins, since about the year 1227, use the formula, " If thou art not baptized, then do I baptize thee," &c. The Latins further insist on a strict observance of the traditional matter and form.
"It was remarked," says Miss Martineau, in her History of the Peace, " that he was not treated in the House with the courtesy usually accorded to a new member, and it was perceived that he did not need such observance."
To that end it insisted upon the strict observance of the Treaties of Versailles, of St.
Strictly speaking, therefore, the Sabbath was neither a day of relief to toiling humanity nor a day appointed for public worship; the positive duties of its observance were to wear one's best clothes, eat, drink and be glad (justified from Isa.'viii.
It is not to be supposed that either Amos or Isaiah would have countenanced the total suppression of all sacrificial observance.
Every religion has its customary cult and ritual, its recognized times, places and persons for the observance.
This belief was supported by the Delphic oracle, which was largely instrumental in promoting hero-worship and keeping alive its due observance.
by the bull Benedictina tried to give further development to the system and to secure its general observance.
Among those of New Haven are the prohibition of trial by jury, the infliction of the death penalty for adultery, and of the same penalty for conspiracy against the jurisdiction, the strict observance of the Sabbath enjoined, and heavy fines for " concealing or entertaining Quaker or other blasphemous hereticks."
At the global level, Pakistan supports calls for continued observance of the ABM Treaty.
In resolutions 44 to 53 the conference deals with the duty of the Church towards modern democratic ideals and social problems; affirms the responsibility of investors for the character and conditions of the concerns in which their money is placed (49); "while frankly acknowledging the moral gains sometimes won by war" strongly supports the extension of international arbitration (52); and emphasizes the duty of a stricter observance of Sunday (53).
This sacrifice of local autonomy was in a measure prepared for by an earlier centralizing movement proper to the churches themselves, whereby those in certain areas met in conference or " synod " to formulate a common policy on local problems. Such inter-church meetings cannot be traced back beyond the latter half of the 2nd century, and were purely ad hoc and informal, called to consider specific questions like Montanism and Easter observance.
This paper suggests that the AOL Time Warner debacle is a warning to those who would propose greater observance of shareholder primacy.
This centralization involved the removal of the local priests and a modification of ritual and legal observance.
Jerusalem was occupied by an army which took advantage of the Sabbath and proceeded to suppress its observance.
For opposite reasons, neither the Greek nor the Jewish mind lent itself readily to mysticism: the Greek, because of its clear and sunny naturalism; the Jewish, because of its rigid monotheism and its turn towards worldly realism and statutory observance.
Among the many early English kings who visited or passed through Cardiff was Henry II., on whom in 1171, outside St Piran's chapel (which has long since disappeared), was urged the duty of Sunday observance.
and James II.; she had caused laws and writs to run in her own name, she had neglected to exact the oath of allegiance to the sovereign, though carefully exacting an oath of fidelity to her own government, she had protected the regicides, she had coined money with her own seal, she had blocked legal appeals to the English courts, she had not compelled the observance of the navigation acts.
Under the auspices of Charlemagne and Louis the Pious he initiated a scheme for federating into one great order, with himself as abbot general, all the monasteries of Charles's empire, and for enforcing throughout a rigid uniformity in observance.
But the influence of Cluny, even on monasteries that did not enter into its organism, was enormous; many adopted Cluny customs and practices and moulded their life and spirit after the model it set; and many such monasteries became in turn centres of revival and reform in many lands, so that during the 10th and 11th centuries arose free unions of monasteries based on a common observance derived from a central abbey.
Basing themselves on St Gregory's counsel to St Augustine, Dunstan, lEthelwold and Oswald adopted from the observance of foreign monasteries, and notably Fleury and Ghent, what was suitable for the restoration of English monachism, and so produced the Concordia Regularis, interesting as the first serious attempt to bring about uniformity of observance among the monasteries of an entire nation.
Hence Israel was to unite with God and these two orders in the observance of the sabbath.
The arduous task of enforcing the observance of these treaties fell upon the Government of India and involved great sacrifice of lives and money.
The sacred badge of the Jews' religion, which marked them off from other men all the world over, was their observance of the Sabbath.
In other directions, too, the teachings of Maholnet were to be judiciously revised, on the principle that the Prophet himself would never have allowed observance of any of his precepts to put his followers at a permanent disadvantage in competition with infidels.
as to the fixed legislation of the Pentateuch, so that the whole narrative might be made to teach that the glory of Israel lies in the observance of the divine law and ritual.
He tells of the English observance of Saturday afternoon as holy to the Virgin, and has much to say of popular amusements, which become sins when they keep people away from church.
The transformed spiritual life of the believer expresses itself not in the observance of the Jewish law, but in love, purity and peace.
Other fundamental principles of Paul's failed of comprehension and acceptance, but the belief finally prevailed that the observance of Jewish law and custom was unnecessary, and that in the Christian Church there is no distinction between the circumcised and the uncircumcised.
Among the laity, on the other hand, the ideal of holiness found realization in the observance of the ordinary principles of morality recognized by the world at large, in attendance upon the means of grace provided by the Church, in fasting at stated intervals, in eschewing various popular employments and amusements, and in almsgiving and prayer.
The Pharisees themselves could not but see that their principles were politically impotent; the most scrupulous observance of the Sabbath, for example - and this was the culminating point of legality - could not thrust back the heathen.
The basis of the life was the Benedictine rule, but the observance of abstinence and silence went beyond it in stringency.
No success met the apparently well-meaning efforts of the Central Japanese League which was organized in November and December 1903 to promote the observance of law and order by the Japanese in the islands, who assumed a too independent attitude and felt themselves free from governmental control whether Japanese or American; indeed, after the League had been in operation for a year or more, it almost seemed that it contributed to industrial disorders among the Japanese.
Its strength is shown in England in the growing readiness of the different religious bodies to co-operate in movements for the purifying of public morality and for the better observance - of Sunday.
This sanctioned jurisdiction of Catholic bishops, and observance of certain rites, while all were to accept justification by faith (relegating sola to the adiaphora).
269-274) decreed that " mass should be celebrated above the tombs of martyrs " - an observance probably suggested by the passage in Revelation vi.
When William of Malmesbury describes the knighting of Athelstan by his grandfather Alfred the Great, that is, his investiture " with a purple garment set with gems and a Saxon sword with a golden sheath," there is no hint of any religious observance.
a national effort, the strict code of chivalry was more honoured in the breach than in the observance.'
So far as the Church of England is concerned it may fairly be said to have started afresh in the year following the first observance of the Day of Intercession for Missions, on the 20th of December 1872.
The observance of that first Day of Intercession was followed by an immediate change, and unquestionably there has been progress ever since.
He laid himself out to diffuse the system, and also to carry out a reform of its abuses by en- forcing a strict observance of the Rule of St Benedict (of whom, it may be noted, he was the earliest biographer).
(See Easter.) From its earliest observance, the day was marked by a specially rigorous fast, and also, on the whole, by a tendency to greater simplicity in the services of the church.
The "three hours" service, borrowed from Roman Catholic usage and consisting of prayers, addresses on the "seven last words from the cross" and intervals for meditation and silent prayer, has become very popular in the Anglican Church, and the observance of the day is more marked than formerly among Nonconformist bodies, even in Scotland.
At all of these Holdheim was a strong supporter of the policy of modifying ritual (especially with regard to Sabbath observance, marriage laws and liturgical customs).
In Germany itself internal order was established by a strict appliance of the existing laws against those who broke the peace, fresh orders for its observance were issued, and in.
resulted in the better observance of the rules for the publication of books, but apparently did not modify the practice as regards the reading of prohibited books.
Carthage, after a long period of abstention from intervention in Sicilian affairs, and the observance of a wise neutrality during the war between Athens and Syracuse, stepped in as the ally of Segesta, the enemy of her old ally Selinus.
These rites recall our May day observance, and give colour to the earthgoddess theory.
The maintenance of the indivisibility of the realm and of the Christian faith according to the Augsburg Confession, and the observance of the Kongelov itself, are now the sole obligations binding upon the king.
It would appear, however, that Cerinthus laid stress on the rite of circumcision and on the observance of the Sabbath.
17), the use of leaven in sacrifices (25a), the retention of the sacrifice until the morning (25b), 5 and the seething of a kid in its mother's milk (26b); and en j oins the observance of the three annual feasts and the Sabbath (18a, 21-23), and the dedication of the first-born (19, 20, derived from xiii.
24-26) and the observance of the seventh year (xxiii.
20-33, the promises attached to the observance of the covenant, probably formed no part of the original code, but were added by the Deuteronomic redactor; cf.
is found to exhibit a number of variations, and, in particular, assigns an entirely different reason for the observance of the Sabbath.
II, which bases the observance of the Sabbath on P 's narrative of the Creation (Gen.
I-I I) and the observance of the Sabbath (12-17).
12-26 contains just ten precepts forming a second decalogue.2 These consist not of precepts of social morality, but of several laws of religious observance closely corresponding to the religious and ritual precepts of Ex.
They prohibit (1) the worship of other gods, (2) the making of molten images; they ordain (3) the observance of the feast of unleavened bread, (4) the feast of weeks, (5) the feast of ingathering at the end of the year, and (6) the seventhday rest; to Yahweh belong (7) the firstlings, and (8) the firstfruits of the land; they forbid also (9) the offering of the blood of sacrifice with leaven, (io) the leaving-over of the fat of a feast until the morning, and (r1) the seething of a kid in its mother's milk.
as Amos stood to his contemporaries, whose whole religion lay in the observance of sacred feasts.
28 ff.), the ancient Church emphasized the permanent obligation of the ten commandments as a summary of natural in contradistinction to ceremonial precepts, though the observance of the Sabbath was to be taken in a spiritual sense (Augustine, De spiritu et litera, xiv.; Jerome, De celebratione Paschae).
They were also concerned to insist upon the strict observance of the Law, so far as it was compatible with the exigencies of ordinary life, and to train disciples who should set a proper example to the mass of the people.
The " planting " of ministers in the highlands, which had since the Reformation been almost destitute of religious instruction, bred a populace singularly strict in the matter of " Sabbath observance," and, except in districts still Catholic or Episcopalian, eager supporters of the Free churches.
Frequent annealings are necessary to prevent fracture of the metal; but with these and the observance of certain other precautions of a practical character the degree of extension possible is enormous.
Great Britain disclaimed any intention of altering the political status or (subject to the observance of the treaty of 1905) of interfering in the administration or annexing any territory of Afghanistan, and engaged to use her influence there in no manner threatening to Russia.
Nicholas issued the bull Exiit on the 14th of August 1279 to settle the strife within the Franciscan order between the parties of strict and loose observance.
The question will arise some day whether it is really necessary to maintain fifty-six local prisons, with all their elaborate paraphernalia, their imposing buildings and expensive staff, to maintain discipline in daily life and insist upon the proper observance of customs and usages, many of them of purely modern invention.
The observance and manner of life was, relatively to those times, mild, meat being allowed four days in the week.
The making and the observance of treaties is necessarily a very early phenomenon in the history of civilization, and the theory of treaties was one of the first departments of international law to attract attention.
Paul insists that he was appointed the apostle to the Gentiles, as Peter was to the Circumcision; and that circumcision and the observance of the Jewish law were of no importance to the Christian as such.
In Galatians he claims perfect freedom in principle, for himself as for the Gentiles, from the obligatory observance of the law; and neither in it nor in Corinthians does he take any notice of a decision to which the apostles had come in their meeting at Jerusalem.
Dionysius Alexandrinus also, in his canonical epistle (260 A.D.), refers to the six fasting days (E Twv Pr YTECwv iijApac) in a manner which implies that the observance of them had already become an established usage in his time.
Yet violations of these rules are jealously watched by the other members of the sept, and are liable - in accordance with the general custom in which communal matters are regulated in India - to be brought before a special council (panchayat), originally consisting of five (pancha), but now no longer limited to that number, since it is chiefly the greater or less strictness in the observance of caste rules and the orthodox ceremonial generally that determine the status of the sept in the social scale of the caste.
The distinctive features of their creed consist in their making Rama and Sita, either singly or conjointly, the chief objects of their adoration, instead of Vishnu and Lakshmi, and their attaching little or no importance to the observance of privacy in the cooking and eating of their food.
The careful regulations given in the Codes and the Digest show the observance of technical conditions as to assessment and accounting.
Mechanical uniformity and minute regulation are inadequate substitutes for observance of the canons of equality, certainty and economy in the operation of the tax system.
The Protesters, who were in favour with the common people, are chargeable with having brought into Scottish church life the observance of fastdays, and of the long and excited Communion services which were kept up for two and a half centuries and may still be witnessed in the Highlands.
Arguing from the Old Testament, they represented Paul's gospel as an imperfect creed which required to be supplemented by legal exactitude, 2 including ritual observance (iv.
The sole valid charter to Messianic privileges was observance of the Mosaic law, which remained obligatory upon pagan converts (iii.
Next comes the preservation of order, the protection of all reputable people, and the maintenance of public peace by checking riot and disturbance or noisy demonstration, by enforcing the observance of the thousand and one regulations laid down for the general good.
Only eight months before, Catherine had haughtily declared that "the odious and revolting aggression" of the king of Sweden would be "forgiven" only if he "testified his repentance" by agreeing to a peace granting a general and unlimited amnesty to all his rebels, and consenting to a guarantee by the Swedish diet ("as it would be imprudent to confide in his good faith alone") for the observance of peace in the future.
Additional decisions were necessitated by the violent disputes which raged within the Franciscan order as to the observance of the rules of St Francis of Assisi, and by the multitude of subordinate questions arising from this.
29-34a, rules for the observance of a yearly fast day, having for their object the purification of the sanctuary and of the people; (3) vv.
lays down regulations for the observance of (a) the Sabbatical year, vv.
The observance of the Ember days is confined to the Western Church, and had its origin as an ecclesiastical ordinance in Rome.
440-461, Wednesday, Friday and Saturday were already the days of special observance.
The rule once introduced commended itself to the mind of the church, and its observance spread.
Before it had been made known in sundry portions to the fathers, it had been kept in heaven by the angels, and to its observance there was no limit in time or in eternity.
This proof rests, objectively regarded, on a fallacy; for the law, of which the validity is threatened by the doctrine of justification, is that part of the book of the law which demands the observance of all commands, not that which relates anything about Abraham.
tonsura, from tondere, to shave), a religious observance in the Roman Catholic and Orthodox Eastern Churches, consisting of the shaving or cutting part of the hair of the head as a sign of dedication to special service.
The observance or variation of the discipline belongs to the Congregation of Rites; in pontifical processions, which are regulated by the masters of the ceremonies (magistri ceremoniarum pontificalium), these points are decided by the chief cardinal deacon.
The peasants reassure themselves by the use of charms and spells, and by a strict observance of the forms which their creed prescribes.
Combined with these is the Sunday Epistle, sent from Heaven, enjoining strict observance, not only of Sunday, but also of Friday and Wednesday, as holy days.
Purged of elements obviously heathen, the Ka`ba became the holiest site, and the pilgrimage the most sacred ritual observance of Mahommedanism, drawing worshippers from so wide a circle that the confluence of the petty traders of the desert was no longer the main feature of the holy season.
40), but it does not appear that, so far as the common people were concerned, the observance of these festivals (which were purely local) was compulsory.
16.7 Sometimes the observance of such fasts extended over a considerable period of time, during which, of course, the stricter jejunium was conjoined with abstinentia (Dan.
19), had by no means encouraged the observance of them, the rebuilding of the temple does not appear to have been considered an achievement of sufficient importance to warrant their discontinuance.
The real origin of these fasts and the date of their introduction are alike uncertain; it is manifest, however, that the observance of them was voluntary, and never made a matter of universal obligation.
There are early traces of the customary observance of the Wednesday and Friday fasts - the dies stationu y n (Clem.
About the year 306 the synod of Illiberis in its 26th canon decided in favour of the observance of the Saturday fast.
3 The synod of Laodicea framed several rules with regard to the observance of " Lent," such as that " during Lent the bread shall not be offered except on Saturday and Sunday " (can.
Though the introduction of the four Ember seasons was not entirely due to him, as has sometimes been asserted, it is certain that their widespread observance was due to his influence, and to that of his successors, especially of Gregory the Great.
Should its observance at the appointed time be interfered with by sickness or any other cause, the fast must be kept as soon afterwards as possible for a like number of days.
UNITARIANISM, a system of Christian thought and religious observance, based, as opposed to orthodox Trinitarianism, on the unipersonality of the Godhead, i.e.
He was commander-in-chief of the Grand Army of the Republic from 1868 to 1871, and in this position successfully urged the observance of Memorial or Decoration Day, an idea which probably originated with him.
The two friends assembled their adherents outside the city walls for the observance of the exercises of religion; and, according to Theodoret, it was in these meetings that the practice of antiphonal singing was first introduced in the services of the church.
The Assembly not only adopted this constitution but decreed that all beneficed ecclesiastics should swear to its observance.
" Temperantia " retains the meaning of " observance of due measure " in all conduct, which it had in Cicero's treatise; though its notion is partly modified by being blended with the newer virtue of humility.
" Deadly " sins were those for which formal ecclesiastical penance was held to be necessary, in order to save the sinner from eternal damnation; for " venial " sins he might obtain forgiveness, through prayer, almsgiving, and the observance of the regular fasts.
Human law is required, not merely to determine the details for which natural law gives no intuitive guidance, but also to supply the force necessary for practically securing, among imperfect men, the observance of the most necessary rules of mutual behaviour.
Thus there had become current the conception of a " state of nature " in which individuals or single families lived side by side - under none other than those " natural " laws which prohibited mutual injury and interference in the free use of the goods of the earth common to all, and upheld parental authority, fidelity of wives, and the observance of compacts freely made.
It is rather in the doctrine that even this indirect reasonableness of the most fundamental moral rules is entirely conditional on their general observance, which cannot be secured apart from government.
that may " use the strength and means of all " to enforce on all the observance of rules tending to the common benefit.
This Paley and Bentham (after Locke) interpreted as merely the effect on the will of the pleasures or pains attached to the observance or violation of moral rules, combining with this the doctrine of Hutcheson that " general good " or " happiness " is the final end and standard of these rules; while they eliminated all vagueness from the notion of general happiness by defining it to consist in " excess of pleasure over pain " - pleasures and pains being regarded as " differing in nothing but continuance or intensity."
For in answer to the question that immediately arises, How then are the sanctions of the moral rules which it will most conduce to the general happiness for men to observe, shown to be always adequate in the case of all the individuals whose observance is required ?
Sturla's power lies in his faithfulness to nature, minute observance of detail and purity of style.
He differed from the majority of his colleagues in his strict attitude towards Sunday observance and in favouring, in the case of adultery, both divorce and the re-marriage of the innocent party.
The importance of their heliacal risings, or first visible appearances at dawn, for the purposes both of practical life and of ritual observance, caused them to be systematically noted; the length of the year was accurately fixed in connexion with the annually recurring Nile-flood; while the curiously precise orientation of the Pyramids affords a lasting demonstration of the high degree of technical skill in watching the heavens attained in the third millennium B.C. The constellational system in vogue among the Egyptians appears to have been essentially of native origin; but they contributed little or nothing to the genuine progress of astronomy.
He also interested himself in a variety of schemes for the advancement of the social and religious welfare of the community, including the establishment of the Association for the Better Observance of Sunday, the foundation, with Hannah More, of schools at Cheddar, Somersetshire, a project for opening a school in every parish for the religious instruction of children, a plan for the education of the children of the lower classes, a bill for securing better salaries to curates, and a method for disseminating, by government help, Christianity in India.
But both Celt and Northman acknowledged the polity of Eugenius, and it was chiefly in the matters of tithe, Peter's pence, canonical degrees and the observance of festivals that Rome had still victories to gain.
Although there was no proper priesthood, the idol-keepers, the diviners, the day-declarers and some others formed a class of people closely connected with heathen customs and interested in their continued observance.
I O a perfect and sincere observance of religion for upwards of thirty years.
The observance of the law is strongly urged, and the cessation of prophecy deplored (iv.
§ 3), the observance of the two yearly festivals (vi.
The most this would prove is that Yahweh was using anthropomorphism in communicating to his people how central Sabbath observance was for them.
observance of the Sabbath, a holy day set apart from the rest of the working week.
observance of the torah on one level is utterly indifferent to right-standing with God.
observance of the precepts and the paying of respect.
observance of norms of Sharia during the sacrifice.
observance of the tenth anniversary at all levels.
The State must enforce the observance of human rights in its domestic legal order.
This Code sets out the arrangements made to secure observance of the Act.
Answer 5: The issue of corporate responsibility is central to our vision of ensuring the observance of the law in the long term.
The Department will undertake a broad campaign to promote the observance of the tenth anniversary at all levels.
The Commission on Human Rights, for example, monitors the observance of human rights throughout the world.
religious observance Your religion or beliefs may mean you have to pray at set times of day.
They stress the need for strict observance of national export control systems.
Right through the scrolls runs a tremendous stress on the due observance of the liturgical year.
Sabbath observance, food laws etc) showed that they belonged to God.
You, O Lord, have come into our time To lift the life of faith above ritual observance.
The Scriptures enforce the religious observance of Saturday, a day which we never sanctify.
The toffs claimed that they were merely following the strictures of the Bible on Sabbath observance.
A self made man, refined in manners the Imam has always stressed the performance of religious duties and observance of the Islamic tenets.
In fact, as our Lord puts it, the Rabbinical theory seemed to be that the Sabbath was not made for man but man for the Sabbath, the observance of which was so much an end in itself that the rules prescribed for it did not require to be justified by appeal to any larger principle of religion or humanity.
But that it was destitute of any properly religious observance or meaning is inconceivable, for, though many of the religious ideas of the old Hebrews were crude, their institutions were never arbitrary and meaningless, and when they spoke of consecrating the Sabbath they must have had in view some religious exercise of an intelligible kind by which they paid worship to Yahweh.
Of the legal passages that speak of the Sabbath all those which show affinity with the doctrine of the Scribes - regarding the Sabbath as an arbitrary sign between Yahweh and Israel, entering into details as to particular acts that are forbidden, and enforcing the observance by severe penalties, so that it no longer has any religious value, but appears as a mere legal constraint - are post-exilic (Exod.
- The Babylonian calendars contain explicit directions for the observance of abstention from certain secular acts on certain days which forms a close parallel to the Jewish Sabbatical rules.
The frequent Old Testament association of "new moons and Sabbaths" may point to an original observance of the 1st and 15th days of the month.
The evidence of Babylonian observance has not yet been exhaustively considered.
The decrees of this council defined Roman Catholicism against the Reformation; and, while failing to regenerate morality, they enforced a hypocritical observance of public decency.
But with the French at Civitavecchia (they had left Rome very soon after Mentana) If war for France was not to be thought of, and Napoleon would not promise more than the literal observance of the September convention.
But during the 18th century, though the strict observance of the Lenten fast was generally abandoned, it was still observed and inculcated by the more earnest of the clergy, such as William Law and John Wesley; and the custom of women wearing mourning in Lent, which had been followed by Queen Elizabeth and her court, survived until well into the 19th century.
It was the existing ceremonial observance divorced from the ethical piety that they denounced.
He devoted his wealth to the relief of the poor and other pious uses; and so, according to his deacon Pontius, who wrote a diffuse and vague account of his "life and passion," "realized two benefits: the contempt of the world's, ambition, and the observance of that mercy which God has preferred to sacrifice."
So far as the latter function is concerned Philo confesses that the Law in his day shared the obscurity of the people, and seems to imply that the proselytes adopted little more than the monotheistic principle and the observance of the Sabbath.
7, which has been erroneously supposed to refer to an apostolic observance of Easter.
17-20: the beginning of wisdom is desire for instruction, and devoted regard to instruction is love, and love is observance of her laws, and obedience to her laws is assurance of incorruption, and incorruption brings us near to God, and therefore desire for wisdom leads to a kingdom (but the nature of the kingdom is not stated).
They agreed with Byzantines in observing Lent, Christmas and Epiphany, but differed from them in the observance of all other feasts and fasts.
Samuel's name ultimately becomes a by-word for the inauguration and observance of religious custom (see I Chron.
Its emphasis on the observance of ri lual finds fullest development in the Priestly Code, subsequently promulgated; its protest against foreign marriages is made effective through the reforms of Ezra and Nehemiah;' the influence of its closing words on later expectation is familiar to every reader of the new Testament.'
xxix.-xxxi., &c.), and partly of narratives of victories and defeats, of sins and punishments, of obedience and its reward, which could be made to point a plain religious lesson in favour of faithful observance of the law (2 Chron.
legacy he left to Russia: a principle of government which, under lofty pretensions, veiled a tyranny supported by spies and secret police; an uncertain succession; an army permeated by organized disaffection; an armed Poland, whose hunger for liberty the tsar had whetted but not satisfied; the quarrel with Turkey, with its alternative of war or humiliation for Russia; an educational system rotten with official hypocrisy; a Church in which conduct counted for nothing, orthodoxy and ceremonial observance for everything; economical and financial conditions scarce recovering from the verge of ruin; and lastly, that curse of Russia, - serfdom.
The observance, however, is certainly of pagan origin; and at one time there were idols on both the so-called hills (see especially Azraqi, pp. 74, 78).
The faithful were simply enjoined to submit themselves to church authority on the subject; and the clergy were exhorted to urge their flocks to the observance of frequent jejunia, as conducive to the mortification of the flesh, and as assuredly securing the divine favour.
Still a general observance was involved in the idea of a natural law as a " dictate of right reason indicating the agreement or disagreement of an act with man's rational and social nature "; and we may observe that it was especially necessary to assume such a general observance in the case of contracts, since it was by an " express or tacit pact " that the right of property (as distinct from the mere right to noninterference during use) was held by him to have been instituted.
Thus (e.g.) " natural rights " become rights of which the general observance would be useful apart from the institution of civil government; as distinguished from the no less binding " adventitious rights," the utility of which depends upon this institution.
This capitulary ordered the celebration of baptism and other Christian rites and ceremonies in addition to the payment of tithes, and forbade the observance of pagan customs on pain of death.
Two tendencies appeared in the thought of the primitive Church, the one to regard Christianity as a law given by God for the government of men's lives, with the promise of a blessed immortality as a reward for its observance; the other to view it as a means by which the corrupt and mortal nature of man is transformed, so that he becomes a spiritual and holy being.
The Jagiellos, as a rule, prudently avoided committing themselves to any political system which might irritate the still distant but much-dreaded Turk, but when their dominions extended so far southwards as to embrace Moldavia, the observance of a strict neutrality became exceedingly difficult.
11 seq.); but full regulations for the legal observance of the Nazarite vow are given in Num.
Cyril, 67th patriarch, sent Severus as bishop, with orders to put down polygamy and to enforce observance of canonical consecration for all churches.
The early observance of the relative values may be inferred from Num.
Christ as to the inner character of a supper which he already found a ritual observance among believers.
Now in this second month of spring, in reverent observance of the old statutes, with victims, silks, spirits, and fruits, I offer sacrifice to thee.
The Observance Of This Rule Renders It Necessary To Reconcile Three Periods Which Have No Common Measure, Namely, The Week, The Lunar Month, And The Solar Year; And As This Can Only Be Done Approximately, And Within Certain Limits, The Determination Of Easter Is An Affair Of Considerable Nicety And Complication.
In Either Case, It Is Sometimes Made A Day More, And Sometimes A Day Less, In Order That Certain Festivals May Fall On Proper Days Of The Week For Their Due Observance.
HOLY, sacred, devoted or set apart for religious worship or observance; a term characteristic of the attributes of perfection and sinlessness of the Persons of the Trinity, as the objects of human worship and reverence, and hence transferred to those human persons who, either by their devotion to a spiritual ascetic life or by their approximation to moral perfection, are considered worthy of reverence.
Of the four souls of a Dakota, one is held to stay with the corpse, another in the village, a third goes into the air, while the fourth goes to the land of souls, where its lot may depend on its rank in this life, its sex, mode of death or sepulture, on the due observance of funeral ritual, or many other points (see Eschatology).
Now in this second month of spring, in reverent observance of the old statutes, with victims, silks, spirits, and fruits, I offer sacrifice to thee."
nonnus, nonna, familiar terms for an old man or woman), a member of a community of women, living under vows a life of religious observance (see Monasticism).
The great wealth of the old monastic orders exposed them, especially in France and Italy, to the vicious system of commendation, whereby a bishop, an ecclesiastic, or even a layman was appointed " commendatory abbot " of a monastery, merely for the purpose of drawing the revenues (see Abbot); the monasteries were often deprived even of necessary maintenance, the communities dwindled, and regular observance became impossible.
To overcome these ascetics it was necessary to have recourse to other ascetics, and from the outset the reformed Franciscans, or Franciscans of the Strict Observance, under the direction of their first leaders, Paoluccio da Trinci (d.
There is still a strong focus on family and a revered observance of Christianity.
Additionally, some are uncomfortable with religious observance, but still want to date others of the same background.
Beyond this practical observance, you'll also want to think about whether or not you'll want to, or have the time to, go through the process of putting on and attaching the Cami.
Clement XI., by bull of the 3rd of October 1716, directed the observance of the feast by all Christendom.
povaxos, one living alone, a solitary; µovos, alone), a member of a community of men living a life under vows of religious observance; the term is properly confined to a member of a Christian community, but is sometimes applied to members of Buddhist and Mahommedan religious brotherhoods.
Government will continue to direct all their efforts to the observance of the status quo in the Gulf, and the maintenance of British trade; in doing so they have no desire to exclude the legitimate trade of any other Power."
Is it probable, we ask, that our Lord should have neglected the sacred custom in accordance with which the pious Jew visited Jerusalem several times each year for the observance of the divinely appointed feasts ?
He issued an edict forbidding the reading of the law, the observance of the Sabbath, and the rite of circumcision; and determined to convert the still half-ruined Jerusalem into a Roman colony.
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