Objective Sentence Examples
Dean tried to be as objective as possible and let the report speak for itself.
Success will depend on objective criteria and visualizing the process.
The primary objective is to achieve best practice in long term interoperability between its systems.
The varied traditions up to this stage cannot be regarded as objective history.
Objective reality offers an optimistic glimpse of the future of religion.Advertisement
It thus represented a subjective creation, not an objective fact.
The objective ground on which he bases his system is the religious experience of the Christian community.
The safest thing for both of them was for him to keep his distance and remain objective.
In the new German Empire it is too completely overshadowed by Prussia to have any objective importance by itself.
It is taken, strangely enough, from an Israelite source, but the tone of the whole is quite dispassionate and objective.Advertisement
The group of rays coming from the left half of the objective can continue its way without hindrance to the right eye.
Dutreuil de Rhins and Fernand Grenard, both Frenchmen, left Cherchen, with Lhasa as their objective.
The group of rays coming from the right half of the objective is reflected twice in the prism and directed to the left eye.
Bienerth's policy was to confine himself in a purely objective spirit to the execution of the laws until such time as he had gradually gained the confidence of the nation.
But, although characterized by learning and acuteness, as well as by considerable breadth of spiritual sympathy, it cannot be said to have been accepted by Catholics themselves as embodying an accurate objective view of the actual doctrine of their church.Advertisement
In the realm of ideas the absolute finds itself, has its own nature over against itself as objective over against subjective, and thus is in the way of overcoming its abstractness, of becoming concrete.
Thus it turns out that the objective agency, the noumenal power, the absolute force, declared unknown and unknowable, is known after all to exist, persist, resist and cause our subjective affections or phenomena, yet not to think or to will.
Silesia remained a principal objective of the various contending armies and was occupied almost continuously by a succession of ill-disciplined mercenary forces whose depredations and exactions, accentuated at times by religious fanaticism, reduced the country to a state of helpless misery.
In many stands the objective can be centred instead of the plate.
An objective and non-party application of the laws, and equal rights for all nationalities, were in consequence the ever-recurring heads of their programme.Advertisement
Dale's Atonement (1875), the special point of which is that the death of Christ is not required by the personal demand of God to be propitiated, but by the necessity of honouring an ideal law of righteousness; thus, " the death of Christ is the objective ground on which the sins of men are remitted, because it was an act of submission to the righteous authority of the law by which the human race was condemned.
At present the belief in an objective atonement is still widely held; whether in the form of penal theories - the old forensic view that the death of Christ atones by paying the penalty of man's sin - or in the form of governmental theories; that the Passion fulfilled a necessity of divine government by expressing and vindicating God's righteousness.
But there is also a widespread inclination to minimize, ignore or deny the objective aspect of the atonement, the effect of the death of Christ on God's attitude towards men; and to follow the moral theories in emphasizing the subjective aspect of the atonement, the influence of the Passion on man.
Under the pseudonym George Taylor he wrote several historical romances, especially Antinous (1880), which quickly ran through five editions, and is the story of a soul "which courted death because the objective restraints of faith had been lost."
Therefore, in general terms, scepticism may be summarily defined as a thorough-going impeachment of man's power to know - a denial of the possibility of objective knowledge.Advertisement
Moreover, the arguments by which Heraclitus supported this theory of the universal flux are employed by Protagoras to undermine the possibility of objective truth, by dissolving all knowledge into the momentary sensation or persuasion of the individual.
The idea of an objective flux, or law of change constituting the reality of things, is abandoned, and subjective points of sense alone remain - which is tantamount to eliminating the real from human knowledge.
All real connexion or relation, therefore, and with it all possibility of an objective system, disappears; it is, in fact, excluded by Hume ab initio, for " the mind never perceives any real connexion among distinct existences."
The real "objective" to which our thoughts must show conformity is not a world of things in themselves, but the system of thiligs as it exists for a perfect intelligence.
Columbia, his first objective, was reached on the 17th of February 1865.
Quiros returned to Europe, and, obtaining command of a fleet, made a voyage in1605-1607during which he observed some of the Paumotu and Society Islands, and later discovered the small Duff group of the Santa Cruz Islands, passing thence to the main island of the New Hebrides, which he hailed as his objective, the southern continent.
The post - Aristotelian philosophy in all its branches makes withdrawal from the objective world its starting-point.
In his own view the turning points seem to have been - (1) the transition from Fichte's method to the more objective conception of nature - the advance, in other words, to Naturphilosophie; (2) the definite formulation of that which implicitly, as Schelling claims, was involved in the idea of Naturphilosophie, viz.
The theoretical side of inner nature in its successive grades from sensation to the highest form of spirit, the abstracting reason which emphasizes the difference of subjective and objective, leaves an unsolved problem which receives satisfaction only in the practical, the individualizing activity.
The practical, again, taken in conjunction with the theoretical, forces on the question of the reconciliation between the free conscious organization of thought and the apparently necessitated and unconscious mechanism of the objective world.
Petiifi was more subjective, more individual; Arany was more objective and national.
His objective is the minimum of change.
Aristotle was primarily a metaphysician, a philosopher of things, who uses the objective method of proceeding from being to thinking.
It might appear, therefore, that sensible things had an objective existence in the mind of God; that an idea so soon as it passes out of our consciousness passes into that of God.
The subjective mechanism of association which with Berkeley is but part of the true explanation, and is dependent on the objective realization in the divine mind, has been received as in itself a satisfactory theory.
He leaves it undetermined whether or not our knowledge of sense things, which is never entirely presentative, involves some reference to this objective course of nature or thought of the divine mind.
War against Turkey was resolved upon, and Azov, the chief Turkish fortress in those regions, which could be approached by water from Moscow, became the Russian objective.
The work is considered too subjective and fanciful, the great fault of the author being that he lacks the impartiality of objective historical insight.
In his Principles of Psychology he twice quotes his point that " what we are conscious of as properties of matter, even down to its weight and resistance, are but subjective affections produced by objective agencies which are unknown and unknowable."
Similarly, both in First Principles and in the Principles of Psychology, he assigns to us, in addition to our definite consciousness of our subjective affections, an indefinite consciousness of something out of consciousness, of something which resists, of objective existence.
Thus the complete metaphysical idealism of Fichte's Wissenschaftslehre formed out of the incomplete metaphysical idealism of Kant's Kritik, is the theor y on its epistemological side that the Ego posits the non-Ego as a thing in itself, and yet as only a thing existing for it as its own noumenon, and on its metaphysical side that in consequence all reality is the Ego and its own determinations, which are objective, or valid for all, as determinations, not of you or of me, but of the consciousness common to all of us, the pure or absolute Ego.
With this powerful instrument of dialectic in hand, he attempted to show how absolute reason differentiates itself into subjective and objective, ideal and real, and yet is the identity of both - an identity of opposites, as Schelling had said.
Further, holding that, " like every other perception, the perception of a human body immediately involves the existence of that body," and, like Fichte, believing in a " common consciousness," he concludes that the evidence of sense is verined by " common consciousness " of the external world as objective in the Kantian sense of universally valid.
Nothing could be more like Hume than his final statement that what we are conscious of is subjective affections produced by objective agencies unknown and unknowable.
He maintained that the physical and the psychical are two orders which are parallel without interference; that the physical or objective order is merely phenomena, or groups of feelings, or " objects," while the psychical or subjective order is both a stream of feelings of which we are conscious in ourselves, and similar streams which we infer beyond ourselves, or, as he came to call them, " ejects "; that, if we accept the doctrine of evolution at all, we must carry these ejective streams of feelings through the whole organic world and beyond it to the inorganic world, as a " quasimental fact "; that at bottom both orders, the physical phenomena and the psychical streams, are reducible to feelings; and that therefore there is no reason against supposing that they are made out of the same " mind-stuff," which is the thing-in-itself.
He infers the corollary that universal experience contains the same duality of subjective and objective factors without dualism.
Syllogism must indeed be objective, i.e.
And it is objective, not subjective, reason.
One way of receiving a stereoscopic impression through a microscope is by fixing an apparatus as directly as possible above the last lens of the microscopic objective, which divides the rays passing out and directs half into each eyepiece.
Lotze resolves space into " ideal space "; and finally, in the philosophy of religion, or in view of the thought of God (in his Metaphysics), he denies the objective existence of time.
In this argument he emphasizes the vagueness of the boundaries which mark off organic species with a view to show that these do not correspond to absolutely fixed divisions in the objective world, that they are made by the mind, not by nature.
His theory of the development of free-will (the objective spirit), which takes its start from Kant's conception of history, with its three stages of legal right, morality as determined by motive and instinctive goodness (Sittlichkeit), might almost as well be expressed in terms of a thoroughly naturalistic doctrine of human development.
His system is based on the unifying principle of imagination (Phantasie), which he extends to the objective creative force of Nature, as well as to the subjective mental phenomena to which the term is usually confined.
He too could attempt nothing more than to take up as objective an attitude as possible above parties.
From Reid he adopted the belief in an external world beyond sensation, from Biran the explanation of personality by will, from Schelling the identification of all reason in what he called " impersonal reason," which he supposed to be identical in God and man, to be subjective and objective, psychological and ontological.
The crusaders, whose objective had been Egypt, were persuaded to set their course for Constantinople, before which they appeared in June 1203, proclaiming the emperor Alexius IV.
The rays, rendered parallel by the collimator objective, meet a plane mirror (f) of silvered glass, which reflects them to the prisms (g, g').
Its universals have objective validity, though this does not involve direct real reference.
While man must confront nature from the human and largely the practical standpoint, yet his control is achieved only by the increasing recognition of objective controls.
The Molucca Islands being, at that time, the principal objective of European traders, and the route followed by - Magellan's ships being frequently used, Borneo was often touched at during the remainder of the 16th century, and trade relations with Brunei were successfully established by the Portuguese.
Guided by this objective criterion, and safeguarded by growing insight into the author's plastic aim, we need not despair of reaching large agreement as to the nature of the sources lying behind the first half of Acts.
Krauss's main attack was a straight drive through the Italian lines in the Plezzo basin, his first objective the Saga defile.
Governor Jackson thereupon sought to attain his ends by intrigue, and the national arsenal at St Louis became the objective of both parties.
Rosecrans with Chattanooga as his objective moved from Nashville upon General Braxton Bragg, who left the winter quarters he had established at Murfreesboro and met the Union army on Stone river immediately north of Murfreesboro, on the last day of December.
Julius holds that this sole fact robs of objective reality almost all the features of the sun, An al ou.
Next is related an event in which we may again see a subjective experience given under the form of an objective reality.
But if this construction is to be truly objective, i.e.
Many devices are available for changing the objective.
It is essential that the objective is always brought before the lower end of the tube in such a way that the optic axis of the objective coincides with the optic axis of the rest of the system.
The fittings of the objective and the changer are so arranged that little or no fine adjustment is necessary after the change.
In the sliding changer the objective is, dovetailed to a slide, the correct position being secured by clamps.
In the lower focal plane of the eyepiece, at the spot where the real image which the objective forms of the object arises, a glass plate is introduced on which are two fine cross lines or even two very thin threads.
The placing of the analyser near the objective has the advantage that the field of view is not restricted, as is the case if the analyser .is used above the eyepiece.
The image produced by the microscope objective M in its back focus plane is then observed through a supplementary microscope.
The first method uses the objective screw micrometer.
The objective screw micrometer is, however, not sufficiently delicate, and is only used when comparatively large objects are to be measured, and especially for objects whose edges do not appear at the same time in the field of view.
The UK is edging ever closer to the government's objective for 60% voting turnout at shareholder meetings.
The further assumption, that the modified notions thus gained have an objective meaning, and that they somehow correspond to the real order of the existing world which of course they can never actually describe, depends upon a general confidence which we must have in our reasoning powers, and in the significance of a world in which we ourselves with all the necessary courses of our thoughts have a due place assigned.
In this endeavour he forms with Herbart an opposition to the philosophies of Fichte, Schelling and Hegel, which aimed at objective and absolute knowledge, and also to the criticism of Kant, which aimed at determining the validity of all human knowledge.
C is the objective, D the micrometer box, E the graduated head of the screw, G the milled i r head by which the screw cc is turned, A an P FIG.
The focal length of the objective and the distance between the optical centre of the lens and the webs are so arranged that images of the divisions are formed in the plane of the webs, and the pitch of the screw is such that one division of the scale corresponds with some whole number of revolutions of the screw.
The Syrian coast was accordingly his immediate objective when he broke up from Gordium for the campaign of 333.
The Moluccas were, from the first, the objective of the Portuguese invaders, and no sooner had the white men found their way round the Cape of Good Hope and established themselves successively upon the coast of East Africa, in the neighbourhood of the Gulf of Aden and the Malabar coast, than Malacca, then the chief trading centre of the Malayan Archipelago, became the object of their desire.
He aimed at nothing less than the annihilation of the enemy's forces, which Clausewitz was the first to define, a hundred and fifty years later, as the true objective of military operations.
Even polytheism,' or something indistinguishable from it, is suggested to this doggedly empiricist mind by the Varieties of Religious Experience; they are all good to those to whom they appeal; and what right have we to talk of Objective standards?
Written by an Oriental people and clothed in an Oriental dress, the Old Testament does not contain objective records, but subjective history written and incorporated for specific purposes.
To express in any language or to illustrate by any images, from a purely objective standpoint, the infinitely complicated movements of the actual world, is a task far beyond human capacity.
Writers with none of the prejudices of the historical school, but with the cold and remorseless regard for logic of the purely objective critic, have pointed out serious inconsistencies here, the omission of important factors there, until very little of the " old Political Economy " is left unscathed.
These form, naturally and necessarily, the objective expression of moral ideas, and it is in some civic or social whole that the moral ideal must finally take concrete shape.
Remember to position your strengths and desires with what the company's advertised needs and goals are, but keep the resume objective brief.
Greece for her part had a minor objective in Epirus - a region of which the northern limit was vague - and as a major objective Salonika and the Aegean littoral beyond, not to mention more remote objects in Asia Minor.
The first objective was the old Turkish frontier fortress of Scutari, situated at the point where the Drinasa river flows into Lake Scutari, and consisting only of a castle and a few field-works on the hills surrounding the town.
The village became thereafter a storehouse of provisions and munitions of war, and hence became the objective of the British expedition that on the 19th of April 1775 opened with the armed conflict at Lexington the American War of Independence.
Colour itself is not objective; it is found not in the ultimate plenum and vacuum, but only in derived objects according to their physical qualities and relations.
Fort Pitt was one of the important objective points of Pontiac's conspiracy (1763), and as soon as the intentions of the Indians became evident, Captain Simeon Ecuyer, the Swiss officer in command of the garrison (which then numbered about 330), had the houses outside the ramparts levelled and prepared for a siege.
These conditions are the conditions of knowledge as such, or, as it may be put, of objective consciousness - of a self-consciousness of a world of objects and through them conscious of itself.
If self-consciousness be treated in this objective fashion, then we pass naturally from epistemology to metaphysics or ontology.
In the case of a beautiful object the resultant pleasure borrows its specific quality from the presence of determinations essentially objective in their nature, though not reducible to the categories of science.
Unless, indeed, we conceive our faculties to be constructed on some arbitrary plan which puts them out of relation to the facts with which they have to deal, we have a prima facie right to treat beauty as an objective determination of things.
For, if the members of a natural kind had no common idea to unite them, scientific research, having nothing objective in view, could at best afford a Aoyos or definition of the appropriate particulars; and, as the discrimination of the One and the Good implied the progression of particulars towards perfection, such a Xbyos or definition could have only a temporary value.
Like a law of nature, objective in the world, it gives order and regularity to the movement of things, and makes the system rational.3 The failure of Heraclitus to free himself entirely from the physical hypotheses of earlier times prevented his speculation from influencing his successors.
Again it is described as proceeding from God as the principle of creation and objective to Him.
But it represents the former as the framer of the world, as the power or spirit of God, active alike in the physical, the intellectual, and the ethical domain, and apparently objective to God.
If, then, there is objective truth at all, the existence of real facts must be made known to us otherwise than through the logical faculty of thought; and, as the regress from conclusion to premises must depend upon something not itself capable of logical grounding, mediate thought implies the consciousness of immediate truth.
These principles of reason, cause and substance, given thus psychologically, enable us to pass beyond the limits of the relative and subjective to objective and absolute reality, - enable us, in a word, to pass from psychology, or the science of knowledge, to ontology or the science of being.
I thus reach an objective impersonal world of forces which corresponds to the variety of my sensations.
Tylor - to the effect that it originated in the desire of the primitive man to bring on at will certain abnormal nervous conditions favourable to the seeing of those visions and the dreaming of those dreams which are supposed to give the soul direct access to the objective realities of the spiritual world.
With Anselm Ritschl takes Abelard, who explains the Atonement simply by God's love, and thus is the forerunner of " moral " or " subjective " modern theories as Anselm is of the " objective " or " forensic " theory.
He was present at Princeton; was chiefly responsible for the mistake in attacking the "Chew House" at Germantown; urged New York as the objective of the campaign of 1778; served with efficiencylat Monmouth and at Yorktown; and after the surrender of Cornwallis was promoted major-general, and served as a commissioner on the exchange of prisoners.
Hume argues that custom is a sufficient practical explanation of this gradual enlargement of our objective experience, and that no deeper explanation is open to man.
These distinctions, he insists, have an objective reality, The cognizable by reason no less than the relations of Cambridge space or number; and he endeavours to refute moralists, Hobbism - which he treats as a " novantique philo- C d sophy," a mere revival of the relativism of Protagoras - chiefly by the following argumentum ad hominem.
He argues that Hobbes's atomic materialism involves the conception of an objective physical world, the object not of passive sense that varies from man to man, but of the active intellect that is the same in all; there is therefore, he urges, an inconsistency in refusing to admit a similar exercise of intellect in morals, and an objective world of right and wrong, which the mind by its normal activity clearly apprehends as such.
It might either fall back on the moral principles commonly accepted, and, affirming their objective validity, endeavour to exhibit them as a coherent and complete set of ultimate ethical truths; or it might take the utility or conduciveness to pleasure, to which Hume had referred for the origin of most sentiments, as an ultimate end and standard by which these sentiments might be judged and corrected.
While right and wrong, in Price's view, are " real objective qualities " of actions, moral " beauty and deformity " are subjective ideas; representing feelings which are partly the necessary effects of the perceptions of right and wrong in rational beings as such, partly due to an " implanted sense " or varying emotional susceptibility.
The fourth, again, is the merely formal principle that " right and wrong must be the same to all in all circumstances," which belongs equally to all systems of objective morality; while the fifth prescribes the religious duty of " veneration or submission to God."
He holds, however, that this conscientious effort is self-deceived and futile, is even the very root of moral evil, except it attains its realization in harmony with the objective social relations in which the individual finds himself placed.
The materials for it were rapidly accumulated by the use of an objective prism, that is, of a prism placed in front of, instead of behind the object-lens, by which means the spectra of all the stars in the field, to the number often of many score, imprinted themselves simultaneously on the sensitive plate.
In philosophy Buridan was a rationalist, and followed Occam in denying all objective reality to universals, which he regarded as mere words.
The former fall into the two classes of feelings (subjective) and perceptions (objective); the latter, according as the receptive or the spontaneous element predominates, into cognition and volition.
It is in those two functions that the real life of the ego is manifested, but behind them is self-consciousness permanently present, which is always both subjective and objective - consciousness of ourselves and of the non-ego.
As regards Christian theology, it is not its business to formulate and establish a system of objective truth, but simply to present in a clear and connected form a given body of Christian faith as the contents of the Christian consciousness.
In Germany many of the followers of Kant have in greater or less degree maintained the view that all true knowledge depends upon the observation of objective phenomena.
Having thus determined what really is and what actually happens, our philosopher proceeds next to explain synthetically the objective semblance (der objective Schein) that results from these.
But the contradiction here is one we cannot eliminate by the method of relations, because it does not involve anything real; and in fact as a necessary outcome of an "intelligible" form, the fiction of continuity is valid for the "objective semblance," and no more to be discarded than say -1 - I.
Motion, even more evidently than space, implicates the contradictory conception of continuity, and cannot, therefore, be a real predicate, though valid as an intelligible form and necessary to the comprehension of the objective semblance.
The changes in this motion, however, for which we should require a cause, would be the objective semblance of the self-preservations that actually occur when reals meet.
But in all this it has been assumed that we are spectators of the objective semblance; it remains to make good this assumption, or, in other words, to show the possibility of knowledge; this is the problem of what Herbart terms Eidolology, and forms the transition from metaphysic to psychology.
Some nominative formsDis (anciently Dios, and in the Castilian of the Jews Dlo), Cdrias, Mdrcos, sastre (s a r t 0 r) have been adopted instead of forms derived from the accusative, but the vulgar Latin of the Peninsula in no instance presents two forms (subjective and objective case) of the same substantIve.
The compound microscope generally consists of two positive lens systems, so arranged that the system nearer the object (termed the objective) projects a real enlarged image, which occupies the same place relatively to the second system (the eyepiece or ocular) as does the real object in the simple microscope.
An image is therefore projected by the ocular from the real magnified image produced by the objective with increased magnification.
A microscope objective being made in essentially the same way as a simple microscope, and the front focus of the compound system being situated before the front focus of the objective, the magnification due to the simple system makes the free object distance greater than that obtained with a simple microscope of equal magnification.
The convenient and rapid change in the magnification obtained by changing the eyepiece or the objective is also a special advantage of the compound form.
In the commonest compound microscopes, which consist of two positive systems, a real magnified image is produced by the objective.
In that case, however, in the compound microscope a small object may always be represented by means of wider pencils, one of the foci of the objective (not of the collective system) being near it.
The development of the compound microscope essentially depends on the improvement of the objective; but no distinct improvement was made in its construction in the two centuries following the discovery.
From 1830 onwards many improvements were made in the miscroscope objective; these may be best followed from a discussion of the faults of the image.
In this case the optical tube length may be altered within fixed limits without spoiling the image; at the same time the objective magnification M is also altered.
This change is usually effected by mounting the objective and eyepiece on two telescoping tubes, so that by drawing apart or pushing in the tube length is increased or diminished at will.
When forming an image by a microscope objective it often happens that the transparent media bounding the system have different optical properties.
A series of objectives with short focal lengths are available, which permit the placing of a liquid between the cover-slip and the front lens of the objective; such lenses are known as " immersion systems "; objectives bounded on both sides by air are called " dry systems."
Nothing is altered as to objective magnification, however, as the first surface is plane, and the employment of the immersion means that the value of f l ' 'is unaltered.
If we assume that a normal eye observes the image through the eyepiece, the eyepiece must project a distant image from the real image produced by the objective.
In this case the optical tube length equals the distance of the adjacent focal planes of the two systems, which equals the distance of the image-side focus of the objective F 1 ' from the object-side focus of the eyepiece F2.
To obtain the magnification of the complete microscope we must combine the objective magnification M with the action of the eyepiece.
But as the object-side focus F2 lies behind the eyepiece, the real image is not produced, but the converging pencils from the objective are changed by the eyepiece into parallels; and the point 0 1 in the top of the object y appears at the top to the eye, i.e.
In all microscopes the rays are limited, not in the eyepiece, but in the objective, or before the objective when using a condenser.
If the pencils are limited in the objective, the restriction of the pencil proceeding from the object-point is effected by either the front lens itself, by the boundary of a lens lying behind, by a real diaphragm placed between or behind the objective, or by a diaphragm-image.
E=plane focused for; 01 *, 02 * =projections of 0102 on E; Z= centre of projection; P P1=a virtual image of real diaphragm P'P 1 ' with regard to the preceding part of the objective is the entrance pupil.
To ensure the telecentric transmission, the diaphragm in the back focus of the objective may be replaced by a diaphragm in the front focal plane of the condenser, supposing that uniformly illuminated objects are being dealt with; for in this case all the principal rays in the object-space are transmitted parallel to the axis.
Points of a small object (compared with the focus of the objective) send to the objective wide pencils.
The entrance window is then the real image of this diaphragm projected by the objective in the surface conjugate to the plane focused for, and the exit window is the image projected by the eyepiece; this happens with the image of the object lying at infinity.
If a grating is placed as object before the microscope objective, Abbe showed that in the image there is intermittent clear and dark banding only, if at least two consecutive diffraction spectra enter into the objective and contribute towards the image.
If the illuminating pencil is parallel to the axis of the microscope objective, the illumination is said to be direct.
If in this case the aperture of the objective be so small, or the diffraction spectra lie so far from each other, that only the pencil parallel to the axis, i.e.
The resemblance is greater the more diffraction spectra enter the objective.
From the Fraunhofer formula I =X/n sin a one can immediately deduce the limit to the diffraction constant I, so that the banding by an objective of fixed numerical aperture can be perceived.
All details of the object so resolved are perceived, if two diffraction maxima can be passed through the objective, so that the character of the object is seen in the image, even if an exact resemblance has not yet been attained.
If the obliquity of illumination be so great that the principal maximum passes through the outermost edge of the objective, while a spectrum of 1st order passes the opposite edge, so that in the back focal plane the diffraction phenomenon shown in fig.
The image 0' of the point 0 is then the interference effect of all waves proceeding from the exit pupil of the objective P1P1'.
Abbe showed that for the production of an image the diffraction maxima must lie within the exit pupil of the objective.
If this object be viewed by the objective, so that at least the diffraction spectra of 1st order pass the finer divisions, then the corresponding diffraction phenomenon in the back focal plane of the objective has the appearance shown in fig.
If one cuts out by a diaphragm in the back focal plane of the objective all diffraction spectra except the principal maximum, one sees in the image a field divided into two halves, which show with different clearness, but no banding.
To determine the utility of an' objective for resolving fine details, one experiments with definite objects, which are usually employed simultaneously for examining its other properties.
The examination of the objectives can only be attempted when the different faults of the objective are known.
If microscopic preparations are observed by diffused daylight or by the more or less white light of the usual artificial sources, then an objective of fixed numerical aperture will only represent details of a definite fineness.
The Fraunhofer formula permits the determination of the most useful magnification of such an objective in order to utilize its full resolving power.
Supposing, however, there is oblique illumination, then formula (5) can always be applied to determine the magnifying power attainable with at least one objective.
If the magnification be greater than the resolving power demands, the observation is not only needlessly made more difficult, but the entrance pupil is diminished, and with it a very considerable decrease of clearness, for with an objective of a certain aperture the size of the exit pupil depends upon the magnification.
At least two successive diffraction maxima must be admitted through the objective for there to be any image of the objects.
The cutting off of the chief maximum can be effected by a suitable diaphragm in the back focal plane of the objective.
With the .orthogonal arrangement for illuminating and observing the beam of light traverses an extremely fine slit through a well-corrected system, whose optic axis is perpendicular to the axis of the microscope; the system reduces the dimensions of the beam to about 2 to 4 in the focal plane of the objective.
If it were not possible to recombine in one image-point the rays leaving the objective and derived from one object-point, i.e.
The objective and eyepiece have.
We will now examine the conditions which must be fulfilled by an objective, and then how far these conditions have been realized.
The representation, free from aberration, of a small surface-element, is only possible, as Abbe has shown, if the objective simultaneously fulfils the " sine-condition," i.e.
Selligue had no particular comprehension of the problem, for his achromatic single systems were simply telescope objectives corrected for an infinitely distant point, and were placed so that the same surface was turned towards the object in the microscope objective as in the telescope objective; although contrary to the telescope, the distance of the object in the microscope objective is small in proportion to the distance of the image.
Although such systems have been made recently for special purposes, this construction was abandoned, and a more complex one adopted, which also made the production of better objectives possible; this is the principle of the compensation of the aberrations produced in the different parts of the objective.
He had recognized that the good operation of a microscope objective depended essentially upon the size of the aperture, and he therefore endeavoured to produce systems with wide aperture and good correction.
In order to counteract this aberration the whole objective must be correspondingly under-corrected.
This expensive method was simplified in 1837 by Andrew Ross by making the upper and lower portion of the objective variable by means of a so-called correction-collar, and so giving the objective a corresponding under-correction according, to the thickness of the glass cover.
Its purpose in a microscope is by means of narrow cones of rays to represent at infinity the real magnified image which the objective produces.
Since many of the rays coming from the exit-pupil of the objective would not reach the eye of the observer at all, it is necessary, in order to make use of all of them, to direct the diverging rays forming the real image so that the whole of the light enters the eye of the observer.
If the real image produced by the objective coincides with the collective lens, only the inclination of the principal rays is altered, the form of the cone being affected only to a very small extent.
Both lenses together form the exit-pupil of the objective behind the eyelens, so that this image, the exit-pupil of the total system or the Ramsden circle, is accessible to the eye of the observer.
The Ramsden eyepiece is the most convenient for this because this plane lies in front of the collective lens, and the objective image has not yet been influenced by the eyepiece.
These eyepieces are intentionally provided with a different chromatic magnification, which however is in opposition to that originating in the objective.
By multiplying the magnification of the objective by the number .t .
By the magnification of the objective is meant the ratio of the distance of distinct vision to the focal length of the objective.
To fully utilize the aperture of the system all dispersing rays in the object-space of the objective must be retained in the imagespace of the illuminating system.
If the aperture of the objective is increased, the diameter of the illuminating surface must also be increased so that the system is quite filled up, from which it follows that this method of illuminating soon fails.
The chief cone of rays then enters obliquely into the objective, the angle between the direct cone of rays and the diffraction spectrum of the first order can then become as large again as with direct lighting, and still be taken up in the objective.
Hence a condenser, for lighting with very oblique cones, must have about the same aperture as the objective, and therefore be of very wide aperture; they therefore closely resemble microscope objectives in construction.
This was a concave mirror, pierced in the middle, fixed to the objective, and directed towards the object and with such a FIG.
In this case the object lay upon a stage plate, whose centre had so far been made opaque, so that the rays coming from the illuminating plane mirror could not reach the objective direct, but only the rays passing the stage plate to the side of this blackened portion reached the Lieberkiihn mirror, and were used in lighting.
The edge which is the separating line of the horizontal and hypothenuse surfaces of the prism, lies approximately over the middle of the system, so that the rays entering through the opening in the side after having been reflected by the hypothenuse surface are concentrated through one half of the objective on to the object.
When observing only the other half of the objective is used.
The sources of light used should be arranged so that the objective throws an image of the light-source upon the object.
The objects observed with the vertical illuminator must not have a glass cover if the dry system is employed, because the upper surface of the glass cover would send so much light back into the objective by reflection, that the image would be indistinct.
As was seen when discussing the physical theory, the minute details of the object cause diffractions, and can only be examined if the objective can take up at least two consecutive diffraction spectra.
In dark field illumination care has to be taken that no direct rays reach the objective, and hence a good dark field illumination can be produced if the condenser system has a larger aperture than the objective.
The central diaphragm disk keeps away all the light which would otherwise fall directly into the objective, and the open zones send so many oblique rays through the object that they cannot all be taken up by the objective.
He realized that the division of the cones of rays by prisms could only be satisfactorily performed if the prism was placed in the position of the exit pupil of the objective or in the position of the real image of this exit pupil.
He employed a Nachet combination of prisms and placed the dividing prism at the spot where a special reversing system formed a real image of the exit pupil of the objective.
Prazmowski who substituted a Wenham diffracting division prism at the position of the real image of the exit pupil of the objective formed by a reversing system.
Such a combination of prisms was used by Wenham, who placed it directly behind the last objective lens.
The tube containing the eyepiece and the objective is double.
Almost all are such that the whole microscope tube is raised or sunk by the mechanism of the fine adjustment, and not only the objective.
In this case not the object itself but a real image which has already been magnified by the objective is measured, and obviously much more accurate results are possible.
To keep up this degree of exactitude the magnification of the objective must be carefully ascertained, e.g.
A fine scale with known intervals is put on the stage plate, and by determining the distance between the graduations of the objective micrometer formed through the same objective, by means of the screw micrometer ocular, the magnification of the objective is determined.
As the errors in the graduation of the objective micrometer are also magnified, very exact scales are necessary.
The adjustment must be such that the image produced by the objective falls exactly in the plane of the scale.
By using an objective micrometer in place of the object, the magnification of the objective can be ascertained and from this the actual size of the object.
If, as before, an objective micrometer is placed below the microscope in the place of the object, and the size of a special micrometer-interval is drawn on the same board, then the actual size of the object can be ascertained.
Instead of first drawing the object and the objective micrometer, they can of course be projected at the same moment on a scale on the drawing board.
The errors attending the determination of the size of a microscopic object depend chiefly on the accuracy of the objective micrometer; any errors in the micrometer being magnified by the objective.
These may be diminished by using different parts of the objective micrometer for the correction of the eyepiece scale, and the calculation of the size is based on the found mean value.
The size of these circles depends, in the case of equal tube lengths, only on the type of the objective, and not on the focal length, exact execution being assumed.
The size of these details in the image depends only on the magnification of the objective, M and can by appropriate choice of the focal length of the objective be brought to the right value.
The defects of the objective are revealed, e.g.
The resolving power of an objective depends on its numerical aperture.
The eyepiece being removed the image of the metal plates b produced by the objective is seen.
The magnification of a microscope is determined from the focal lengths of the two optical systems and the optical tube length, for N = 250 A/fi'f2 To determine the optical tube length 0, it is necessary to know the position of the focal planes of the objective and of the ocular.
If one focuses an auxiliary microscope, carried in the inner tube, on the image situated in the back focal plane of the objective of a distant object, and then on the dust particles lying on a slide pressed against the end of the outer tube, the displacement of the auxiliary microscope gives the distance of the back focal plane of the objective from the end of the outer tube.
It There are many methods for determining the focal length of the objective.
The objective to be examined is placed on the stage, and in the manner just shown, the distance of the focal plane from the edge of the fittings or to the surface plane of the front lens is determined.
If the object can be seen by using the mirror, the plane mirror must be used; then the actual size of the object and of the image produced by the objective is measured (of the image by a micrometer ocular).
The distance of the object from the nearer focus of the objective is next determined.
This distance is composed of the distance of the object from the centre of the plane mirror, and of the distance of the focus of the objective on the stage plate from the centre of the plane mirror.
The focal length of an objective can be more simply determined by placing an objective micrometer on the stage and reproducing on a screen some yards away by the objective which is to be examined.
If the size of the image of a known interval of the objective micrometer is determined by an ordinary scale, and the distance of the image from the focal plane of the objective belonging to it is measured, then the focal length can be calculated from the ratio y/y'=fl', in which y is the size of the object, y' that of the image, and xi' the distance of the image from the focal plane belonging to it.
If a drawing prism is used above the eyepiece, and an objective micrometer is inserted, then if a scale is laid on the drawing board which is 25 cm.
His immediate objective was Belgrade, and thither, at the end of 1455, Hunyadi repaired, after a public reconciliation with all his enemies.
The relation between phenomena and noumena in the Kantian system does not in the least resemble that which plays so important a part in modern psychology - between the subjective results of sense affection and the character of the objective conditions of such affection.
In the first place, the adaptation may be merely subjective, when the empirical condition for the exercise of judgment is furnished by the feeling of pleasure or pain; such adaptation is aesthetic. In the second place, the adaptation may be objective or logical, when empirical facts are given of such a kind that their possibility can be conceived only through the notion of the end realized in them; such adaptation is teleological, and the empirical facts in question are organisms.
The earliest stages of the development of the binocular microscope had been always confined to those instruments with one objective, in the immediate neighbourhood of which the systems for dividing the pencil were placed.
There is a subjective sensation of mental brilliance, but, as in other cases, this is not borne out by the objective results.
My first choice was to telephone the Atlanta office but I wondered if I might get a more objective hearing from an office further from a good old boy network.
I tried to remain objective but I'm forced to admit, the assemblage made me feel a tad tetchy.
Or Darkyn, whose offer seemed so much more objective than either Wynn's or Gabriel's.
During the night, he'd turned the matter over in his mind, and kept coming back to the fact that someone from Bird Song had killed Shipton and any objective viewer would be taking a long and hard look at David Dean as that person.
I asked about a private detectiveâ€”God knows how I would payâ€” but she said a hired person wouldn't be seen as objective.
She may have been asleep and she may have been a wet shivering mess but, by God, she was still beautiful and the whole procedure was beginning to bother Dean as he tried to be objective to his task.
There was an opportunity for networking between institutions with the objective of putting together collaborative bids.
It cannot be demanded that the objective accusative of religious experiences occupy the spatial dimensions, since being spatial entails having sensory qualities.
Once we divorce the subjective aspect from the objective, such a philosophy becomes transformed into sheer revolutionary adventurism.
At the third stage, Dhyana, the word ana, the word ana is used to denote the development of Objective Mind in man.
This is in line with the sixth objective of its five-year strategic plan announced last autumn.
They exchanged humorous banter with neither party revealing their true objective.
The objective view demands rethinking and you will please bear with me if I overview the subject before getting too specific.
Our objective is to develop novel biosensors based on functionalised carbon nanotubes that boost the detection limits to improve the quality of our lives.
This is especially so if you screw up an objective, when the ruthless boss won't miss a moment to berate you.
The second objective is to raise awareness of the condition, which can be detected with an electro cardiogram (ECG ).
The objective of the study was to examine the relationship between specific dietary carotenoids and the incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD ).
At the bottom is a revolving nosepiece, or as it is sometimes called, the " objective changer " .
The methods of objective 1.4 will be applied to these to obtain results on symmetric chaos.
Primary objective Does the addition of induction chemotherapy to CHART improve overall survival over CHART alone?
The objective of antenatal care is to optimize the health of the mother and her developing baby and to plan for a safe childbirth.
His prime objective was to measure a degree on the equator to calculate the circumference of the Earth.
The settlement also makes good the government's commitment on Objective 1 for Wales.
We are able to carry out short or long-term diagnoses, and provide concise, objective and helpful feedback.
This provides Simpson with an objective correlative for different states of mind.
Even for a force oriented counterattack, use an objective to orient the counterattacking force.
Author's objective The objective was to review research on screening for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM ).
His chum, Adam Zertal, seems similarly disposed, appearing to be a biblicist rather than a scientifically objective archeologist too.
This would almost certainly result in the loss of civilian lives, and may well be deemed disproportionate to the military objective.
We have a range of trained mediators who can provide objective support in bringing disputants together in order to find a solution.
With the old objective only a little barrel distortion is present due in main to the exaggerated perspective of being close up.
Abstract Objective To clarify the role played by endothelial cell production of fibrinolytic factors in normal pregnancy and pre- eclampsia.
The objective is to enable students to understand more advanced econometrics most of which relies heavily on matrix algebra.
Finally, Western minds may be free again to reason rather than just emote, to pursue objective truth rather than subjective virtue ' .
Launched in 1988 and funded jointly by DTI, SERC and industry, the program's objective was to accelerate commercial exploitation of ASM.
Its sole objective is to support small-scale cotton farmers.
It was established in 1893 with the objective of fostering interest in ferns and fern allies.
His stated objective was to prove to the Government that qualified precision fitters could be turned out in 6 months.
There were no significant differences between those taking ginkgo and those taking placebo on any of the objective or subjective measures.
The light exiting the echelle grating then enters a three lens objective where it is focussed onto a detector array.
The objective of Rush Hour is to move the little red car out of the snarled up traffic gridlock that the game begins with.
They successfully completed their main objective of removing and replacing a faulty gyroscope on the International Space Station.
The Agency would report to the Secretary of State for health as the agency's primary objective is to protect public health.
The Euclidean paradigm of mathematics as an objective, absolute, incorrigible and rigidly hierarchical body of knowledge is increasingly under question.
Siege gives the player the task of defending a castle, with the objective of stopping an invasion from an endless horde of undead.
The firm prides itself on giving impartial, objective, quality advice to clients.
The Moslem objective seems to be simply to destroy the infidel.
Her objective here can only be to falsely inflate the number of refugees emanating from the so-called " Milosevic case area.
Multimedia Networking for inhabited television The objective of the project was to explore Inhabited Television as a challenging application for multimedia networks.
However, the downside of this approach is that the psychologist may become too involved and unable to make recordings in an objective manner.
The objective is to measure up- and downward spectral irradiances in the wavelength range between 295 and 1700 nm.
Our objective was to study the odd landforms developed on the gypsum - deep tubes dissolved into the surface.
Bristol is highly likely to lose its Objective 2 EU status (based on GDP per head) from 2006.
The objective is to award a lump sum that will enable the claimant to meet his assessed needs over the relevant period.
The objective for the team is to knock more marbles outside the ring than the opposing team.
They need to bring in a specialist, someone fearless, uncompromising and utterly merciless in pursuit of the objective.
The Commission believes appraisal methodology must be grounded in objective and scientific analysis and be transparent as to its intent.
To calibrate the eyepiece micrometer, the stage micrometer has to be focused using the objective to be used.
Slightly misnamed because their objective appears to be to increase firework safety simply by banning consumer fireworks completely.
We hope to find a modus vivendi toward achieving that objective.
British Mycological Society The BMS was founded in 1896 with the sole objective of promoting mycology in all its aspects.
Nitrogen dioxide Monitoring data shows that current nitrogen dioxide concentrations are currently within the National Air Quality Strategy Objective concentrations for nitrogen dioxide Monitoring data shows that current nitrogen dioxide concentrations are currently within the National Air Quality Strategy Objective concentrations for nitrogen dioxide.
Even if the commission were required simply to pursue the objective, it could only aim to do that on each occasion.
The overall objective is to develop the Cost Calculator to incorporate unit costs for all services that children receive within specific time frames.
At the next level, the objective is for architecture independence, in which control and data parallelism are merged.
The objective of this forum is to allow participants to discuss the issues raised by such a change.
It is unlawful to treat part-timers less favorably than full-timers, unless you can justify the different treatment on objective grounds.
The objective is to confer some passive immunity to the agent that causes PMWS at the pig's most susceptible age.
The objective stance here is not merely permissive, but active.
Objectives The primary objective is to explore the safety of 13% of cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) as a vaginal microbicide.
The main objective of this research is to produce a robust phylogeny of the genus Pinus based on plastid DNA sequence data.
Therefore, such evidence is generated with the specific intention of influencing policy, but is that objective achieved?
A heart surgeon does not perform open heart surgery without following proper, objective methodology.
Objective 3. Samples of urine containing albumin fragments collected previously from children with meningococcal sepsis were remapped using SDS PAGE.
Our objective is to alleviate sickness and illness and find treatments and cures for the medical conditions which are collectively called Down's syndrome.
The only sites currently exceeding the 2004 objective are near a small number of secondary non-ferrous metal smelters.
There are certain objective criteria that can be brought to bear upon public verse speaking.
All this does not prove that freedom and creative spontaneity are objective features of the universe.
Some objective testing of these essentially subjective judgments have been initiated through cooperation with other persons.
Our first objective is to evaluate existing information visualization techniques used by JISC.
The objective was to produce a building of simple elegance with a strong presence within a quality townscape.
The objective is to determine whether or not transgenic DNA can be detected in milk of cows fed diets containing GM material.
A smooth transition from a project to routine practice should be the objective.
The objective is to identify a typology of sequences empirically.
This can be seen from the emphasis put on not undershooting as well as not overshooting the 2.5 per cent objective.
Microscience's objective is to develop the first oral anthrax vaccine in the shortest possible time.
Is it possible to adopt an objective viewpoint in religious studies?
Equally, ' to bleed white ' the French Army was not a plausible and appropriate objective at this time.
The objective was still to catch De Wet, but he proved too wily and elusive.