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objective

objective

objective Sentence Examples

  • Dean tried to be as objective as possible and let the report speak for itself.

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  • Success will depend on objective criteria and visualizing the process.

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  • The primary objective is to achieve best practice in long term interoperability between its systems.

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  • Objective reality offers an optimistic glimpse of the future of religion.

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  • The varied traditions up to this stage cannot be regarded as objective history.

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  • Certainly not pure empiricism, or habits of objective observation.

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  • It thus represented a subjective creation, not an objective fact.

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  • It thus represented a subjective creation, not an objective fact.

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  • The objective ground on which he bases his system is the religious experience of the Christian community.

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  • Investigation thus becomes more objective, and this is a distinct advantage from the biological point of view.

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  • The safest thing for both of them was for him to keep his distance and remain objective.

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  • It is taken, strangely enough, from an Israelite source, but the tone of the whole is quite dispassionate and objective.

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  • de Heredia, mosaistes who have at heart the cult of antique and pagan beauty, of "pure art" and of "objective poetry."

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  • Operations in the west were thereupon abandoned for the time being, and the eastern forts remained the principal objective of the attack.

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  • In the new German Empire it is too completely overshadowed by Prussia to have any objective importance by itself.

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  • An objective and non-party application of the laws, and equal rights for all nationalities, were in consequence the ever-recurring heads of their programme.

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  • Bienerth's policy was to confine himself in a purely objective spirit to the execution of the laws until such time as he had gradually gained the confidence of the nation.

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  • He too could attempt nothing more than to take up as objective an attitude as possible above parties.

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  • This would have led to an introduction of the national divisions into the central administration, and if similar claims were put in by other nations the principle of a purely objective Government transcending nationality would have been done away with.

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  • But, although characterized by learning and acuteness, as well as by considerable breadth of spiritual sympathy, it cannot be said to have been accepted by Catholics themselves as embodying an accurate objective view of the actual doctrine of their church.

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  • Dale's Atonement (1875), the special point of which is that the death of Christ is not required by the personal demand of God to be propitiated, but by the necessity of honouring an ideal law of righteousness; thus, " the death of Christ is the objective ground on which the sins of men are remitted, because it was an act of submission to the righteous authority of the law by which the human race was condemned.

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  • At present the belief in an objective atonement is still widely held; whether in the form of penal theories - the old forensic view that the death of Christ atones by paying the penalty of man's sin - or in the form of governmental theories; that the Passion fulfilled a necessity of divine government by expressing and vindicating God's righteousness.

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  • But there is also a widespread inclination to minimize, ignore or deny the objective aspect of the atonement, the effect of the death of Christ on God's attitude towards men; and to follow the moral theories in emphasizing the subjective aspect of the atonement, the influence of the Passion on man.

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  • Under the pseudonym George Taylor he wrote several historical romances, especially Antinous (1880), which quickly ran through five editions, and is the story of a soul "which courted death because the objective restraints of faith had been lost."

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  • south of Meh Puak, which was selected as the terminus for the time being, the continuation to Chieng Mai, the original objective, being postponed pending the construction of another and more important line.

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  • Smith), exceedingly objective in character and still valuable, particularly on account of its copious citations from the sources; Neander (Allgemeine Geschichte der christlichen Religion and Kirche, 1825 ff., Eng.

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  • Therefore, in general terms, scepticism may be summarily defined as a thorough-going impeachment of man's power to know - a denial of the possibility of objective knowledge.

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  • Moreover, the arguments by which Heraclitus supported this theory of the universal flux are employed by Protagoras to undermine the possibility of objective truth, by dissolving all knowledge into the momentary sensation or persuasion of the individual.

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  • The idea of an objective flux, or law of change constituting the reality of things, is abandoned, and subjective points of sense alone remain - which is tantamount to eliminating the real from human knowledge.

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  • All real connexion or relation, therefore, and with it all possibility of an objective system, disappears; it is, in fact, excluded by Hume ab initio, for " the mind never perceives any real connexion among distinct existences."

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  • The real "objective" to which our thoughts must show conformity is not a world of things in themselves, but the system of thiligs as it exists for a perfect intelligence.

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  • Further they are entirely individual, and can in no way be described as constituting absolute objective knowledge.

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  • Columbia, his first objective, was reached on the 17th of February 1865.

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  • Long forward strides of the Napoleonic type were rarely attempted; "changes of base" were indeed made across country, and over considerable distances, as by Sherman in 1864, but ordinarily either the base and the objective were connected by rail or water, or else every forward step was, after the manner of Marlborough's time, organized as a separate campaign.

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  • The great importance of this work of WH lies in the facts that it not merely condemns but explains the late Antiochene text, and that it attempts to consider in an objective manner all the existing evidence and to explain it historically and genealogically.

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  • In 1 5951 59 6 he made a second voyage, and though he did not again reach these islands, the development of which was his objective, he discovered the Marquesas Islands, and afterwards Santa Cruz, where, having attempted to found a settlement, he died.

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  • Quiros returned to Europe, and, obtaining command of a fleet, made a voyage in1605-1607during which he observed some of the Paumotu and Society Islands, and later discovered the small Duff group of the Santa Cruz Islands, passing thence to the main island of the New Hebrides, which he hailed as his objective, the southern continent.

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  • The post - Aristotelian philosophy in all its branches makes withdrawal from the objective world its starting-point.

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  • In his own view the turning points seem to have been - (1) the transition from Fichte's method to the more objective conception of nature - the advance, in other words, to Naturphilosophie; (2) the definite formulation of that which implicitly, as Schelling claims, was involved in the idea of Naturphilosophie, viz.

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  • Nature as the sum of that which is objective, intelligence as the complex of all the activities making up self-consciousness, appear thus as equally real, as alike exhibiting ideal structure, as parallel with one another.

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  • The theoretical side of inner nature in its successive grades from sensation to the highest form of spirit, the abstracting reason which emphasizes the difference of subjective and objective, leaves an unsolved problem which receives satisfaction only in the practical, the individualizing activity.

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  • The practical, again, taken in conjunction with the theoretical, forces on the question of the reconciliation between the free conscious organization of thought and the apparently necessitated and unconscious mechanism of the objective world.

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  • art and genius, the subjective and objective find their point of union.

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  • In the realm of ideas the absolute finds itself, has its own nature over against itself as objective over against subjective, and thus is in the way of overcoming its abstractness, of becoming concrete.

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  • Petiifi was more subjective, more individual; Arany was more objective and national.

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  • During 1191 and 1192 there were four small campaigns in southern Palestine when Richard circled round Beitnuba and Ascalon with Jerusalem as objective.

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  • But there are two tests of a more objective character that may be used - orthography, and indication of lacunae or other faults in his exemplar.

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  • His objective is the minimum of change.

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  • Aristotle was primarily a metaphysician, a philosopher of things, who uses the objective method of proceeding from being to thinking.

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  • It might appear, therefore, that sensible things had an objective existence in the mind of God; that an idea so soon as it passes out of our consciousness passes into that of God.

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  • The subjective mechanism of association which with Berkeley is but part of the true explanation, and is dependent on the objective realization in the divine mind, has been received as in itself a satisfactory theory.

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  • He leaves it undetermined whether or not our knowledge of sense things, which is never entirely presentative, involves some reference to this objective course of nature or thought of the divine mind.

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  • War against Turkey was resolved upon, and Azov, the chief Turkish fortress in those regions, which could be approached by water from Moscow, became the Russian objective.

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  • The work is considered too subjective and fanciful, the great fault of the author being that he lacks the impartiality of objective historical insight.

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  • The author himself says that it is transfigured realism - which is realism in asserting objective existence as separate from subjective existence, but anti-realism in denying that objective existence is to be known.

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  • In his Principles of Psychology he twice quotes his point that " what we are conscious of as properties of matter, even down to its weight and resistance, are but subjective affections produced by objective agencies which are unknown and unknowable."

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  • Similarly, both in First Principles and in the Principles of Psychology, he assigns to us, in addition to our definite consciousness of our subjective affections, an indefinite consciousness of something out of consciousness, of something which resists, of objective existence.

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  • Thus it turns out that the objective agency, the noumenal power, the absolute force, declared unknown and unknowable, is known after all to exist, persist, resist and cause our subjective affections or phenomena, yet not to think or to will.

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  • sweet, red - and refer them as accidents to matter in space, which, though mental, is objective, because its production is grounded on a law of all reason.

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  • Thus the complete metaphysical idealism of Fichte's Wissenschaftslehre formed out of the incomplete metaphysical idealism of Kant's Kritik, is the theor y on its epistemological side that the Ego posits the non-Ego as a thing in itself, and yet as only a thing existing for it as its own noumenon, and on its metaphysical side that in consequence all reality is the Ego and its own determinations, which are objective, or valid for all, as determinations, not of you or of me, but of the consciousness common to all of us, the pure or absolute Ego.

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  • With this powerful instrument of dialectic in hand, he attempted to show how absolute reason differentiates itself into subjective and objective, ideal and real, and yet is the identity of both - an identity of opposites, as Schelling had said.

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  • Further, holding that, " like every other perception, the perception of a human body immediately involves the existence of that body," and, like Fichte, believing in a " common consciousness," he concludes that the evidence of sense is verined by " common consciousness " of the external world as objective in the Kantian sense of universally valid.

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  • According to him, we begin with an experience of ideas, in which object and idea are originally identical (V orstellungsobject); we divide this unitary experience into its subjective and objective factors; and especially in natural science we so far abstract the objects as to believe them at last to be independent things; but it is the office of psychology to warn us against this popular dualism, and to teach us that there is only a duality of psychical and physical, which are divisible, not separable, factors of one and the same content of our immediate experience; and experience is our whole knowledge.

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  • Nothing could be more like Hume than his final statement that what we are conscious of is subjective affections produced by objective agencies unknown and unknowable.

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  • Accordingly, his final conclusion is that " existence - the absolute - is known to us in feeling," and " the external changes are symbolized as motion, because that is the mode of feeling into which all others are translated when objectively considered: objective consideration being the attitude of looking at the phenomena, whereas subjective consideration is the attitude of any other sensible response."

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  • He maintained that the physical and the psychical are two orders which are parallel without interference; that the physical or objective order is merely phenomena, or groups of feelings, or " objects," while the psychical or subjective order is both a stream of feelings of which we are conscious in ourselves, and similar streams which we infer beyond ourselves, or, as he came to call them, " ejects "; that, if we accept the doctrine of evolution at all, we must carry these ejective streams of feelings through the whole organic world and beyond it to the inorganic world, as a " quasimental fact "; that at bottom both orders, the physical phenomena and the psychical streams, are reducible to feelings; and that therefore there is no reason against supposing that they are made out of the same " mind-stuff," which is the thing-in-itself.

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  • He infers the corollary that universal experience contains the same duality of subjective and objective factors without dualism.

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  • From Reid he adopted the belief in an external world beyond sensation, from Biran the explanation of personality by will, from Schelling the identification of all reason in what he called " impersonal reason," which he supposed to be identical in God and man, to be subjective and objective, psychological and ontological.

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  • Silesia remained a principal objective of the various contending armies and was occupied almost continuously by a succession of ill-disciplined mercenary forces whose depredations and exactions, accentuated at times by religious fanaticism, reduced the country to a state of helpless misery.

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  • Dutreuil de Rhins and Fernand Grenard, both Frenchmen, left Cherchen, with Lhasa as their objective.

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  • The crusaders, whose objective had been Egypt, were persuaded to set their course for Constantinople, before which they appeared in June 1203, proclaiming the emperor Alexius IV.

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  • collimator objective (e), which is constructed in the manner of a portrait lens in order to give a sharp field of sufficient diameter to include the entire solar image.

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  • in diameter on the collimator objective, as its focal length is 60 in.

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  • The rays, rendered parallel by the collimator objective, meet a plane mirror (f) of silvered glass, which reflects them to the prisms (g, g').

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  • After being deviated 180° from the original direction, the dispersed rays fall on the camera objective (h), which is exactly similar to the collimator objective.

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  • Dunkirk, as a nest of freebooters who preyed upon Dutch commerce, was made the objective of a daring offensive campaign in 1600 by the orders of the States-General under the influence of Oldenbarneveldt in the teeth of the opposi tion of the stadholders Maurice and William Louis .

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  • We mistake the sub j ective transition resting upon custom or past experience for an objective connexion independent of special feelings.

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  • The lower grades in classification such as sub-species and varieties on the one hand, and the higher grades on the other, such as genera and families, were admitted to be human conceptions imposed on the living world, but species were concrete, objective existences to be discovered and named.

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  • Lamarck practically conceded the objective existence of species in arguing that they might be modified by external conditions, and G.

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  • Poulton, in an admirable discussion of contemporary views regarding species (presidential address to the Entomological Society of London 1904), has shown that Darwin did not believe in the objective existence of species, not only because he was led to discard the hypothesis of special creation as the explanation of the polymorphism of life, but because in practice as a working systematist he could neither find for himself nor ascertain from other systematists any settled criteria by which a group of specimens could be elevated into a genus, accepted as a species, or regarded as a variety.

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  • ray, all; Jivxn, soul), a philosophical term applied to any theory of nature which recognizes the existence of a psychical element throughout the objective world.

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  • In such theories not only animals and plants but even the smallest particles of matter are regarded as having some rudimentary kind of sensation or "soul," which plays the same part in relation to their objective activities or modifications as the soul does in the case of human beings.

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  • The eminent critic, Dr Georg Brandes, had long foreseen the decline of pure romanticism, and had advocated a more objective and more exact treatment of literary phenomena.

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  • To reduce it to an objective system, to exhibit it dialectically, the calmer mind of Melanchthon was requisite.

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  • There is a fertile, productive country back of this port, and it is the objective point of a road from Quito.

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  • It seems as if the world-spirit had now succeeded in freeing itself from all foreign objective existence, and finally apprehending itself as absolute mind."

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  • The first two divisions - the " objective logic " - are what is usually called metaphysics.

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  • Only a small fraction of Goethe's work was written in an impersonal and objective spirit, and sprang from what might be called a conscious artistic impulse; by far the larger - and the better - part is the immediate reflex of his feelings and experiences.

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  • It will be perceived that an objective attitude to the subjective writings must be adopted, the starting-point is the writings themselves and not individual preconceptions of the authentic history which they embody.

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  • The casual concept, as given by experience, expresses not a necessary objective order of things, but an ordered scheme of perception; it is subjective and cannot be postulated as a concrete law apart from consciousness.

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  • Soar, however, as he might, he was essentially not a doctrinaire, but an empiricist; his mind was objective.

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  • If, argued Protagoras in a treatise entitled Truth, all things are in flux, so that sensation is subjective, it follows that " Man is the measure of all things, of what is, that it is, and of what is not, that it is not "; in other words, there is no such thing as objective truth.

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  • Their objective was not so much India as Japan (Cipangu), of which they only knew vaguely as a land of spices and silks, British and which they hoped to reach by sailing westward.

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  • James Gregory, in his Optica Promota (1663), discusses the forms of images and objects produced by lenses and mirrors, and shows that when the surfaces of the lenses or mirrors are portions of spheres the images are curves concave towards the objective, but if the curves of the surfaces are conic sections the spherical aberration is corrected.

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  • 3 For the methods of grinding, polishing and testing lenses, see: Objective.

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  • When all is taken into consideration it is scarcely possible to reduce the secondary colour aberration at the focus of such a double object-glass to less than a fourth part of that prevailing at the focus of a double objective of the same aperture and focus, but made of the ordinary crown and flint glasses.

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  • The only way in which the secondary spectrum can be reduced still further is by the employment of three lenses of three different sorts of glass, by which arrangement the secondary spectrum has been reduced in the case of the Cooke photo visual objective to about I/loth part of the usual amount, if the whole region of the visible spectrum is taken into account.

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  • It is possible to construct a triple objective of two positive lenses enclosing between them one negative lens, the two former being made of the same glass.

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  • Hence it is clear that if the two positive lenses of equal curvature power of o 60 and 0.102 respectively are combined with a negative lens of light flint o 569, then a triple objective, having no secondary spectrum (at any rate with respect to the blue rays), may be obtained.

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  • But while an achromatic combination of o 60 and 0.102 alone will yield an objective whose focal length is only 1.28 times the focal length of the negative or extra dense flint lens, the triple combination will be found to yield an objective whose focal length is 73 times as great as the focal length of the negative light flint lens.

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  • Hence impossibly deep curvatures would be required for such a triple objective of any normal focal length.

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  • This form of objective has been successfully made up to 122 in.

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  • The eye-pieces or oculars through which, in case of visual observations, the primary images formed by the objective are viewed, are of quite secondary importance as regards definition in the central portion of the field of view.

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  • If then the objective tube is directed to any star, the convergent beam from the object-glass is received by the plane mirror from which it is reflected upwards along the polar axis and viewed through the hollow upper pivot.

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  • He lays too much stress upon the "concept," and explains too much by the Hegelian antithesis of subjective and objective.

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  • He held that in relation to the will things possess an objective fitness similar to the mutual consistency of things in the physical universe.

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  • Hegel, having identified being with thought, merged metaphysics in logic. But he divided logic into objective and subjective, and thus practically confessed that there is one science of the objects and another of the pro cesses of thought.

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  • It is consciousness concerning the objective validity of a subjective combination of ideas, i.e.

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  • whether between the corresponding objective elements an analogous combination exists (Ueberweg).

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  • c. It is the synthesis of ideas into unity and consciousness of their objective validity, not in the sense of agreement with external reality but in the sense of the logical necessity of their synthesis (Sigwart).

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  • It requires no reference to reality beyond the sensible pressure, because it is merely a belief that this exists without inference of the external stimulus or any inference at all: not all judgment then requires the reference of subjective to objective supposed by Ueberweg, or the consciousness of logical necessity supposed by Sigwart.

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  • 4 That they are not, however, psychological or acquired categories, due to " the workmanship of the mind " as conceived by Locke, is obvious from their attribution to the structure of mind' and from their correlation with immanent principles of the objective order.

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  • Syllogism must indeed be objective, i.e.

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  • Its universals have objective validity, though this does not involve direct real reference.

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  • While man must confront nature from the human and largely the practical standpoint, yet his control is achieved only by the increasing recognition of objective controls.

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  • The Molucca Islands being, at that time, the principal objective of European traders, and the route followed by - Magellan's ships being frequently used, Borneo was often touched at during the remainder of the 16th century, and trade relations with Brunei were successfully established by the Portuguese.

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  • Guided by this objective criterion, and safeguarded by growing insight into the author's plastic aim, we need not despair of reaching large agreement as to the nature of the sources lying behind the first half of Acts.

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  • Krauss's main attack was a straight drive through the Italian lines in the Plezzo basin, his first objective the Saga defile.

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  • The objective had been Cividale, or, at best, the Tagliamento.

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  • Krauss expressed the opinion that the real objective should have been Lyons.

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  • In its origin this system was a perfectly honest attempt to widen the sphere of obedience by making morality wholly objective and independent of the vagaries of the individual conscience.

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  • Peirce for the theories which make chance an objective factor in the process of the Universe.

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  • Pleasure is nothing objective and objectively measurable: it is simply feeling pleased.

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  • It is still impossible to take a purely objective view of Oscar Wilde's work.

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  • (I) the objective, producing the religions of nature; (2) the subjective, God as comprehended in the individual mind; (3) God as Absolute Spirit.

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  • In the same way Dr Edward Caird $ recognizes three similar stages: (I) objective consciousness, the divine in nature;

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  • He holds that nothing exists except presentations, which are not merely sensational, and have an objective aspect no less than a subjective.

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  • The pamphlet begins by re-stating with reference to sight the general theory that perception of an objective world rests upon an instinctive causal postulation, which even when it misleads still remains to haunt us (instead of being, like errors of reason, open to extirpation by evidence), and proceeds to deal with physiological colour, i.e.

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  • The earlier differs from the later exposition in allowing an objective causal relation between thought and extension, for which there is substituted in the Ethics the idea of a thoroughgoing parallelism.

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  • Thus the Swedish forces were diverted from their real objective and transferred to another field where even victory would have been comparatively unprofitable.

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  • Between these extreme examples stands the ordinary photographic objective: the portrait objective is corrected more with regard to aperture; objectives for groups more with regard to the field of view.

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  • This is, at the present day, the ordinary type, e.g., of telescope objective (fig.

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  • With this objective M.

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  • During the heat of summer voyages to the North Cape are suitable, and during the spring and autumn to the Mediterranean, but in the colder months of the year the West Indies, India, Cape Town, Australia or New Zealand forms the best objective.

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  • The objective sense of 7rLares has begun to overpower the subjective.

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  • These, being thus derived, are at once subjective and objective in their scope.

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  • Expeditions to the Brazilian frontier or to the Chiquitos missions are fitted out here, and it is the objective point for expeditions entering Bolivia from Matto Grosso, Brazil, and Paraguay.

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  • For the objective of the war was Macedonia, as von der Goltz had foreseen in 1909 when he increased both the present and the potential strength of the Turkish forces allotted to that theatre.

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  • Greece for her part had a minor objective in Epirus - a region of which the northern limit was vague - and as a major objective Salonika and the Aegean littoral beyond, not to mention more remote objects in Asia Minor.

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  • The first objective was the old Turkish frontier fortress of Scutari, situated at the point where the Drinasa river flows into Lake Scutari, and consisting only of a castle and a few field-works on the hills surrounding the town.

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  • The village became thereafter a storehouse of provisions and munitions of war, and hence became the objective of the British expedition that on the 19th of April 1775 opened with the armed conflict at Lexington the American War of Independence.

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  • Colour itself is not objective; it is found not in the ultimate plenum and vacuum, but only in derived objects according to their physical qualities and relations.

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  • Fort Pitt was one of the important objective points of Pontiac's conspiracy (1763), and as soon as the intentions of the Indians became evident, Captain Simeon Ecuyer, the Swiss officer in command of the garrison (which then numbered about 330), had the houses outside the ramparts levelled and prepared for a siege.

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  • The distinction between mind viewed as a succession of "states of consciousness" and the further aspect of mind which philosophy considers was very clearly put by Croom Robertson, who also made a happy suggestion of two terms to designate the double point of view: "We may view knowledge as mere subjective function, but it has its full meaning only as it is taken to represent what we may call objective fact, or is such as is named (in different circumstances) real, valid, true.

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  • These conditions are the conditions of knowledge as such, or, as it may be put, of objective consciousness - of a self-consciousness of a world of objects and through them conscious of itself.

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  • If self-consciousness be treated in this objective fashion, then we pass naturally from epistemology to metaphysics or ontology.

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  • In the case of a beautiful object the resultant pleasure borrows its specific quality from the presence of determinations essentially objective in their nature, though not reducible to the categories of science.

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  • Unless, indeed, we conceive our faculties to be constructed on some arbitrary plan which puts them out of relation to the facts with which they have to deal, we have a prima facie right to treat beauty as an objective determination of things.

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  • For, if the members of a natural kind had no common idea to unite them, scientific research, having nothing objective in view, could at best afford a Aoyos or definition of the appropriate particulars; and, as the discrimination of the One and the Good implied the progression of particulars towards perfection, such a Xbyos or definition could have only a temporary value.

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  • And it is objective, not subjective, reason.

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  • Like a law of nature, objective in the world, it gives order and regularity to the movement of things, and makes the system rational.3 The failure of Heraclitus to free himself entirely from the physical hypotheses of earlier times prevented his speculation from influencing his successors.

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  • Again it is described as proceeding from God as the principle of creation and objective to Him.

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  • But it represents the former as the framer of the world, as the power or spirit of God, active alike in the physical, the intellectual, and the ethical domain, and apparently objective to God.

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  • Governor Jackson thereupon sought to attain his ends by intrigue, and the national arsenal at St Louis became the objective of both parties.

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  • Rosecrans with Chattanooga as his objective moved from Nashville upon General Braxton Bragg, who left the winter quarters he had established at Murfreesboro and met the Union army on Stone river immediately north of Murfreesboro, on the last day of December.

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  • Julius holds that this sole fact robs of objective reality almost all the features of the sun, An al ou.

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  • Next is related an event in which we may again see a subjective experience given under the form of an objective reality.

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  • If, then, there is objective truth at all, the existence of real facts must be made known to us otherwise than through the logical faculty of thought; and, as the regress from conclusion to premises must depend upon something not itself capable of logical grounding, mediate thought implies the consciousness of immediate truth.

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  • These principles of reason, cause and substance, given thus psychologically, enable us to pass beyond the limits of the relative and subjective to objective and absolute reality, - enable us, in a word, to pass from psychology, or the science of knowledge, to ontology or the science of being.

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  • I thus reach an objective impersonal world of forces which corresponds to the variety of my sensations.

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  • Tylor - to the effect that it originated in the desire of the primitive man to bring on at will certain abnormal nervous conditions favourable to the seeing of those visions and the dreaming of those dreams which are supposed to give the soul direct access to the objective realities of the spiritual world.

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  • With Anselm Ritschl takes Abelard, who explains the Atonement simply by God's love, and thus is the forerunner of " moral " or " subjective " modern theories as Anselm is of the " objective " or " forensic " theory.

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  • He was present at Princeton; was chiefly responsible for the mistake in attacking the "Chew House" at Germantown; urged New York as the objective of the campaign of 1778; served with efficiencylat Monmouth and at Yorktown; and after the surrender of Cornwallis was promoted major-general, and served as a commissioner on the exchange of prisoners.

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  • Hume argues that custom is a sufficient practical explanation of this gradual enlargement of our objective experience, and that no deeper explanation is open to man.

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  • These distinctions, he insists, have an objective reality, The cognizable by reason no less than the relations of Cambridge space or number; and he endeavours to refute moralists, Hobbism - which he treats as a " novantique philo- C d sophy," a mere revival of the relativism of Protagoras - chiefly by the following argumentum ad hominem.

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  • He argues that Hobbes's atomic materialism involves the conception of an objective physical world, the object not of passive sense that varies from man to man, but of the active intellect that is the same in all; there is therefore, he urges, an inconsistency in refusing to admit a similar exercise of intellect in morals, and an objective world of right and wrong, which the mind by its normal activity clearly apprehends as such.

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  • It might either fall back on the moral principles commonly accepted, and, affirming their objective validity, endeavour to exhibit them as a coherent and complete set of ultimate ethical truths; or it might take the utility or conduciveness to pleasure, to which Hume had referred for the origin of most sentiments, as an ultimate end and standard by which these sentiments might be judged and corrected.

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  • While right and wrong, in Price's view, are " real objective qualities " of actions, moral " beauty and deformity " are subjective ideas; representing feelings which are partly the necessary effects of the perceptions of right and wrong in rational beings as such, partly due to an " implanted sense " or varying emotional susceptibility.

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  • The fourth, again, is the merely formal principle that " right and wrong must be the same to all in all circumstances," which belongs equally to all systems of objective morality; while the fifth prescribes the religious duty of " veneration or submission to God."

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  • He holds, however, that this conscientious effort is self-deceived and futile, is even the very root of moral evil, except it attains its realization in harmony with the objective social relations in which the individual finds himself placed.

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  • The materials for it were rapidly accumulated by the use of an objective prism, that is, of a prism placed in front of, instead of behind the object-lens, by which means the spectra of all the stars in the field, to the number often of many score, imprinted themselves simultaneously on the sensitive plate.

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  • In philosophy Buridan was a rationalist, and followed Occam in denying all objective reality to universals, which he regarded as mere words.

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  • The former fall into the two classes of feelings (subjective) and perceptions (objective); the latter, according as the receptive or the spontaneous element predominates, into cognition and volition.

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  • It is in those two functions that the real life of the ego is manifested, but behind them is self-consciousness permanently present, which is always both subjective and objective - consciousness of ourselves and of the non-ego.

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  • As regards Christian theology, it is not its business to formulate and establish a system of objective truth, but simply to present in a clear and connected form a given body of Christian faith as the contents of the Christian consciousness.

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  • In Germany many of the followers of Kant have in greater or less degree maintained the view that all true knowledge depends upon the observation of objective phenomena.

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  • Having thus determined what really is and what actually happens, our philosopher proceeds next to explain synthetically the objective semblance (der objective Schein) that results from these.

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  • But if this construction is to be truly objective, i.e.

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  • But the contradiction here is one we cannot eliminate by the method of relations, because it does not involve anything real; and in fact as a necessary outcome of an "intelligible" form, the fiction of continuity is valid for the "objective semblance," and no more to be discarded than say -1 - I.

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  • But "objective semblance" corresponds with reality; the spatial or external relations of the reals in this case must, therefore, tally with their inner or actual states.

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  • Motion, even more evidently than space, implicates the contradictory conception of continuity, and cannot, therefore, be a real predicate, though valid as an intelligible form and necessary to the comprehension of the objective semblance.

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  • The changes in this motion, however, for which we should require a cause, would be the objective semblance of the self-preservations that actually occur when reals meet.

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  • But in all this it has been assumed that we are spectators of the objective semblance; it remains to make good this assumption, or, in other words, to show the possibility of knowledge; this is the problem of what Herbart terms Eidolology, and forms the transition from metaphysic to psychology.

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  • It is true that in certain texts (especially metrical, texts) certaic traces of case-endings are to be met with, as, for example Deus and Deu, amors and amor, clans and clan, forti and fo~t, tuyt and tots, abduy and abdos, senyer and senyon, empenaine and emperador; but, since these forms are used convertibly, the nominative form when the word is in the objective, and the accusative form, when the word is the subject, we can only reaognize in these cases a c nfused recollection of the Provenal rules known only to the litCrte but of which the transcribers of manuscripts took no account.

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  • Some instanCes of ii occur in the ancient tongue, applying indifferently to the nominative and the objective case; el applying to the singular is also not wholly unknown.

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  • Some nominative formsDis (anciently Dios, and in the Castilian of the Jews Dlo), Cdrias, Mdrcos, sastre (s a r t 0 r) have been adopted instead of forms derived from the accusative, but the vulgar Latin of the Peninsula in no instance presents two forms (subjective and objective case) of the same substantIve.

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  • The compound microscope generally consists of two positive lens systems, so arranged that the system nearer the object (termed the objective) projects a real enlarged image, which occupies the same place relatively to the second system (the eyepiece or ocular) as does the real object in the simple microscope.

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  • An image is therefore projected by the ocular from the real magnified image produced by the objective with increased magnification.

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  • A microscope objective being made in essentially the same way as a simple microscope, and the front focus of the compound system being situated before the front focus of the objective, the magnification due to the simple system makes the free object distance greater than that obtained with a simple microscope of equal magnification.

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  • The convenient and rapid change in the magnification obtained by changing the eyepiece or the objective is also a special advantage of the compound form.

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  • In the commonest compound microscopes, which consist of two positive systems, a real magnified image is produced by the objective.

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  • As we shall see later, one of the principal functions of the microscope objective is the representation with wide pencils.

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  • In that case, however, in the compound microscope a small object may always be represented by means of wider pencils, one of the foci of the objective (not of the collective system) being near it.

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  • The development of the compound microscope essentially depends on the improvement of the objective; but no distinct improvement was made in its construction in the two centuries following the discovery.

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  • From 1830 onwards many improvements were made in the miscroscope objective; these may be best followed from a discussion of the faults of the image.

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  • 13, the objective L1 forms a real magnified image O'Oi'; the object OO l must therefore lie somewhat in front of the front focus F1 of the objective.

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  • In this case the optical tube length may be altered within fixed limits without spoiling the image; at the same time the objective magnification M is also altered.

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  • This change is usually effected by mounting the objective and eyepiece on two telescoping tubes, so that by drawing apart or pushing in the tube length is increased or diminished at will.

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  • When forming an image by a microscope objective it often happens that the transparent media bounding the system have different optical properties.

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  • A series of objectives with short focal lengths are available, which permit the placing of a liquid between the cover-slip and the front lens of the objective; such lenses are known as " immersion systems "; objectives bounded on both sides by air are called " dry systems."

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  • Nothing is altered as to objective magnification, however, as the first surface is plane, and the employment of the immersion means that the value of f l ' 'is unaltered.

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  • If we assume that a normal eye observes the image through the eyepiece, the eyepiece must project a distant image from the real image produced by the objective.

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  • In this case the optical tube length equals the distance of the adjacent focal planes of the two systems, which equals the distance of the image-side focus of the objective F 1 ' from the object-side focus of the eyepiece F2.

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  • P'P 1 '= exit pupil of objective.

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  • To obtain the magnification of the complete microscope we must combine the objective magnification M with the action of the eyepiece.

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  • (6) The magnification number increases then with the optical tube-length and with the diminution of the focal lengths of objective and eyepiece.

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  • 13) is inverted, the objective L 1 tracing from the object 00 1 a real inverted image O'0' 1, and the eyepiece L 2 L 3 maintaining this arrangement.

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  • 14, the real image formed by the objective must fall on the object-side focal plane of the eye _ piece F2, where a normal eye without accommodation can observe it.

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  • But as the object-side focus F2 lies behind the eyepiece, the real image is not produced, but the converging pencils from the objective are changed by the eyepiece into parallels; and the point 0 1 in the top of the object y appears at the top to the eye, i.e.

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  • Bratuscheck in the Greenough L 1 =weak achromatic objective.

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  • F 1 ' =objectand image-side foci of objective.

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  • In all microscopes the rays are limited, not in the eyepiece, but in the objective, or before the objective when using a condenser.

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  • If the pencils are limited in the objective, the restriction of the pencil proceeding from the object-point is effected by either the front lens itself, by the boundary of a lens lying behind, by a real diaphragm placed between or behind the objective, or by a diaphragm-image.

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  • - Entocentric transmission through a microscope objective.

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  • E=plane focused for; 01 *, 02 * =projections of 0102 on E; Z= centre of projection; P P1=a virtual image of real diaphragm P'P 1 ' with regard to the preceding part of the objective is the entrance pupil.

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  • If a diaphragm lying in the back focal plane of the objective forms the exit pupil for the objective, as in figs.

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  • To ensure the telecentric transmission, the diaphragm in the back focus of the objective may be replaced by a diaphragm in the front focal plane of the condenser, supposing that uniformly illuminated objects are being dealt with; for in this case all the principal rays in the object-space are transmitted parallel to the axis.

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  • - Hypercentric transmission in a microscope objective.

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  • 13 that the objective's exit pupil P'P1' is portrayed by the positive eyepiece, the image P"P i " limits the pencils P ', double microscope; these inverting prisms permit a convenient adaptation of the instrument to the interpupillary distance of the observer.

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  • - Ray transfocused for; and all points in it are mission in compound sharply portrayed (a perfect objective microscope with a negabeing assumed).

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  • As the exit pupil ['P i ' for the objective lies before the front focus of the eyepiece, generally at some distance and near the objective, the eyepiece projects a real image from it behind its image-side focus, so that if this point is accessible it is the exit pupil P"P i ".

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  • in the object-space the objective has telecentric transmission, the exit pupil must coincide with the back focal plane of the combined system, and it always lies behind the image-side focus of the eyepiece.

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  • Points of a small object (compared with the focus of the objective) send to the objective wide pencils.

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  • 13) projected from the objective.

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  • The entrance window is then the real image of this diaphragm projected by the objective in the surface conjugate to the plane focused for, and the exit window is the image projected by the eyepiece; this happens with the image of the object lying at infinity.

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  • If a grating is placed as object before the microscope objective, Abbe showed that in the image there is intermittent clear and dark banding only, if at least two consecutive diffraction spectra enter into the objective and contribute towards the image.

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  • If the illuminating pencil is parallel to the axis of the microscope objective, the illumination is said to be direct.

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  • If in this case the aperture of the objective be so small, or the diffraction spectra lie so far from each other, that only the pencil parallel to the axis, i.e.

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  • The resemblance is greater the more diffraction spectra enter the objective.

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  • From the Fraunhofer formula I =X/n sin a one can immediately deduce the limit to the diffraction constant I, so that the banding by an objective of fixed numerical aperture can be perceived.

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  • All details of the object so resolved are perceived, if two diffraction maxima can be passed through the objective, so that the character of the object is seen in the image, even if an exact resemblance has not yet been attained.

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  • back focal plane of the objective, can be conveniently seen with the naked eye by removing the eyepiece and looking into the tube, or better by focusing a weak auxiliary microscope on the back focal plane of the objective.

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  • If the obliquity of illumination be so great that the principal maximum passes through the outermost edge of the objective, while a spectrum of 1st order passes the opposite edge, so that in the back focal plane the diffraction phenomenon shown in fig.

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  • Suppose that a well corrected objective is employed.

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  • The image 0' of the point 0 is then the interference effect of all waves proceeding from the exit pupil of the objective P1P1'.

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  • Abbe showed that for the production of an image the diffraction maxima must lie within the exit pupil of the objective.

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  • If this object be viewed by the objective, so that at least the diffraction spectra of 1st order pass the finer divisions, then the corresponding diffraction phenomenon in the back focal plane of the objective has the appearance shown in fig.

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  • If one cuts out by a diaphragm in the back focal plane of the objective all diffraction spectra except the principal maximum, one sees in the image a field divided into two halves, which show with different clearness, but no banding.

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  • To determine the utility of an' objective for resolving fine details, one experiments with definite objects, which are usually employed simultaneously for examining its other properties.

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  • The examination of the objectives can only be attempted when the different faults of the objective are known.

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  • If microscopic preparations are observed by diffused daylight or by the more or less white light of the usual artificial sources, then an objective of fixed numerical aperture will only represent details of a definite fineness.

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  • The Fraunhofer formula permits the determination of the most useful magnification of such an objective in order to utilize its full resolving power.

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  • Supposing, however, there is oblique illumination, then formula (5) can always be applied to determine the magnifying power attainable with at least one objective.

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  • The magnification and magnifying number which are most necessary for a microscope with an objective of a given aperture can then be calculated from the formulae: V4 = 2A tan 4'/X; N4 = 2Al tan 4'/A.

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  • If the magnification be greater than the resolving power demands, the observation is not only needlessly made more difficult, but the entrance pupil is diminished, and with it a very considerable decrease of clearness, for with an objective of a certain aperture the size of the exit pupil depends upon the magnification.

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  • At least two successive diffraction maxima must be admitted through the objective for there to be any image of the objects.

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  • The cutting off of the chief maximum can be effected by a suitable diaphragm in the back focal plane of the objective.

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  • With the .orthogonal arrangement for illuminating and observing the beam of light traverses an extremely fine slit through a well-corrected system, whose optic axis is perpendicular to the axis of the microscope; the system reduces the dimensions of the beam to about 2 to 4 in the focal plane of the objective.

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  • If it were not possible to recombine in one image-point the rays leaving the objective and derived from one object-point, i.e.

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  • The objective and eyepiece have.

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  • On the other hand, the correction of the objective presents many difficulties.

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  • We will now examine the conditions which must be fulfilled by an objective, and then how far these conditions have been realized.

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  • The representation, free from aberration, of a small surface-element, is only possible, as Abbe has shown, if the objective simultaneously fulfils the " sine-condition," i.e.

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  • The sine-condition is, however, the most important as far as the microscopic representation is concerned, because it must be possible to represent a surfaceelement through the objective by wide cones of rays.

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  • A well-corrected microscope objective with a wide aperture therefore can only represent, free from aberrations, one object-element situated on a definite spot on the axis.

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  • side, which traverse different zones of the objective, have a different magnification.

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  • The sine-condition can therefore also be understood as follows: that all objective zones must have the same magnification for the plane-element.

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  • The first real improvement in the microscope objective dates from 1830 when V.

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  • Selligue had no particular comprehension of the problem, for his achromatic single systems were simply telescope objectives corrected for an infinitely distant point, and were placed so that the same surface was turned towards the object in the microscope objective as in the telescope objective; although contrary to the telescope, the distance of the object in the microscope objective is small in proportion to the distance of the image.

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  • Although such systems have been made recently for special purposes, this construction was abandoned, and a more complex one adopted, which also made the production of better objectives possible; this is the principle of the compensation of the aberrations produced in the different parts of the objective.

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  • He had recognized that the good operation of a microscope objective depended essentially upon the size of the aperture, and he therefore endeavoured to produce systems with wide aperture and good correction.

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  • those caused by the upper surface preponderate, an over-corrected cone of rays enters the objective.

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  • In order to counteract this aberration the whole objective must be correspondingly under-corrected.

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  • This expensive method was simplified in 1837 by Andrew Ross by making the upper and lower portion of the objective variable by means of a so-called correction-collar, and so giving the objective a corresponding under-correction according, to the thickness of the glass cover.

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  • - Achro tive fitted with cormatic objective for r e c t i o n collar homogeneous immer (Zeiss).

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  • The most perfect microscope objective was invented by E.

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  • Abbe in 1886 in the so-called apochromatic objective.

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  • THE Eyepiece Or Ocular The eyepiece is considerably simpler in its construction than the objective.

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  • Its purpose in a microscope is by means of narrow cones of rays to represent at infinity the real magnified image which the objective produces.

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  • Since many of the rays coming from the exit-pupil of the objective would not reach the eye of the observer at all, it is necessary, in order to make use of all of them, to direct the diverging rays forming the real image so that the whole of the light enters the eye of the observer.

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  • If the real image produced by the objective coincides with the collective lens, only the inclination of the principal rays is altered, the form of the cone being affected only to a very small extent.

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  • Both lenses together form the exit-pupil of the objective behind the eyelens, so that this image, the exit-pupil of the total system or the Ramsden circle, is accessible to the eye of the observer.

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  • The Ramsden eyepiece is the most convenient for this because this plane lies in front of the collective lens, and the objective image has not yet been influenced by the eyepiece.

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  • These eyepieces are intentionally provided with a different chromatic magnification, which however is in opposition to that originating in the objective.

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  • blue, and thus magnify the red image more than the blue; and as the objective gives a large blue and a small red image, the two cancel one another and a colourless image is produced.

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  • By multiplying the magnification of the objective by the number .t .

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  • By the magnification of the objective is meant the ratio of the distance of distinct vision to the focal length of the objective.

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  • To fully utilize the aperture of the system all dispersing rays in the object-space of the objective must be retained in the imagespace of the illuminating system.

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  • the field-diaphragm on the image-side of the observing system with object-side of the illuminating system, and the exit pupil of the illuminating system with the entrance pupil of the objective.

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  • If the aperture of the objective is increased, the diameter of the illuminating surface must also be increased so that the system is quite filled up, from which it follows that this method of illuminating soon fails.

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  • The chief cone of rays then enters obliquely into the objective, the angle between the direct cone of rays and the diffraction spectrum of the first order can then become as large again as with direct lighting, and still be taken up in the objective.

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  • Hence a condenser, for lighting with very oblique cones, must have about the same aperture as the objective, and therefore be of very wide aperture; they therefore closely resemble microscope objectives in construction.

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  • This was a concave mirror, pierced in the middle, fixed to the objective, and directed towards the object and with such a FIG.

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  • In this case the object lay upon a stage plate, whose centre had so far been made opaque, so that the rays coming from the illuminating plane mirror could not reach the objective direct, but only the rays passing the stage plate to the side of this blackened portion reached the Lieberkiihn mirror, and were used in lighting.

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  • 43) a small prism p, which also revolves upon a horizontal axis, is placed as near as possible to the back lens of the objective.

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  • The edge which is the separating line of the horizontal and hypothenuse surfaces of the prism, lies approximately over the middle of the system, so that the rays entering through the opening in the side after having been reflected by the hypothenuse surface are concentrated through one half of the objective on to the object.

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  • When observing only the other half of the objective is used.

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  • The sources of light used should be arranged so that the objective throws an image of the light-source upon the object.

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  • The objects observed with the vertical illuminator must not have a glass cover if the dry system is employed, because the upper surface of the glass cover would send so much light back into the objective by reflection, that the image would be indistinct.

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  • As was seen when discussing the physical theory, the minute details of the object cause diffractions, and can only be examined if the objective can take up at least two consecutive diffraction spectra.

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  • These diffracting details become especially distinct if the direct lighting cone of rays, the spectrum of zero:order or the chief maximum, is not allowed to enter the objective and instead only two or more diffraction maxima are taken up; the details then appear bright on a dark background.

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  • In dark field illumination care has to be taken that no direct rays reach the objective, and hence a good dark field illumination can be produced if the condenser system has a larger aperture than the objective.

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  • The central diaphragm disk keeps away all the light which would otherwise fall directly into the objective, and the open zones send so many oblique rays through the object that they cannot all be taken up by the objective.

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  • 45, a more powerful system D is used for a condenser, which has a blackened section on the back of the front lens of such a size that no light can enter the objective A.

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  • In this way it is only possible for diffracted rays to enter the objective.

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  • - Path of Rays for dark-ground illumination with fixed diaphragm in the objective.

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  • (Objective D can also be used as a condenser (Zeiss).) Th.

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  • One way of receiving a stereoscopic impression through a microscope is by fixing an apparatus as directly as possible above the last lens of the microscopic objective, which divides the rays passing out and directs half into each eyepiece.

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  • 48), essentially a Wheatstone pseudoscope, added just above the objective.

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  • 49) in a setting is placed above the last surface of the objective and divides the exit rays.

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  • The group of rays coming from the left half of the objective can continue its way without hindrance to the right eye.

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  • The group of rays coming from the right half of the objective is reflected twice in the prism and directed to the left eye.

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  • He realized that the division of the cones of rays by prisms could only be satisfactorily performed if the prism was placed in the position of the exit pupil of the objective or in the position of the real image of this exit pupil.

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  • He employed a Nachet combination of prisms and placed the dividing prism at the spot where a special reversing system formed a real image of the exit pupil of the objective.

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  • Prazmowski who substituted a Wenham diffracting division prism at the position of the real image of the exit pupil of the objective formed by a reversing system.

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  • Such a combination of prisms was used by Wenham, who placed it directly behind the last objective lens.

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  • The tube containing the eyepiece and the objective is double.

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  • Almost all are such that the whole microscope tube is raised or sunk by the mechanism of the fine adjustment, and not only the objective.

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  • Many devices are available for changing the objective.

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  • It is essential that the objective is always brought before the lower end of the tube in such a way that the optic axis of the objective coincides with the optic axis of the rest of the system.

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  • The fittings of the objective and the changer are so arranged that little or no fine adjustment is necessary after the change.

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  • In the sliding changer the objective is, dovetailed to a slide, the correct position being secured by clamps.

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  • In many stands the objective can be centred instead of the plate.

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  • In the lower focal plane of the eyepiece, at the spot where the real image which the objective forms of the object arises, a glass plate is introduced on which are two fine cross lines or even two very thin threads.

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  • Very often the analyser is placed in the tube, a little above the objective: it is then generally in a case G, which can be put into the tube.

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  • The placing of the analyser near the objective has the advantage that the field of view is not restricted, as is the case if the analyser .is used above the eyepiece.

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  • The image produced by the microscope objective M in its back focus plane is then observed through a supplementary microscope.

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  • The objective of this supplementary microscope, the Bertrand lens, can be applied through a window I at the lower end of the inner tube K.

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  • The first method uses the objective screw micrometer.

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  • The objective screw micrometer is, however, not sufficiently delicate, and is only used when comparatively large objects are to be measured, and especially for objects whose edges do not appear at the same time in the field of view.

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  • In this case not the object itself but a real image which has already been magnified by the objective is measured, and obviously much more accurate results are possible.

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  • the image correctly to a few thousandths of millimetres, the object itself is measured accurately to some hundred-thousandths of millimetres, if it has been magnified a hundred times by the objective.

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  • To keep up this degree of exactitude the magnification of the objective must be carefully ascertained, e.g.

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  • by using an objective micrometer.

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  • A fine scale with known intervals is put on the stage plate, and by determining the distance between the graduations of the objective micrometer formed through the same objective, by means of the screw micrometer ocular, the magnification of the objective is determined.

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  • As the errors in the graduation of the objective micrometer are also magnified, very exact scales are necessary.

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  • When determining the magnification the microscope must be used under exactly the same conditions: neither the length of the tube nor the focal length of the objective may be altered.

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  • The adjustment must be such that the image produced by the objective falls exactly in the plane of the scale.

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  • By using an objective micrometer in place of the object, the magnification of the objective can be ascertained and from this the actual size of the object.

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  • If, as before, an objective micrometer is placed below the microscope in the place of the object, and the size of a special micrometer-interval is drawn on the same board, then the actual size of the object can be ascertained.

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  • Instead of first drawing the object and the objective micrometer, they can of course be projected at the same moment on a scale on the drawing board.

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  • The errors attending the determination of the size of a microscopic object depend chiefly on the accuracy of the objective micrometer; any errors in the micrometer being magnified by the objective.

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  • These may be diminished by using different parts of the objective micrometer for the correction of the eyepiece scale, and the calculation of the size is based on the found mean value.

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  • THE Testing Of The Microscope The excellence of a microscope objective depends on its definition and its resolving power.

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  • The size of these circles depends, in the case of equal tube lengths, only on the type of the objective, and not on the focal length, exact execution being assumed.

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  • The size of these details in the image depends only on the magnification of the objective, M and can by appropriate choice of the focal length of the objective be brought to the right value.

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  • The defects of the objective are revealed, e.g.

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  • The resolving power of an objective depends on its numerical aperture.

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  • The eyepiece being removed the image of the metal plates b produced by the objective is seen.

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  • The magnification of a microscope is determined from the focal lengths of the two optical systems and the optical tube length, for N = 250 A/fi'f2 To determine the optical tube length 0, it is necessary to know the position of the focal planes of the objective and of the ocular.

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  • If one focuses an auxiliary microscope, carried in the inner tube, on the image situated in the back focal plane of the objective of a distant object, and then on the dust particles lying on a slide pressed against the end of the outer tube, the displacement of the auxiliary microscope gives the distance of the back focal plane of the objective from the end of the outer tube.

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  • L = front lens of the objective.

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  • It There are many methods for determining the focal length of the objective.

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  • The objective to be examined is placed on the stage, and in the manner just shown, the distance of the focal plane from the edge of the fittings or to the surface plane of the front lens is determined.

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  • If the object can be seen by using the mirror, the plane mirror must be used; then the actual size of the object and of the image produced by the objective is measured (of the image by a micrometer ocular).

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  • The distance of the object from the nearer focus of the objective is next determined.

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  • This distance is composed of the distance of the object from the centre of the plane mirror, and of the distance of the focus of the objective on the stage plate from the centre of the plane mirror.

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  • the optical length of the tube A, the focal lengths of the objective, and of the eyepiece f2.

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  • The focal length of an objective can be more simply determined by placing an objective micrometer on the stage and reproducing on a screen some yards away by the objective which is to be examined.

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  • If the size of the image of a known interval of the objective micrometer is determined by an ordinary scale, and the distance of the image from the focal plane of the objective belonging to it is measured, then the focal length can be calculated from the ratio y/y'=fl', in which y is the size of the object, y' that of the image, and xi' the distance of the image from the focal plane belonging to it.

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  • If a drawing prism is used above the eyepiece, and an objective micrometer is inserted, then if a scale is laid on the drawing board which is 25 cm.

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  • distant from the exit pupil, one or more intervals of the objective micrometer can be seen projected on the scale lying on the board.

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  • His immediate objective was Belgrade, and thither, at the end of 1455, Hunyadi repaired, after a public reconciliation with all his enemies.

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  • The relation between phenomena and noumena in the Kantian system does not in the least resemble that which plays so important a part in modern psychology - between the subjective results of sense affection and the character of the objective conditions of such affection.

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  • In the first place, the adaptation may be merely subjective, when the empirical condition for the exercise of judgment is furnished by the feeling of pleasure or pain; such adaptation is aesthetic. In the second place, the adaptation may be objective or logical, when empirical facts are given of such a kind that their possibility can be conceived only through the notion of the end realized in them; such adaptation is teleological, and the empirical facts in question are organisms.

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  • Fichte and Matthew Arnold ("a magnified and non-natural man"), - strangely, in view of their strong belief in an objective moral order.

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  • The earliest stages of the development of the binocular microscope had been always confined to those instruments with one objective, in the immediate neighbourhood of which the systems for dividing the pencil were placed.

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  • At a later date attempts were made to separate the two halves of the objective by modifying the eye-piece; this led to the construction of stereoscopic eye-pieces, initiated by R.

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  • There is a subjective sensation of mental brilliance, but, as in other cases, this is not borne out by the objective results.

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  • My first choice was to telephone the Atlanta office but I wondered if I might get a more objective hearing from an office further from a good old boy network.

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  • I tried to remain objective but I'm forced to admit, the assemblage made me feel a tad tetchy.

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  • The safest thing for both of them was for him to keep his distance and remain objective.

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  • A poor example of being objective.

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  • Or Darkyn, whose offer seemed so much more objective than either Wynn's or Gabriel's.

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  • During the night, he'd turned the matter over in his mind, and kept coming back to the fact that someone from Bird Song had killed Shipton and any objective viewer would be taking a long and hard look at David Dean as that person.

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  • "At least one of you guys is still objective about this case," the white-haired Anderson said.

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  • I asked about a private detective—God knows how I would pay— but she said a hired person wouldn't be seen as objective.

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  • Dean tried to be as objective as possible and let the report speak for itself.

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  • She may have been asleep and she may have been a wet shivering mess but, by God, she was still beautiful and the whole procedure was beginning to bother Dean as he tried to be objective to his task.

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  • There was an opportunity for networking between institutions with the objective of putting together collaborative bids.

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  • Reasons: To support the Council's objective of delivering 500 affordable homes whilst minimizing effort on ultimately abortive schemes.

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  • It cannot be demanded that the objective accusative of religious experiences occupy the spatial dimensions, since being spatial entails having sensory qualities.

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  • Once we divorce the subjective aspect from the objective, such a philosophy becomes transformed into sheer revolutionary adventurism.

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  • affective dimensions of life do not appear in the context of objective, neutral laws.

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  • At the third stage, Dhyana, the word ana, the word ana is used to denote the development of Objective Mind in man.

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  • numerical aperture The numerical aperture of a microscope objective is a measure of its ability to resolve fine specimen detail.

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  • appropriate to meet the investment objective.

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  • Objectives: negative security assurances are interim measures pending the elimination of nuclear weapons, which is the main objective.

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  • attainment of the objective could be done in a very short time.

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  • This is in line with the sixth objective of its five-year strategic plan announced last autumn.

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  • They exchanged humorous banter with neither party revealing their true objective.

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  • The objective view demands rethinking and you will please bear with me if I overview the subject before getting too specific.

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  • The objective view demands rethinking and you will please bear with me if I overview the subject before getting too specific.

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  • believe in an objective devil - a real supernatural being with mind and purpose!

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  • Our objective is to provide cost-effective performance related bitumen binders.

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  • Our objective is to develop novel biosensors based on functionalised carbon nanotubes that boost the detection limits to improve the quality of our lives.

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  • This is especially so if you screw up an objective, when the ruthless boss won't miss a moment to berate you.

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  • The second objective is to raise awareness of the condition, which can be detected with an electro cardiogram (ECG ).

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  • The objective of the study was to examine the relationship between specific dietary carotenoids and the incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD ).

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  • OBJECTIVE: To determine trends in incidence of invasive adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix in East Anglia.

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  • At the bottom is a revolving nosepiece, or as it is sometimes called, the " objective changer " .

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  • The methods of objective 1.4 will be applied to these to obtain results on symmetric chaos.

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  • OBJECTIVE: To examine the potential cost-effectiveness of aspirin chemoprophylaxis in relation to screening.

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  • Primary objective Does the addition of induction chemotherapy to CHART improve overall survival over CHART alone?

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  • The objective of antenatal care is to optimize the health of the mother and her developing baby and to plan for a safe childbirth.

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  • His prime objective was to measure a degree on the equator to calculate the circumference of the Earth.

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  • The settlement also makes good the government's commitment on Objective 1 for Wales.

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  • We are able to carry out short or long-term diagnoses, and provide concise, objective and helpful feedback.

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  • constraint satisfaction algorithm eliminating the need to explicitly define a search objective.

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  • convinced of the objective necessity for change, yet the absence of a party only makes future attacks even more probable.

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  • coppice with standards is the objective, then no more than 10 native standard trees per hectare are kept.

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  • This provides Simpson with an objective correlative for different states of mind.

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  • Even for a force oriented counterattack, use an objective to orient the counterattacking force.

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  • Author's objective The objective was to review research on screening for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM ).

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  • This last objective has nothing to do with competition policy and is in fact the opposite: protection in thin disguise.

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  • His chum, Adam Zertal, seems similarly disposed, appearing to be a biblicist rather than a scientifically objective archeologist too.

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  • This would almost certainly result in the loss of civilian lives, and may well be deemed disproportionate to the military objective.

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  • We have a range of trained mediators who can provide objective support in bringing disputants together in order to find a solution.

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  • With the old objective only a little barrel distortion is present due in main to the exaggerated perspective of being close up.

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  • Abstract Objective To clarify the role played by endothelial cell production of fibrinolytic factors in normal pregnancy and pre- eclampsia.

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  • The objective is to enable students to understand more advanced econometrics most of which relies heavily on matrix algebra.

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  • AB - OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of adjuvant therapy for ovarian germ cell tumors.

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  • Finally, Western minds may be free again to reason rather than just emote, to pursue objective truth rather than subjective virtue ' .

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  • SOME ADVICE ON STYLE Keep it Objective and avoid emotionalism Unless it is appropriate, avoid " I " as much as possible.

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  • The objective of the exercise program for Class I muscles or limbs is to increase muscle strength and cardiovascular endurance.

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  • eugenic practices, in particular, those whose objective is the selection of persons " .

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  • exchange rate objective and were delighted to break free.

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  • exerted to ensure that objective.

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  • Launched in 1988 and funded jointly by DTI, SERC and industry, the program's objective was to accelerate commercial exploitation of ASM.

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  • fair-minded, objective observer must surely smell grave maladministration.

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  • falsity of a statement is an " objective " matter.

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  • Its sole objective is to support small-scale cotton farmers.

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  • It was established in 1893 with the objective of fostering interest in ferns and fern allies.

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  • firing of objective neurons give rise to a subjective world?

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  • His stated objective was to prove to the Government that qualified precision fitters could be turned out in 6 months.

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  • furtherance of this objective at the EU level.

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  • There were no significant differences between those taking ginkgo and those taking placebo on any of the objective or subjective measures.

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  • The light exiting the echelle grating then enters a three lens objective where it is focussed onto a detector array.

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  • The objective of Rush Hour is to move the little red car out of the snarled up traffic gridlock that the game begins with.

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  • They successfully completed their main objective of removing and replacing a faulty gyroscope on the International Space Station.

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  • The Agency would report to the Secretary of State for health as the agency's primary objective is to protect public health.

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  • different heuristics may have a different effect in each objective of the problem.

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  • The Euclidean paradigm of mathematics as an objective, absolute, incorrigible and rigidly hierarchical body of knowledge is increasingly under question.

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  • Siege gives the player the task of defending a castle, with the objective of stopping an invasion from an endless horde of undead.

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  • humorous banter with neither party revealing their true objective.

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  • AB - OBJECTIVE: To assess the place of laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy in the treatment of endometrial cancer.

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  • Top of Page Philosophical idealism comes in two forms: subjective Idealism and objective Idealism.

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  • immersion lenses: 1. Focus the image using a lower power air objective.

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  • immersion objective is an odds on winner.

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  • Using oil immersion lenses: 1. Focus the image using a lower power air objective.

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  • The firm prides itself on giving impartial, objective, quality advice to clients.

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  • The Moslem objective seems to be simply to destroy the infidel.

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  • Her objective here can only be to falsely inflate the number of refugees emanating from the so-called " Milosevic case area.

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  • Multimedia Networking for inhabited television The objective of the project was to explore Inhabited Television as a challenging application for multimedia networks.

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  • interdependence of objective events among themselves " .

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  • However, the downside of this approach is that the psychologist may become too involved and unable to make recordings in an objective manner.

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  • The objective is to measure up- and downward spectral irradiances in the wavelength range between 295 and 1700 nm.

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  • musk ketone (' Biosil ' prepared slide ), 3.5x objective, no eyepiece.

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  • Our objective was to study the odd landforms developed on the gypsum - deep tubes dissolved into the surface.

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  • laudable objective.

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  • leguminous trees for dry season feeding has been the main technical objective for us in collaboration with our Link partners.

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  • Bristol is highly likely to lose its Objective 2 EU status (based on GDP per head) from 2006.

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  • The objective is to award a lump sum that will enable the claimant to meet his assessed needs over the relevant period.

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  • main objective of =20 the conference is to collect views on the Geneva Plan of Action from =20 a Canadian civil society perspective.

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  • The objective for the team is to knock more marbles outside the ring than the opposing team.

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  • measurable objective is a number.

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  • objective menorrhagia is a total menstrual blood loss 80ml per menstruation.

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  • They need to bring in a specialist, someone fearless, uncompromising and utterly merciless in pursuit of the objective.

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  • The Commission believes appraisal methodology must be grounded in objective and scientific analysis and be transparent as to its intent.

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  • To calibrate the eyepiece micrometer, the stage micrometer has to be focused using the objective to be used.

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  • Images were taken using a CCD camera attached to the eyepiece tube of a stereo microscope using a x1 paired objective with no eyepiece.

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  • Slightly misnamed because their objective appears to be to increase firework safety simply by banning consumer fireworks completely.

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  • We hope to find a modus vivendi toward achieving that objective.

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  • money market instruments, deposits and any other permitted asset type deemed appropriate to meet the investment objective.

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  • monologueeatures can be employed to frame the objective for an artificial system which is to generate persuasive monolog.

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  • Our overall objective is to excavate the entire mound, but it is so huge that the work must be carried out in phases.

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  • RLOs are stand-alone " chunks " of interactive web-based multimedia, which support a single learning objective.

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  • British Mycological Society The BMS was founded in 1896 with the sole objective of promoting mycology in all its aspects.

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  • Abstract Objective: To evaluate the role of uterine artery embolization as treatment for symptomatic uterine myomas.

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  • Objective: To consider the long-term survival and outcomes in patients with olfactory neuroblastoma undergoing craniofacial resection.

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  • AB - OBJECTIVE: Two cases of cystic neuroblastoma diagnosed by ultrasonography and CT are presented.

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  • AB - OBJECTIVE: Radiation optic neuropathy usually occurs months to years after exposure of the anterior visual pathways to ionizing radiation.

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  • Nitrogen dioxide Monitoring data shows that current nitrogen dioxide concentrations are currently within the National Air Quality Strategy Objective concentrations for nitrogen dioxide Monitoring data shows that current nitrogen dioxide concentrations are currently within the National Air Quality Strategy Objective concentrations for nitrogen dioxide.

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  • nitrogen dioxide air quality objective at four separate areas in Telford.

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  • Even if the commission were required simply to pursue the objective, it could only aim to do that on each occasion.

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  • A main objective will be to resolve problems within the workplace rather than parties having to go through the tribunal system.

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  • The overall objective is to develop the Cost Calculator to incorporate unit costs for all services that children receive within specific time frames.

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  • objective lenses are shown in the table.

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  • OBJECTIVES The key objective was to achieve best practice levels of safety, quality, time and cost performance for all participating organizations.

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  • ostensible objective.

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  • overall objective is to develop the Cost Calculator to incorporate unit costs for all services that children receive within specific time frames.

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  • overarching objective of the Northern Way is not new.

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  • pacification of the entire country of Afghanistan has never been achieved by foreigners and cannot be the objective of the American military effort.

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  • AB - OBJECTIVE: Respiratory papillomas (RP) tend to recur and the difficulty in eradicating the disease makes their treatment frustrating.

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  • At the next level, the objective is for architecture independence, in which control and data parallelism are merged.

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  • The objective of this forum is to allow participants to discuss the issues raised by such a change.

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  • It is unlawful to treat part-timers less favorably than full-timers, unless you can justify the different treatment on objective grounds.

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  • The objective is to confer some passive immunity to the agent that causes PMWS at the pig's most susceptible age.

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  • The objective stance here is not merely permissive, but active.

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  • Objectives The primary objective is to explore the safety of 13% of cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) as a vaginal microbicide.

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  • The main objective of this research is to produce a robust phylogeny of the genus Pinus based on plastid DNA sequence data.

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  • Therefore, such evidence is generated with the specific intention of influencing policy, but is that objective achieved?

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  • OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of eradication of H. pylori on the clinical course of patients with hyperplastic gastric polyps.

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  • presupposes the existence of objective truth.

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  • primary objective is to achieve Best Practice in long term interoperability between IT systems.

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  • principal objective of the reform was to create a free real estate market.

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  • pro formas where objective testing inappropriate.

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  • progress toward nuclear disarmament, which constitutes their primary disarmament objective.

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  • promulgated in this consultation document, MAFF's approach to risk is clearly intended to be reasonably objective, if not scientific.

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  • A heart surgeon does not perform open heart surgery without following proper, objective methodology.

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