The elementary theory of optical systems leads to the theorem: Rays of light proceeding from any " object point " unite in an " image point "; and therefore an " object space " is reproduced in an " image space."
13 and 14, so that its image, the entrance pupil, lies at infinity, all the principal rays in the object-space are parallel to the axis, and we have on the object-side " telecentric " transmission.
To ensure the telecentric transmission, the diaphragm in the back focus of the objective may be replaced by a diaphragm in the front focal plane of the condenser, supposing that uniformly illuminated objects are being dealt with; for in this case all the principal rays in the object-space are transmitted parallel to the axis.
With uniformly illuminated objects it may happen that the pencil in the object-space may be limited before passing the object, either through the size of the source of light employed or through a diaphragm connected with the illuminating system.
Whether the entrance pupil be before or behind the object, in general its position is such that it lies not too near the object, so that the principal rays will have in the object space only trifling inclinations towards one another or are strictly parallel.
in the object-space the objective has telecentric transmission, the exit pupil must coincide with the back focal plane of the combined system, and it always lies behind the image-side focus of the eyepiece.
The sine-condition is in contrast to the tangent-condition, which must be regarded as the point-by-point representation of the whole object-space in the image-space (see Lens), and according therefore the equation n tan u/tan u' = C must exist.
To fully utilize the aperture of the system all dispersing rays in the object-space of the objective must be retained in the imagespace of the illuminating system.
If the perspective centres lie too near one another in the object-space, as may happen with slightly opened and weak systems, the difference of the perspective is then too slight to make any real stereoscopic impression.
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