Besides the oases the desert is remarkable for two other valleys.
The other four oases lie parallel to and distant 100 to 150 m.
These oases were known and occupied by the Egyptians as early as 1600 s.c., and Kharga (q.v.) rose to special importance at the time of the Persian occupation.
It belongs to the series of oases (Uch-Turfan, Bai, Koucha, &c.) situated at the southern foot of the eastern T'ien-shan mountains.
Except on the scattered oases, where irrigation from springs and mountain streams has reclaimed small patches, the desert is barren and forbidding in the extreme.
In the oases of Sahara, and in other parts of Northern Africa, dates are pounded and pressed into a cake for food.
The oases of Sakaka and Kara are situated in a similar basin 15 m.
East of the oases of Baharia and Farafra is a very striking line of these sand dunes; rarely more than 3 miles wide, it extends almost continuously from Moghara in the north, passing along the west side of Kharga Oasis to a point near the Nile in the neighborhood of Abu Siinbelhaving thus a length of nearly 550 m.
In general barren, the country contains several oases, with a total population of about 10,000.
The other desert regions of Egypt are elevated stony plateaus, which are diversified by extensively excavated valleys and oases, and in which sand frequently plays quite a subordinate part.
This country consists of seven oases, five in close proximity and two isolated.
These poljes may be described as oases in what is otherwise a desert expanse of mountains.
But the string of oases in Kan-suh province, which stretches between the towns named, lies on the lower level of the Mongolian plateau (4000 to 5000 ft.), so that the Lung-shan ought possibly to be regarded as a continuation of the Pe-shan mountains of the Gobi.
They are the termination of a stony plateau, containing several small oases, which southward joins the more arid and uninhabitable wastes of the Libyan Desert.
This is especially the case where there is also shade to protect them from the midday sun, as in some of the narrow ravines in the eastern desert and in the palm groves of the oases, where various ferns and flowers grow luxuriantly round the springs.
The exceptions are the towns in the oases comparatively unimportant, and those in the Fayum province.
From the Nile, caravan routes lead westward to the various oases and eastward to the Red Sea, the shortest (120 to.) and most used of the eastern routes being that from Kena to Kosseir.
Outside the Nile valley on the west are temples- in the Great and Little Oases and the Oasis of Ammon: on the east quarries and stelae on the Hammamat road to the Red Sea, and mines and other remains at Wadi Maghara and SerbIt el Khgdim in the Sinai peninsula.
Such art as continued was almost wholly religious; for in the wilderness of the times the churches formed oases of comparative prosperity and peace, and, even in the darkest times, wherever such oases existed there the seeds of art took root.
long from north to south and about so wide - a low flat space of sandy waste with cultivated oases and palm groves of great luxuriance and beauty.
These villages, built in oases dotted over the desert, nestle in groves of datepalms and fruit trees and waving fields of barley.
In still more western fields of research much additional light has been thrown since 1875 on the physiography of the great deserts and oases of Arabia.
There are, however, extensive oak, pine and beech forests in the highlands, and many beautiful oases in the deeply sunk valleys, and along the rivers, especially beside the Ebro, which is, therefore, often called the "Nile of Aragon."
In such oases the flora is exceedingly rich.
To the south this region is divided by the Great Atlas from the deserts of the Sahara, with its oases, in which the boundary of Algeria is lost.
In 1352 the restless man started for Central Africa, passing by the oases of the Sahara (where the houses were built of rock-salt, as Herodotus tells, and roofed with camel skins) to Timbuktu and Gogo on the Niger, a river which he calls the Nile, believing it to flow down into Egypt, an opinion maintained by some up to the date of Lander's discovery.
(3) A succession of oases lying east of the eastern mountain system on the edge of the steppe, and fed by short local streams. Of these the most important are, from north to south, (a) the Saltpan of Jebeil, fed by the North al-Dahab; (b) the oases of Kinnesrin and Aleppo, fed by the North Kuwaik; and (c) that of Sham or Damascus, fed by streams from Hermon, of which the Barada (Abana) and the Awaj (Pharpar) are the chief.
At present, hardly a few verdant oases relieve its dead solitude.
These rooms are private retreats, personal oases, escapes from the outside world.
Akhdar, is perhaps the most fertile district in the peninsula; Hadramut, too, contains many large and prosperous villages, and the torrents from the Yemen highlands fertilize several oases in the Tehama (or Tihama) or lowlands of the western and southern coast.
advance geographical interests in south Arabia, continued Wellsted's work in Oman; starting from Sohar on the Batina coast he crossed the dividing range into the Dhahira, and reached Birema, one of its principal oases.
Palgrave says little of the desert part of the journey or of its Bedouin inhabitants, but much of the fertility of the oases and of the civility of the townsmen; and like other travellers in Nejd he speaks with enthusiasm of its bright, exhilarating climate.
Water is found in it a few feet below the surface, and a little cultivation is carried on at the small oases of Kaf and Ithri, whence salt produced in the neighbouring salt lakes is exported.
Kasim and Wushm, where the water in the wadi beds rises nearly to the ground level, numerous fertile oases are found with thriving villages and towns.
In the north-west the Dhahira district sloping towards the Jewasimi coast is more steppe-like in character; but there two oases of great fertility are found, of which Birema, visited by both Miles and Zwemer, supports a population of 15,000.
This distinction between the characteristics of the two races is only true in a general sense, for a considerable population of true Bedouin origin has settled down to agricultural life in the oases of Hejaz and Nejd, while in southern Arabia the tribes dwelling on the fringe of the great desert have to a certain extent adopted the nomad life.
This abundant supply of fresh warm water maintains oases of extraordinary luxuriance in a country where rain falls very rarely.
In the oases of the Jerid are found several species of tropical African mammals and two or three of Senegalese birds, and the vegetation seems to have as much affinity with tropical Africa as with Europe.
To the south of the Jerid the country is mainly desert - vast unexplored tracts of shifting sand, with rare oases.
Natives of Morocco and of the Sahara oases occasionally bring with them young baboons which they assert are obtained in various Sahara countries to the south and south-west of Tunisia.
It is the Tsure-zure-gusa (Materials/or Dispelling Ennui), by KenkO-bOshi, described by Mr Aston as one of the most delightful oases in Japanese literature; a collection of short sketches, anecdotes and essays on all imaginable subjects, something in the manner of Seldens Table Talk.
In the Saharan oases the characteristic tree is the date palm - " the king of the desert."
The purely " African " Jew is now found only in the oases in the extreme south of the country.
Guerrara, one of the two isolated oases, 37 m.
A small amount of cotton is also grown in the southern oases.
The Algerian Sahara was divided into four territories, officially named Tuggurt, Ghardaia, Ain Sefra and the Saharan Oases (Tuat, Gurara and Tidikelt).
But the results of these efforts remained inconsiderable until the spring of 1900, when the French authorities decided to occupy the oases of Gurara, Tuat and Tidikelt.
Land suitable for cultivation is found only in oases, where it is watered by irrigation canals, but these oases are very fertile.
On the north-west are several conical hills of basalt, which are surrounded by oases of fertile soil.
The main feature of the northern plain is the so-called Luneburger Heide, a vast expanse of moor and fen, mainly covered with low brushwood (though here and there are oases of fine beech and oak woods) and intersected by shallow valleys, and extending almost due north from the city of Hanover to the southern arm of the Elbe at Harburg.
Natural springs give rise to oases at intervals and make the crossing of large deserts possible.
At the same time Greek merchants had begun to find their way up the Nile and even to the Oases.
Beyond the Nile valley east and west stretch great deserts, containing here and there fertile oases.
of the oases of Farafra and Dakhla, these lines of dunes, lying parallel to each other and about half a mile anart.
Oases.In the western desert lie the five large oases of Egypt, namely, Siwa, Baharia, Farafra, Dakhla and Kharga or Great Oasis, occupying depressions in the plateau or, in the case of the last three, large indentations in the face of limestone escarpments which form the western versant of the Nile valley hills.
Alum is found in the western oases.
The most important tree is the date-palm, which grows all over Egypt and in the oases.
The olive tree flourishes only in the Fayum and the oases.
Egypt normally included the whole of the Nile valley from the First Cataract to the sea; pure Egyptians, however, formed the population of Lower Nubia above the Cataract in prehistori.c times; at some periods also the land was divided into separate kingdoms, while at others Egypt stretched southward into Nubia, and it generally claimed the neighboring Libyan deserts and oases on the west and the Arabian deserts on the east to the shore of the Red Sea, with Sinai and the Mediterranean coast as far as Rhinocorura (El Arish).
Through the oases also ran paths to the Sudan by which the raw merchandise of the southern countries could be brought to Egypt.
This is, of course, due to the excess of evaporation over the amount of water supplied by its two feeders, the Amu-darya and the Syrdarya, both of which are seriously drawn upon for irrigation in all the oases they flow through.
The Murghab river and the Hari Rud, which terminate in the oases of Mer y and Sarakhs, almost certainly penetrated to the gulf of the Kara Kum, but the question whether the Oxus was ever deflected so as to enter the gulf with the Murghab cannot be said to be answered decisively at present.
KHARGA (WAH EL-KIIARGA, the outer oasis), the largest of the Egyptian oases, and hence frequently called the Great Oasis.
of Dakhla is the oasis of Farafra, population about 1000, said to be the first of the oases conquered by the Moslems from the Christians.
Owing to a very equitable distribution of irrigation water in accordance with Moslem law, agriculture and gardening have reached a high stage of development in the oases.
The Tarim, which is on the whole a sluggish, shallow, winding stream, fringes the great desert of Takla-makan on the west, north and east, and, after being extensively drawn upon for irrigation purposes in the oases (Yarkand, Kashgar, Maral-bashi, Ak-su), through which it passes, it eventually dies away in the salt reed-grown lake or marsh of Lop-nor (Karakoshun).
Along the south foot of the Tian-shan, and in the high valleys which intervene between the constituent ranges of that system, there exist numerous flourishing oases, such as Uch-turfan, Ak-su, Kucha, Korla, Kara-shahr, Hami, Barkul, Turfan, Urumchi, Manas and Kulja.
A similar string of oases exist all along the north foot of the Kuen-lun, e.g.
The wild camel frequents the scattered oases along the margins of the desert and roams into the desert itself.
What cultivation there is, is confined to the oases which nestle at the foot of the mountains all round the Tarim basin.
The soil in them is of great fertility wherever it is irrigated, and despite the supineness of the Chinese authorities, irrigation is very extensively practised in nearly all the oases.
Excellent crops of wheat, barley, maize, sesame, millet, cotton, opium, tobacco and rice are grown, and several of the oases, e.g.
The agricultural population of the oases are principally of Turkish stock, powerfully influenced by Aryan blood.
Nevertheless certain of the oases are famous individually for one or more handicrafts: for instance, Khotan for its silks, white carpets and felt goods; Kashgar and Turfan for cottons, Kucha and Kara-shahr for leather and saddlery, Ak-su for felts and leather and metal goods, Yarkand for silks, carpets and felts, and Urumchi and Uch-Turfan for sulphur.
The caravan routes mostly followed between China and the more populous centres (Kashgar and Yarkand) of East Turkestan start from An-si-chow and Sa-chow respectively, converge upon Hami on the north side of the Pe-shan swelling, and continue westward along the south foot of the Tian-shan Mountains through the oases of Turfan, Kara-shahr, Korla, Kucha, Ak-su and Uch-turfan.
Griinwedel, at Kucha and Korla, two other oases at the south foot of the Tian-shan Mountains.
Wherever oases are found they present similar features, and are naturally the halting-places and points of departure of desert caravans.
The desert regions yield support only to nomadic peoples, such as the Tuareg, Tibbu, Bedouins and Bushmen, though the presence of numerous oases in the north renders the condition of life easier for the inhabitants.
In the maritime parts of Malaga and Granada the vegetation is of almost tropical richness and beauty, while in Murcia, Alicante and Almeria the aspect is truly African, fertile oases appearing in the midst of rocky deserts or barren steppes.
West of the Nile there are a few oases-- those of Selima, Zaghawa and El Kab - but this district, part of the Libyan Desert, is even more desolate than the Nubian Desert.
North of Khartum agricultural land is confined to a narrow strip on either side of the Nile and to the few oases in the Libyan Desert.
The date-palm is cultivated along the Nile valley below Khartum, especially on the west bank in the Dongola mudiria and in the neighbouring oases.
The lowland, or Tehama, is hot and generally sterile; it contains oases, however, near the foot of the mountains, fertilized and irrigated by hill streams and supporting many large villages and towns.
As far south as Kurn Surtabeh most of the valley is fertile, and even between that point and the Dead Sea there are several wellwatered oases.
oasisbest, Select Committees can be blissful oases of intelligence and calm remote from the inter-party fracas.
oasisever, unlike the fertile oases of hot deserts these represent some of the harshest environments on our planet.
Emily looked around, trying to find the source of the laughing, and saw nothing but powdery sand, and oases.
verdant oases relieve its dead solitude.
Unfortunately the spread of cultivation is fatal to these oases (they are often called " islands " by the inhabitants); the axe and the plough ruthlessly destroy them.
They are: (I) Arabs from Tripoli, who export ostrich feathers, skins and ivory, and bring in burnouses, scents, sweets, tea, sugar, &c.; (2) Salaga merchants who import kola nuts from the hinterland of the Guinea Coast, taking in exchange cloth and live stock and leather and other goods; (3) the Asbenawa traders, who come from the oases of Asben or Air with camels laden with salt and "potash" (i.e.
The latter dies away over the plains east and south-east of Aleppo, making them afford good spring pasture, which has attracted the nomads from farther south: but below the latitude of Rakka-Homs thin steppe begins, and quickly degenerates into sheer desert broken only by a chain of poor oases, south of a low ridge running from Anti-Lebanon to Euphrates.
Tobruk has long been the outlet for the trade of the oases which extend from Jarabub to Siwah, and are a stronghold of the Senussi order (see CYRENAlcA); and it is also the headquarters of the Libyan sponge fishery, prosecuted by Greeks.
of the oasis of Siwa (see Egypt: The Oases; and SiwA) .
In Chile we visited the coastal desert with its oases and its nutrient-rich upwelling sea currents.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.