Nuremberg Sentence Examples
In November 1274 it was decided by the diet at Nuremberg that all crown estates seized since the death of the emperor Frederick II.
The conclusion of the treaties of Westphalia prevented him from winning the military laurels he so ardently desired, but as the Swedish plenipotentiary at the executive congress of Nuremberg, he had unrivalled opportunities of learning diplomacy, in which science he speedily became a past-master.
The relations were now very strained between the reforming princes and Maximilian, who, unable to raise an army, refused to attend the meetings of the council at Nuremberg, while both parties treated for peace with France.
It was first published at Nuremberg by Melchior Pfintzing in 1517, and was adorned with woodcuts by Hans Leonhard Schaufelein.
Having taken priest's orders, he held in 1524 a cure in the neighbourhood of Augsburg, but soon (1525) went over to the Reformed party at Nuremberg and became preacher at Gustenfelden.Advertisement
Here, too, he published, in 1531, his most important work, the Chronica, Zeitbuch and Geschichtsbibel, largely a compilation on the basis of the Nuremberg Chronicle (1493), and in its treatment of social and religious questions connected with the Reformation, exhibiting a strong sympathy with heretics, and an unexampled fairness to all kinds of freedom in opinion.
Pastor Frecht of Nuremberg pursued him with bitter zeal.
Later on he was at Nuremberg, Ulm and Innsbruck, where he is said to have been condemned to imprisonment for adultery, but released at the intercession of the elector of Saxony.
History he is confused with a later Tetzel of Nuremberg.
At Nuremberg he became acquainted with Osiander, whose somewhat isolated theological position he probably found to be in many points analogous to his own.Advertisement
The apothecaries' ordinance at Nuremberg provided that no Theriaca should in future be branded with the seal of the city unless it had been previously examined and declared worthy of the same by the doctors of medicine, and that every druggist must know the age of the Theriaca he sold.
The last public preparation of Theriaca took place at Nuremberg in 1754.
Having extorted a large sum of money from the burghers of Nuremberg, he quarrelled with his supporter, the French king, and offered his services to the emperor.
Such were Christina Ebner of Engelthal near Nuremberg, and Margaretha Ebner of Medingen in Swabia.
Ptolemaei magnam compositionem (printed at Venice in 1496), and his own De Triangulis (Nuremberg, 1533), the earliest work treating of trigonometry as a substantive science.Advertisement
He also finished his Tabulae Directionum (Nuremberg, '475), essentially an astrological work, but containing a valuable table of tangents.
An outbreak of war, meanwhile, diverted the king's attention from learning, and in 1471 Regiomontanus settled at Nuremberg.
Bernhard Walther, a rich patrician, became his pupil and patron; and they together equipped the first European observatory, for which Regiomontanus himself constructed instruments of an improved type (described in his posthumous Scripta, Nuremberg, 1544).
After this he filled various posts in south Germany - school director at Bamberg (1807), Nuremberg (1808), Ansbach (181o) - until he became professor of exegesis and church history at Heidelberg (1811-1844).
Muller brought out at Nuremberg a German translation of the Systema Naturae, completing it in 1776 by a Supplement containing a list of animals thus described, which had hitherto been technically anonymous, with diagnoses and names on the Linnaean model.Advertisement
In 1882, on account of his great services in connexion with the Bavarian National Exhibition of Nuremberg, the order of the crown of Bavaria was conferred upon him, carrying with it the honour of nobility.
He died at Nuremberg on the 31st of December 1902.
The geographical ideas which prevailed at the time Columbus started in search of Cathay may be most readily gathered from two contemporary globes, the one known as the Laon globe because it was picked up in 1860 at a curiosity shop in that town, the other produced at Nuremberg in 1492 by Martin Behaim.1 The Laon globe is of copper gilt, and has a diameter of 170 mm.
The Nuremberg globe is a work of a more ambitious order.
When in 1326 Louis of Bavaria saw the arrival in Nuremberg of the two authors of the book dedicated to him, startled by the boldness of their political and religious theories, he was at first inclined to treat them as heretics.Advertisement
But his assent to this was only extracted from him in 1540 by the importunities of his friends, especially of his enthusiastic disciple George Joachim Rheticus (1514-1576), who printed, in the Narratio prima (Danzig, 1540), a preliminary account of the Copernican theory, and simultaneously sent to the press at Nuremberg his master's complete exposition of it in the treatise entitled De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (1543).
Hartmann of Nuremberg in 1544, but his observation was not published till much later.
The Lexicon Latina-Hungaricum of Albert Molnar first appeared at Nuremberg in 1604, and with the addition of Greek was reprinted till 1708.
Valyi-Nagy, the first Magyar 1 The earliest, styled " Song on the Discovery of the right hand of the Holy King Stephen," and printed at Nuremberg by Anton Koburger in 1484, is lost.
Thus in Nuremberg a regular saffron inspection was held, and in the 15th century we read of men being burned in the market-place along with their adulterated saffron, while on another occasion three persons convicted of the same crime were buried alive.
A Prussian reserve corps under the grand duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, formed at Leipzig, had meanwhile overrun eastern Bavaria up to Nuremberg.
For this purpose he visited Nuremberg in 1522, where he made the acquaintance of the reformer, Andreas Osiander, by whose influence he was won over to the side of the new faith.
The specimen in the Germanic Museum at Nuremberg has two lions and a griffin.
In 1531 the town council of Nuremberg granted a subsidy to attract teachers of Venetian technique.
George Schwanhart, a pupil of Caspar Lehmann, started glass-cutting at Ratisbon, and about 1690 Stephen Schmidt and Hermann Schwinger introduced the crafts of cutting and engraving glass in Nuremberg.
In the 14th century there were schools at Mainz, Strassburg, Frankfort, Wiirzburg, Zurich and Prague; in the 15th at Augsburg and Nuremberg, the last becoming in the following century, under Hans Sachs, the most famous of all.
The Hanseatic embargo against Bruges from 1451 to 14J7, its later war and embargo against England, the Turkish advance closing the Italian Black Sea trade with southern Russia, all were utilized by Nuremberg and its fellows to secure a landtrade outside the sphere of Hanseatic influence.
In 1397 he became burgrave of Nuremberg, and after his father's death in 1398 he shared Ansbach, Bayreuth, and the smaller possessions of the family, with his only brother John, but became sole ruler after his brother's death in 1420.
In 1427 he sold his rights as burgrave to the town of Nuremberg, and he was a prominent member of the band of electors who sought to impose reforms upon Sigismund.
After studying at Leipzig, Altenburg and Ingolstadt, he was ordained priest in 1520 and appointed Hebrew tutor in the Augustinian convent at Nuremberg.
The introduction of the Augsburg Interim in 1548 necessitated his departure from Nuremberg; he went first to Breslau, and afterwards settled at Konigsberg as professor in its new university at the call of Duke Albert of Prussia.
Marching via Eger and Nuremberg (September 3rd) on the Main, Montecucculi drew Turenne to the valley of the Tauber; then, having persuaded the bishop of Wurzburg to surrender the bridge of that place, he passed to the right bank of the Main before Turenne could intervene.
Kulmbach and Plassenburg belonged to the dukes of Meran, and then to the counts of Orlamunde, from whom they passed in the 14th century to the Hohenzollerns, burgraves of Nuremberg, and thus to the margraves of Bayreuth.
In appearance the town is quaint and romantic, presenting almost as faithful a picture of a town of the early middle ages as Nuremberg does of the later.
The earliest collected edition of his works, Historia et monumenta Joannis Hus et Hieronymi Pragensis, was published at Nuremberg in 1558 and was reprinted with a considerable quantity of new matter at Frankfort in 1715.
Heimburg's denunciations of the pope were widely circulated, and in spite of the major excommunication he was taken into the service of the archbishop of Mainz and was his representative at the diet of Nuremberg in 1462.
Hans Sachs, on the other hand, sang the praises of the " Wittenberg Nightingale," and a considerable number of prominent men of letters accepted Luther as their guide - Zell and Bucer, in Strassburg, Eberlin in Ulm, Oecolampadius in Augsburg, Osiander and others in Nuremberg, Pellicanus in NOrdlingen.
As they formed only a minority in the diet, they could only draw up a protest, which was signed by John Frederick of Saxony, Philip of Hesse, and fourteen of the three towns, including Strassburg, Nuremberg and Ulm.
Consequently, at the diet of Nuremberg (1532) a recess was drafted indefinitely extending the religious truce and quashing such cases in the Reichskammergericht as involved Protestant ' In 1527 the pope's capital was sacked by Charles's army.
Lothair, unable to capture Nuremberg, gained the support of Henry the Proud, the new duke of Bavaria, by giving him his daughter, Gertrude, in marriage, and that of Conrad, count of Zahringen, by granting him the administration of the kingdom of Burgundy, or Arles.
But Lothair gained the upper hand in Germany, and by the end of 1129 the Hohenstaufen strongholds, Nuremberg and Spires, were in his possession.
Conrad became burgrave of Nuremberg, and, receiving the lands which had come into the family through his mother, founded the Franconian branch of the family, which became the more important of the two; while Frederick, receiving the county of Zollern and the older possessions of the family, was the ancestor of the Swabian branch.
The Franconian branch of the Hohenzollerns was represented in 1227 by Conrad, burgrave of Nuremberg, whom the emperor Frederick II.
In general he continued his father's policy, and when he died in 1 357 was succeeded by his son, Frederick V., who, after the death of his uncle Albert in 1361, became sole ruler of Nuremberg, Ansbach and Bayreuth.
Since 1397 the office of burgrave of Nuremberg had been held by John's brother, Frederick, who in 1415 received Brandenburg from King Sigismund, and became margrave of Brandenburg as Frederick I.
On his brother's death in 1420 he reunited the lands of his branch of the family, but in 1427 he sold his rights as burgrave to the town of Nuremberg.
After studying at Erlangen and Berlin, he accepted in 1827 an appointment at the Nuremberg gymnasium, and was professor of classics at Erlangen from 1842 till his death on the 21st of April 185 9.
Schwabach was purchased in 1364 by the burgrave of Nuremberg.
Among these is the so-called Egg of Nuremberg, a watch made about 150o by Peter Henlein.
From the first he was greatly attracted towards historical studies, and this was shown when he began to attend the gymnasium of Oettingen, and in 1782, when he went to the university of Altdorf, near Nuremberg.
He headed a protest by forty-four professors in the university of Munich, and gathered together a congress at Nuremberg, which met in August 1870 and issued a declaration adverse to theVatican decrees.
Under his influence, new schools rapidly rose into being at Magdeburg, Eisleben and Nuremberg (1521-1526).
His brother, Johann Wilhelm Andreas Pfaff (1774-1835), was professor of pure and applied mathematics successively at Dorpat, Nuremberg, Wurzburg and Erlangen.
The town of Coburg, first mentioned in a record of 1207, owed its existence and its name to the castle, and in the 15th and 16th centuries was of considerable importance as a halting-place on the great trade route from Nuremberg via Bamberg to the North.
His first important astronomical work was a careful investigation of the libration of the moon (Kosmographische Nachrichten, Nuremberg, 1750), and his chart of the full moon (published in 1775) was unsurpassed for half a century.
The placing of the card at the bottom of the box, fixed, below the needle, was practised by the compassmakers of Nuremberg in the 16th century, and by Stevinus of Bruges about 1600.
A number of princes assembled at Nuremberg declared Otto deposed, and invited Frederick to fill the vacant throne.
Almost a quarter of the inhabitants live in towns, of which Munich and Nuremberg have populations exceeding 100,000, Augsburg, Wurzburg, Furth and Ludwigshafen between 50,000 and 100.,000, while twenty-six other towns number from 10,000 to 50,000 inhabitants.
Hops are extensively grown in central Franconia; tobacco (the best in Germany) round Nuremberg and in the Palatinate, which also largely produces the sugar-beet.
The chief centres of industry are Munich, Nuremberg, Augsburg, Furth, Erlangen, Aschaffenburg, Regensburg, Wurzburg, Bayreuth, Ansbach, Bamberg and Hof in Bavaria proper, and in the Palatinate Spires and the Rhine port of Ludwigshafen.
The main centres of the hardware industry are Munich, Nuremberg, Augsburg and Furth; the two first especially for locomotives and automobiles, the last for tinfoil and metal toys.
Brewing forms an important industry, the best-known breweries being those of Munich, Nuremberg, Erlangen and Kulmbach.
Other articles of manufacture are leather, tobacco, porcelain, cement, spirits, lead pencils (Nuremberg), plate-glass, sugar, matches, aniline dyes, straw hats and baskets.
The seat of the hop-trade is Nuremberg; of wool, Augsburg.
It consists, on a peace footing, of three army corps, Ist, IInd and IIIrd Royal Bavarian (each of two divisions), the headquarters of which are in Munich, Nuremberg and Wurzburg respectively.
In 1443 he formed a league directed mainly against Nuremberg, over which town members of his family had formerly exercised the rights of burgrave.
He thus visited in succession Colmar, Nuremberg, Appenzell, Zurich, Pfaffers, Augsburg, Villach, Meran, Middelheim and other places, seldom staying a twelvemonth in any of them.
After this it rose rapidly into importance as a manufacturing and commercial town, becoming, after Nuremberg, the centre of the trade between Italy and the north of Europe; its merchant princes, the Fuggers and Welsers, rivalled the Medici of Florence; but the alterations produced in the currents of trade by the discoveries of the 15th and 16th centuries occasioned a great decline.
The third division of Germany comprises the basin of the Danube and Franconia, where around Nuremberg, Bamberg and Wurzburg the population is thickly clustered.
Ulm, Nuremberg, Quedlinburg, Erfurt, Strassburg and Guben are famed for their vegetables and garden seeds.
Glass and porcelain are largely produced in Bavaria; lace in Sxony; tobacco in Bremen and Hamburg; chemicals in the Prussian province of Saxony; watches in Saxony (Glashutte) and Nuremberg; toys in Bavaria; gold and silver filagree in Berlin and Aschaffenburg; and beer in Bavaria and Prussia.
Wall papers are produced chiefly in Rhenish Prussia, Berlin and Hamburg; the finer sorts of letter-paper in Berlin, Leipzig and Nuremberg; and printing-paper (especially for books) in Leipzig, Berlin and Frankfort-on-Main.
Berlin and Mainz are celebrated for the manufacture of furniture; Bavaria for toys; the Black Forest for clocks; Nuremberg for pencils; Berlin and Frankfort-on-Main for various perfumes; and Cologne for the famous eau-de-Cologne.
The Bavarian system embraces 4642 m., and is controlled and managed, apart from the general direction in Munich, by ten traffic boards, in Augsburg, Bamberg, Ingolstadt, Kempten, Munich, Nuremberg, Regensburg, Rosenheim, Weiden and Wurzburg.
While Otto was warring in Italy a number of influential princes met at Nuremberg, at the instigation of Innocent and of his ally Philip Augustus of France, and invited Frederick to come to Germany.
In 1415 he granted, or rather sold, the mark of Brandenburg to his friend Frederick of Hohen- Brandenzollern, burgrave of Nuremberg, this land thus passing burg and into the hands of the family under whom it was des- the Ifohentined to develop into the kingdom of Prussia.
Perhaps the most famous of these was one between a confederation of Franconian and Swabian cities under the leadership of Nuremberg on the one side, and Albert Achilles, afterwards elector of Brandenburg, and a number of princes on the other.
In 1500 the Reichsregiment met at Nuremberg and began at once to treat for peace with France.
Under such disheartening conditions it is not surprising that this body was totally unable to cope with Sickingens insurrection, and that a few weeks after its meeting at Nuremberg in 1524 it succumbed to a series of attacks and disappeared from the history of Germany.
Guided by Luther and Melanchthon, the principal states and cities in which the ideas of the reformers prevailedelectoral Saxony, Brandenburg, Hesse and the Rhenish Palatinate, Strassburg, Nuremberg, Ulm and Augsburgbegan to carry out measures of church reform.
The Swedes and their allies occupied Nuremberg, while the imperialists fortified a great camp and blockaded the city.
Gustavus made an attempt to storm these fortifications, but he failed to make any impression on them; he failed also in inducing Wallenstein to accept battle, and he was forced to abandon Nuremberg and to march to the protection of Saxony.
The German name of the town is traceable to Hermann, a citizen of Nuremberg, who about the middle of the 12th century established a colony on the spot.
In 1856 he was appointed secretary of the German museum at Nuremberg, and in 1859 keeper of the manuscripts.
His family was not of Nuremberg descent, but came from the village of Eytas in Hungary.
Albrecht Darer the elder was a goldsmith by trade, and settled soon after the middle of the 15th century in Nuremberg.
There had been no one at Nuremberg skilled enough in the art of metal-engraving to teach it him to much purpose, and it had at one time been his father's intention to apprentice him to Martin Schongauer of Colmar, the most refined and accomplished German painter-engraver of his time.
Whether the young Darer's stay at Basel was long or short, or whether, as has been supposed, he travelled from there into the Low Countries, it is certain that in the early part of 1494 he was working at Strassburg, and returned to his home at Nuremberg immediately after Whitsuntide in that year.
By the autumn of the same year, probably feeling the incompleteness of the artistic training that could be obtained north of the Alps, he must have taken advantage of some opportunity, we know not what, to make an excursion of some months to Italy, leaving his lately married wife at Nuremberg.
Some time in 1495 Diirer must have returned from this first Italian journey to his home in Nuremberg, where he seems to have lived, without further change or removal, in the active practice of his art for the next ten years.
The town of Nuremberg in Franconia, in the age of Diirer's early manhood, was a favourable home for the growth and exercise of his powers.
Nuremberg was the chief mart for the merchandise that came to central Europe from the east through Venice and over the passes of Tirol.
The Venetian painter etcher, Jacopo de Barbari, whom Darer had already, it would seem, met in Venice in 1494-1495, and by the example of whose engravings he had already been much influenced, came to settle for a while in Nuremberg in 1500.
The pictures of this earlier Nuremberg period are not many in number and not very admirable.
A mythology reminiscent of Italy is the "Hercules and the Stymphalian Birds" in the Germanic Museum at Nuremberg, founded directly upon the "Hercules and Centaur Nessus" of Pollaiuolo, now at New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.A. Of portraits, besides that of his father already mentioned as done in 1497, there is his own of 1498 at Madrid.
In some devotional pictures of the time Diirer seems to have been much helped by pupils, as in the two different compositions of the Marks weeping over the body of Christ preserved respectively at Munich and Nuremberg.
Darer himself, a number of whose familiar letters written from Venice to his friend Pirkheimer at Nuremberg are preserved, makes no mention of anything of the kind.
Other causes, of which we have explicit record, were an outbreak of sickness at Nuremberg; Darer's desire, which in fact was realized, of finding a good market for the proceeds of his art; and the prospect, also realized, of a commission for an important picture from the German community settled at Venice, who had lately caused an exchange and warehouse - the Fondaco de' Tedeschi - to be built on the Grand Canal, and who were now desirous to dedicate a picture in the church of St Bartholomew.
From Venice Darer kept up a continuous correspondence, which has been published, with his bosom friend Pirkheimer at Nuremberg.
Yet he resisted all seductions and was in Nuremberg again before the summer of 1507.
The burgher life of even Nuremberg, the noblest German city, seems narrow, quaint and harsh beside the grace and opulence and poetical surroundings of Italian life in the same and the preceding generation.
In 1511 was completed another famous painting, multitudinous in the number of its figures though of very moderate dimensions, the "Adoration of the Trinity by all the Saints," a subject commissioned for a chapel dedicated to All Saints in an almshouse for decayed tradesmen at Nuremberg, and now at the Imperial Gallery at Vienna.
Other paintings of this and the succeeding year we may seek for in vain; but in line engravings we have four more Madonnas, two St Christophers, one or two more peasant subjects, the well-known St Anthony with the view of Nuremberg in the background, and the smaller of the two portraits of the Cardinal-Elector of Mainz; and in wood-, engraving several fine heraldic pieces, including the arms of Nuremberg.
In the summer of 1520 the desire of Diirer to secure from Maximilian's successors a continuance of the patronage and privileges granted during his lifetime, together with an outbreak of sickness in Nuremberg, gave occasion to the master's fourth and last journey from home.
He was buried in a vault which belonged to his wife's family, but was afterwards disturbed, in the cemetery of St John at Nuremberg.
The principal remaining literature of the subject will be found in the following books and treatises - Johann Neudorfer, Schreib-und Rechenmeister zu Nurnberg, Nachrichten fiber Kanstlern und Werkleuten daselbst (Nuremberg, 1547); republished in the Vienna Quellenschrift (1875); C. Scheurl, Vita Antonii Kressen (1515, reprinted in the collection of Pirkheimer's works, Frankfort, 1610); Wimpheling, Epitome rerum Germanicarum, ch.
It was not a suitable vocation, and he gladly accepted the rectorship of the Aegidien-gymnasiurn in Nuremberg, a post which he held from December 1808 to August 1816.
On the 16th of September 1811 Hegel married Marie von Tucher (twenty-two years his junior) of Nuremberg.
His income amounted at Nuremberg to 1500 gulden (130) and a house; at Heidelberg, as professor, he received about the same sum; at Berlin about 3000 thalers (L300).
At a later time Augsburg and Nuremberg were the chief centres for the production of artistic works in the various metals.
The font at Wittenberg, decorated with reliefs of the apostles, was the work of the elder Vischer, while Peter and his son produced, among other important works, the shrine of St Sebald at Nuremberg, a work of great finish and of astonishing richness of fancy in its design.
Almost peculiar to Germany is the use of wrought iron for grave-crosses and sepulchral monuments, of which the Nuremberg and other cemeteries contain fine examples.
Two years later he was elected king of the Romans at the diet of Nuremberg in opposition to Otto IV., and in 1220 he was crowned emperor in Rome by pope Honorius III., but continued to reside in Sicily.
Numerous handsome medieval buildings testify to its former prosperity as a prominent member of the Hanseatic league, and its many quaint houses with high gables and overhanging eaves have gained for it the appellation "the Nuremberg of the North."
Bavaria has four cellular prisons, the chief being at Munich and Nuremberg, but the collective system also obtains.
His university career, first at Ingolstadt (1585-1586), then at Altdorf near Nuremberg (1597-1598), was cut short by his poverty, from which he suffered all his life, and which was the main cause of his wanderings.
Those cities, on the other hand, where the mercantile community remained in power, like Nuremberg and the seaboard towns, on the whole followed a more enlightened policy, although even they could not quite keep clear of the ever-growing.
Many even of the richer towns, notably Nuremberg, ran into debt irretrievably, owing partly to an exorbitant expenditure on magnificent public buildings and extensive fortifications, calculated to resist modern instruments of destruction, partly to a faulty administration.
He was among the first members of the league of Schmalkalden, assented to the religious peace of Nuremberg in 1532, and died at Schweidnitz on the 16th of August 1532.
Nagelbach's Anmerkungen zur Ilias (A, B 1-483, F) is of great value, especially the third edition (by Autenrieth, Nuremberg, 1864).
The cities of Strassburg, Nuremberg, Augsburg, Basel, became centres of learned coteries, which gathered round scholars like Wimpheling, Brant, Peutinger, Schedel, and Pirckheimer, artists like Darer and Holbein, printers of the eminence of Froben.
Formerly among the richest and most influential of the free imperial towns, Nuremberg is one of the few cities of Europe that have retained their medieval aspect largely unimpaired.
Altogether Nuremberg presents a faithful picture of a prosperous town of three hundred years ago.
Other parts of the castle are the pentagonal tower, the oldest building in the town, wherein are preserved the famous "iron virgin of Nuremberg," and other instruments of torture; the granary (Kornhaus), also called the Kaiserstallung; and the Vestnertor or Vestnerturm.
The castle of Nuremberg was a favourite residence of the German sovereigns in the later middle ages, and the imperial regalia were kept here from 1424 to 1796.
Nuremberg contains several interesting churches, the finest of which are those of St Lorenz, of St Sebald and of Our Lady.
The Tuchersche altar, with its winged picture, is one of the finest works of the Nuremberg school about the middle of the 15th century.
The town hall (Rathaus), an edifice in the Italian style, erected in 1616-1619, contains frescoes by DÃ¼rer, and a curious stucco relief of a tournament held at Nuremberg in 1446.
The population of Nuremberg was, in 1905, including a garrison of about 3000 men, 294,344, of whom 145,354 were males and 148,990 females.
Nuremberg occupies a high place among the industrial and commercial centres of Europe.
The principal manufactures are toys and fancy articles in metal, carved wood and ivory, which are collectively known as Nuremberg wares.
Nuremberg is the chief market in Europe for hops.
The first authentic mention of Nuremberg, which seems to have been called into existence by the foundation of the castle, occurs in a document of 1050; and about the same period it received from the emperor Henry III.
An imperial officer, styled the burggrave of Nuremberg, who, however, seems to have been merely the military governor of the castle, and to have exercised no sway over the citizens, became prominent in the 12th century.
This office came into the hands of the counts of Hohenzollern at the beginning of the 13th century, and burggrave of Nuremberg is still one of the titles of their descendant, the German emperor.
In 1356 Nuremberg witnessed the promulgation of the famous Golden Bull of the emperor Charles IV.
At the beginning of the 15th century the burggraves of Nuremberg, who had in the meantime raised themselves to the rank of princes of the Empire, were invested with the margraviate of Brandenburg, and sold their castle to the town.
Like Augsburg, Nuremberg attained great wealth as an intermediary between Italy and the East on the one hand, and northern Europe on the other.
Its manufactures were so well known that it passed into a proverb- "Nuremberg's hand goes through every land."
Its citizens lived in such luxury that Aeneas Sylvius (Pope Pius II.) has left it on record that a simple burgher of Nuremberg was better lodged than the king of Scotland.
But perhaps the great glory of Nuremberg lies in its claim to be the principal fount of German art.
In painting Nuremberg is not less prominent, as the names of Wohlgemuth and DÃ¼rer sufficiently indicate.
In the decorative arts the Nuremberg handicraftsman attained great perfection in ministering to the luxurious tastes of the burghers, and a large proportion of the old German furniture, silver-plate, stoves and the like, which are now admired in industrial museums, was made in Nuremberg workshops.
A final proof of its vigorous vitality at this period may be found in the numerous inventions of its inhabitants, which include watches, at first called "Nuremberg eggs," the air-gun, gun-locks, the terrestrial and celestial globes, the composition now called brass, and the art of wire-drawing.
Nuremberg was the first of the imperial towns to throw in its lot with the Reformation, and it embraced Protestantism with its wonted vigour about 1525.
In 1803 Nuremberg was allowed to maintain its nominal position as a free city, but in 1806 it was annexed to Bavaria.
It became a town in 1398 and passed into the hands of the Hohenzollerns, burgraves of Nuremberg, in 1416.
A similar experience ensued at Nuremberg, where he was assistant pastor of St Egidia.
At the diet which opened in December 1522 at Nuremberg he was represented by Chieregati, whose instructions contain the frank admission that the whole disorder of the church had perchance proceeded from the Curia itself, and that there the reform should begin.
His most celebrated work was the Summa Theologiae (Nuremberg, 1452; Venice, 1576; Cologne, 1611), undertaken by the orders of Pope Innocent IV.
The earliest railway in Germany was that between Nuremberg and Furth (opened on the 7th of December 1835).
It was for a time a Vogtei (advocateship) under the burgraves of Nuremberg, but about 1314 it was bequeathed to the see of Bamberg, and in 1806 it came into the possession of Bavaria.
It owes its rise to prosperity to the tolerance it meted out to the Jews, who found here an asylum from the oppression under which they suffered in Nuremberg.
After demanding a respite, Louis abruptly appealed at Nuremberg from the future sentence of the pope to a general council (December 8, 1323).
His hostility towards the reformers, however, was not so extreme as that of his brother Joachim I., elector of Brandenburg; and he appears to have exerted himself in the interests of peace, although he was a member of the league of Nuremberg, which was formed in 1538 as a counterpoise to the league of Schmalkalden.
When Regiomontanus settled at Nuremberg in 1471, Walther built for their common use an observatory at which in 1484 clocks driven by weights were first used in astronomical determinations.
Bernhard Walther of Nuremberg (1430-1504), who fitted up an observatory with clocks driven by weights, and developed many improvements in practical astronomy.
Meanwhile, the elementary requirement of making visual acquaintance with the stellar heavens was met, as regards the unknown southern skies, when Johann Bayer published at Nuremberg in 1603 a celestial atlas depicting twelve new constellations Bayer.
At Nuremberg he published in 1733 a collection of 316 observations of the aurora borealis made by himself and others 1716-1732.
Soon Leipzig was largely used as a depot by the merchants of Nuremberg, who carried on a considerable trade with Poland.
He became professor of mathematics in the Jesuits' college at Cologne in 1817 and in the polytechnic school of Nuremberg in 1833, and in 1852 professor of experimental physics in the university of Munich, where he died on the 7th of July 1854.
A tract De phisicis, lineis, angulis et figuris was printed at Nuremberg in 1503.
The dissatisfaction felt in Germany with the emperor Otto IV came to a climax in September 1211, when a number of influential princes met at Nuremberg, declared Otto deposed, and invited Frederick to come and occupy the vacant throne.
It was he who first unearthed (in the convent of St Emmeran at Regensburg) the remarkable Latin poems of the nun Hrosvitha of Gandersheim, of which he published an edition (Nuremberg, 1501), the historical poem Ligurinus sive de rebus gestis Frederici primi imperatoris libri x.
Hastily quitting his quarters in Upper Swabia, Gustavus hastened towards Nuremberg on his way to Saxony, but finding that Wallenstein and Maximilian of Bavaria had united their forces, he abandoned the attempt to reach Saxony, and both armies confronted each other at Nuremberg which furnished Gustavus with a point of support of the first order.
His object was to pin Gustavus fast to Nuremberg and cut off his retreat northwards.
An ivory diptych dial made in Nuremberg by Johann Gebhart in 1556.
His first work (finished September 1527) was a German translation with additions (1528) of the first part of the Diallage, or Conciliatio locorum Scripturae, directed against Sacramentarians and Anabaptists by Andrew Althamer, then deacon of St Sebald's at Nuremberg.
The story, though an original one, is founded on the character of Hans Sachs, the poet-shoemaker of Nuremberg.
Of his theoretical books, he only succeeded in getting two finished and produced during his lifetime, that on geometry and perspective or measurement, to use his own title - which was published at Nuremberg in 1525, and that on fortification, published in 1527; the work on human proportions was brought out shortly after his death in 1528.
The town hall (Rathaus), an edifice in the Italian style, erected in 1616-1619, contains frescoes by DÃƒ¼rer, and a curious stucco relief of a tournament held at Nuremberg in 1446.
In painting Nuremberg is not less prominent, as the names of Wohlgemuth and DÃƒ¼rer sufficiently indicate.
Bullock lived in Nuremberg, Germany, for 12 years, often appearing in her mother's opera performances.
Elegant Cruises has available five to seven day cruises visiting Nuremberg, Regensburg, Passau and Vienna.
The trip lasts seven days and takes passengers from Nuremberg to Vienna, or the reverse, depending on where you board.
In addition, you will enjoy two nights in Paris and day trips to the medieval cities of Nuremberg, Regensburg, and Rothenburg.
While on the cruise you can visit Vienna and the University in Nuremberg.
See the countryside in Germany and stop in towns such as Nuremberg and Frankfurt along the way.
Shortly after the German railway between Furth and Nuremberg opened in 1835, a commemorative cast pewter model train was introduced.
Throughout the 1600s, Nuremberg, Germany was known as the "Gingerbread Capital of the World."
Henlein was a locksmith, who lived in Nuremberg.
The earliest known alarm clocks that didn't use water were created in Nuremberg, Germany in the fifteenth century.
From 1848 he had been a member of the Bavarian second chamber, at first representing the district of Erlangen-Fiirth, and afterwards Nuremberg, which city also sent him after the war of 1866 as its deputy to the German customs parliament, and from 1871 to 1874 to the first German Reichstag.