President Jackson responded with a proclamation denying the right of nullification, and asked Congress for authority to collect the revenue in South Carolina by force if necessary.
He became prominent, politically, during the nullification excitement of 1832-1833, as a vigorous opponent of nullification, and from 1836 to 1845 he sat in the United States Senate as a Unionist Democrat.
Congress passed an act gradually reducing the duties to a revenue basis, and South Carolina repealed her nullification measures.
Green, however, continued to edit it in the Calhoun interest until 1835, and gave vigorous support to that leader's nullification views.
See also STATE RIGHTS, NULLIFICATION, and CONFEDERATE STATES.
The tariff of 1828 aroused bitter opposition in South Carolina, and called from Vice-President Calhoun the statement of the doctrine of nullification which was adopted by the South Carolina legislature at the close of the year and is known as the South Carolina Exposition.
He was a Liberal Democrat, and advised the calling of a constitutional convention as preferable to nullification or secession.
He was the author of A Critical Study of Nullification in South Carolina (1896).
It is, however, unquestionably true, that as a startling protest against measures" to silence,"in Jefferson's words," by force and not by reason the complaints or criticisms, just or unjust, of our citizens against the conduct of our agents,"they served, in this respect, a useful purpose; and as a counterblast against Hamiltonian principles of centralization they were probably, at that moment, very salutary; while even as pieces of constitutional interpretation it is to be remembered that they did not contemplate nullification by any single state, and, moreover, are not to be judged by constitutional principles established later by courts and war.
In 1836 he was elected to the Georgia House of Representatives after a campaign in which he was vigorously opposed because he had attacked the doctrine of nullification, and because he had opposed all extra-legal steps against the abolitionists.
The nullification movement led in 1833 to the well-known compromise, by which the rates of duty as established by the Act of 1832 were to be gradually reduced, reaching in 1842 a general level of 20 per cent.
He sided with the president in his nullification controversy with South Carolina and in his removal of the Indians from Georgia, but not in his withdrawal of the government deposits from the United States Bank.
Until 1832 there was only one party in the state, the Democratic, but the question of nullification caused a division that year into the (Jackson) Democratic party and the State's Rights (Calhoun Democratic) party; about the same time, also, there arose, chiefly in those counties where the proportion of slaves to freemen was greater and the freemen were most aristocratic, the Whig party.
In 1832 there was a majority from each section in favour of Nullification, and the legislature called the famous Nullification Convention, which met at Charleston the 19th of November, and five days later passed the Ordinance of Nullification declaring that certain acts of Congress imposing import duties " are unauthorized by the Constitution of the United States and violate the true meaning and intent thereof, and are null and void and no law, nor binding upon this state, its officers or citizens."
He showed the revolutionary and unpractical character of any doctrine such as nullification based on the assumption that the general government was the agent of the state legislatures.
As a remedy for such a breach of compact the state might resort to nullification, or, as a last resort, to secession from the Union.
Webster's brief reply drew from Hayne a second speech, in which he entered into a full exposition of the doctrine of nullification, and the important part of Webster's second reply to Hayne on the 26th and 27th of January is a masterly exposition of the Constitution as in his opinion it had come to be after a development of more than forty years.
No particulars of their life have been made public. In 1854 his wife left him, obtained a nullification of the marriage under Scots law, and ultimately became the wife of John Everett Millais.
In1832-1833the "Union" party of South Carolina was composed of those who rejected nullification, holding to secession as the only remedy; and from 1830 to 1860 certain radical abolitionists advocated a division of the Union.
It was due to his dependence on Charles V., rather than to any conscientious scruples, that Clement evaded Henry VIII.'s demand for the nullification of his marriage with Catherine of Aragon, and so brought about the breach between England and Rome.
He sided with President Jackson on the question of nullification; was an efficient supporter of President Polk's administration during the Mexican War; and was an ardent advocate of slavery extension into the Territories, but when the Compromise of 1850 had been agreed upon he became its staunch supporter as a Union Democrat, and on that issue was elected governor of Georgia by a large majority.
His speech in behalf of the measure was for years a protection text-book; but the measure itself reduced the revenue so little and provoked such serious threats of nullification and secession in South Carolina, that, to prevent bloodshed and to forestall a free trade measure from the next Congress, Clay brought forward in 1833 a compromise gradually reducing the tariff rates to an average of 20%.
Then the Troup faction under the name of States Rights party, endorsed the nullification policy of South Carolina, while the Clarke faction, calling itself a Union party, opposed South Carolina's conduct, but on the grounds of expediency rather than of principle.
On account, however, of its opposition to President Jackson's attitude toward nullification, the States Rights party affiliated with thenew Whig party, which represented the national feeling in the South, while the Union party was merged into the Democratic party, which emphasized the sovereignty of the states.
Houston, Critical Study of Nullification in South Carolina (New York, 1896), is a concise, scholarly work.
He vigorously opposed the tariff of 1832, was a member of the South Carolina Nullification Convention of November 1832, and reported the ordinance of nullification passed by that body on the 24th of November.
His hostility to a high tariff policy, however, did not prevent him from condemning the South Carolina ordinance of nullification; and in the presidential election of 1832 he supported Andrew Jackson, to whose political principles and methods, as to those of his advisers, he was invincibly opposed, as the "least objectionable" of the various candidates..
But Madison insisted that the Resolutions of 1798 did not involve the principles of nullification.
Nearly all his arguments, especially where he attempts to interpret Jefferson's writings on the point, notably the Kentucky resolutions, are rather strained and specious, but it does seem that the Virginia resolutions were based on a different idea from Calhoun's doctrine of nullification.
The opposition MDC also filed an election petition seeking nullification of the 2002 presidential election controversially won by President Mugabe.
The Lien-Soong camp has filed a lawsuit for the nullification of the election and another for the nullification of the electee 's status.
In a third position, justice requires the nullification of some or all effects of differential option luck.
However, in an unusually clear example of jury nullification, the pair were acquitted, and the order was accordingly discharged.
His declarations during the campaign were vague regarding the tariff and unfavourable to the United States Bank and to nullification, but he had already somewhat placated the South by denying the right of Congress to abolish slavery in the District of Columbia without the consent of the slave states.
In1830-1832he was attorney-general of South Carolina, and, although a State's Rights man, he strongly opposed nullification.
From 1831 to 1833 he was a Democratic member of the United States Senate, in which he advocated a compromise tariff and strongly supported Jackson's position in regard to nullification.
1 Thirty years later Madison's arguments for the Virginia resolutions and the resolutions themselves were freely used by Calhoun and his followers in support of his doctrine of nullification.
Nevertheless the Kentucky legislature on the 22nd of November 1799 reaffirmed in a new resolution the principles it had laid down in the first series, asserting in this new resolution that the state " does now unequivocally declare its attachment to the Union, and to that compact [the Constitution], agreeably to its obvious and real intention, and will be among the last to seek its dissolution," but that " the principle and construction contended for by sundry of the state legislatures, that the General Government is the exclusive judge of the extent of the powers delegated to it, stop nothing [short] of despotism - since the discretion of those who administer the government, and not the Constitution, would be the measure of their powers," " that the several states who formed that instrument, being sovereign and independent, have the unquestionable right to judge of the infraction," and " that a nullification by those sovereignties of all unauthorized acts done under color of that instrument is the rightful remedy."
Jackson, however, having the frontiersman's contempt for the Indian, refused to enforce the decision of the court (see Nullification; Georgia: History).
In 1832 South Carolina, acting in substantial accordance with Calhoun's theories, "nullified" the tariff acts passed by Congress in 1828 and 1832 (see Nullification; South Carolina; and United States).
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.