Starch exists, in the majority of cases, in the form of grains, which are composed of stratified layers arranged around a nucleus or hilum.
He discovered the nucleus of the cell.
They are more easily seen, when the nucleus is about to undergo mitosis, at the ends of the spindle, where they form the centres towards which the radiating fibres in.
Of the surplus 1,000,000 was allocated to the improvement of posts, telegraphs and telephones; 1,000,000 to public works (~72o,ooo for harbour improvement and 280,000 for internal navigation); 200,000 to the navy (~I32,ooo for a second dry dock at Taranto and 68,000 for coal purchase); and 200,000 as a nucleus of a fund for the purchase of valuable works of art which are in danger of exportation.
In the spermatozoids of Chara, Vascular Cryptogams, and in those of Cycas, Zamia and Ginkgo, the cilia arise from a centrosome-like body which is found on one side of the nucleus of the spermatozoid mother-cell.
Another Roman basilica forms the nucleus of the cathedral.
The latter are vacuolated, and contain each a nucleus and several dark granules.
The nucleus was definitely recognized in the plant cell by Robert Brown in 1831, but its presence had been previously indicated by various observers and it had been seen by Fontana in some animal cells as early as 1781.
The eggcell or oosphere is a large cell containing a single large nucleus, and in the green plants the rudiments of plastids.
The staining reactions of the various parts of the nucleus depend to some extent upon their chemical constitution.
In multinucleate cells the division of the nucleus is independent of the division of the cell.
reduction in size is due to A, Two vermiform nuclei in the emthe absence of cytoplasm, bryo sac; one approaching the eggwhich is in some cases so nucleus, the other uniting with the 11 ~ ~h ~h upper polar nucleus.
The nucleus of the city is built on a ridge of rock (Mount Sceberras) which runs like a tongue into the middle of a bay, which it thus divides into two harbours, the Grand Harbour to the east and the Marsamuschetto to the west, which are subdivided again by three other peninsulas into creeks.
In many Gymnosperms the male nucleus penetrates the female nucleus before fusing with it (Blackman, Ikeno).
Had his successor been as prudent and able, he might have made a unified Netherlands the nucleus of a mighty middle kingdom, interposing between France and Germany, and a revival of that of the Carolingian Lothaire.
The problem is a very difficult one and cannot be regarded as definitely settled, but it is difficult to understand why all this additional complexity in the division of the nucleus should be necessary if the final result is only a quantitative separation of the chromatin.
In the Algae, such as Fucus, Volvox, Oedogonium, Bulbochaete, and in the Fungus Monoblepharis, the spermatozoid is a small oval or elongate cell containing nucleus, cytoplasm and sometimes plastids.
Whether this is entirely confined to the nucleus is, however, not certain.
In many of the Fungi the non-motile male cell or nucleus is carried by means of a fertilizing tube actually into the interior of the egg-cell, and is extruded through the apex in close proximity to the egg nucleus.
In Spirogyra the pyrenoids are distinctly connected by cytoplasmic strands to the central mass of cytoplasm, which surrounds the nucleus, and according to some observers, they increase exclusively by division, followed by a splitting of the cytoplasmic strands.
As division proceeds, the filamentous nature of this cytoplasm becomes more prominent and the threads begin either to converge towards the poles of the nucleus, to form a bipolar spindle, or may converge towards, or radiate from, several different points, to form a multipolar spindle.
The old district of Assiniboia, the result of the efforts in colonization by the earl of Selkirk in 1811 and succeeding years, was the nucleus of the province.
HaberIandt has shown that in plant cells, when any new formation of membrane is to take place in a given spot, the nucleus is found in its immediate vicinity; and Klebs found that only that portion of the protoplasm of a cell which contains the nucleus is capable of forming a cell-wall; whilst Townsend has further shown that if the non-nucleated mass is connected by strands of protoplasm to the nucleated mass, either of the same cell or of a neighboring cell, it retains the power of forming a cell-membrane.
Holtzmann (1872) subjected both Colossians and Ephesians to a rigorous examination, and found in Colossians at least a nucleus of Pauline material.
The old district of Assiniboia, the result of the efforts in colonization by the earl of Selkirk in 1811 and succeeding years, was the nucleus of the province.
The only solid nucleus he finds in it is the fact that there is a great deal of beauty in this world.
The Structure of the Nucleus.In the living condition the resting nucleus appears to consist of a homogeneous ground substance containing a large number of small chromatin granules and one or more large spherical granulesnucleolithe whole being surrounded by a limiting membrane which separates it from the cytoplasm.
(From Nassonov.) I, Nucleus of giant-cell.
It forms a part of the 1mm or plastin network of the nucleus and may become impregnated with varying quantities of chromatin stored up for use in the formation of the chromosomes and other nuclear activities.
Cell Division.With the exception of a few plants among the Thallophytes, which consist of a single multinucleate cell, Caulerpa, Vaucheria, &c., the division of the nucleus is followed by the division of the cell either at once, in uninucleate cells, or after a certain number of nuclear divisions, in multinucleate cells.
Piedmont was shown to possess the qualities necessary to constitute the nucleus of a great nation.
von Soden (1885), with well-considered principles of criticism, made a similar examination and found a much larger nucleus, and later still, (1893), in his commentary, reduced the non-Pauline material to a negligible minimum.
with nucleus, nucleolus -
with cytoplasm, nucleus ~.
The spindle arises partly from the cytoplasm, partly from the nucleus, or it may be derived entirely from the nucleusintranuclear spindleas occurs in many of the lower plants (Fungi, &c.).
The nucleus of the township lies on high ground to the east of the Edgware road, which crosses the Welsh Harp reservoir of Regent's Canal, a favourite fishing and skating resort.
Nucleus of cnidoblast.
The strongest direct evidence seems to be that the nuclear substances are the only parts of the cells which are always equivalent in quantity, and that in the higher plants and animals the male organ or spermatozoid is composed almost entirely of the nucleus, and that the male nucleus is carried into the female cell without a particle of cytoplasm.i Since, however, the nucleus of the female cell is always accompanied by a larger or smaller quantity of cytoplasm, and that in a large majority of the power plants and animals the male cell also contains cytoplasm, it cannot yet be definitely stated that the cytoplasm does not play some part in the process.
Nucleus of cnidoblast.
Rulers of this name are found at Rhodes as late as the 1st century B.C. The Prytaneum was regarded as the religious and political centre of the community and was thus the nucleus of all government, and the official "home" of the whole people.
In some cases both the nucleus and the chromatophores may be carried along in the rotating stream, but in others, such as T.Titeila, the chloroplasts may remain motionless iii a non-motile layer of the cytoplasm in direct contact with the cell wall.i Desmids, Diatoms and Oscillaria show creeping movements probably due to the secretion of slime by the cells; the swarmspores and plasmodium of the Myxomycetes exhibit amoehoid movements; and the motile spores of Fungi and Algae, the spermatozoids of mosses, ferns, &c., move by means of delicate prolongations, cilia or flagella cf the protoplast.
In the Algae such a cell consists essentially of: (1) a mass of protoplasm provided with (2) a nucleus and (3) an assimilating apparatus consisting of a colored protoplasmic body, called a chromatophore, the pigment of which in the pure green forms is chlorophyll, and which may then be called a cliloroplast.
Nuclear Division.The formation of new cells is, in the case of tminucleate cells, preceded by or accompanied by the division of the nucleus.
2, L), a nucleolus appears, a nuclear membrane is formed, and daughter nuclei are thus constituted which possess the same structure and staining reactions as the mother nucleus.
4, B, C, D), it appears to take no part in the fertilization phenomena, nor in the subsequent division of the nucleus.
Even the isolated cells of the yeast plant have each one nucleus.
In young asci a similar fusion of two nuclei occurs, and also in basidia, in each case the nucleus of the ascus or of the basidium resulting from the fusion subsequently giving rise by division to the nuclei of the ascospores and basidiospores respectively.
The contents of the antheridium are not set free, but that organ penetrates the oogonium by means of a narrow outgrowth, the fertilizing tube, and a male nucleus then passes over into the single oosphere, which at first multinucleate becomes uninucleate before fertilization.
In the development of the ascus we find two nuclei at the base which fuse together to form the single nucleus of the young ascus.
In these latter cases the reaction may proceed in different directions; thus, with the aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorine in the cold or in the presence of a carrier substitutes in the benzene nucleus, but in the presence of sunlight or on warming, substitution takes place in the side chain.
The nucleus of the county consisted of the lands of Cromarty in the north of the peninsula of the Black Isle.
The analogy of the French epic, the Chanson de Roland, favours the belief that there was some nucleus of fact.
But we have first to consider whether any of the accounts come to us on such evidence that we are bound to consider them as containing a nucleus of truth.
But the original nucleus and parts of the incidents may be the work of a single great poet, and yet other episodes may be of different authorship, wrought into the structure of the poem in later times.
Kirchhoff of Berlin.2 According to Kirchhoff, the Odyssey as we have it is the result of additions made to an original nucleus.
Their territories are in many cases neither compact nor continuous, consisting of a number of villages here and there, with a nucleus of more or less importance round the chief town.
As the great aim of this side of public activity is to secure funds for the maintenance of the state's life and working, the administration which operates for this end is the true nucleus of all national finance.
A special literature of oracles did indeed arise; the divine words were collected and the circumstances which produced them were recorded; and had Delphi become in fact the centre of Greece, as Plato conceived it, here might have been the nucleus of a scripture.
There are three main divisions, Staden, the ancient nucleus of the city, properly confined to Stadholmen (the city island) which divides the stream from Molar into two arms, Norrstrom and Soderstrom; Norrmalm on the north shore of the channel, and Sodermalm on the south.
Its nucleus was a castle, built in 809 by Egbert, one of Charlemagne's counts, against the Danes.
The may also contain an active galactic nucleus at their center.
These are all regulated from an area of the brain called the suprachiasmatic nucleus, which is in the hypothalamus.
The wall of the nucleus breaks down, and the cytoplasmic spindle-fibres become mixed with those derived from the nuclear network.
The cell is essentially an individualized mass of protoplasm containing a differentiated protoplasmic body, called a nucleus.
B~it the staining reactions of nuclei may vary at different stages of their development; and it i~ probable that there is no method of staining which differentiates with certainty the various morphological constituents of the nucleus.
Centrosome.The centrosome is a minute homogeneous granule found in the cytoplasm of some cells in the neighborhood of the nucleus.
I, 0.) is also an elongated cell, with a thin lining of protoplasm, but destitute of a nucleus, and always in communication with the next cell of the leptom strand by perforations (in Pteridophytes often not easily demonstrable), through which originally pass strings of protoplasm which are bored out by a ferment and converted into relatively coarse slime strings, along which pass, we must suppose, the organic substances which it is the special function of the leptoids to conduct from one part of the plant to another.
In young cells the chromatophores are small, colorless, highly refractive bodies, principally located around the nucleus.
Albumen crystals are also to be found in the cytoplasm, in leucoplasts and rarely in the nucleus.
In plants with multinucleate cells, such as Albugo, Peronospora and Vaucheria, it is usually a uninucleate cell differentiated by separation of the nuclei from a multinucleate cell, but in Albugo bliti it is multinucleate, and in Sphaero plea it may contain more than one nucleus.
The researches of the last twenty years have shown that the structure of the nucleus and the phenomena of nuclear division in these lower forms conforms in all essential details to those in the higher plants.
B, single nucleus due to th~ fusion of the two pre-existing nuclei.
The central body probably plays the part of a nucleus and some observers consider that it has the characters of a typical nucleus with mitotic division.
The bacteria, in most cases, have no definite nucleus or central body.
The chromatin is distributed throughout the cytoplasm in the form of granules which may be regarded as a distributed nucleus corresponding to what Hertwig has designated, in protozoa, chromidia.
In the yeast cell the nucleus is represented by a homogenous granule, probably of a nucleolar nature, surrounded and perhaps to some extent impregnated by chromatin and closely connected with a vacuole which often has chromatin at its periphery, and contains one or more volutin granules which appear to consist of nucleic acid in combination with an unknown base.
Some observers consider that the yeast nucleus possesses a typical nuclear structure, and exhibits division by mitosis, but the evidence for this is not very satisfactory.
Harper, Sexual Reproduction and the Organization of the Nucleus in certain Mildews (pub.
Hantzsch (Ber., 1901, 34, p. 3337) has shown that in the action of alcohols on diazonium salts an increase in the molecular weight of the alcohol and an accumulation of negative groups in the aromatic nucleus lead to a diminution in the yield of the ether produced and to the production of a secondary reaction, resulting in the formation of a certain amount of an aromatic hydrocarbon.
The so-called "beetle-stones" of the coal-formation of Newhaven, near Leith, which have mostly a coprolite nucleus, have been applied to various ornamental purposes by lapidaries.
The red blood-corpuscles are invariably oval disks, with a central nucleus which causes a slight swelling; hence they are oval and biconvex.
But this very development of Mosaism implies the existence of an original nucleus or substratum, although the recovery of its precise extent is very difficult.
a = nucleus.
It is certainly derived, through Rossiya, from Slavonic Rus or Ros (Byzantine `Pws or `Pc o-oc), a name first given to the Scandinavians who founded a principality on the Dnieper in the 9th century; and afterwards extended to the collection of Russian states of which this principality formed the nucleus.
The principality which was to become the nucleus of the future Russian empire was not Novgorod with its democratic institutions, but its eastern neighbour Moscow, in which the popular assembly played a very insignificant part, and the supreme law was the will of the prince.
The nucleus of the invading horde was a small pastoral tribe in Mongolia, the chief of which, known subsequently to Europe as Jenghiz Khan, became a mighty conqueror and created a vast empire stretching from China, across northern and central Asia, to the shores of the Baltic and the valley of the Danube - a heterogeneous state containing many nationalities held together by purely administrative ties and by an enormous military force.
The talismanic name Immanuel became the nucleus out of which the later Messianic prophecies of Isaiah grew.
There are other nebulae in which a nucleus can be just discerned, others again in which the nucleus is easily seen, and still others where the nucleus is a brilliant star-like point.
By 1214 the nucleus of such an institute was formed round Dominic and was known as the "Holy Preaching."
As a result of this backward projection of later conceptions, the recovery of the true historical nucleus is difficult.
Below it are covered promenades, and from it steps descend to the lower town, the oldest part of which (the so-called Marina), sloping gradually towards the sea, is probably the nucleus of the Roman municipium, while the quarter of Stampace lies to the west, and beyond it again the suburb of Sant' Avendrace.
Nucleus of solenocyte.
n, So-called nucleus.
This forms the nucleus of the adult shell, and, as the animal grows, becomes enclosed by a reflection of the mantle-skirt.
Cephalic shield pointed behind; shell internal, chiefly membranous, with calcified nucleus, nautiloid; parapodia forming fins.
In Clausilia, according to the observations of C. Gegenbaur, the primitive shell-sac does not flatten out and disappear, but takes the form of a flattened closed sac. Within this closed sac a plate of calcareous matter is developed, and after a time the upper wall of the sac disappears, and the calcareous plate continues to grow as the nucleus of the permanent shell.
But it is equally plain that the Ophite nucleus has from time to time received very numerous and often curiously perverted accretions from Babylonian Judaism, Oriental Christianity and Parsism, exhibiting a striking example of religious syncretism.
In the eighteenth chapter he records his intention of founding a hall at Oxford, and in connexion with it a library of which his books were to form the nucleus.
The two nuclei are successively divided from the egg nucleus in the usual way, but they frequently become absorbed in the peripheral protoplasm instead of being extruded from the egg-cell altogether.
Petrunkevich (1901-1903), the second polar nucleus uniting with one daughter-nucleus of the first polar body gives rise to the germ-cells of the parthenogenetically-produced male.
There is no reunion of the second polar nucleus with the female pronucleus, but, according to the recent work of L.
The segmentation of the fertilized nucleus results in the formation of a number of nuclei which arrange themselves around the periphery of the egg and, the protoplasm surrounding them becoming constricted, a blastoderm or layer of cells, enclosing the central yolk, is formed.
In the egg of these insects a small number of nuclei are formed by the division of the nucleus, and each of these nuclei originates by division the cell-layers of a separate embryo.
The earliest churches were built with cemeteries for the dead; and thus we find the nucleus of the city of Venice, little isolated groups of dwellings each on its separate islet, scattered, as Cassiodorus 1 says, like sea-birds' nests over the face of the waters.
Inside the fortress lies the old Protestant burying-ground, with tombs of Sackville, of John Murray, of Sir Francis Vincent, last ambassador but one from Great Britain to the republic, of Consul Smith, whose collection of books forms the nucleus of the King's library in the British Museum, and of Catherine Tofts, the singer, Smith's first wife.
The swift Liburnian vessels began to raid the Lido, compelling the Venetians to arm their own vessels and thus to form the nucleus of their famous fleet, the importance of which was recognized by the Golden Bull of the emperor Basil, which conferred on Venetian merchants privileges far more extensive than any they had hitherto enjoyed, on condition that the Venetian fleet was to be at the disposition of the emperor.
After the fall of the Roman empire, it was the nucleus of the kingdom of Carentania, which was founded by Samo, a Frankish adventurer, but soon fell to pieces after his death.
From 1847 to 1851 he arranged gifts from France to American libraries aggregating 30,655 volumes, and a gift of 50 volumes by the city of Paris in 1843 (reciprocated in 1849 with more than 1000 volumes contributed by private citizens) was the nucleus of the Boston public library.
In Polia the connective tissue enclosed in the external muscular layer is eminently vacuolar - all the intermediate stages between such cells in which the vacuole predominates and the nucleus is peripheral and those in which the granular protoplasm still entirely fills them being moreover present.
His personality drew a number of strong men after him, and a society meeting held in a kitchen and then in a warehouse became the nucleus of a circuit, a chapel being built at Tunstall in July 1811, two months after the fusion of the Bourne and Clowes forces.
Dumas went no further that thus epitomizing his observations; and the next development was made in 1836 by Auguste Laurent, who, having amplified and discussed the applicability of Dumas' views, promulgated his Nucleus Theory, which assumed the existence of " original nuclei or radicals " (radicaux or noyaux fondamentaux) composed of carbon and hydrogen, and " derived nuclei " (radicaux or noyaux derives) formed from the original nuclei by the substitution of hydrogen or the addition of other elements, and having properties closely related to the primary nuclei.
The following diagrams illustrate these statements: - C ` H C OH HC /CH HC CH HC,/CH 'N/ HC CH CH CH From the benzene nucleus we can derive other aromatic nuclei, graphically represented by fusing two or more hexagons along common sides.
compounds derived by substituting aliphatic radicals in the benzene nucleus; such a compound is methylbenzene or toluene, C 6 H 5 CH 3.
This compound is readily oxidized to benzoic acid, C 6 H 5 000H, the aromatic residue being unattacked; nitric and sulphuric acids produce nitro-toluenes, C6H4 CH3 N02j and toluene sulphonic acids, C 6 H 4 CH 3 SO 3 H; chlorination may result in the formation of derivatives substituted either in the aromatic nucleus or in the side chain; the former substitution occurs most readily, chlor-toluenes, C 6 H 4 CH 3 Cl, being formed, while the latter, which needs an elevation in temperature or other auxiliary, yields benzyl chloride, C 6 H 5 CH 2 C1, and benzal chloride, C 6 11 5 CHC1 2.
The introduction of hydroxyl groups into the benzene nucleus gives rise to compounds generically named phenols, which, although resembling the aliphatic alcohols in their origin, differ from these substances in their increased chemical activity and acid nature.
These observations may be summarized by saying that the benzene nucleus is more negative in character than the aliphatic residues.
Generally if any group be replaced by another group, then the second group enters the nucleus in the position occupied by the displaced group; this means that if we can definitely orientate three di-derivatives of benzene, then any other compound, which can be obtained from or converted into one of our typical derivatives, may be definitely orientated.
Soc. 61, p. 367): If the hydrogen compound of the substituent already in the benzene nucleus can be directly oxidized to the' corresponding hydroxyl compound, then meta-derivatives predominate on further substitution, if not, then orthoand paraderivatives.
If we accept Kekule's formula for the benzene nucleus, then we may expect the double linkages to be opened up partially, either by oxidation or reduction, with the formation of di-, tetra-, or hexa-hydro derivatives, or entirely, with the production of open chain compounds.
Decompositions of this nature were first discovered in the naphthalene series, where it was found that derivatives of indene (and of hydrindene and indone) and also of benzene resulted; Zincke then extended his methods to the disintegration of the oxybenzenes and obtained analogous results, R-pentene and aliphatic derivatives being formed (Rsymbolizing a ringed nucleus).
An analogous oscillation prevails in the pyrazol nucleus, for L.
cluded that in compounds the benzene nucleus appears to be capable of existence in two tautomeric forms, in the sense that each particular derivative possesses a definite constitution.
The benzene nucleus presents a remarkable case, which must be considered in the formulation of any complete theory of valency.
[V.], 26, p. 426) in which he discussed various stereo-chemical representations of the benzene nucleus.
149, p. 20) established the symmetry of the naphthalene nucleus, and showed that whichever half of the molecule be oxidized the same phthalic acid results.
Formula (4) is symmetrical and based on Kekule's formula: it is in full accord with the syntheses and decompositions of the naphthalene nucleus and the number of isomers found.
This is obviously unsymmetrical, consisting of an aliphatic and an aromatic nucleus; Claus explained the formation of the same phthalic acid from the oxidation of either nucleus by supposing that if the aromatic group be oxidized, the aliphatic residue assumes the character of a benzene nucleus.
By reduction, the double linkages become saturated, and compounds result which stand in much about the same relation to the original nucleus as hexamethylene does to benzene.
Such condensed nuclei are, in many cases, more readily obtained than the parent nucleus.
Thus ortho-phenylene diamine yields the following products: N H N ./`N; Xn NZ In some cases oxidation of condensed benzenoid-heterocyclic nuclei results in the rupture of the heterocyclic ring with the formation of a benzene dicarboxylic acid; but if the aromatic nucleus be weakened by the introduction of an amino group, then it is the benzenoid nucleus which is destroyed and a dicarboxylic acid of the heterocyclic ring system obtained.
The fifth compound, on the other hand, does not behave as an unsaturated aliphatic compound, but its deportment is that of a nucleus, many substitution derivatives being capable of synthesis.
This is comparable with the reduction of the benzene nucleus into hexamethylene, a substance of an aliphatic character.
a-pyrone condenses with the benzene ring to form coumarin and isocoumarin; benzo-'y-pyrone constitutes the nucleus of several vegetable colouring matters (chrysin, fisetin, quercetin, &c., which are derivatives of flavone or phenyl benzo-y-pyrone); dibenzo--ypyrone is known as xanthone; related to this substance are fluorane (and fluorescein), fluorone, fluorime, pyronine, &c. The pyridine ring condenses with the benzene ring to form quinoline and isoquinoline; acridine and phenanthridine are dibenzo-pyridines; naphthalene gives rise to a-and /3-naphthoquinolines and the anthrapyridines; anthracene gives anthraquinoline; while two pyridine nuclei connected by an intermediate benzene nucleus give the phenanthrolines.
Naphthyridines and naphthinolines result from the condensation of two pryridine and two quinoline nuclei respectively; and quino-quinolines are unsymmetrical naphthyridine nuclei condensed with a benzene nucleus.
In the aromatic compounds there is no regularity between the increments due to the introduction of methyl groups into the benzene nucleus or side chains; the normal value of 20 0 -21° is exhibited, however, by pyridine and its derivatives.
The city is built upon the lower slope of the Serra do Ouro Preto, a spur of the Espinhago, deeply cut by ravines and divided into a number of irregular hills, up which the narrow, crooked streets are built and upon which groups of low, old-fashioned houses form each a separate nucleus.
In 1652 a number of people in Westmorland and north Lancashire who had separated from the common national worship,' came under the influence of Fox, and it was this community (if it can be so called) at Preston Patrick which formed the nucleus of the Quaker church.
A reserve fund was created of which the nucleus was the sum already standing to the credit of the " Reserve fund for increasing the rate of interest " (£TI,113,865), plus £T300,000 at least in cash by the issue of sufficient unified bonds to produce that amount and the sum of £T150,000 to be paid by the government to the public debt at the rate of £T15,000 per annum.
Railway concessions were given to Germans over the heads of British applicants already in possession of lines from which they were expro- Activity priated, thus affording the nucleus of the Bagdad Turkey.
When heated with the halogens, acetophenone is substituted in the aliphatic portion of the nucleus; thus bromine gives phenacyl bromide, C6H6CO.CH2Br.
The nucleus of the stronghold is a donjon over 200 ft.
The original archduchy, which included Upper Austria, is the nucleus of the Austrian empire, and the oldest possession of the house of Habsburg in its present dominions.
10), for one of the four chief cities, Akkad, Babel, Erech and Calneh, which constituted the nucleus of the kingdom of Nimrod in the land of Shinar or Babylonia.
The question whether a corpuscle actually has a material gravitating nucleus is undecided, but there are strong reasons for believing that its mass is entirely due to the electric charge.
It was named Sao Paulo, and has been at once the source whence knowledge and civilization have been diffused through Brazil, and the nucleus of a colony of its manliest and hardiest citizens, which sent out successive swarms of hardy adventurers to people the interior.
It is probable that the Ottadeni built a fort or camp on the rock on which Edinburgh Castle now stands, which was thus the nucleus around which, in course of time, grew a considerable village.
Substitution takes place usually in the nucleus and only rarely in the side chain, and according to the conditions of the experiment and the nature of the compound acted upon, one or more nitro groups enter the molecule.
The nucleus of the new army he found in the Czech mercenaries, seasoned veterans who readily transferred their services to the best payer.
Towards the second half of the 2nd century B.C. this kingdom seems to have become the nucleus of a great state under Scilurus, whose name appears on coins of Olbia, and who at the same time threatened Chersonese in the Crimea.
Perhaps those which were to be sung according to the old Davidic mode formed the nucleus of the collection, and to these were added other poems to be sung according to the more intricate Korahite and Asaphic modes.
Certain departmental details were despatched to South Africa to form a working nucleus for military bases, and early in September the cabinet sanctioned the despatch to Natal from India of a mixed force, 5600 strong, while two battalions were ordered to South Africa from the Mediterranean.
1 Thus they are pro vided with a nucleus which is the centre of cell activity; Pathological both of the reproductive and chemical (metabolic) pro- GelIs.
The nucleus in its vegetative stage shows a fine network throughout containing in the meshes the so-called nuclear-sap; attached to the network are the chromosomes, in the form of small irregular masses, which have a strong affinity for the " basic dyes."
Embedded in the nucleus are one or more nucleoli (plasmosomes) having an affinity for the " acid dyes."
The centrosomes which play so important a part in cell division may be found either lying within or at one side of the nucleus in the vegetative condition of the cell.
When mitosis is about to take place, they separate from one another and pass to the poles of the nucleus, forming the achromatic spindle.
After the division and cleavage of the chromosomes of the original nucleus have taken place they pass from the equator to the poles of the spindle, rearranging themselves close to the separated centrosomes to form daughter nuclei.
It consists in an unequal number of chromosomes passing over to each of the daughter nuclei, so that one may become hypochromatic, the other hyperchromatic. When this happens the resulting cleavage of the cytoplasm and nucleus is also unequal.
Pigmented cell with resting nucleus.
The attraction-sphere and centrosome lie in the cytoplasma in the neighbourhood of the nucleus.
Large cell with a single nucleus; nucleoli in a state of degeneration.
The nucleolus is elongated, and its longest measurement lies in the direction of the equatorial plane of the nucleus.
Division of the nucleolus by elongation, construction, and equilateral division of the nucleus.
Division of the nucleolus without any evidence of division of the nucleus.
Nucleus with many nucleoli.
Direct division of nucleus.
Multiple direct division of the nucleus.
- Fragmentation of the nucleus.
In the earlier accepted notion of direct segmentation, usually known as the schema of Remak, division was described as commencing in the nucleolus, as thereafter spreading to the nucleus, and as ultimately implicating the cell-substance.
Oertel thinks that in man we have these two different functions carried on by the one nucleus containing both chromatin orders.
The liver cells are seen to contain a large globule of fat which pushes the cell nucleus to one side - giving the signet-ring appearance.
(x 300 diam.) colour, situated specially at the poles of the fibre nucleus and extending short distance in the long axis of the fibre.
The building of the National Portrait Gallery, adjoining it, dates from 1896, but the nucleus of the collection was formed in 1858.
The third natural division of Burma is the old province of Tenasserim, which, constituted in 1826 with Moulmein as its capital, formed the nucleus from which the British supremacy throughout Burma has grown.
This formed the nucleus of his future army.
C 6 H 5 CCl: CH 2 or a-compounds, and C 6 H 1 CH: CHC1, or co-compounds, whilst in the third the benzene nucleus is substituted.
Those substituted in the benzene nucleus are obtained by condensing two molecules of a substituted benzyl and benzal chlorides.
The kingship formed the nucleus of new governments as the feudal system passed away.
This very likely formed the nucleus of a book which bore the name of that sheik and was much read in the 3rd century from the Flight.
Gesch., 3rd ed., p. 160) rejects the earlier foundation; on the other hand, he insists, with the majority of scholars and against Kosters, on the actual return of exiles in 537 to form the nucleus of the post-exilic community (loc. cit., p. 157 n.).
This is Harnack's date for the nucleus of Vis.
In the case of the pearl oyster this parasite is a cestode larva, but in the less valuable but no less genuine pearl produced by Mytilus, &c., the nucleus is a Trematode-larva (Jameson).
They occasionally exhibit striation and originate from large branched cells, the nucleus and unmodified part of which form conspicuous elements.
Philaret's zeal for the purity of orthodoxy sometimes led him into excesses: but he encouraged the publication of theological works, formed the nucleus of the subsequently famous Patriarchal Library, and commanded that every archbishop should establish a seminary for the clergy, himself setting the example.
The former, which was the original nucleus of all the commercial prosperity of the city, begins on the second Wednesday before Easter; and the latter on the second Wednesday before the 8th of September.
The works erected by the Turks for the capture of the fortress of Arad formed the nucleus of the new town.
But it was also frequently used to denote (in whole or part) that portion of the old Mithradatic kingdom which lay between the Halys (roughly) and the borders of Colchis, Lesser Armenia, Cappadocia and Galatia - the region properly designated by the title "Cappadocia towards the Pontus," which was always the nucleus of the Pontic kingdom.
Thus the three colleges which formed the nucleus of the Imperial University of Tokyo were presided over by a graduate of Michigan College (Professor Toyama), a member of the English bar (Professor HOzumi) and a graduate of Cambridge (Baron Kikuchi).
Ehrenberg), a genus of lobose Rhizopoda, characterized by a chitinous plano-convex shell, the circular aperture central on the fiat ventral face, and more than one nucleus and contractile vacuole.
Since it does not form an addition product with bromine, reduction must have taken place in one of the nuclei only, and on account of the aromatic character of the compound it must be in that nucleus which does not contain the amino group. This tetrahydro compound yields adipic acid, (CH 2) 4 (CO 2 H) 2, when oxidized by potassium permanganate.
The nucleus of the town, the ancient village, lies south of the highroad to Uxbridge, west of the open Ealing Common.
Rutherford had announced the nuclear theory of atomic structure which required each atom to consist of a minute positively charged nucleus about which negative electrons were distributed.
This number is probably to be identified with the electric charge upon the nucleus of the atom.
The voyage of the " Challenger " supplied for the first time the nucleus of a collection of deep-sea deposits sufficient to serve as the basis for comprehensive classification and mapping.
The history of Prester John no doubt originally gathered round some nucleus of fact, though what that was is extremely difficult to determine.
1072), succeeded in stripping off the later accretions from the original nucleus of the Historia.
The district originally formed part of the parish of Kilmalcolm, the nucleus of the town being the village of Newark attached to the barony of that name.
Its dualistic system and its anti-social principles were known only to a few, but its antiecclesiastical organization formed a permanent nucleus round which gathered a great deal of political and ecclesiastical discontent.
In 1835 the nucleus of the present district of British Sikkim or Darjeeling was created by a cession of a portion of the hills by the raja of Sikkim to the British as a sanatorium.
The 10th division, forming the nucleus of the 4th Army, had begun to land at Takushan on the 19th of May.
Five centuries later Lauenburg was incorporated with Hanover, and Wittenberg is the nucleus of modern Saxony, the name being thus transferred from the west to the east of Germany.
The latter traced the tubes as far as the nucleus of the ovule.
Cytology (q.v.), the intimate structure and behaviour of the cell and its contents - protoplasm, nucleus, &c.
No portion of the regular army of the Netherlands is allowed to be sent on colonial service, but individual soldiers are at liberty to enlist, by permission of their commanding officers, in the army of Netherlands India, and they form its nucleus.
General Daendels, who was governor from 1808 to 1811, caused the ramparts of the town to be demolished, and began to form the nucleus of a new city at Weltevreden.
The other course is to consider matter as formed of ultimate atoms, each the nucleus or core of an intrinsic modification impressed on the surrounding region of the aether; this might conceivably be of the nature of vortical motion of a liquid round a ring-core, thus giving a vortex atom, or of an intrinsic strain of some sort radiating from a core, which would give an electric atom.
We recognize an atom only through its physical activities, as manifested in its interactions with other atoms at a distance from it; this field of physical activity would be identical with the surrounding field of aethereal motion or strain that is inseparably associated with the nucleus, and is carried on along with it as it moves.
To make room for these we have to remember that the atomic nucleus has remained entirely undefined and beyond our problem; so that what may occur, say when two molecules come into close relations, is outside physical science - not, however, altogether outside, for we know that when the vital nexus in any portion of matter is dissolved, the atoms will remain, in their number, and their atmospheres, and all inorganic relations, as they were before vitality supervened.
An important question arises whether, when a material body is moved through the aether, the nucleus of each atom carries some of the surrounding aether along with it; or whether it practically only carries on its strain-form or physical atmosphere, which is transferred from one portion of aether to another after the manner of a shadow, or rather like a loose knot which can slip along a rope without the rope being required to go with it.
More recently a way has been pointed out in which a mobile permanent field of electric force could exist% in such a medium so as to travel freely in company with its nucleus or intrinsic charge - the nature of the mobility of the latter, as well as its intimate constitution, remaining unknown.
He had as a nucleus but few regular troops, but the energy of the military and civil authorities enabled his force to be augmented by national guards, &c., to 17,600 men.
QUINONES, in organic chemistry, a group of compounds in which two hydrogen atoms of a benzene nucleus are replaced by two oxygen atoms. This replacement may take place either in the ortho or para positions, giving rise to orthoquinones or to paraquinones; metaquinones do not appear to have been isolated.
A small nucleus of the proverbs may be Solomon's; but the great majority represent no doubt the generalizations of a long succession of " wise men."
Alex., Tert., Hippol.), it is seen that there is a fixed nucleus of writings that is acknowledged, with one exception, over all parts of the Christian world.
The transcontinental railway from Limon to Puntarenas was begun in 1871, and forms the nucleus of a system intended ultimately to connect all the fertile parts of the country, and to join the railways of Nicaragua and Panama.
Among the institutions connected with the university are the national institution for East Indian languages, ethnology and geography; the fine botanical gardens, founded in 1587; the observatory (1860); the natural history museum, with a very complete anatomical cabinet; the museum of antiquities (Museum van Oudheden), with specially valuable Egyptian and Indian departments; a museum of Dutch antiquities from the earliest times; and three ethnographical museums, of which the nucleus was P. F.
1560), who founded a college for them in 1545 in the town of Billom, besides making over to them his house at Paris, the hotel de Clermont, which became the nucleus of the afterwards famous college of Louis-le-Grand, while a formal legalization was granted to them by the states-general at Poissy in 1561.
The old town forms a nucleus of narrow, winding streets surrounded by boulevards, beyond which lie modern quarters with regular thoroughfares and public gardens.
Maximilian carried the elaborate etiquette of the court of Vienna to Mexico, but favouring toleration of Protestantism, and the supremacy of the Crown over the Church, he was too liberal for the clericals who had set him up. As a foreigner he was unpopular, and the regiments of Austrians and Belgians which were to serve as the nucleus of his own army were more so.
This encounter roused the New England colonies, and in a few days some 16,000 of their townsmen marched in small bands upon Boston to protest against and resist further similar incursions; and in this irregular body we have the nucleus of the colonial forces which carried the war through.
In B the nucleus is shown.
and was the first to indicate the presence of a nucleus in the cell-body.
(X 2000.) II, Clear zone or halo around kineto- a.fl, p. fl, l .s, nucleus.
A - D shows the formation of the two nuclear elements (trophonucleus and kinetonucleus) from the definitive nucleus (synkaryon) of the ookinete.
The larger nuclear body, which corresponds to the trophonucleus of a Trypanosome, is usually round or oval; the smaller one, representing a kinetonucleus, has the form either of a little rod or of a round grain, and is generally separate from the larger nucleus.
In 1904 the formation of a municipally supported gallery of modern art (mainly due to the initiative and generosity of Mr Hugh Lane) was signalized by an exhibition including the pictures intended to constitute the nucleus of the gallery.
Later the sediments lying to the south-east of this " protaxis," or nucleus of the continent, were pushed against its edge and raised into the Appalachian chain of mountains, which, however, extends only a short distance into Canada.
Maildulphus, a Scottish or Irish monk, who came into England about 635, built a hermitage near the site of the modern Malmesbury (Maildulphi-urbs, Maldelmesburh, Malmesbiri) and gathered disciples round him, thus forming the nucleus of the later abbey of which Aldhelm his pupil became the first abbot.
If we say that he carried on a successful war against the Saxons, was probably betrayed by his wife and a near kinsman, and fell in battle, we have stated all which can be claimed as an historical nucleus for his legend.
The flame then appears as a long, narrow, luminous cone, the end being enveloped by a dimly visible portion of flame corresponding to that which surrounds the free flame, while there is also a dark nucleus about the wick.
Taken as a whole it is modern in aspect, but its regularity of form is in reality derived from the ancient Roman town of Augusta Taurinorum, which formed its nucleus.
Hewitt has also attacked the problem by brominating the oxyazobenzenes, and has shown that when the hydrobromic acid produced in the reaction is allowed to remain in the system, a brombenzene-azo-phenol is formed, whilst if it be removed (by the addition of sodium acetate) bromination takes place in the phenolic nucleus; consequently the presence of the mineral acid gives the azo compound a pseudo-quinonoid character, which it does not possess if the mineral acid be removed from the sphere of the reaction.
1557; Parallaticae commentationis praxeosque nucleus quidam (London, 1573).
We have thus the nucleus of that international parliament which idealist peacemakers have dreamt of since the time of Henry IV.'s " grand design."
But around this nucleus have collected many tribes of foreign origin.
The upper basin of the Trent formed the nucleus of the kingdom of Mercia (q.v.), while farther down the east coast was the kingdom of East Anglia.
To get a better share in the European trade at the mouth of the river a body of colonists migrated further down and built ObutÃ¶ng or Old Town, and shortly afterwards a rival colony established itself at Aqua Akpa or Duke Town, which thus formed the nucleus of the existing town.
The only effect of adding solvent will be to separate further from each other the systems composed of solute particle as nucleus and solvent as atmosphere; it will not affect the action of each nucleus on its atmosphere.
It is thought to depend upon some connexion, not yet anatomically demonstrated, between the third cranial nerve and its nucleus in the floor of the iter and the substantia nigra.
Once afterwards (1898) he held office as minister of home affairs, and in 1900 he stepped down from the leadership of the Jiyu-tõ in order that the latter might form the nucleus of the Seiyu-kai organized by Count Ito.
There was thus very strong circumstantial evidence in favour of fertilization, although the male nucleus was not traced.
nucleus in skin.
The Brera Gallery, the nucleus of which was formed in 1806, possesses Raphael's famous "Sposalizio," and many pictures and frescoes by Luini, Guadenzio Ferrari and Bramantino; the collection of the works of Carlo Crivelli (fl.
The nucleus of a cosmopolitan society thus formed has expanded into a powerful community enjoying privileges and immunities unknown to natives not receiving its protection.
The single nucleus divides by three successive divisions to form eight nuclei lying free in the protoplasm of the ascus.
Then by a special method, described first by Harper, a mass of protoplasm is cut out round each nucleus; thus eight uninucleate ascospores are formed by free-cell formation.
6, The multicellular ascogonium 3, Passage of the antheridial derived by division from the nucleus towards that of the oogonium; the terminal cell oogonium.
Under other conditions, of which the temperature is an important one, the nucleus in the yeast-cell divides, and each daughter-nucleus again, and four spores are formed in the mother cell, a process obviously comparable to the typical development of ascospores in an ascus.
The study of the nucleus of yeast-cells is rendered difficult by the presence of other deeply staining granules termed by Guillermond naetachromatic granules.
In the process of budding the nucleus divides apparently by a process of direct division.
In the formation of spores the nucleus of the cell divides, the protoplasm collects round the nuclei to form the spores by free-cell formation; the protoplasm (epiplasm) not used in this process becomes disorganized.
De Bary brought forward very strong evidence for the origin of the ascocarp in Sphaerotheca and Erysiphe by a sexual process, but Harper in 1895 was the first to prove conclusively, by the observation of the nuclear fusion, that there was a definite fertilization in Sphaerotheca Humuli by the fusion of a male (antheridial) nucleus with a female, ascogonial (oogonial) nucleus.
C, A basidium before the four nucleiderived from the secondary nucleus of the basidium have passed into the four basidiospores.
D, Passage of a nucleus through the sterigma into the basidiospore.
There we find an association of nuclei either by the fusion of two similar cells as described by Christmann or by the migration of the nucleus of a vegetative cell into a special cell of the aecidium.
uredospores in the hemi and a, Fertile cells; at a 2 the brachy forms, and before the passage of a nucleus from formation of teleutospores in the adjoining cell is seen.
Whether B, Formation of the first sporethe association of nuclei in the mother-cell (sm), from the ordinary mycelium takes place basal cell (a) of one of the by the migration of a nucleus rows of spores.
(1896); "Sexual Reproduction and the Organization of the Nucleus in certain Mildews," Publ.
Blagden (Ber.,1900,33,p.2544), who consider that three simultaneous reactions occur, namely, the formation of labile double salts which decompose in such a fashion that the radical attached to the copper atom wanders to the aromatic nucleus; a catalytic action, in which nitrogen is eliminated and the acid radical attaches itself to the aromatic nucleus; and finally, the formation of azo compounds.
Jochem (Ber., 1901, 34, p. 3337), who arrived at the conclusion that the normal decomposition of diazonium salts by alcohols results in the formation of phenolic ethers, but that an increase in the molecular weight of the alcohol, or the accumulation of negative groups in the aromatic nucleus, diminishes the yield of the ether and increases the amount of the hydrocarbon formed.
These iso-diazotates are formed much more readily when the aromatic nucleus in the diazonium salt contains negative radicals.
Concentrated acids convert them into the isomeric nitro-amines, the - NO 2 group going into the nucleus in the orthoor paraposition to the amine nitrogen; this appears to indicate that the compounds are nitramines.
The nucleus of the city is built on low-lying ground on the east coast of the island of Zealand, between the sea and a series of small freshwater lakes, known respectively as St JOrgens So, Peblings So and Sortedams So, a southern portion occupying the northern part of the island of Amager.
The chief nucleus of the ancient Wesi was a town about the temple of Karnak: it probably reaches back to the prehistoric period.
So early as the 11th century her merchants were settled in London, their colony forming the nucleus of the Steelyard.
The fine and extensive buildings, of which the nucleus is a mansion of the 17th century, contain a public school for boys and a house of studies for Jesuit ecclesiastics, while there is a preparatory school at a short distance.
The heads of the various departments 01 state do not form, as in England, the nucleus of a cabinet.
In addition, each would leave behind depot troops to form the nucleus on which the 2nd ban Landwehr and the Landsturm would eventually be built up. The total number of units of the three arms in all branches may be stated approximately at 2200 battalions, 780 squadrons and 950 batteries.
The middle states, headed by Wurttemberg, had drawn together, to form the nucleus of an inner league of pure German States against Austria and Prussia, and of Liberal particularism against the encroachments of the diet.
This reunion of the Conservatives became the nucleus of a great reaction against Liberalism.
They took the name of the Liberale Vereinigung, but were generally known as the Sezessionisten; they hoped to become the nucleus of a united Liberal party in which all sections should join together on the principles of Free Trade and constitutional development.
Thus a nucleus and precedent has been formed similar to that by which the Zoilverein was begun, and it was hoped that it might be possible to arrange similar agreements with other states, so that in this way a common management for all lines might be established.
Such may have been some of the pseudo-apostolic Acts to which Epiphanius alludes as in use among the Ebionites of his own day: and such was probably the nucleus of our Clementine writings, the Periodoi of Peter.
The original nucleus of the city is that portion which lies to the east of the port in the neighbourhood of the old pier (Molo Vecchio).
The first nucleus round which the present dominions of the house of Austria gradually accumulated was the mark which lay along the south bank of the Danube, east of the river Origin of Enns, founded about A.D.
It was impossible to maintain a strong party of moderate constitutionalists, on whom the government could depend, unless there was a large nucleus from Lower Austria.
It was the beginning and the nucleus of an agitation that eventually pervaded and filled every part of the country.
The American Anti-Slavery Society, of which Garrison was the president from 1843 to the day of emancipation, was during all this period the nucleus of an intense and powerful moral agitation, which was greatly valued by many of the most faithful workers in the field of politics, who respected Garrison for his fidelity to his convictions.
The above-mentioned nucleus, combined with other chapters of more recent origin, is found in the papyri of the XVIIIthXXth Dynasties, and forms the so-called Theban recension, which has been edited by Naville man important work.
He found a rival in Egypt in the person of Ibn al-Modabbir, the finance minister, who occupied an independent position, and who started the practice of surrounding himself with an army of his own slaves or freedmen; of these Ibn Tulun succeeded in depriving the finance minister, and they formed the nucleus of an army by which he eventually secured his own independence.
He also saw in the campaign a means of getting rid of the disaffected troops, and of obtaining a sufficient number of captives to form the nucleus of the new army.
including the ancient nucleus of the city, and the last the principal modern streets.
contains the nucleus.
Although the cell body or perikaryon of the neuron, with its contained nucleus, is essential for the maintenance of the life of the cell branches, it has become recognized that the actual process and function of "conduction" in many neurons can, and does, go on without the cell body being directly concerned in the conduction.
But the proper nutrition of the conducting substance is indissolubly dependent on the cell branches being in continuity with the cell body and nucleus it contains.
Most marked is the decrease in the volume of the nucleus, amounting even to 44% of the initial volume.
From the organ there emerge fibres which cross to the opposite red nucleus, and directly or indirectly reach the thalamic region of the crossed hemisphere.
(extremes), with its fantastic coast-line indented by fjords and projecting into long spits or promontories, may be considered as the nucleus of the kingdom, inasmuch as it contains the capital, Copenhagen, and such important towns as Roskilde, Slagelse, Korsor, Naestved and Elsinore (Helsingor).
The nucleus of this industry was a factory started in 1772, by F.
high, covered with forest, without a central chain at the nucleus of the island whence the peninsulas diverge.
The nucleus of the tube-cell has meanwhile passed into the tube, as does also the generative nucleus which divides to form two maleor spermcells.
The germination of the macrospore consists in the repeated division of its nucleus to form two groups of four, one group at each end of the embryo-sac. One nucleus from each group, the polar nucleus, passes to the centre of the sac, where the two fuse to form the so-called definitive nucleus.
The gametophyte or prothallial generation is thus extremely reduced, consisting of but little more than the male and female sexual cells - the two sperm-cells in the pollen-tube and the egg-cell (with the synergidae) in the embryo-sac. At the period of fertilization the embryo-sac lies in close proximity tube has penetrated, the separating cell-wall becomes absorbed, and the male or sperm-cells are ejected into the embryosac. Guided by the synergidae one male-cell passes into the oosphere with which it fuses, the two nuclei uniting, while the other fuses with the definitive nucleus, or, as it is also called, the endosperm nucleus.
It has long been known that after fertilization of the egg has taken place, the formation of endosperm begins from the endosperm nucleus, and this had come to be regarded as the recommencement of the development of a prothallium after a pause following the reinvigorating union of the polar nuclei.
The signification of the coalescence of the polar nuclei is not explained by these new facts, but it is noteworthy that the second male-cell is said to unite sometimes with the apical polar nucleus, the sister of the egg, before the union of this with the basal polar one.
The proof of a coalescence of the second male nucleus with the definitive nucleus gives the conception a more stable basis.
The number of chromosomes in the nucleus of the two spores, pollen-grain and embryo-sac, is only half the number found in an ordinary vegetative nucleus.
The formation of endosperm starts, as has been stated, from the endosperm nucleus.
In two Malayan species of Balanophora, the embryo is developed from a cell of the endosperm, which is formed from the upper polar nucleus only, the egg apparatus becoming disorganized.
These were (1) the division of the fyrd or national militia into two parts, relieving each other at fixed intervals, so as to ensure continuity in military operations; (2) the establishment of fortified posts (burgs) and garrisons at certain points; (3) the enforcement of the obligations of thanehood on all owners of five hides of land, thus giving the king a nucleus of highly equipped troops.
Occupying as these algae do perhaps the lowest grade of plant life, it is a matter of interest to ascertain whether a nucleus or chromatophore is differentiated in their cells, or whether the functions and properties of these bodies are diffused through the whole protoplast.
Olive, claim that this body is a true nucleus comparable with that of the higher plants.
Wager speaks with greater reserve, acknowledging, however, the central body to be a nucleus of a rudimentary type, but devoid of nuclear membrane and nucleolus.
Oedogonium sp., intercalated growth by insertion of new piece(a) n., nucleus; p.v., pulsating vacuoles; e.s., eyespot.
Biologie der Algen, by permission of Gustav Fischer.) Dermatophyton grows on the carapace of the tortoise and Trichophilus nucleus, each cell is found to contain many small nuclei, and is in the hairs of the sloth.
of a cell or cells, the protoplast of which contains a single nucleus.
Embedded in the chromatophore, much in the same way as the nucleus is embedded in the cytoplasm, are the pyrenoids.
That the antherozoid of Vaucheria contains a single nucleus had been inferred before.
This is the carpogonium; it consists of a ventral portion which contains a nucleus, but in which no oosphere is differentiated, and an elongated tubular portion known as the trichogyne, into which the cytoplasm extends.
Fertilization is effected by the passive convection of a spermatium from the antheridium to the trichogyne, to which it adheres, and to which it passes over its nucleus through an open communication set up at the point of contact.
The nucleus then passes down the trichogyne and fuses with that of the egg.
He founded his generalization to a large extent upon the observation that in Gloeosiphonia capillaris two cells completely fuse, and that only one nucleus can be detected in the fused mass.
Oltmanns has recently re-investigated the phenomena in this plant, among others, and has shown that the nucleus of the cell which is being preyed upon recedes to the wall and gradually atrophies.
The nucleus of the ooblastema filament dominates the FIG.
Among the secular buildings the first place is taken by the royal palace in Buda, which, together with the old fortress, crowns the summit of a hill, and forms the nucleus of the town.
in 1247, and were the nucleus round which the town of Buda was built, which soon gained great importance, and became in 1361 the capital of Hungary.
To the 4th century belongs, according to Kamper (Die deutsche Kaiseridee, 1896, p. 18) and Sackur (Texte and Forschungen, 1898, p. 114 &c.), the first nucleus of the "Tiburtine" Sibyl, very celebrated in the middle ages, with its prophecy of the return of 3 Harnack, Chronologie der altchristlichen Literatur, i.
The nucleus of the later county and duchy was the gau or district surrounding the town of Gelder or Gelre, lying between the Meuse and the Niers, and since 1715 included in Rhenish Prussia.
The oldest nucleus of historical tradition appears to belong to Samaria, but it has been adjusted to other standpoints or interests, which are apparently connected partly with the half-Edomite and partly with the old indigenous Judaean stock.'
Israelite) nucleus may be recognized in the books of Joshua - Kings; see the articles on these books, Jews, § 6; cf.
In this case, as in that of the Edomites, it is natural to suppose that there existed already a nucleus of professing Jews which made the wholesale conversion possible.
In 1846-1848 a remarkable religious brotherhood (the Briiderhaus, founded by Spittler of Basel) settled in Jerusalem: it was originally intended to be a settlement of celibate mechanics that would form a nucleus of mission work to evangelize the world.
The greater part of the peshwa's dominions was ultimately incorporated in the Bombay presidency, while the nucleus of the Central Provinces was formed out of territory taken from the peshwa and the raja of Nagpur.
The purchase of Assab and the neighbouring region for L1880, from the sultan Berehan of Raheita for use as a coaling station by the Italian Rubattino Steamship Company, in March 1870, formed the nucleus of Italy's colonial possessions.
Hajjaj, however, was not the man to allow the formation of a fresh nucleus of sedition, and persuaded the caliph to dismiss Omar in the year 712, and appoint Othman b.
But around this nucleus there soon grew up the great metropolis which was to be the centre of the civilized world as long as the Caliphate lasted.
The main objects of the society were thus set out: (1) To establish a nucleus of the universal brotherhood of humanity; (2) to promote the study of comparative religion and philosophy; (3) to make a systematic investigation into the mystic potencies of life and matter, or what is usually termed "occultism."
There is no proper nucleus of mountains whence chains ramify in different directions.
To this nucleus were added 6160 recruits, the contingent for that year of young men twenty-one years of age compelled to serve with the colours.
As soon as her fortunes began to mend she started a small home for poor girls at Ruel, which she afterwards moved to Noisy, and which was the nucleus of the splendid institution of St Cyr, which the king endowed in 1686, at her request, out of the funds of the Abbey of St Denis.
Cramer) to disentangle a Pauline nucleus from later accretions.
These colonists formed the nucleus of the provincial military levy, and were a tower of strength to the Persian dominion.
The nucleus of the army was formed of armoured horsemen, excellently practised for long-distance fighting with bow and javelin, but totally unable to venture on a hand-to-hand conflict, their tactics being rather to swarm round the enemys squadrons and overwhelm them under a hail of missiles.
The great emperor Htaclius, who assumed the crown in 610, took years to create the nucleus of a new military power.
Omar II., however, extended to non-Arabic Moslems immunity from all taxes except the zakat (poor-rate), with the result that a large number of Persians, who still smarted under their defeat, under Mokhtar, embraced Islam and drifted into the towns to form a nucleus of sedition under the Shiite preachers.
The naval and military forces were disbanded, but Charles managed to retain under the name of guards three regiments, which remained the nucleus of a standing army.
A few years later, influenced perhaps in part by Persian gold, they forced on the so-called Corinthian War and formed the nucleus of the league against Sparta.
This force, though aided by considerable bodies of local militia and volunteers in the northern and western provinces, was insufficient to cope with the 60,000 Carlists in arms, and with the still formidable nucleus of cantonalists around Alcoy and Cartagena.
In 1851 the first Committee of Vigilance was formed and served from June to September, when it disbanded; it was the nucleus of the second and greater committee, active from May to August of 1856.
They are characterized by the absence of ordinary sexual reproduction and by the absence of an ordinary nucleus.
Thus arose the foundations of the modern " germ theory of disease;" and, in the midst of the wildest conjectures and the worst of logic, a nucleus of facts was won, which has since grown, and is growing daily.
The question of the existence of a nucleus in the bacteria is one that has led to much discussion and is a problem of some difficulty.
In the majority of forms it has not hitherto been possible to demonstrate a nucleus of the type which is so characteristic of the higher plants.
Attention has accordingly been directed to the deeply-staining granules mentioned above, and the term chromatin-granules has been applied to them, and they have been considered to represent a rudimentary nucleus.
That these granules consist of a material similar to the chromatin of the nucleus of higher forms is very doubtful, and the comparison with the nucleus of more highly organized cells rests on a very slender basis.
It is possible that a similar structure has been overlooked or is invisible in other forms owing to their small size, and that there may be another type of nucleus - the diffuse nucleus - such as Schaudinn believed to be the case in B.
(After Woromv.) c, cell from bacterial tissues showing nucleus and protoplasm filled with bacteria.
Nucleus: Wager in Ann.
Thus in diphtheria changes in both nerve cells and nerve fibres have been found, and in tetanus minute alterations in the nucleus and protoplasm of nerve cells.
The oldest and most important of the eight convents at Salzburg is the Benedictine abbey of St Peter founded by St Rupert as the nucleus of the city.
The nucleus of the present city was the monastery and bishopric founded here about 700 by St Rupert of Worms, who had been invited by Duke Theodo of Bavaria to preach Christianity in his land.
The presence of the phenanthrene nucleus and the chain system CH 3 N C C follows from the fact that these alkaloids, by appropriate treatment, yield a substituted phenanthrene and also dimethylaminoethanol (CH3)2N CH2 CH20H.
Formulae have been proposed by Pschorr and Knorr explaining this and other decompositions (in Pschorr's formula the morphine ring system is a fusion of a phenanthrene and pyridine nucleus); another formula, containing a fusion of a phenanthrene with a pyrrol ring, was proposed by Bucherer in'1907.
(Or Dagnus - perhaps to be identified with Maximinus Daza, joint emperor (with Galerius) in the East 305-311, and sole emperor 311-313.) Round this small nucleus of possibility, however, a vast mass of legendary matter gradually collected.
The nucleus of the city occupies an island formed by the North and South Channels, two arms of the river Lee, and in former times no doubt merited its name, which signifies a swamp. In the beginning of the 18th century, indeed, this island was broken up into many parts connected by drawbridges, by numerous small channels navigable at high tide.
that the mouth at the extremity of the hypo c, Visual cone; n, stome represents the persistent blastopore of nucleus; n.
On the constitution of the pyridine nucleus, see K6rner, Gior.
In both orographical systems the principal rivers start nearly all together from a central nucleus, and in both cases they radiate to opposite quarters of the compass; but whereas in the Alps the Rhone and the Rhine, flowing south-west and north-east respectively, follow longitudinal valleys, and the Aar and the Ticino, flowing north-west and south-east respectively, follow transverse valleys, in the Caucasus the streams which flow south-west and north-east, namely, the headwaters of the Rion and the Terek, travel along transverse valleys, and those of the Kura and the Kuban, flowing south-east and north-west respectively, traverse longitudinal valleys.
To this class, above all, belong the Gathas and the nucleus of the greater Yashts.
the Yasna, so they ultimately proved to be the first nucleus of a religious literature in general.
Wilamowitz-Mollendorff ascribes the nucleus of these Scholia to Theon, who wrote similar scholia on Lycophron and Apollonius Rhodius, and is stated to have written a commentary on Theocritus. ?
His library, which contained a very extensive collection of Greek MSS., was presented by him to the senate of Venice, and formed the nucleus of the famous library of St Mark.
The original seat and present home of the nucleus of the Maronites is Mt Lebanon; but they are also to be found in considerable force in Anti-Lebanon and Hermon, and more sporadically in and near Antioch, in Galilee, and on the Syrian coast.
The nucleus of the town lies within the innermost crescent canal, and, with the large square, the Dam, in the centre, represents the area of Amsterdam about the middle of the 14th century.
The nucleus of this unsurpassed national collection of pictures was formed out of the collections removed hither from the Pavilion at Haarlem, consisting of modern paintings, and from the town-hall, the van der Hoop Museum and the Trippenhuis in Amsterdam.
In the course of division two bodies appear in the cytoplasm, and behave as centrosomes during the karyokinesis; they gradually become threadlike and coil round each daughter nucleus.
The nucleus of the microspore divides and gives rise to a small cell within the large cell, a second small cell is then produced; this is the structure of the ripe pollen-grain in some conifers (Taxus, &c.).
The large cell grows out as a pollen-tube; the second of the two small cells (body-cell) wanders into the tube, followed by the nucleus of the first small cell (stalk-cell).
In Taxus the body-cell eventually divides into two, in which the products of division are of unequal size, the larger constituting the male generative cell, which fuses with the nucleus of the egg-cell.
Before fertilization the nucleus of the egg-cell divides and cuts off a ventral canal-cell; this cell may represent a second egg-cell.
In the process of fertilization the two male generative nuclei, accompanied by the pollen-tube nucleus and that of the stalk-cell, pass through an open pit at the apex of the pollen-tube into the protoplasm of the ovum.
After fertilization the nucleus of the egg divides, the first stages of karyokinesis being apparent even before complete fusion of the male and female nuclei has occurred.
Blom found that on brominating orthoacetamido-acetophenone in presence of water or acetic acid, the bromine goes into the benzene nucleus, whilst in chloroform or sulphuric acid or by use of bromine vapour it goes into the side chain as well.
The northern part, Behar, constituted the ancient kingdom of Magadha, the nucleus of the imperial power of the successive great dynasties of the Mauryas, Andhras and Guptas; and its chief town, Patna, is the ancient Pataliputra (the Palimbothra of the Greeks), once the capital of India.
On a slightly raised strip of land between the head of Back Bay and the harbour is situated the fort, the nucleus of the city of Bombay.
Those with the hydroxyl group in the benzene nucleus are prepared from the aminophenols by the Skraup reaction.
Only two are known containing the hydroxyl group in the pyridine nucleus, namely, carbostyril (a-oxyquinoline), which is formed by the reduction of ortho-aminocinnamic acid with ammonium sulphide (L.
The pre ponderating elements of the ectodermic layer are elongated columnar -?irii cells, each containing a nucleus, and bearing cilia at their free ex- -9°.
In Isaiah and Zechariah, notably, older and later groups of prophecies are preserved, whereas here the new preludes and new sequels suggest that the original nucleus has passed through the hands of writers in touch with those vicissitudes of thought which can be studied more completely elsewhere.
xxxii., for example, looks upon Edom and Sidon as dead), and while the continued revision of the book allows the presumption that the tradition ascribing its inception to the time of Josiah may be authentic, it is doubtful how much of the original nucleus can be safely recognized.
The nucleus of this collection was formed by the princes of Orange, notably by the stadtholder William V.
But there is small doubt that the system was working to some extent in the later wars of the great king, and that his successes were largely due to the fact that his army contained a larger nucleus of fully armed warriors than those of his predecessors.
For the Scottish kings, deserting their native Highlands, took to dwelling at Edinburgh among their new subjects, and first the court and afterwards the whole of their Lowland subjects were gradually assimilated to the Northumbnian nucleus which formed both the most fertile and the most civilized portion of their enlarged realm.
and scattered adherents both among the burghers and the knighthood, the nucleus of the party that afterwards became famous as the Lollards.
ancient estates of the Beauchamps and Montagus, and with five of their name in the House of Lords, were a sufficient nucleus for a faction.
By the end of the reign the little hosts of badged adherents which had formed the nucleus for the armies of the Wars of the Roses had ceased to exist.
In the Wycliffite remnant, often persecuted but never exterminated, there already existed in England the nucleus of a Protestant party.
From both birds and reptiles the class is distinguished, so far at any rate as existing forms are concerned, by the following features: the absence of a nucleus in the red corpuscles of the blood, which are nearly always circular in outline; the free suspension of the lungs in a thoracic cavity, separated from the abdominal cavity by a muscular partition, or diaphragm, which is the chief agent in inflating the lungs in respiration; the aorta, or main artery, forming but a single arch after leaving the heart, which curves over the left terminal division of the windpipe, or bronchus; the presence of more or fewer hairs on the skin and the absence of feathers; the greater development of the bridge, or commissure, connecting the two halves of the brain, which usually forms a complete corpus callosum, or displays an unusually large size of its anterior portion; the presence of a fully developed larynx at the upper end of the trachea or windpipe, accompanied by the absence of a syrinx, or expansion, near the lower end of the same; the circumstance that each half of the lower jaw (except perhaps at a very early stage of development) consists of a single piece articulating posteriorly with the squamosal element of the skull without the intervention of a separate quadrate bone; the absence of prefrontal bones in the skull; the presence of a pair of lateral knobs, or condyles (in place of a single median one), on the occipital aspect of the skull for articulation with the first vertebra; and, lastly, the very obvious character of the female being provided with milk-glands, by the secretion of which the young (produced, except in the very lowest group, alive and not by means of externally hatched eggs) are nourished for some time after birth.
The latter has formed the nucleus of modern Dembre, which has been increased by settlers from the Greek island of Castelorizo.
The tops of most of the buildings and the whole nucleus of the temple of Isis to the floor remained all the year round above the water level until the dam was raised another 26 ft.
The traders who accompanied them were the nucleus of the first English-speaking colony on Wisconsin soil.
A moderate scholar of our day can find no historical nucleus, and calls it a sort of historical romance.'
There are many musical clubs, and a spring festival for which a local chorus furnishes the nucleus, is held annually.
ek, Nucleus of embryo-sac. ei, Egg-apparatus.
If it be positive, a widely extending patch is seen on the plate, consisting of a dense nucleus, from which branches radiate in all directions; if negative the patch is much smaller and has a sharp circular boundary entirely devoid of branches.
If the plate receives a mixed charge, as, for example, from an induction coil, a "mixed" figure results, consisting of a large red central nucleus, corresponding to the negative charge, surrounded by yellow rays, corresponding to the positive charge.
a knight of the Garter of England, proceeded with his Sagres buildings, especially the palace, church and observatory (the first in Portugal) which formed the nucleus of the "Infante's Town," and which were certainly commenced soon after the Tangier fiasco (1437), if not earlier.
above the sea; but certain sedimentary rocks observed on Viti Levu seem to imply a nucleus of land of considerable age.
At the end of the 5th century Maine, a relative of the king of Tara, was apportioned a tract of Firbolg territory to the west of the Suck in Connaught, which formed the nucleus of a powerful state known as Hy Maine (in English commonly called the " O'Kelly's country ").
laborers and small shop-keepers who formed the first nucleus of the reformed church were numerous enough to provide an army of martyrs, though too few to form a party.
Taramelli (Notizie degli Scavi, 1905, 41 seq.) rightly points out that the nucleus of the Roman municipium is probably represented by the present quarter of the Marina, in which the streets intersect at right angles and Roman remains are frequently found in the subsoil.
This nucleus extended both to the east and to the west; in the former direction it ran some way inland, on the east of the castle hill.
form a history of St Evroul, the original nucleus of the work.
Lachmann), a group of Prolarge "sack pusule" discharging tozoa, characterized as Mastigo through a tube by pore o; c.p., hora provided with two flagella, " collective pusule discharging p p at o, and surrounded by a ring the one anterior extended in loco of formative " or " daughter motion, the other coiled round pusules"; n, nucleus.
The endoplasm is ramified between alveoli; it contains a large nucleus (in Polykrikos there are eight nuclei, accompanied by smaller, more numerous bodies regarded by O.
The nucleus of the island is a block of Archean rocks, which are not, so far as is known, extensively exposed.
When Gero died in 965, his mark was divided into two parts, the northern portion, lying along both banks of the middle Elbe, being called the north or old mark, and forming the nucleus of the later margraviate of Brandenburg.
It consists of four great peninsulas, extending from a comparatively small nucleus towards the north-east, east, south-east and south, and separated by the three large gulfs of Tomini or Gorontalo, Tolo or Tomaiki, and Boni.
This Notch fragment is translocated to the nucleus where it interacts with DNA-binding proteins, and together they act as transcriptional activators.
annulus fibrosis) surrounding a jelly-like cent r e (nucleus pulposus ).
arcuate nucleus, or ARC.
Accurate optical astrometry would locate these peaks relative to the nucleus as defined by the radio core, and so resolve this ambiguity.
The nucleus of a hydrogen atom is a proton.
The typical helium atom consists of a nucleus of two protons and two neutrons surrounded by two electrons.
atomic nucleus has an equal positive charge.
The nucleus division technique for small incision cataract extraction.
caudate nucleus in the upper middle of the left hemisphere.
The nucleus may remain behind the iris or it may not be possible to mobilize it at all into the anterior chamber.
The condensed nucleus fragments into several small round balls of condensed chromatin.
chromosomes in the nucleus of cells.
The Golgi apparatus is usually found close to the cell nucleus and consists of one or more stacks of membrane-bound cisternae (sacs ).
comet nucleus a landing site will be chosen and in November 2014 the lander will be released.
Each cell has a central control, the nucleus surrounded by cytoplasm (Fig.
It gives access to an ample gastric pouch, covered with very evident cells, whose granular cytoplasm surrounds a clear nucleus.
cytoplasm cell membrane nucleus cell wall 7 Which structure controls what enters and leaves a cell?
Select your answer ----------------- cell wall nucleus cytoplasm cell membrane 5 Which of the following types of cell is a plant cell?
The extension to a nucleus with an axially deformed ground state is straightforward.
These often form around a nucleus of some sort, which could be a sponge skeleton or other marine detritus.
Ordinary hydrogen has only one proton in the nucleus, while the isotope deuterium has one proton + one neutron.
elucidate the mechanism of adrenal corticosteroid action from the nucleus to the plasma membrane.
Provide adequate viscoelastic material (HPMC) in front and behind the nucleus to protect the endothelium as this is an open chamber.
The nucleus division technique for small incision cataract extraction.
She is a transgenic sheep produced by transfer of the nucleus of a cultured fetal fibroblast.
Nik and Mrs fiend remain a nefarious nucleus, able to attract the finest in contributing satellites for their ravishing reverberations.
further from the nucleus.
galactic nucleus at their center.
The nucleus is is this risky opening gavel was sounded the edge of hysteria.
Nature of problem: The inelastic interaction of a high energy hadron with a nucleus is simulated.
hadron nucleus interactions are incorporated as well as vaccum polarization and finite size effects.
Theories of halo nucleus scattering often use an approximation in which the halo nucleus scattering often use an approximation in which the halo is appeared frozen during the collision.
helium nucleus - one of the products of a nuclear fission.
In the nucleus, there are globular proteins called histones, which the DNA wraps itself around.
These results indicate that disruption of the nucleus accumbens or lateral hypothalamus alter the expression of emotional behaviors.
Often, a plant intron is introduced into the code for the bacterial enzyme to enhance transport of the message from nucleus to cytoplasm.
localized in the cytoplasm in contrast to most viruses that need to enter the nucleus.
localized in the nucleus.
This picture shows an electron micrograph of a nucleus.
mitosis division of a cell nucleus which results in each daughter cell having the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell.
As for those who simply consider themselves the « nucleus » of the revolutionary party, they show a little more modesty.
moniliform nucleus of ellipsoidal beds is shown.
Of the remaining preganglionic motoneurons, roughly 20% of the total are located dorsal to the oculomotor nucleus.
neurobiology of tobacco dependence: a preclinical perspective on the role of the nucleus accumbens.
neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.
nucleocapsid proteins of viruses which replicate in the nucleus of the host cell.
The ORF3 protein also enters the cell nucleus, specifically targeting the nucleolus.
This latter feature differentiates Trichamoeba from the otherwise similar Saccamoeba which has a nucleus with a single large nucleolus.
nucleolusmore darkly staining spherical bodies called the nucleoli are found inside the nucleus.
nucleons in the required nucleus.
nucleoprotein complex is unable to cross the membrane surrounding the nucleus.
new nucleotides are constantly being made within the cell nucleus.
These electrical pulses are delivered through the extension and through the lead to the globus pallidus or subthalamic nucleus in the brain.
A proton in an atomic nucleus has an equal positive charge.
Note the red dot in the white matter just left of the caudate nucleus in the upper middle of the left hemisphere.
In 2002, they examined the region of the brain's hypothalamus containing the arcuate nucleus, or ARC.
nucleus accumbens showed a tendency to wait for the bigger reward.
nucleus pulposus is the light colored area within the annulus fibrosus.
The alpha particle is a helium nucleus - one of the products of a nuclear fission.
Theories of halo nucleus scattering often use an approximation in which the halo is appeared frozen during the collision.
The SOHO imaging shows sunlight reflecting off gas and dust from the comet's nucleus and hydrogen solar wind from the sun.
nucleus of the amygdala.
nucleus of a hydrogen atom is a proton.
nucleus of the comet is the bright center of the coma.
nucleus reasonably dark skies, a small telescope will show the nuclei of the two galaxies separated by 4.5 minutes of arc.
oocytes are essential for therapeutic cloning, a process where the oocyte nucleus would be replaced wirh a nucleus from a patient's cells.
Nucleus a cell organelle which contains the chromosomes whose genes control the structure of proteins within the cell.
Human cloning produces an embryo by fusing the nucleus of a body cell with an enucleated ovum.
It is transferred to a unfertilised human ovum which has had its original nucleus removed.
parasympathetic activity can also respond to the hypothalamus, which controls the nucleus of the solitary tract.
positron emitted from the nucleus of an atom during radioactive decay.
preganglionic motoneurons, roughly 20% of the total are located dorsal to the oculomotor nucleus.
Nuclear Label - A single cell nucleus emitting light from red and green fluorescent probes used to detect cellular abnormalities.
protons in the nucleus of an atom.
reactivatec science of fusing the cytoplasm and nucleus and reactivating the cell is very poorly understood.
replicated entirely in the cytoplasm, outside the nucleus containing the cell's own genetic material.
Now physicists in Japan have observed a so-called soft dipole resonance in such a nucleus for the first time (S Nakayama et al.
rotatee shapes are expected to occur when the nucleus is rotating at high speeds.
somatic cell to an egg whose own nucleus has been removed.
The Nucleus Micro produces a vast soundstage and pinpoint imaging, in a beautifully small, visually attractive package.
subatomic particle which circles the nucleus of the atom in a cloud.
Walter Kolch's laboratory studies signal transduction, the means by which cells communicate information about their environment to the nucleus.
Nuclear translocation - In every known clock, a key step is the translocation of a protein from the cytoplasm into the nucleus.
Within the brain stem, the signals traveling through the trigeminal nerve reach specialized clusters of neurones called the trigeminal nerve nucleus.
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