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notions

notions Sentence Examples

  • All experiments are fruitful if you don't have any preconceived notions about the results.

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  • Though he disclaims being a follower of Herbart, his formal definition of philosophy and his conception of the object of metaphysics are similar to those of Herbart, who defines philosophy as an attempt to remodel the notions given by experience.

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  • As has been said of another thinker, he was " one of those deeply religious men who, when crude theological notions are being revised and called in question seek to put new life into theology by wider and more humane ideas."

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  • The Australians believed in spirits, generally of an evil nature, and had vague notions of an after-life.

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  • The people have strict notions of etiquette and gradations of rank.

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  • are: - (1) The extensive work on the fundamental notions of physics, called Communia Naturalium, which is found in the Mazarin library at Paris, in the British Museum, and in the Bodleian and University College libraries at Oxford; (2) on the fundamental notions of mathematics, De Cornmunibus Mathematicae, part of which is in the Sloane collection, part in the Bodleian; (3) Baconis Physica, contained among the additional MSS.

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  • They made it clear that they still held a great part of the beliefs of the medieval Church, especially as represented in Augustine's writings, and repudiated the radical notions of the Anabaptists and of Zwingli.

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  • They made it clear that they still held a great part of the beliefs of the medieval Church, especially as represented in Augustine's writings, and repudiated the radical notions of the Anabaptists and of Zwingli.

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  • Likewise my compositions are made up of crude notions of my own, inlaid with the brighter thoughts and riper opinions of the authors I have read.

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  • On returning to Wittenberg, he turned to the canon law, and was shocked to find it so completely at variance with his notions of Christianity.

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  • What remains to be done is, not to explain how such a world manages to be what it is, nor how we came to form these notions, but merely this - to expel from the circle and totality of our conceptions those abstract notions which are inconsistent and jarring, or to remodel and define them so that they may constitute a consistent and harmonious view.

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  • In this endeavour Lotze discards as useless and untenable many favourite conceptions of the school, many crude notions of everyday life.

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  • Cyprian, although inspired by lofty notions of the prerogatives of the church, and inclined to severity of opinion towards heretics, and especially heretical dissentients from the belief in the divine authorship of the episcopal order and the unity of Christendom, was leniently disposed towards those who had temporarily fallen from the faith.

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  • 1 So they took their notions of strange beasts and other marvels of the visible world on trust and did their best to make them available for religious instruction.

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  • The notions of the Egyptians and the Red Sea, according to the same work (v.

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  • Carrying on the work from the anatomical point at which he had left it, correcting his errors, and utilizing to the fullest extent the observations of Keyserling and Blasius, to which reference has already been made, Muller, though hampered by mistaken notions of which he seems to have been unable to rid himself, propounded a scheme for the classification of this group, the general truth of which has been admitted by all his successors, based, as the title of his treatise expressed, on the hitherto unknown different types of the vocal organs in the Passerines.

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  • Among his chief systematic determinations we may mention that he refers the tinamous to the rails, because apparently of their deep " notches," but otherwise takes a view of that group more correct according to modern notions than did most of his contemporaries.

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  • Blanchard published some Recherches sur les caracteres osteo- logiques des oiseaux appliquees a la classification naturelle de ces animaux, strongly urging the superiority of such characters over those drawn from the bill or feet, which, he remarks, though they may have sometimes given correct notions, have mostly led to mistakes, and, if observations of habits and food have sometimes afforded happy results, they have often been deceptive; so that, should more be wanted than to draw up a mere inventory of creation or trace the distinctive outline of each species, zoology without anatomy would remain a barren study.

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  • Often the ass was a mere incident in the Feast of Fools; but sometimes he was the occasion of a special festival, ridiculous enough to modern notions, but by no means intended in an irreverent spirit.

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  • With this idea went the notions that Christianity had been diffused throughout the whole earth by the apostles, and that only what was found everywhere throughout the church could be true.

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  • a committee according to their notions of the prices that would have been realized at the close of the market had business been done.

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  • At the same time he clarified the conception of elements and compounds, rejecting the older notions, the four elements of the " vulgar Peripateticks " and the three principles of the " vulgar Stagyrists," and defining an element as a substance incapable of decomposition, and a compound as composed of two or more elements.

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  • The phlogistonists endeavoured to introduce chemical notions to support it: Becher, in his Physica subterranea (1669), stated that mineral, vegetable and animal matter contained the same elements, but that more simple combinations prevailed in the mineral kingdom; while Stahl, in his Specimen Becherianum (1702), held the " earthy " principle to predominate in the mineral class, and the " aqueous " and " combustible " in the vegetable and animal classes.

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  • But to have caught from all sides in this manner the floating notions of society and of individuals, to reflect them with such vigour and clearness, is not anybody's task.

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  • That a body carrying a positive electric charge should move against the direction of the electric intensity is contrary to all our notions of electric forces, and we are compelled to seek some other explanation.

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  • The various comparisons previously made between the structure of Limulus and the Eurypterines on the one hand, and that of a typical Arachnid, such as Scorpio, on the other, had been vitiated by erroneous notions as to the origin of the nerves supplying the anterior appendages of Limulus (which were finally removed by Alphonse Milne-Edwards in his beautiful memoir (6) on the structure of that animal), and secondly by the erroneous identification of the double sternal plates of Limulus, called " chilaria," by Owen, with a pair of appendages (7).

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  • The Code and Digest are badly arranged according to our notions of scientific arrangement.

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  • These, however, are modern notions.

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  • These and other notions cannot be here stated at sufficient length to be intelligible.

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  • Similarly Karl Hoffmann of Wiirzburg wasted his appreciations of the newer schools of developmental biology in fanciful notions of human diseases as reversions to normal stages of lower animals; scrofula being for him a reversion to the insect, rickets to the mollusc, epilepsy to the oscillaria, and so forth.

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  • As the prevalence of the conceptions signified and inspired by the word "phlogiston" kept alive ontological notions of disease, so the dissipation of vitalistic conceptions in the field of physics prepared men's minds in pathology for the new views opened by the discoveries of Pasteur on the side of pathogeny, and of J.

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  • Of the older ontological notions of disease the strongest were those of the essence of fever and of the essence of inflammation.

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  • George Scott, Burma, As it is, As it was, and As it will be (London, 1886); Shway Yoe, The Burman, His Life and Notions (2nd ed., London, 1896); D.

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  • The third division would consist of the collections of the so-called Pseudo-leges Canuti, the laws of Edward the Confessor, of Henry I., and the great compilation of the Quadripartitus, then of a number of short notices and extracts like the fragments on the "wedding of a wife," on oaths, on ordeals, on the king's peace, on rural customs (Rectitudines singularum personarum), the treatises on the reeve (gerefa) and on the judge (dema), formulae of oaths, notions as to wergeld, &c. A fourth group might be made of the charters, n as they are based on Old English private and public law and supply us with most important materials in regard to it.

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  • The substance of that knight's alleged travels in India and Cathay is stolen from Odoric, though amplified with fables from other sources and from his own invention, and garnished with his own unusually clear astronomical notions.

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  • Noteworthy is the affinity between some notions evidently not first framed by the prophet himself and the prologue to Job - the heavenly hosts that wander through the earth and bring back their report to Yahweh's throne, the figure of Satan, the idea that suffering and calamity are evidences of guilt and of accusations presented before God.

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  • Later critics, judging from their own notions of the natural course of development in art, ascribed to Daedalus such improvements as separating the legs.

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  • Clement also forbade the practice of the Jesuit missionaries in China of "accommodating" their teachings to pagan notions or customs, in order to win converts.

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  • He had the imagination that invested with personal being and ethical qualities the most abstruse notions.

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  • But his notions of what "evolution" is developed quite gradually.

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  • Gnosticism was the result of the attempt to blend with Christianity the religious notions of pagan mythology, mysterology, theosophy and philosophy" (p. 98).

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  • Their belief might be described as a polydemonism rather than a polytheism, or more correctly, to avoid altogether the intrusion of foreign notions, as a "multinuminism."

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  • In the earlier stage - whose notions of course still persist alongside of the state religion - each household has its own relations to its numina: now the state approaches the gods through its duly appointed representatives, the magistrates and priests.

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  • Astronomers denote the year which preceded the first of our era by o, and the year previous to that by 1 B.C.; but chronologers, in conformity with common notions, call the year preceding the era 1 B.C., the previous year 2 B.C., and so on.

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  • Trajan's notions of civil government were, like those of the duke of Wellington, strongly tinged with military prepossessions.

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  • Like the Arabian logicians, and some of the scholastics, who held that ideas existed in a threefold form - ante res, in rebus and post res - he laid down the principle that the archetypal ideas existed metaphysically in the ultimate unity or intelligence, physically in the world of things, and logically in signs, symbols or notions.

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  • These notions were shadows of the ideas, and the Ars Magna furnished him with a general scheme, according to which their relations and correspondences should be exhibited.

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  • It is probable that the first exact notions of quantity were founded on the consideration of number.

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  • But not every generation has the same notions of the way in which Shakespeare is best honoured.

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  • But not only is the character of the Reformation differently conceived from what it once was; our notions of the process of change are being greatly altered.

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  • The government and the leading men of letters and prelates appear therefore to have harboured no notions of revolt before the matter of the king's divorce became prominent in 1527.

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  • The soul contains the notions of being, substance, unity, identity, cause, perception, reasoning and many others which the senses cannot give.

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  • Men were not men according to Greek notions unless they were citizens; and Herodotus, aware of this, probably sharing in the feeling, was anxious, having lost his political status at Halicarnassus, to obtain such status elsewhere.

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  • He declared that Luther was in a fog, and that Christ had warned His disciples against all such notions, and had proclaimed that by faith alone could His presence be received in a feast which He designed to be commemorative and symbolical.

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  • Ideas or notions are never true, but only probable; nevertheless, there are degrees of probability, and hence degrees of belief, leading to action.

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  • Besides the works mentioned above, Marat wrote: Recherches physiques sur l'electricite, &c. (1782); Recherches sur l'electricite medicale (1783); Notions elementaires d'optique (1764); Lettres de l'observateur Bon Sens a M.

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  • The production of dates in Egypt, by bringing two kinds of flowers into contact, proves that in very remote periods some notions were entertained on the subject.

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  • The secret of the enthusiasm of the masses for the analogous expression Theotokos is to be sought not so much in the Nicene doctrine of the incarnation as in the recent growth in the popular mind of notions as to the dignity of the Virgin Mary, which were entirely unheard of (except in heretical circles) for nearly three centuries of the Christian era.

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  • While complying with the terms of the Act of Uniformity, Wallis seems always to have retained moderate and rational notions of ecclesiastical polity.

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  • The first requisite of real progress, after dogmatic prejudices had been broken through, was to get a living conception of the history in which the prophets moved; and this again called for a revision of all traditional notions as to the age of the various parts of Hebrew literature - criticism of the sources of the history, among which the prophetical books themselves take the first place.

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  • The massive old Palazzo Pretorio (13th century) has been somewhat modified in details; the adjacent Palazzo Comunale contains a small picture gallery 1 This combination of characters for many years Ied systematizers astray, though some of them were from the first correct in their notions as to the Pratincole's position.

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  • In this philosophy the mystical properties of numbers are a leading feature; absurd and mechanical notions are glossed over with the sheen of sacramental mystery; myths are explained by pious fancies and fine-sounding pietistic reflections; miracles, even the most ridiculous, are believed in, and miracles are wrought.

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  • Our direct sympathy with the agent in the circumstances in which he is placed gives rise, according to this view, to our notion of the propriety of his action, whilst our indirect sympathy with those whom his actions have benefited or injured gives rise to our notions of merit and demerit in the agent himself.

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  • There were crude medieval notions that fossils were " freaks " or " sports " of nature (lusus naturae), or that they represented failures of a creative force within the earth (a notion of Greek and Arabic origin), or that larger and smaller fossils represented the remains of races of giants or of pygmies (the mythical idea).

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  • Schelling had neither the strength of thinking nor 4-he acquired knowledge necessary to hold the balance between the abstract treatment of cosmological notions and the concrete researches of special science.

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  • Regarded merely as a criticism of the notions with which scientific interpretation proceeds, these writings have still importance and might have achieved more had they been untainted by the tendency to hasty, ill-considered, a priori anticipations of nature.

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  • When it is conscientiously obtained, it is arrived at by handi capping, more or less heavily, intrinsic probability as compared with documental probability, or by raising the minimum of probability which shall qualify a reading for admission into the text until it is in agreement with the notions of the editor.

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  • Most people take their notions of a classical book not from its traditional form but from a "received" or vulgate text.

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  • In neither, however, are they a grammatical classification of words by their structure; and in neither are they a psychological classification of notions or general conceptions (voi uara), such as they afterwards became in Kant's Critique and the post-Kantian idealism.

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  • It is impossible to overstep the limits of self-consciousness; whatever words I use, whatever notions I have, must refer to and find their meaning in facts of consciousness.

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  • The necessity and universality of the judgments of causality and substantiality are taken for granted; and there is no investigation of the place held by these notions in the mental constitution.

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  • And if so, what is the nature of the notions necessarily implied in the simplest knowledge of a thing, as distinct from mere sense feeling?

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  • That in knowing objects certain thoughts are implied which are not presentations or their copies is at times dimly seen by Berkeley himself; but he was content to propound a question with regard to those notions, and to look upon them as merely Locke's ideas of relation.

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  • Some of these young people wished to put their crude notions immediately into practice, and as their desire to make gigantic socialist experiments naturally alarmed the government, their activity was opposed by the police.

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  • To explain this great variability of spectroscopic effects we may either adopt the view that molecular aggregates of semi-stable nature may be found in vacuum tubes, or that a molecule may gain or lose one or more additional electrons and thus form new vibrating systems. It seemed that an important guide to clear our notions in this direction could be obtained through the discovery of J.

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  • In effect, therefore, Mayow - who also gives a remarkably correct anatomical description of the mechanism of respiration - preceded Priestley and Lavoisier by a century in recognizing the existence of oxygen, under the guise of his spiritus nitro-aereus, as a separate entity distinct from the general mass of the air; he perceived the part it plays in combustion and in increasing the weight of the calces of metals as compared with metals themselves; and, rejecting the common notions of his time that the use of breathing is to cool the heart, or assist the passage of the blood from the right to the left side of the heart, or merely to agitate it, he saw in inspiration a mechanism for introducing oxygen into the body, where it is consumed for the production of heat and muscular activity, and even vaguely conceived of expiration as an excretory process.

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  • As to the origin of knowledge, Kant's position is that sense, outer and inner, affected by things in themselves, receives mere sensations or sensible ideas (Vorstellungen) as the matter which sense itself places in the a priori forms of space and time; that thereupon understanding, by means of the synthetic unity of apperception, " I think " - an act of spontaneity beyond sense, in all consciousness one and the same, and combining all my ideas as mine in one universal consciousness - and under a priori categories, or fundamental notions, such as substance and attribute, cause and effect, &c., unites groups of sensations or sensible ideas into objects and events, e.g.

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  • c. As to existence, Kant's position is the wholly illogical one that, though all known things are phenomena, there are things in themselves, or noumena; things which are said to cause sensations of outer sense and to receive sensations of inner sense, though they are beyond the category of causality which is defined as one of the notions uniting phenomena; and things which are assumed to exist and have these causal attributes, though declared unknowable by any logical use of reason, because logical reason is limited by the mental matter and form of experience to phenomena; and all this according to Kant himself.

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  • He now distinguished two philosophies: negative philosophy starting from notions, and positive philosophy starting from being; the former a philosophy of conditions, the latter of causes, i.e.

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  • the panlogistic confusion of the essences of things with the notions of reason, to construct a positive philosophy without falling into fresh mysticism, which failed to exorcise the effect of his earlier philosophy of identity in the growing materialism of the age.

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  • For what does it matter to metaphysics whether by association sensations suggest ideas, and so give rise to ideas of substance and causation a posteriori, or synthetic unity of consciousness combines sensations by a priori notions of substance and causation into objects which are merely mental phenomena of experience, when it is at once allowed by the followers of Hume and Kant alike that reason in any logical use has no power of inferring things beyond the experience of the reasoner?

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  • Between Hume's a posteriori and Kant's a priori hypothesis he proposes a logical theory of the origin of notions beyond experience.

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  • He explains that the arrangement of facts requires " general supplementary notions' (Hiilfsbegrife), which are not contained in experience itself, but are gained by a process of logical treatment of this experience."

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  • Of these supplementary notions he holds that the most general is that of causality, coming from the necessity of thought that all our experiences shall be arranged according to ground and consequent.

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  • But as with Kant, so with Wundt, this world will be only the richer, not the wider, for these notions of understanding; because they are only contributed to the original experience, and, being mentally contributed, only the more surely confine knowledge to experience of mental phenomena.

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  • Reason, as in most modern psychologies and idealisms, is introduced by Wundt, after all sorts of operations, too late; and, when at length introduced, it is described as going beyond ideas and notions to " ideals " (Ideen), as an ideall continuation of series of thoughts beyond given experience - nothing more.

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  • Litigation in the yarn trade is very unusual, and Lancashire traders generally have only vague notions of the bearing of law upon their transactions, and a wholesome dread of the exp'erience that would lead to better knowledge.

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  • He continued to wait at dinner with the pages, although in a manner more dignified according to the notions of the age.

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  • At length Ishbaal lost the main prop of his tottering cause by remonstrating with Abner for marrying Rizpah, one of Saul's concubines, an alliance which, according to Oriental notions, implied pretensions to the throne (cp. 2 Sam.

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  • The second volume, published in 1756, carrying on the narrative to the Revolution, was better received than the first; but Hume then resolved to work backwards, and to show from a survey of the Tudor period that his Tory notions were grounded upon the history of the constitution.

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  • In the Treatise of Human Nature, which is in every respect the most complete exposition of Hume's philosophical conception, we have the first thorough-going attempt to apply the fundamental principles of Locke's empirical psychology to the construction of a theory of knowledge, and, as a natural consequence, the first systematic criticism of the chief metaphysical notions from this point of view.

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  • He nowhere explains the origin of the notions of unity and number, but merely asserts that through their means we can have absolutely exact arithmetical propositions (Works, i.

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  • It is a problem how to reconcile his ignorance, his weakness, his superstition, his crude notions, his erroneous observations, his ridiculous influences and theories, with his grasp of method, his lofty views of the true scope of medicine, his lucid statements, his incisive and epigrammatic criticisms of men and motives.

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  • Especially prominent is the fact that polymerism and metamerism are mainly reserved to the domain of organic chemistry, or the chemistry of carbon, both being discovered there; and, more especially, the phenomenon of metamerism in organic chemistry has largely developed our notions concerning the structure of matter.

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  • The conception of metamerism, or isomerism in restricted sense, has been of the highest value for the development of our notions concerning molecular structure, i.e.

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  • In this article we shall confine ourselves to the fatty compounds, from which the fundamental notions were first obtained; reference may be made to the article Chemistry: Organic, for the general structural relations of organic compounds, both fatty and aromatic.

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  • As the election of any cardinal seemed impossible, on the 5th of July 1294 the Sacred College united on Pietro di Morrone; the cardinals expected to rule in the name of the celebrated but incapable ascetic. Apocalyptic notions then current doubtless aided his election, for Joachim of Floris and his school looked to monasticism to furnish deliverance to the church and to the world.

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  • Macaulay's description of Whitgift as "a narrow, mean, tyrannical priest, who gained power by servility and adulation," is tinged with rhetorical exaggeraticn; but undoubtedly Whitgift's extreme High Church notions led him to treat the Puritans with exceptional intolerance.

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  • Joseph Thomson, in his journey through the Masai country in 1883, was the first white man to see the lake and to correct the exaggerated notions as to its size.

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  • But it is the duty of the individual to his possible offspring, and not any vague notions as to the pressure of the national population on subsistence, that will be adequate to influence conduct.

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  • The facts that he used to walk with Bacon at Gorhambury, and would jot down with exceptional intelligence the eager thinker's sudden " notions," and that he was employed to make the Latin version of some of the Essays, prove nothing when weighed against his own disregard of all Bacon's principles, and the other evidence that the impulse to independent thinking came to him not from Bacon, and not till some time after Bacon's death in 1626.1 So far as we have any positive evidence, it was not before the year 1629 that Hobbes entered on philosophical inquiry.

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  • Jung invented or gave precision to many technical terms which Ray and others at once made use of in their descriptions, and which are now classical; and his notions of what constitutes a specific distinction and what characters are valueless as such seem to have been adopted with little change by Ray.

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  • One section, giving us some of the mysteries of the physician, shows how lamentably crude were his notions of the constitution of the body.

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  • Moreover, since the "real" is the object of the "true," and can be distinguished from the "unreal" only by developing superior value in the process of cognition which arrives at it, the notions of "reality" and "fact" also turn out to be disguised forms of value.

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  • The land was not denuded, and the fact that " some scores of thousands of Jews remained in Judah through all the period of the exile," 3 even though they were " the poorest of the land," revolutionizes ordinary notions of this period.

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  • It is the adaptation of the prophets' conceptions of Yahweh to old religious ideas, the building up of new conceptions upon an old basis, a fusion " between old heathen notions and prophetic ideas," and " this fusion is characteristic of the entire priestly law."

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  • With the increased facilities for European travel Filipinos began to visit Europe and return with new and broader notions of life.

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  • Both circumstances, according to the then prevailing notions, made them unfit for the imamate.

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  • They despised tradition and Old World ways and notions; and they accepted the Jeffersonian dogmas, not only as maxims, but as social forces - the causes of the material prosperity of the country.

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  • In the 18th century the influences at work in the American colonies developed democratic notions.

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  • When he went into office he had no political opinions, only some popular notions.

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  • This notion of the influence of the tenement is well adapted to feudal notions and makes itself felt again in the case of the pursuit of a fugitive villein.

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  • Judgment is consciousness of the identity or difference and of the causal relations of the given; naming the actual combinations of the data, but also requiring a priori categories of the understanding, the notions of identity, difference and causality, as principles of thought or laws, to combine the plurality of the given into a unity (Schuppe).

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  • It requires nothing beyond the sensation and belief in the given existence of the given pressure: not all judgment then requires categories of understanding, or notions of identity, difference and causality, or even of existence, such as Schuppe supposes.

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  • But whether Kant be right or wrong, Wundt and his school are decidedly wrong in supposing " supplementary notions which are not contained in experience itself, but are gained by a process of logical treatment of this experience "; as if our behalf in causality could be neither a posteriori nor a priori, but beyond experience wake up in a hypothetical major premise of induction.

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  • Common names are fitted for use by the wouldbe users being first delivered from abortive conceptions, and thereupon enabled to bring to the birth living and organic notions.

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  • Berkeley, though at length the notions of spirits, acts and relations 6 give him pause, prefers the formula which Hume expresses in the phrase that " some ideas are particular in their nature but general in their representation," 7 and the afterhistory of " abstraction " is a discussion of the conditions under which one idea " stands for " a group. Not from those for whom general ideas mean schematic concepts, not imageable.

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  • So he explains " concepts or general notions " 1 by an abstraction which he represents as a sort of alt-relief operated by attention and fixed by naming, association with the name giving to a set of attributes a unity they otherwise lack.

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  • Hegel's treatment of the categories or thought determinations which arise in the development of the immanent dialectic is rich in flashes of insight, but most of them are in the ordinary but to make explicit those justificatory notions which condition the form of our apprehension.

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  • The sense in which the presupposition of a further reference is to be interpreted and in which justificatory notions for it can be adduced is only determinable in a philosophic system as a whole, where feeling has a place as well as thought, value equally with validity.

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  • In good citizenship morality is practised out of regard to certain preconceived notions of the needs, the health and happiness of ourselves, our fellows and the community at large.

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  • According to theosophy, it would appear that these notions are for the most part mistaken, or at any rate they are quite insignificant in comparison with the interests with which the traveller along the Path soon finds himself absorbed.

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  • The notions of the penumbra and umbra are important in considering eclipses (q.v.).

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  • Primitive man seldom connects sacrifice with notions of propitiation, indeed only in highly ethicized religions is the consciousness of sin or of guilt pre-eminent.

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  • Similar notions present in the ethnic faiths take the Christian facts into their service, the belief of the multitude without essential change remaining vague and undefined.

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  • The most complete and elaborate experiments are those of Morin, published in his Notions fondamentales de mcanique, and republished in Britain iii the works of Moseley and Gordon.

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  • The earliest mention of the name of Homer is found in a fragment of the philosopher Xenophanes (of the 6th century B.e., or possibly earlier), who complains of the false notions implanted through the teaching of Homer.

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  • The splendid patronage of letters by the successors of Alexander, and especially the great institutions which had been founded at Alexandria and Pergamum, had made an impression on the imagination of learned men which was reflected in the current notions of the ancient despots.

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  • a community already strongly imbued with pantheistic notions; yet, at best, that creed could only appeal to the sympathies of a comparatively limited portion of the people.

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  • They were to be left for all time coming to their own traditional idolatrous notions and practices.

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  • That the transmigration theory, which makes the spirit of the departed hover about for a time in quest of a new corporeal abode, would naturally lend itself to superstitious notions of this kind can scarcely be doubted.

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  • It is not improbable, therefore, that the fall in wholesale prices which, with temporary interruptions, persisted between 1870 and 1900, in general harmony with the other movement, may have conduced to reluctance on the part of those who have enlarged their notions of the standard of comfort to endanger their prospects of enjoying it by incurring the additional expenses of family life.

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  • The middle ages had been satisfied with absurd and visionary notions about the world around them, while the body of man was regarded with too much suspicion to be studied.

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  • Although Grattan had a profound contempt for Emmet's political understanding, describing him as a quack in politics who set up his own crude notions as settled rules, Emmet was among the more prudent of the United Irishmen on the eve of the rebellion.

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  • de C. du Fay on the conductivity of some bodies for the electric agency and the dual character of electrification gave rise to the first notions of ., electricity as an imponderable fluid, or non-gravitative subtile matter, of a more refined and penetrating kind than ordinary liquids and gases.

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  • 3 Man's sovereignty over nature, which is founded on knowledge alone, had been lost, and instead of the free relation between things and the human mind, there was nothing but vain notions and blind experiments.

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  • Philosophy is altogether practical; it is of little matter to the fortunes of humanity what abstract notions one may entertain concerning the nature and the principles of things.'

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  • 39)1 false notions of things, or erroneous ways of looking at nature, are of four kinds: the first two innate, pertaining to the very nature of the mind and not to be eradicated; the third creeping insensibly into men's minds, and hence in a sense innate and inseparable; the fourth imposed from without.

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  • The philosophies which are " redargued " are divided into three classes, the sophistical, of which the best example is Aristotle, who, according to Bacon, forces nature into his abstract schemata and thinks to explain by definitions; the empirical, which from few and limited experiments leaps at once to general conclusions; and the superstitious, which corrupts philosophy by the introduction of poetical and theological notions.

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  • This fruitful conception, however, Bacon does not work out; and though he uses the word cause, and identifies form with formal cause, yet it is perfectly apparent that the modern notions of cause as dynamical, and of nature as in a process of flow or development, are foreign to him, and that in his view of the ultimate problem of science, cause meant causa immanens, or underlying substance, effects were not consequents but manifestations, and nature was regarded in a purely statical aspect.

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  • It is compelled to accept its first principles on trust from the science in which it is employed; it cannot cope with the subtlety of nature; and it is radically vitiated by being founded on hastily and inaccurately abstracted notions of things.

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  • For a syllogism consists of propositions, propositions of words, and words are the symbols of notions.

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  • Notions were formed carefully, and not till after a certain process of induction was completed. ?

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  • And this induction must be used not only to discover axioms, but also in the formation of notions."

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  • Secondly, notions are all drawn from the impressions of the sense, and are indefinite and confused, whereas they should be definite and distinctly bounded.

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  • It is evident that if the tables were complete, and our notions of the respective phenomena clear, the process of exclusion would be a merely mechanical counting out, and would infallibly lead to the detection of the cause or form.

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  • It is the flux of matter and the inconstanc y of the physical body which requires induction, that thereby it may be fixed as it were, and allow the formation of notions well defined.

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  • In physics you wisely note, and therein I agree with you, that after the notions of the first class and the axioms concerning them have been by induction well made out and defined, syllogism may be applied safely; only it must be restrained from leaping at once to the most general notions, and progress must be made through a fit succession of steps."

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  • Their notions stick fast because there are no competing notions to dislodge them.

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  • Derived from the verb ma, " to stretch out," her name denoted the ideas of right and rule, and covered the notions of order, law, justice and truth, which remained steadfast and unalterable.

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  • His enthusiasm for the natural sciences may have been the only ground for the reputation he had acquired of instilling atheistic notions into the minds of his pupils along with the Latin which he taught them.

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  • So far as any trustworthy evidence is available, such Hellenic notions as are presupposed in this epistle might well have been intelligible to the Galatians of the northern provinces.

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  • They not only endeavoured to protect and guide the natives beyond the colonial border, but among the Hottentots within the colony they instilled notions of antipathy to the white farmers, and withdrew large numbers of them from agricultural pursuits.

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  • For three generations they remained Hindus; since then there has arisen amongst them a strange new sect called Zikari, with exceedingly loose notions of morality.

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  • His services to morals do not consist in any positive contributions to the notions of active duty, but in the strength with which he has realized and expressed the restraining influence of the old Roman and Italian ideal of character, and also of that religious conscience which was becoming a new power in the world.

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  • Like all materialists, the Stoics can only distinguish the sensible from the intelligible as Degrees of thinking when the external object is present (alrOfivEr6at) and thinking when it is absent The product of the latter kind includes memory (though this is, upon a strict analysis, something intermediate), and conceptions or general notions, under which were confusedly classed the products of the imaginative faculty.

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  • Such vague notions began to take more definite shape as the ferment theory of Cagniard de la Tour (1828), Schwann (1837) and Pasteur made way, especially in the hands of the last-named savant.

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  • He assumes that the narrative was meant ethically, not physically, in order to eliminate false and polytheistic notions; and he draws attention to that double narrative in Genesis which was elsewhere to be so fruitfully handled.

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  • He set little store on the theology of those who in a system of dry and barren notions "pay handsome compliments to the Deity," "remove providence," "explode devotion," and leave but "little of zeal, affection, or warmth in what they call rational religion."

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  • Whisky, groceries, prints and notions were staples sent to Santa Fe; wool, buffalo robes and dried buffalo meat, Mexican silver coin, gold and silver dust and ore came in return.

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  • In this picture, which shows the crudeness of the zoological notions current in the 18th century as to both men and apes, there are set in a row four figures: (a) a recognizable orang-utan, sitting and holding a staff; (b) a chimpanzee, absurdly humanized as to head, hands, and feet; (c) a hairy woman, with a tail a foot long; (d) another woman, more completely coated with hair.

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  • and he there composed the treatises on which his reputation as a philosophical theologian chiefly rests, the essay on Original Sin, the Dissertation concerning the Nature of True Virtue, the Dissertation concerning the End for which God created the World, and the great work on the Will, written in four months and a half, and published in 1754 under the title, An Inquiry into the Modern Prevailing Notions Respecting that Freedom of the Will which is supposed to be Essential to Moral Agency.

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  • Moreover, every statement of fact involves certain general notions and theories, so that the "facts" of the separate sciences cannot be stated except in terms of the conceptions or hypotheses which are assumed by the particular science.

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  • But Bunyan's notions of good and evil had been learned in a very different school; and he was made miserable by the conflict between his tastes and his scruples.

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  • Bazard, a man of logical and more solid temperament, could no longer work in harmony with Enfantin, who desired to establish an arrogant and fantastic sacerdotalism with lax notions as to marriage and the relation of the sexes.

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  • By the middle of February Newton had sent his paper to Aston, one of the secretaries of the Society, and in a letter to Aston dated the 23rd of February 1685, we find Newton thanking him for " having entered on the register his notions about motion."

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  • By his method of observation and induction as thus explained, his philosophy will be found to be marked off very clearly, on the one hand from the deductive construction of notions of an absolute system, as represented either by Schelling or Hegel, which Cousin regards as based simply on hypothesis and abstraction, illegitimately obtained; and on the other, from that of Kant, and in a sense, of Sir W.

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  • Causality cannot add to the number of our notions, - cannot add to the number of realities we know.

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  • To Joseph Trapp's attack on the Methodists he published in 1739 A Preservative against Unsettled Notions, in which the clergy of the Church of England were denounced with some bitterness; he also published shortly afterwards The Spirit and Doctrine and Lives of our Modern Clergy, and a reply to a pastoral letter of the bishop of London in which he had been attacked.

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  • To the same class belong the treatise To Ablavius, against the tritheists; On Faith, against the Arians; On Common Notions, in explanation of the terms in current employment with regard to the Trinity; Ten Syllogisms, against the Manichaeans; To Theophilus, against the Apollinarians; an Antirrhetic against the same; Against Fate, a disputation with a heathen philosopher; De anima et resurrectione, a dialogue with his dying sister Macrina; and the Oratio catechetica magna, an argument for the incarnation as the best possible form of redemption, intended to convince educated pagans and Jews.

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  • The notions of distance and of lines at right angles are connected with the circular points; and almost every construction of a curve by means of lines of a determinate length, or at right angles to each other, and (as such) mechanical constructions by means of linkwork, give rise to curves passing the same definite number of times through the two circular points respectively, or say to circular curves, and in which the fixed centres of the construction present themselves as ordinary, or as singular, foci.

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  • In 1839 he produced a small work called First Notions of Logic, giving what he had found by experience to be much wanted by students commencing with [[Euclid]].

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  • This contains a reprint of the First Notions, an elaborate development of his doctrine of the syllogism, and of the numerical definite syllogism, together with chapters of great interest on probability, induction, old logical terms and fallacies.

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  • The nature of the dream, in which the elder Scipio appears to his (adopted) grandson, and describes the life of the good after death and the constitution of the universe from the Stoic point of view, gives occasion for Macrobius to discourse upon many points of physics in a series of essays interesting as showing the astronomical notions then current.

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  • The uneducated mass of mankind, he complains, either " seldom reason at all," or " put passion in the place of reason," or " for want of large, sound, round-about sense " they direct their minds only to one part of the evidence, "converse with one sort of men, read but one sort of books, and will not come in the hearing of but one sort of notions, and so carve out to themselves a little Goshen in the intellectual world, where light shines, and, as they conclude, day blesses them; but the rest of the vast expansion they give up to night and darkness, and avoid coming near it."

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  • These excellent novels were, however, succeeded by one very inferior, The Wept of Wish-ton-Wish (1829); by The Notions of a Travelling Bachelor (1828), an uninteresting book; and by The Waterwitch (1830), one of the poorest of his many sea-stories.

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  • Hence, whatever influence the Pythagorean blending of ethical and mathematical notions may have had on Plato, and, through him, on later thought, we cannot regard the school as having really forestalled the Socratic inquiry after a completely reasoned theory of conduct.

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  • This hedonism has perplexed Plato's readers needlessly (as we have said in speaking of the Cyrenaics), inasmuch as hedonism is the most obvious corollary of the Socratic doctrine that the different common notions of good - the beautiful, the pleasant and the useful - were to be somehow interpreted by each other.

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  • But this must be no less true of other objects of thought and discourse; the same relation of general notions to particular examples extends through the whole physical universe; we can think and talk of it only by means of such notions.

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  • Plato, therefore, took this vast stride of thought, and identified the ultimate notions of ethics and ontology.

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  • p p p Although the Socratic induction forms a striking feature of Plato's dialogues, his ideal method of ethics is purely deductive; he admits common sense only as supplying provisional steps and starting-points from which the mind is to ascend to knowledge of absolute good, through which knowledge alone, as he conceives, the lower notions of particular goods are to be truly conceived.

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  • The most important element, then, of well-being or good life for ordinary men Aristotle holds to consist in well-doing as determined by the notions of the different moral excellences.

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  • The two comprehensive notions of Wisdom and Justice (StKato- (fuvm) he treats separately.

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  • The abundant store of just and close analytical observation contained in Aristotle's account of these notions give it a permanent interest, even beyond its historical value as a delineation of the Greek ideal of " fair and good " life.

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  • 2 Aristotle follows Plato and Socrates in identifying the notions of KaXos (" fair," " beautiful ") and ayaBor ("good") in their application to conduct.

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  • Its demands were met by the Stoic school which separated the moral from the worldly view of life, with an absoluteness and definiteness that caught the imagination; which regarded practical goodness as the highest manifestation of its ideal of wisdom; and which bound the common notions of duty into an apparently coherent system, by a formula that comprehended the whole of human life, and exhibited its relation to the ordered process of the universe.

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  • Of these notions the former has a somewhat complex ethical import; it seems to blend several elements differently prominent in different minds.

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  • By Justin and other apologists the need of redemption, faith, grace is indeed recognized, but the theological system depending on these notions is not sufficiently developed 1 to come into even apparent antagonism with the freedom of the will.

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  • These latter notions show plainly, what indeed might be inferred from a study of the list as a whole, that it represents the moral experience of the monastic life, which for some centuries was more and more unquestioningly regarded as in a peculiar sense " religious."

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  • Firstly, his conception of " right " and " wrong " as " single ideas " incapable of definition or analysis - the notions " right," " fit," " ought," " duty," " obligation," being coincident or identical - at least avoids the confusions into which Clarke and Wollaston had been led by pressing the analogy between ethical and physical truth.

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  • this a source not merely of feelings or notions, but of " ultimate truths."

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  • In Fichte's system the connexion of ethics and metaphysics is still more intimate; indeed, we may compare it in this respect to Platonism; as Plato blends the most fundamental notions of each of these studies in the one idea of good, so Fichte blends them in the one idea free-will.

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  • The reader who will trace out these successive concepts and study the results of his changing positions will readily acquire the notions which it is our subject to define.

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  • From them the Greeks derived their first notions of astronomy.

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  • Among other notions which they had imbibed was that of a sleep of the soul after death.

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  • This the citizens were summoned, in parties of ten each, to profess and swear to as the confession of their faith - a process which, though not in accordance with modern notions of the best way of establishing men in the faith, was gone through, Calvin tells us, "with much satisfaction."

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  • For while he maintains constantly his favourite maxim "that there is nothing in the intellect which has not been in the senses" (nihil in intellectu quod non pries fuerit in sensu), while he contends that the imaginative faculty (phantasia) is the counterpart of sense - that, as it has to do with material images, it is itself, like sense, material, and essentially the same both in men and brutes; he at the same time admits that the intellect, which he affirms to be immaterial and immortal - the most characteristic distinction of humanity - attains notions and truths of which no effort of sensation or imagination can give us the slightest apprehension (Op. ii..383).

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  • He instances the capacity of forming "general notions"; the very conception of universality itself (ib.

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  • He holds that the true method of research is the analytic, rising from lower to higher notions; yet he sees clearly, and admits, that inductive reasoning, as conceived by Bacon, rests on a general proposition not itself proved by induction.

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  • The whole doctrine of judgment, syllogism and method is a mixture of Aristotelian and Ramist notions.

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  • The Irish, however, possessed some more or less definite notions about an abode of everlasting youth and peace inhabited by fairies.

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  • The ancient Irish never got beyond very primitive notions of justice.

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  • Even religion is affected by these irrational notions, and the gods of savages and of many civilized peoples are worshipped with cruel, obscene, and irrational rites.

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  • First (as Arnobius and Eusebius reminded their heathen opponents), the allegorical explanations are purely arbitrary, depend upon the fancy of their author, and are all equally plausible and equally unsupported by evidence.6 Secondly, there is no proof at all that, in the distant age when the myths were developed, men entertained the moral notions and physical philosophies which are supposed to be " wrapped up, " as Cicero says, " in impious fables."

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  • Our evidence for the intellectual ideas of man in the period of savagery we derive partly from the reports of voyagers, historians, missionaries, partly from an examination of the customs, institutions, and laws in which the lower races gave expression to their notions.

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  • Discarding these obscure and misleading notions, Galileo taught that gravity and levity are relative terms, and that all bodies are heavy, even those which, like the air, are invisible; that motion is the result of force, instantaneous or continuous; that weight is a continuous force, attracting towards the centre of the earth; that, in a vacuum, all bodies would fall with equal velocities; that the "inertia of matter" implies the continuance of motion, as well as the permanence of rest; and;:that the substance of the heavenly bodies is equally "corruptible" with that of the earth.

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  • The people having to do with horses at that time were as conservative in their notions as most of the grooms are now, and the " Markham Arabian " was not at all approved of.

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  • In 1805 he was elected to succeed John Playfair in the chair of mathematics at Edinburgh, not, however, without violent though unsuccessful opposition on the part of a narrow-minded clerical party who accused him of heresy in something he had said as to the "unsophisticated notions of mankind" about the relation of cause and effect.

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  • The common notions of the devil as black, ill-favoured, malicious, destructive and the like, have occasioned the application of the term to certain animals (the Tasmanian devil, the devil-fish, the coot), to mechanical contrivances (for tearing up cloth or separating wool), to pungent, highly seasoned dishes, broiled or fried.

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  • Hence Connecticut became known as the " Land of Yankee Notions "; and small wares are still manufactured, the patents granted to inventors in one city ranging from bottle-top handles, bread toasters and lamp holders, to head-rests for church pews and scissors-sharpeners.

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  • The following introduce the notions and principles characteristic of the critical philosophy.

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  • It takes up into itself what had characterized the previous efforts of modern thought, shows the imperfect nature of the fundamental notions therein employed, and offers a new solution of the problems to which these notions had been applied.

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  • In the early writings of Kant we are able to trace with great definiteness the successive stages through which he passed from the notions of the preceding philosophy to the new and comprehensive method which gives its special character to the critical work.

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  • That Locke was unable to reconcile these opposed notions is not surprising; that the difficulties and obscurities of the Essay arise from the impossibility of reconciling them is evident on the slightest consideration of the main positions of that work.

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  • If the real system of things, to which conscious experience has reference, be regarded as standing in casual relation to this experience there is no conceivable ground for the extension to reality of the notions which somehow are involved in thought.

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  • Sense and understanding, real connexion of facts and analysis of notions, are not, therefore, distinct in kind, but differ only in degree.

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  • In respect to them, the final result was found in a series of irreducible notions or categories, the prima possibilia, the analysis and elucidation of which was specifically the business of philosophy or metaphysics.

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  • What is the nature of the distinction between knowledge gained by analysis of notions and knowledge of matters of fact?

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  • In the Essay on Negative Quantities, the fundamental thought is the total distinction in kind between logical opposition (the contradictoriness of notions, which Kant always viewed as formed, definite products of thought) and real opposition.

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  • It follows from them that the relation of a real ground to that which is thereby posited or denied cannot be expressed by a judgment but only by means of a notion, which by analysis may certainly be reduced to yet simpler notions of real grounds, but yet in such a way that the final resort of all our cognition in this regard must be found in simple and irreducible notions of real grounds, the relation of which to their consequents cannot be made clear."

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  • He is here at the point at which he remained for many years, accepting without any criticism certain fundamental notions as required for real cognition.

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  • His ideal of metaphysic is still that of complete analysis of given notions.

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  • No glimmering of the further question, Whence come these notions and with what right do we apply them in cognition?

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  • Mathematics, Kant thinks, proceeds synthetically, for in it the notions are constructed.

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  • Metaphysics, on the other hand, is analytical in method; in it the notions are given, and by analysis they are cleared up. It is to be observed that the description of mathematics as synthetic is not an anticipation of the critical doctrine on the same subject.

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  • In the curious essay, Dreams of a Clairvoyant, published 1766, he emphasizes his previously reached conclusion that connexions of real fact are mediated in our thought by ultimate notions, but adds that the significance and warrant for such notions can be furnished only by experience.

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  • He is inclined, therefore, to regard as the function of metaphysics the complete statement of these ultimate, indemonstrable notions, and therefore the determination of the limits to knowledge by their means.

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  • He still appears to think that experience does warrant the employment of such notions, and when there is taken into account his correspondence with Lambert during the next few years, one would be inclined to say that the Architektonik of the latter represents most completely Kant's idea of philosophy.

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  • Much more important is the real use, by which are produced the pure notions whereby we think things as they are.

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  • These pure notions are the laws of the operation of the intellect; they are leges intellectus.

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  • That the pure intellectual notions should be defended as springing from the nature of intellect is not out of harmony with the statement of the Treiume eines Geistersehers, for there the pure notions were allowed to exist, but were not held to have validity for actual things except on grounds of experience.

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  • The doctrine of space and time as forms of sense-perception, the reference of both space and time and the pure intellectual notions to the laws of the activity of mind itself, the distinction between sense and understanding as one of kind, not of degree, with the correlative distinction between phenomena and noumena, - all of these reappear, though changed and modified, in the Kritik.

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  • Those notions, according to the Dissertation, had no function save in relation to things-in-themselves, i.e.

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  • In his previous essays, Kant, while likewise maintaining that such pure, irreducible notions existed, had asserted in general terms that they applied to experience, and that their applicability or justification rested on experience itself, but had not raised the question as to the ground of such justification.

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  • Now, from another side, the supreme difficulty was presented - how could such notions have application to any objects whatsoever?

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  • But a priori notions, did they exist, could have no claim to regulate experience.

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  • Kant insists upon treating these as Begriffe, notions, and assigns to them certain characteristics of notions.

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  • These universal forms of perception, space and time, are necessary, a priori, and in characteristic features resembling intuitions, not notions.

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  • At the foundation of the judgments which express the types of synthetic combination, through which knowledge is possible, lie the pure general notions, the abstract aspect of the conditions under which objects are cognizable in experience.

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  • Formal logic thus yields to Kant the list of the general notions, pure intellectual predicates, or categories, through which alone experience is possible for a conscious subject.

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  • It has already been noted how serious was the error involved in the description of these as notions, without further attempt to clear up their precise significance.

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  • Kant, indeed, was mainly influenced by his strong opposition to the Leibnitzian rationalism, and therefore assigns the categories to understanding, the logical faculty, without consideration of the question, - which might have been suggested by the previous statements of the Dissertation, - what relation these categories held to the empirical notions formed by comparison, abstraction and generalization when directed upon representations of objects.

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  • But when the categories are described as notions, i.e.

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  • formed products of thought, there rises of necessity the problem which had presented itself to Kant at every stage of his pre-critical thinking, - with what right can we assume that these notions apply to objects of experience?

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  • It is to be observed that Kant in the expression of these analogies reaches the final solution of the difficulty which had so long pressed upon him, the difficulty as to the relation of the pure connective notions to experience.

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  • These notions are not directly applicable to experience, nor do we find in experience anything corresponding to the pure intellectual notions of substance, cause and reciprocity.

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  • But experience is for us the combination of data of sense in the forms of productive imagination, forms determined by the pure intellectual notions, and accordingly experience is possible for us only as in modes corresponding to the notions.

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  • Throughout the positive portion of his theory of cognition, Kant has been beset by the doctrine that the categories, as finished, complete notions, have an import or significance transcending the bounds of possible experience.

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  • But in such effort there are no notions to be employed other than the categories, and these, as has already been seen, have validity only in reference to objects of possible experience.

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  • They have not, therefore, like the categories, any constitutive value, and all attempts at metaphysical construction with the notions or categories of science must be resigned as of necessity hopeless.

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  • Thus reason as self-determining supplies notions of freedom; reason as determined supplies categories of understanding.

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  • All experiments are fruitful if you don't have any preconceived notions about the results.

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  • The Art of Hunger undermines and illuminates our accepted notions about literature and throws an unprecendented light on Auster's own richly allusive writings.

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  • As Gramsci also noted, what people often call ' common sense ' is the unquestioning acceptance of these notions.

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  • The notions of ' self ' and ' mental automatism ' in nineteenth-century French and German psychopathology C. T. Walker, CAI.

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  • However, this seemingly benign improvement to local parking has, to my mind, highlighted a central contradiction in Enlightenment notions of progress.

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  • chimerical notions made her happy, and the cold naked truth would doubtless have made her unhappy.

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  • Reay suggests that it embodied notions of cerebral lechery and the ideal of male continence that was characteristic of Munby's age and class.

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  • detritus of modern society Wayne Chisnall uses found objects to question our value systems and to challenge accepted notions of esthetics.

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  • I think your idealized notions of aid delivery " monitored for both inputs, process and results " will be soon disabused.

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  • dismissed all horror-film notions of vodou.

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  • Otherwise, and as we are seeing, divisive notions result which can unnecessarily cause disunity and segregation in society.

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  • elitist notions.

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  • Perhaps a better translation, without our deeply entrenched notions, would be ' count ' .

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  • entwined with contemporary notions of beauty, acceptance and body-image.

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  • fanciful notions.

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  • These matched the odd notions going around in the more academic atmosphere of the medical fraternity in Alabama.

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  • Despite the assumed gender equality, however, Soviet notions of private and public were not only constantly changing but also highly gendered.

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  • From an atheistic humanist 's point of view all these notions of God are myths.

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  • idealistic notions can come back down to earth.

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  • The work investigates the notions of beauty with the wig being excessive to the point the wearer becomes almost immobile.

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  • How does this localisation relate to the notions of cultural and media imperialism?

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  • interrogates several established notions: What are the limits of the human body?

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  • The link between school and church also challenges parents who may have preconceived notions about what church liturgy is like.

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  • And some of the notions Dawkins advances are just loopy.

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  • Yet it still suited Chinese notions of self-esteem to perpetuate the myth of their own supremacy, and to picture barbarians as hairy monsters.

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  • achieving open ness or high levels of flexibility present difficulties because both notions turn current educational assumptions upside down.

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  • notions of citizenship.

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  • notions of equivalence.

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  • notions of identity?

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  • notions of rationality.

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  • We will not go into this with ironclad, preconceived notions.

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  • From roadside glimpses so far, I'd dismissed all horror-film notions of vodou.

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  • They built on kids ' naïve notions of biology in just the way that psychologists would say you should do.

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  • outdated notions of ' childhood '?

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  • outmoded notions of training will no longer cut it!

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  • To be able to analyze an algorithm and detect parallelism using notions of data dependency.

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  • He loathed the bourgeois notions of acceptable sexuality and sexual behavior, and in particular the tradition of female passivity.

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  • This is an unashamedly Populist book, written to bring his notions of the digital revolution to a mass audience.

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  • This symbolic role functioned relative to notions of social organization, delineating or invoking the fundamental limits of social praxis.

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  • realist notions of physiological need or innate desire.

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  • refute such scary sci-fi notions.

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  • rethink established notions of security.

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  • stereotypical notions: It was difficult for women to get jobs.

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  • In the following senses subdivision according to the notions of position or motion has not been attempted.

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  • suggested that these notions may be less than clear and obvious, when we begin to examine them.

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  • Their starting point was traditional graffiti with its notions of rebellion, outsider identity and urban tribalism.

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  • The case of Yugoslavia should encourage us to redefine our traditional notions of language and language typology.

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  • Traditionally, cosmopolitanism is associated with rather Utopian notions of world citizenship or universal brotherhood.

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  • Language has crystallized them into certain definite notions and expressions, without which we cannot proceed a single step, but which we have accepted without knowing their exact meaning, much less their origin.

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  • The object of his metaphysics is so to remodel the current notions regarding the existence of things and their connexions with which the usage of language supplies us as to make them consistent and thinkable.

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  • The further assumption, that the modified notions thus gained have an objective meaning, and that they somehow correspond to the real order of the existing world which of course they can never actually describe, depends upon a general confidence which we must have in our reasoning powers, and in the significance of a world in which we ourselves with all the necessary courses of our thoughts have a due place assigned.

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  • The principle therefore of these investigations is opposed to two attempts frequently repeated in the history of philosophy, viz.: (1) the attempt to establish general laws or forms, which the development of things must have obeyed, or which a Creator must have followed in the creation of a world (Hegel); and (2) the attempt to trace the genesis of our notions and decide as to their meaning and value (modern theories of knowledge).

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  • The world of many things surrounds us; our notions, by which we manage correctly or incorrectly to describe it, are also ready made.

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  • What remains to be done is, not to explain how such a world manages to be what it is, nor how we came to form these notions, but merely this - to expel from the circle and totality of our conceptions those abstract notions which are inconsistent and jarring, or to remodel and define them so that they may constitute a consistent and harmonious view.

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  • In this endeavour Lotze discards as useless and untenable many favourite conceptions of the school, many crude notions of everyday life.

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  • Though he disclaims being a follower of Herbart, his formal definition of philosophy and his conception of the object of metaphysics are similar to those of Herbart, who defines philosophy as an attempt to remodel the notions given by experience.

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  • This conviction of the emptiness of terms and abstract notions, and of the fulness of individual life, has enabled Lotze to combine in his writings the two courses into which German philosophical thought had been moving since the death of its great founder, Leibnitz.

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  • As has been said of another thinker, he was " one of those deeply religious men who, when crude theological notions are being revised and called in question seek to put new life into theology by wider and more humane ideas."

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  • The Australians believed in spirits, generally of an evil nature, and had vague notions of an after-life.

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  • - We, with our stereotyped modern notions of the grouping of voices, may get some idea of the freedom of the 16thcentury composers' imagination by noting that the four-part movements for semi-chorus or solo voices in Palestrina's Masses present us with no fewer than seventeen different combinations of voices, and that of these the familiar group of soprano, alto, tenor and bass is not the most common, though it is invariable as that used for entire four-part Masses.

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  • Their appointment, according to notions which defined themselves within the church at this epoch, was simoniacal; and during the long minority of Henry IV., who succeeded his father in 1056, the terrible Tuscan monk, Hildebrand of Soana, forged weapons which he used with deadly effect against the presumption of the empire.

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  • Poverty of expression is apt to cloak the real spirit of primitive prayer, and the formula under which its aspirations may be summed up, namely, "Blessings come, evils go," covers all sorts of confused notions about a grace to be acquired and an impurity to be wiped away, which, as far back as our clues take us, invite interpretations of a decidedly spiritualistic and ethical order.

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  • Matveyev, the most influential of the boyars, had married a foreigner who conversed freely with her husband's male friends, contrary to the Muscovite notions of respectability and decorum, and his house, in which the tsar was a frequent visitor, was furnished and decorated in foreign fashion.

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  • Cyprian, although inspired by lofty notions of the prerogatives of the church, and inclined to severity of opinion towards heretics, and especially heretical dissentients from the belief in the divine authorship of the episcopal order and the unity of Christendom, was leniently disposed towards those who had temporarily fallen from the faith.

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  • 1 So they took their notions of strange beasts and other marvels of the visible world on trust and did their best to make them available for religious instruction.

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  • This conclusion may startle us with our generally received notions of the whole nation as exiled.

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  • The people have strict notions of etiquette and gradations of rank.

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  • The notions of the Egyptians and the Red Sea, according to the same work (v.

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  • Bird), but then included, with many others, according to the irrational, vague and rudimentary notions of classification of the time, in what was termed the family " Muscicapinae."

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  • Carrying on the work from the anatomical point at which he had left it, correcting his errors, and utilizing to the fullest extent the observations of Keyserling and Blasius, to which reference has already been made, Muller, though hampered by mistaken notions of which he seems to have been unable to rid himself, propounded a scheme for the classification of this group, the general truth of which has been admitted by all his successors, based, as the title of his treatise expressed, on the hitherto unknown different types of the vocal organs in the Passerines.

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  • Among his chief systematic determinations we may mention that he refers the tinamous to the rails, because apparently of their deep " notches," but otherwise takes a view of that group more correct according to modern notions than did most of his contemporaries.

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  • Blanchard published some Recherches sur les caracteres osteo- logiques des oiseaux appliquees a la classification naturelle de ces animaux, strongly urging the superiority of such characters over those drawn from the bill or feet, which, he remarks, though they may have sometimes given correct notions, have mostly led to mistakes, and, if observations of habits and food have sometimes afforded happy results, they have often been deceptive; so that, should more be wanted than to draw up a mere inventory of creation or trace the distinctive outline of each species, zoology without anatomy would remain a barren study.

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  • Often the ass was a mere incident in the Feast of Fools; but sometimes he was the occasion of a special festival, ridiculous enough to modern notions, but by no means intended in an irreverent spirit.

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  • are: - (1) The extensive work on the fundamental notions of physics, called Communia Naturalium, which is found in the Mazarin library at Paris, in the British Museum, and in the Bodleian and University College libraries at Oxford; (2) on the fundamental notions of mathematics, De Cornmunibus Mathematicae, part of which is in the Sloane collection, part in the Bodleian; (3) Baconis Physica, contained among the additional MSS.

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  • With this idea went the notions that Christianity had been diffused throughout the whole earth by the apostles, and that only what was found everywhere throughout the church could be true.

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  • a committee according to their notions of the prices that would have been realized at the close of the market had business been done.

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  • In accordance with primitive notions of analogy,3 which assume that it is possible to control or aid the powers of nature by the practice of "sympathetic magic" (see Magic), the cult of the baals and Ashtaroth was characterized by gross sensuality and licentiousness.

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  • At the same time he clarified the conception of elements and compounds, rejecting the older notions, the four elements of the " vulgar Peripateticks " and the three principles of the " vulgar Stagyrists," and defining an element as a substance incapable of decomposition, and a compound as composed of two or more elements.

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  • The phlogistonists endeavoured to introduce chemical notions to support it: Becher, in his Physica subterranea (1669), stated that mineral, vegetable and animal matter contained the same elements, but that more simple combinations prevailed in the mineral kingdom; while Stahl, in his Specimen Becherianum (1702), held the " earthy " principle to predominate in the mineral class, and the " aqueous " and " combustible " in the vegetable and animal classes.

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  • Before this time, and in all probability at Strassburg, where he appears to have been for some years, he had come in contact with the Beghards (see Beguines) and Brethren of the Free Spirit, whose fundamental notions he may, indeed, be said to have systematized and expounded in the highest form to which they could attain.

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  • Under the general heading "Fundamental Notions" occur the subheadings "Foundations of Arithmetic," with the topics rational, irrational and transcendental numbers, and aggregates; "Universal Algebra," with the topics complex numbers, quaternions, ausdehnungslehre, vector analysis, matrices, and algebra of logic; and "Theory of Groups," with the topics finite and continuous groups.

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  • But to have caught from all sides in this manner the floating notions of society and of individuals, to reflect them with such vigour and clearness, is not anybody's task.

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  • That a body carrying a positive electric charge should move against the direction of the electric intensity is contrary to all our notions of electric forces, and we are compelled to seek some other explanation.

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  • The various comparisons previously made between the structure of Limulus and the Eurypterines on the one hand, and that of a typical Arachnid, such as Scorpio, on the other, had been vitiated by erroneous notions as to the origin of the nerves supplying the anterior appendages of Limulus (which were finally removed by Alphonse Milne-Edwards in his beautiful memoir (6) on the structure of that animal), and secondly by the erroneous identification of the double sternal plates of Limulus, called " chilaria," by Owen, with a pair of appendages (7).

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  • The Code and Digest are badly arranged according to our notions of scientific arrangement.

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  • These, however, are modern notions.

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  • The treatise of Porphyry deals with the notions of genus, species, difference, property and accident (see Predicables); and he mentions, but declines to discuss, the various theories that have been held as to the ontological import of genera and species.

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  • These and other notions cannot be here stated at sufficient length to be intelligible.

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  • Similarly Karl Hoffmann of Wiirzburg wasted his appreciations of the newer schools of developmental biology in fanciful notions of human diseases as reversions to normal stages of lower animals; scrofula being for him a reversion to the insect, rickets to the mollusc, epilepsy to the oscillaria, and so forth.

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  • As the prevalence of the conceptions signified and inspired by the word "phlogiston" kept alive ontological notions of disease, so the dissipation of vitalistic conceptions in the field of physics prepared men's minds in pathology for the new views opened by the discoveries of Pasteur on the side of pathogeny, and of J.

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  • Of the older ontological notions of disease the strongest were those of the essence of fever and of the essence of inflammation.

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  • George Scott, Burma, As it is, As it was, and As it will be (London, 1886); Shway Yoe, The Burman, His Life and Notions (2nd ed., London, 1896); D.

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  • The third division would consist of the collections of the so-called Pseudo-leges Canuti, the laws of Edward the Confessor, of Henry I., and the great compilation of the Quadripartitus, then of a number of short notices and extracts like the fragments on the "wedding of a wife," on oaths, on ordeals, on the king's peace, on rural customs (Rectitudines singularum personarum), the treatises on the reeve (gerefa) and on the judge (dema), formulae of oaths, notions as to wergeld, &c. A fourth group might be made of the charters, n as they are based on Old English private and public law and supply us with most important materials in regard to it.

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  • The Old English "books" are derived in a roundabout way from Roman models, and the tribal law of real property was deeply modified by the introduction of individualistic notions as to ownership, donations, wills, rights of women, &c. Yet in this respect also the Norman Conquest increased the store of Roman conceptions by breaking the national isolation of the English Church and opening the way for closer intercourse with France and Italy.

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  • The substance of that knight's alleged travels in India and Cathay is stolen from Odoric, though amplified with fables from other sources and from his own invention, and garnished with his own unusually clear astronomical notions.

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  • Noteworthy is the affinity between some notions evidently not first framed by the prophet himself and the prologue to Job - the heavenly hosts that wander through the earth and bring back their report to Yahweh's throne, the figure of Satan, the idea that suffering and calamity are evidences of guilt and of accusations presented before God.

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  • Later critics, judging from their own notions of the natural course of development in art, ascribed to Daedalus such improvements as separating the legs.

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  • Though we may recognize in this poetical imagery the survival of ancient and, if we please, mythical notions, we should err if we inferred that Yahweh was originally a departmental god, presiding specifically over meteorological phenomena, and that this conception of him persisted among the Israelites till very late times.

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  • Clement also forbade the practice of the Jesuit missionaries in China of "accommodating" their teachings to pagan notions or customs, in order to win converts.

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  • He had the imagination that invested with personal being and ethical qualities the most abstruse notions.

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  • But his notions of what "evolution" is developed quite gradually.

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  • The only one of them perhaps which requires notice is Religious Courtship (1722), a curious series of dialogues displaying Defoe's unaffected religiosity, and at the same time the rather meddling intrusiveness with which he applied his religious notions.

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  • Gnosticism was the result of the attempt to blend with Christianity the religious notions of pagan mythology, mysterology, theosophy and philosophy" (p. 98).

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  • Their belief might be described as a polydemonism rather than a polytheism, or more correctly, to avoid altogether the intrusion of foreign notions, as a "multinuminism."

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  • In the earlier stage - whose notions of course still persist alongside of the state religion - each household has its own relations to its numina: now the state approaches the gods through its duly appointed representatives, the magistrates and priests.

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  • Authorities are generally agreed in recog nizing three periods: - (1) from the end of the Regal epoch to the second Punic War, when Rome was influenced by other peoples in Italy, with whom she was brought into contact by commerce or war; (2) from the second Punic War to the end of the Republic, when contact with Greek and oriental sources and the growth of literature revolutionized religious notions and led to a philosophic scepticism; (3) the Imperial epoch, opening with a revival of old religious notions and later marked by the official worship of the deified emperors and the wide influence of oriental cults.

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  • Astronomers denote the year which preceded the first of our era by o, and the year previous to that by 1 B.C.; but chronologers, in conformity with common notions, call the year preceding the era 1 B.C., the previous year 2 B.C., and so on.

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  • Trajan's notions of civil government were, like those of the duke of Wellington, strongly tinged with military prepossessions.

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  • Like the Arabian logicians, and some of the scholastics, who held that ideas existed in a threefold form - ante res, in rebus and post res - he laid down the principle that the archetypal ideas existed metaphysically in the ultimate unity or intelligence, physically in the world of things, and logically in signs, symbols or notions.

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  • These notions were shadows of the ideas, and the Ars Magna furnished him with a general scheme, according to which their relations and correspondences should be exhibited.

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  • It is probable that the first exact notions of quantity were founded on the consideration of number.

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  • But not every generation has the same notions of the way in which Shakespeare is best honoured.

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  • With the young prince, the future king, Bute's intimacy was equally marked; he became his constant companion and confidant, and used his influence to inspire him with animosity against the Whigs and with the high notions of the sovereign's powers and duties found in Bolingbroke's Patriot King and Blackstone's Commentaries.

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  • But not only is the character of the Reformation differently conceived from what it once was; our notions of the process of change are being greatly altered.

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  • On returning to Wittenberg, he turned to the canon law, and was shocked to find it so completely at variance with his notions of Christianity.

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  • The government and the leading men of letters and prelates appear therefore to have harboured no notions of revolt before the matter of the king's divorce became prominent in 1527.

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  • Berkeley's statement of the view that all knowledge is relative to the subject - that no object can be known except under the form which our powers of sense-perception, our memory and imagination, our notions and inference, give it - is still the most striking and convincing that we possess.

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  • The soul contains the notions of being, substance, unity, identity, cause, perception, reasoning and many others which the senses cannot give " (Nouveaux essais, ii.

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  • Men were not men according to Greek notions unless they were citizens; and Herodotus, aware of this, probably sharing in the feeling, was anxious, having lost his political status at Halicarnassus, to obtain such status elsewhere.

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  • He declared that Luther was in a fog, and that Christ had warned His disciples against all such notions, and had proclaimed that by faith alone could His presence be received in a feast which He designed to be commemorative and symbolical.

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  • Ideas or notions are never true, but only probable; nevertheless, there are degrees of probability, and hence degrees of belief, leading to action.

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  • Besides the works mentioned above, Marat wrote: Recherches physiques sur l'electricite, &c. (1782); Recherches sur l'electricite medicale (1783); Notions elementaires d'optique (1764); Lettres de l'observateur Bon Sens a M.

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  • The production of dates in Egypt, by bringing two kinds of flowers into contact, proves that in very remote periods some notions were entertained on the subject.

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  • The secret of the enthusiasm of the masses for the analogous expression Theotokos is to be sought not so much in the Nicene doctrine of the incarnation as in the recent growth in the popular mind of notions as to the dignity of the Virgin Mary, which were entirely unheard of (except in heretical circles) for nearly three centuries of the Christian era.

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  • While complying with the terms of the Act of Uniformity, Wallis seems always to have retained moderate and rational notions of ecclesiastical polity.

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  • The first requisite of real progress, after dogmatic prejudices had been broken through, was to get a living conception of the history in which the prophets moved; and this again called for a revision of all traditional notions as to the age of the various parts of Hebrew literature - criticism of the sources of the history, among which the prophetical books themselves take the first place.

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  • The massive old Palazzo Pretorio (13th century) has been somewhat modified in details; the adjacent Palazzo Comunale contains a small picture gallery 1 This combination of characters for many years Ied systematizers astray, though some of them were from the first correct in their notions as to the Pratincole's position.

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  • In this philosophy the mystical properties of numbers are a leading feature; absurd and mechanical notions are glossed over with the sheen of sacramental mystery; myths are explained by pious fancies and fine-sounding pietistic reflections; miracles, even the most ridiculous, are believed in, and miracles are wrought.

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  • Our direct sympathy with the agent in the circumstances in which he is placed gives rise, according to this view, to our notion of the propriety of his action, whilst our indirect sympathy with those whom his actions have benefited or injured gives rise to our notions of merit and demerit in the agent himself.

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  • the employments, which recommend or disparage them in men's notions, or from national policy, "which nowhere leaves things at perfect liberty."

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  • There were crude medieval notions that fossils were " freaks " or " sports " of nature (lusus naturae), or that they represented failures of a creative force within the earth (a notion of Greek and Arabic origin), or that larger and smaller fossils represented the remains of races of giants or of pygmies (the mythical idea).

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  • Schelling had neither the strength of thinking nor 4-he acquired knowledge necessary to hold the balance between the abstract treatment of cosmological notions and the concrete researches of special science.

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  • Regarded merely as a criticism of the notions with which scientific interpretation proceeds, these writings have still importance and might have achieved more had they been untainted by the tendency to hasty, ill-considered, a priori anticipations of nature.

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  • When it is conscientiously obtained, it is arrived at by handi capping, more or less heavily, intrinsic probability as compared with documental probability, or by raising the minimum of probability which shall qualify a reading for admission into the text until it is in agreement with the notions of the editor.

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  • Most people take their notions of a classical book not from its traditional form but from a "received" or vulgate text.

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  • Further, in treating rhetoric as an art in the Theodectea he was forced into a conclusion, which carried him far beyond Plato's rigid notions of proof and of passion: he concluded that it is the work of an orator to use persuasion, and to arouse the passions (TO Tic 71 - 607 7 bcayeipaL), e.g.

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  • In neither, however, are they a grammatical classification of words by their structure; and in neither are they a psychological classification of notions or general conceptions (voi uara), such as they afterwards became in Kant's Critique and the post-Kantian idealism.

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  • It is impossible to overstep the limits of self-consciousness; whatever words I use, whatever notions I have, must refer to and find their meaning in facts of consciousness.

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  • The necessity and universality of the judgments of causality and substantiality are taken for granted; and there is no investigation of the place held by these notions in the mental constitution.

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  • And if so, what is the nature of the notions necessarily implied in the simplest knowledge of a thing, as distinct from mere sense feeling?

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  • That in knowing objects certain thoughts are implied which are not presentations or their copies is at times dimly seen by Berkeley himself; but he was content to propound a question with regard to those notions, and to look upon them as merely Locke's ideas of relation.

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  • Some of these young people wished to put their crude notions immediately into practice, and as their desire to make gigantic socialist experiments naturally alarmed the government, their activity was opposed by the police.

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  • To explain this great variability of spectroscopic effects we may either adopt the view that molecular aggregates of semi-stable nature may be found in vacuum tubes, or that a molecule may gain or lose one or more additional electrons and thus form new vibrating systems. It seemed that an important guide to clear our notions in this direction could be obtained through the discovery of J.

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  • In effect, therefore, Mayow - who also gives a remarkably correct anatomical description of the mechanism of respiration - preceded Priestley and Lavoisier by a century in recognizing the existence of oxygen, under the guise of his spiritus nitro-aereus, as a separate entity distinct from the general mass of the air; he perceived the part it plays in combustion and in increasing the weight of the calces of metals as compared with metals themselves; and, rejecting the common notions of his time that the use of breathing is to cool the heart, or assist the passage of the blood from the right to the left side of the heart, or merely to agitate it, he saw in inspiration a mechanism for introducing oxygen into the body, where it is consumed for the production of heat and muscular activity, and even vaguely conceived of expiration as an excretory process.

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  • As to the origin of knowledge, Kant's position is that sense, outer and inner, affected by things in themselves, receives mere sensations or sensible ideas (Vorstellungen) as the matter which sense itself places in the a priori forms of space and time; that thereupon understanding, by means of the synthetic unity of apperception, " I think " - an act of spontaneity beyond sense, in all consciousness one and the same, and combining all my ideas as mine in one universal consciousness - and under a priori categories, or fundamental notions, such as substance and attribute, cause and effect, &c., unites groups of sensations or sensible ideas into objects and events, e.g.

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  • c. As to existence, Kant's position is the wholly illogical one that, though all known things are phenomena, there are things in themselves, or noumena; things which are said to cause sensations of outer sense and to receive sensations of inner sense, though they are beyond the category of causality which is defined as one of the notions uniting phenomena; and things which are assumed to exist and have these causal attributes, though declared unknowable by any logical use of reason, because logical reason is limited by the mental matter and form of experience to phenomena; and all this according to Kant himself.

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  • Hence Schelling objected to the Hegelian dialectic on the ground that, although reason by itself can apprehend notions or essences, and even that of God, it cannot deduce a priori the existence either of God or of Nature, for the apprehension of which experience is required.

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  • He now distinguished two philosophies: negative philosophy starting from notions, and positive philosophy starting from being; the former a philosophy of conditions, the latter of causes, i.e.

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  • the panlogistic confusion of the essences of things with the notions of reason, to construct a positive philosophy without falling into fresh mysticism, which failed to exorcise the effect of his earlier philosophy of identity in the growing materialism of the age.

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  • For what does it matter to metaphysics whether by association sensations suggest ideas, and so give rise to ideas of substance and causation a posteriori, or synthetic unity of consciousness combines sensations by a priori notions of substance and causation into objects which are merely mental phenomena of experience, when it is at once allowed by the followers of Hume and Kant alike that reason in any logical use has no power of inferring things beyond the experience of the reasoner?

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  • Though no noumenalist, in many details he is with noumenalists; with Fechner in psychophysics, in psychophysical parallelism, in the independence of the physical and the psychical chains of causality, in reducing physical and psychical to a difference of aspects, in substituting impulse for accident in organic evolution, and in wishing to recognize a gradation of individual spiritual beings; with Schopenhauer and Hartmann in voluntarism; and even with Schelling and Hegel in their endeavour, albeit on an artificial method, to bring experience under notions, and to unite subject and object in one concrete reality.

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  • Between Hume's a posteriori and Kant's a priori hypothesis he proposes a logical theory of the origin of notions beyond experience.

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  • He explains that the arrangement of facts requires " general supplementary notions' (Hiilfsbegrife), which are not contained in experience itself, but are gained by a process of logical treatment of this experience."

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  • Of these supplementary notions he holds that the most general is that of causality, coming from the necessity of thought that all our experiences shall be arranged according to ground and consequent.

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  • But as with Kant, so with Wundt, this world will be only the richer, not the wider, for these notions of understanding; because they are only contributed to the original experience, and, being mentally contributed, only the more surely confine knowledge to experience of mental phenomena.

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  • Reason, as in most modern psychologies and idealisms, is introduced by Wundt, after all sorts of operations, too late; and, when at length introduced, it is described as going beyond ideas and notions to " ideals " (Ideen), as an ideall continuation of series of thoughts beyond given experience - nothing more.

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  • Litigation in the yarn trade is very unusual, and Lancashire traders generally have only vague notions of the bearing of law upon their transactions, and a wholesome dread of the exp'erience that would lead to better knowledge.

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  • He continued to wait at dinner with the pages, although in a manner more dignified according to the notions of the age.

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  • At length Ishbaal lost the main prop of his tottering cause by remonstrating with Abner for marrying Rizpah, one of Saul's concubines, an alliance which, according to Oriental notions, implied pretensions to the throne (cp. 2 Sam.

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  • The second volume, published in 1756, carrying on the narrative to the Revolution, was better received than the first; but Hume then resolved to work backwards, and to show from a survey of the Tudor period that his Tory notions were grounded upon the history of the constitution.

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  • In the Treatise of Human Nature, which is in every respect the most complete exposition of Hume's philosophical conception, we have the first thorough-going attempt to apply the fundamental principles of Locke's empirical psychology to the construction of a theory of knowledge, and, as a natural consequence, the first systematic criticism of the chief metaphysical notions from this point of view.

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  • He nowhere explains the origin of the notions of unity and number, but merely asserts that through their means we can have absolutely exact arithmetical propositions (Works, i.

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  • Trithemius is the reputed author of some obscure tracts on the great elixir, and as there was no other chemistry going Paracelsus would have to devote himself to the reiterated operations so characteristic of the notions of that time.

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  • The growing jealousy and enmity culminated in a dispute with Canon Cornelius von Lichtenfels, who, having called in Paracelsus after other physicians had given up his case, refused to pay the fee he had promised in the event of cure; and, as the judges, to their discredit, sided with the canon, Paracelsus had no alternative but to tell them his opinion of the whole case and of their notions of justice.

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  • It is a problem how to reconcile his ignorance, his weakness, his superstition, his crude notions, his erroneous observations, his ridiculous influences and theories, with his grasp of method, his lofty views of the true scope of medicine, his lucid statements, his incisive and epigrammatic criticisms of men and motives.

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  • Especially prominent is the fact that polymerism and metamerism are mainly reserved to the domain of organic chemistry, or the chemistry of carbon, both being discovered there; and, more especially, the phenomenon of metamerism in organic chemistry has largely developed our notions concerning the structure of matter.

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  • (See Cobalt; Platinum.) Dealing with organic compounds; it is metamerism that deserves chief attention, as it has largely developed our notions as to molecular structure.

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  • The conception of metamerism, or isomerism in restricted sense, has been of the highest value for the development of our notions concerning molecular structure, i.e.

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  • In this article we shall confine ourselves to the fatty compounds, from which the fundamental notions were first obtained; reference may be made to the article Chemistry: Organic, for the general structural relations of organic compounds, both fatty and aromatic.

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  • As the election of any cardinal seemed impossible, on the 5th of July 1294 the Sacred College united on Pietro di Morrone; the cardinals expected to rule in the name of the celebrated but incapable ascetic. Apocalyptic notions then current doubtless aided his election, for Joachim of Floris and his school looked to monasticism to furnish deliverance to the church and to the world.

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  • Macaulay's description of Whitgift as "a narrow, mean, tyrannical priest, who gained power by servility and adulation," is tinged with rhetorical exaggeraticn; but undoubtedly Whitgift's extreme High Church notions led him to treat the Puritans with exceptional intolerance.

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  • Joseph Thomson, in his journey through the Masai country in 1883, was the first white man to see the lake and to correct the exaggerated notions as to its size.

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  • But it is the duty of the individual to his possible offspring, and not any vague notions as to the pressure of the national population on subsistence, that will be adequate to influence conduct.

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  • The facts that he used to walk with Bacon at Gorhambury, and would jot down with exceptional intelligence the eager thinker's sudden " notions," and that he was employed to make the Latin version of some of the Essays, prove nothing when weighed against his own disregard of all Bacon's principles, and the other evidence that the impulse to independent thinking came to him not from Bacon, and not till some time after Bacon's death in 1626.1 So far as we have any positive evidence, it was not before the year 1629 that Hobbes entered on philosophical inquiry.

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  • Jung invented or gave precision to many technical terms which Ray and others at once made use of in their descriptions, and which are now classical; and his notions of what constitutes a specific distinction and what characters are valueless as such seem to have been adopted with little change by Ray.

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  • One section, giving us some of the mysteries of the physician, shows how lamentably crude were his notions of the constitution of the body.

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  • But out of these primitive notions arose a real medical science: when the ailment could be located and its nature roughly determined, a more materialistic view was taken of it; and many herbs and drugs that were originally used for some superstitious reason, when once they had been found to be actually effective, easily lost their magical significance and were looked upon as natural specifics.

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  • Moreover, since the "real" is the object of the "true," and can be distinguished from the "unreal" only by developing superior value in the process of cognition which arrives at it, the notions of "reality" and "fact" also turn out to be disguised forms of value.

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  • Beethoven read the final prayer of the Mass as a "prayer for inward and outward peace," and, giving it that title, organized it on the basis of a contrast between terrible martial sounds and the triumph of peaceful themes, in a scheme none the less spiritual and sublime because those who first heard it had derived their notions of the horror of war from living in Vienna during its bombardment.

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  • The land was not denuded, and the fact that " some scores of thousands of Jews remained in Judah through all the period of the exile," 3 even though they were " the poorest of the land," revolutionizes ordinary notions of this period.

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  • It is the adaptation of the prophets' conceptions of Yahweh to old religious ideas, the building up of new conceptions upon an old basis, a fusion " between old heathen notions and prophetic ideas," and " this fusion is characteristic of the entire priestly law."

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  • With the increased facilities for European travel Filipinos began to visit Europe and return with new and broader notions of life.

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  • Both circumstances, according to the then prevailing notions, made them unfit for the imamate.

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  • They despised tradition and Old World ways and notions; and they accepted the Jeffersonian dogmas, not only as maxims, but as social forces - the causes of the material prosperity of the country.

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  • In the 18th century the influences at work in the American colonies developed democratic notions.

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  • When he went into office he had no political opinions, only some popular notions.

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  • This notion of the influence of the tenement is well adapted to feudal notions and makes itself felt again in the case of the pursuit of a fugitive villein.

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  • Judgment is consciousness of the identity or difference and of the causal relations of the given; naming the actual combinations of the data, but also requiring a priori categories of the understanding, the notions of identity, difference and causality, as principles of thought or laws, to combine the plurality of the given into a unity (Schuppe).

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  • It requires nothing beyond the sensation and belief in the given existence of the given pressure: not all judgment then requires categories of understanding, or notions of identity, difference and causality, or even of existence, such as Schuppe supposes.

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  • But whether Kant be right or wrong, Wundt and his school are decidedly wrong in supposing " supplementary notions which are not contained in experience itself, but are gained by a process of logical treatment of this experience "; as if our behalf in causality could be neither a posteriori nor a priori, but beyond experience wake up in a hypothetical major premise of induction.

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  • Common names are fitted for use by the wouldbe users being first delivered from abortive conceptions, and thereupon enabled to bring to the birth living and organic notions.

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  • Berkeley, though at length the notions of spirits, acts and relations 6 give him pause, prefers the formula which Hume expresses in the phrase that " some ideas are particular in their nature but general in their representation," 7 and the afterhistory of " abstraction " is a discussion of the conditions under which one idea " stands for " a group. Not from those for whom general ideas mean schematic concepts, not imageable.

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  • So he explains " concepts or general notions " 1 by an abstraction which he represents as a sort of alt-relief operated by attention and fixed by naming, association with the name giving to a set of attributes a unity they otherwise lack.

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  • Hegel's treatment of the categories or thought determinations which arise in the development of the immanent dialectic is rich in flashes of insight, but most of them are in the ordinary but to make explicit those justificatory notions which condition the form of our apprehension.

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  • The sense in which the presupposition of a further reference is to be interpreted and in which justificatory notions for it can be adduced is only determinable in a philosophic system as a whole, where feeling has a place as well as thought, value equally with validity.

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  • The nature-philosophers of the Renaissance, such as Nicolaus Cusanus, Paracelsus, Cardan and others, curiously blend scientific ideas with speculative notions derived from scholastic theology, from Neoplatonism and even from the Kabbalah.

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  • In good citizenship morality is practised out of regard to certain preconceived notions of the needs, the health and happiness of ourselves, our fellows and the community at large.

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  • According to theosophy, it would appear that these notions are for the most part mistaken, or at any rate they are quite insignificant in comparison with the interests with which the traveller along the Path soon finds himself absorbed.

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  • The notions of the penumbra and umbra are important in considering eclipses (q.v.).

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  • Primitive man seldom connects sacrifice with notions of propitiation, indeed only in highly ethicized religions is the consciousness of sin or of guilt pre-eminent.

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  • Similar notions present in the ethnic faiths take the Christian facts into their service, the belief of the multitude without essential change remaining vague and undefined.

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  • The most complete and elaborate experiments are those of Morin, published in his Notions fondamentales de mcanique, and republished in Britain iii the works of Moseley and Gordon.

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  • The earliest mention of the name of Homer is found in a fragment of the philosopher Xenophanes (of the 6th century B.e., or possibly earlier), who complains of the false notions implanted through the teaching of Homer.

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  • The splendid patronage of letters by the successors of Alexander, and especially the great institutions which had been founded at Alexandria and Pergamum, had made an impression on the imagination of learned men which was reflected in the current notions of the ancient despots.

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  • a community already strongly imbued with pantheistic notions; yet, at best, that creed could only appeal to the sympathies of a comparatively limited portion of the people.

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  • They were to be left for all time coming to their own traditional idolatrous notions and practices.

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  • That the transmigration theory, which makes the spirit of the departed hover about for a time in quest of a new corporeal abode, would naturally lend itself to superstitious notions of this kind can scarcely be doubted.

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  • It is not improbable, therefore, that the fall in wholesale prices which, with temporary interruptions, persisted between 1870 and 1900, in general harmony with the other movement, may have conduced to reluctance on the part of those who have enlarged their notions of the standard of comfort to endanger their prospects of enjoying it by incurring the additional expenses of family life.

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  • The middle ages had been satisfied with absurd and visionary notions about the world around them, while the body of man was regarded with too much suspicion to be studied.

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  • Although Grattan had a profound contempt for Emmet's political understanding, describing him as a quack in politics who set up his own crude notions as settled rules, Emmet was among the more prudent of the United Irishmen on the eve of the rebellion.

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  • de C. du Fay on the conductivity of some bodies for the electric agency and the dual character of electrification gave rise to the first notions of ., electricity as an imponderable fluid, or non-gravitative subtile matter, of a more refined and penetrating kind than ordinary liquids and gases.

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  • 3 Man's sovereignty over nature, which is founded on knowledge alone, had been lost, and instead of the free relation between things and the human mind, there was nothing but vain notions and blind experiments.

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  • Philosophy is altogether practical; it is of little matter to the fortunes of humanity what abstract notions one may entertain concerning the nature and the principles of things.'

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  • 39)1 false notions of things, or erroneous ways of looking at nature, are of four kinds: the first two innate, pertaining to the very nature of the mind and not to be eradicated; the third creeping insensibly into men's minds, and hence in a sense innate and inseparable; the fourth imposed from without.

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  • The philosophies which are " redargued " are divided into three classes, the sophistical, of which the best example is Aristotle, who, according to Bacon, forces nature into his abstract schemata and thinks to explain by definitions; the empirical, which from few and limited experiments leaps at once to general conclusions; and the superstitious, which corrupts philosophy by the introduction of poetical and theological notions.

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  • This fruitful conception, however, Bacon does not work out; and though he uses the word cause, and identifies form with formal cause, yet it is perfectly apparent that the modern notions of cause as dynamical, and of nature as in a process of flow or development, are foreign to him, and that in his view of the ultimate problem of science, cause meant causa immanens, or underlying substance, effects were not consequents but manifestations, and nature was regarded in a purely statical aspect.

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  • It is compelled to accept its first principles on trust from the science in which it is employed; it cannot cope with the subtlety of nature; and it is radically vitiated by being founded on hastily and inaccurately abstracted notions of things.

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  • For a syllogism consists of propositions, propositions of words, and words are the symbols of notions.

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  • Notions were formed carefully, and not till after a certain process of induction was completed. ?

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  • And this induction must be used not only to discover axioms, but also in the formation of notions."

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  • Secondly, notions are all drawn from the impressions of the sense, and are indefinite and confused, whereas they should be definite and distinctly bounded.

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  • It is evident that if the tables were complete, and our notions of the respective phenomena clear, the process of exclusion would be a merely mechanical counting out, and would infallibly lead to the detection of the cause or form.

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  • It is the flux of matter and the inconstanc y of the physical body which requires induction, that thereby it may be fixed as it were, and allow the formation of notions well defined.

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  • In physics you wisely note, and therein I agree with you, that after the notions of the first class and the axioms concerning them have been by induction well made out and defined, syllogism may be applied safely; only it must be restrained from leaping at once to the most general notions, and progress must be made through a fit succession of steps."

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  • Their notions stick fast because there are no competing notions to dislodge them.

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  • Derived from the verb ma, " to stretch out," her name denoted the ideas of right and rule, and covered the notions of order, law, justice and truth, which remained steadfast and unalterable.

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  • His enthusiasm for the natural sciences may have been the only ground for the reputation he had acquired of instilling atheistic notions into the minds of his pupils along with the Latin which he taught them.

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  • So far as any trustworthy evidence is available, such Hellenic notions as are presupposed in this epistle might well have been intelligible to the Galatians of the northern provinces.

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  • They not only endeavoured to protect and guide the natives beyond the colonial border, but among the Hottentots within the colony they instilled notions of antipathy to the white farmers, and withdrew large numbers of them from agricultural pursuits.

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  • For three generations they remained Hindus; since then there has arisen amongst them a strange new sect called Zikari, with exceedingly loose notions of morality.

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  • His services to morals do not consist in any positive contributions to the notions of active duty, but in the strength with which he has realized and expressed the restraining influence of the old Roman and Italian ideal of character, and also of that religious conscience which was becoming a new power in the world.

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  • Like all materialists, the Stoics can only distinguish the sensible from the intelligible as Degrees of thinking when the external object is present (alrOfivEr6at) and thinking when it is absent The product of the latter kind includes memory (though this is, upon a strict analysis, something intermediate), and conceptions or general notions, under which were confusedly classed the products of the imaginative faculty.

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  • Such vague notions began to take more definite shape as the ferment theory of Cagniard de la Tour (1828), Schwann (1837) and Pasteur made way, especially in the hands of the last-named savant.

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  • He assumes that the narrative was meant ethically, not physically, in order to eliminate false and polytheistic notions; and he draws attention to that double narrative in Genesis which was elsewhere to be so fruitfully handled.

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  • He set little store on the theology of those who in a system of dry and barren notions "pay handsome compliments to the Deity," "remove providence," "explode devotion," and leave but "little of zeal, affection, or warmth in what they call rational religion."

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  • Whisky, groceries, prints and notions were staples sent to Santa Fe; wool, buffalo robes and dried buffalo meat, Mexican silver coin, gold and silver dust and ore came in return.

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  • On the other hand, it is urged that, though Guyon and Du Verdier were in a sense contemporaries, they wrote long after the events, and that the testimony of the former is vitiated, not merely by its extreme vagueness, but by the fact .that it occurs in a plaidoyer, tending to exculpate physicians from the charge of unorthodoxy; that Du Verdier in another place assigns the Pantagrueline Prognostication to this same unknown student of Valence, and had therefore probably confused and hearsay notions on the subject; that the rasher and fiercer tone, as well as the apparent repetitions, are sufficiently accounted for on the supposition that Rabelais never finally revised the book, which indeed dates show that he could not have done, as the fourth was not finally settled till just before his death; and that it is perfectly probable, and indeed almost certain, that it was prepared from his papers by another hand, which is responsible for the anachronous allusions above referred to.

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  • In this picture, which shows the crudeness of the zoological notions current in the 18th century as to both men and apes, there are set in a row four figures: (a) a recognizable orang-utan, sitting and holding a staff; (b) a chimpanzee, absurdly humanized as to head, hands, and feet; (c) a hairy woman, with a tail a foot long; (d) another woman, more completely coated with hair.

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  • Foreigners are often surprised at the strange mixture of savagery and lofty notions in a Christian community which, for instance, accounts accidental manslaughter as wilful murder.

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  • and he there composed the treatises on which his reputation as a philosophical theologian chiefly rests, the essay on Original Sin, the Dissertation concerning the Nature of True Virtue, the Dissertation concerning the End for which God created the World, and the great work on the Will, written in four months and a half, and published in 1754 under the title, An Inquiry into the Modern Prevailing Notions Respecting that Freedom of the Will which is supposed to be Essential to Moral Agency.

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  • Moreover, every statement of fact involves certain general notions and theories, so that the "facts" of the separate sciences cannot be stated except in terms of the conceptions or hypotheses which are assumed by the particular science.

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  • But Bunyan's notions of good and evil had been learned in a very different school; and he was made miserable by the conflict between his tastes and his scruples.

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  • Bazard, a man of logical and more solid temperament, could no longer work in harmony with Enfantin, who desired to establish an arrogant and fantastic sacerdotalism with lax notions as to marriage and the relation of the sexes.

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  • By the middle of February Newton had sent his paper to Aston, one of the secretaries of the Society, and in a letter to Aston dated the 23rd of February 1685, we find Newton thanking him for " having entered on the register his notions about motion."

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  • By his method of observation and induction as thus explained, his philosophy will be found to be marked off very clearly, on the one hand from the deductive construction of notions of an absolute system, as represented either by Schelling or Hegel, which Cousin regards as based simply on hypothesis and abstraction, illegitimately obtained; and on the other, from that of Kant, and in a sense, of Sir W.

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  • Causality cannot add to the number of our notions, - cannot add to the number of realities we know.

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  • This is important as a preliminary stage, but philosophy properly begins when it attempts to coordinate or systematize those convictions in harmony, to conciliate apparent contradiction and opposition, as between the correlative notions of finite and infinite, the apparently conflicting notions of personality and infinitude, self and not-self; in a word, to reconcile the various sides of consciousness with each other.

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