The fauna of the Arctic Ocean off the Norwegian coast corresponds, in its W.
The other day, I met a deaf Norwegian gentleman, who knows Ragnhild Kaata and her teacher very well, and we had a very interesting conversation about her.
In other enclosed seas which are shut off from the ocean by a very shallow sill the rule holds good that the homothermic water below the level of the sill is at the lowest temperature reached by the surface water in the coldest season of the year, provided always that the stratification of salinity is such as to permit of convection being set up. To this group belongs the Arctic Sea; the Norwegian Sea is homothermic below J50 fathoms at 29.8° F., but this cold water does not penetrate into the Arctic Basin on account of the ridge between Spitsbergen and Greenland, and there the water below 1400 fathoms has a temperature of 30 6° to 30.7° F.
The cruises of the " Porcupine " and " Lightning," which led directly to the despatch of the " Challenger " expedition, were altogether within its " sphere of influence "; so also was the great Norwegian Atlantic expedition.
The Norwegian order of knighthood of St Olaf was founded in 1847 by Oscar I., king of Sweden and Norway, in memory of this king.
Ottawa is the seat of the Pleasant View Luther College (co-educational), founded in 1896 by the Norwegian Lutherans of Northern Illinois.
of France to Haakon VI.; he made himself so agreeable to the Norwegian sovereign that he was invited, a little later, to superintend the reformation of the Benedictine monastery of St Benet Holme at Trondhjem.
The Norwegian connexion was broken in 1266, and in 1334 Man was detached from the Scottish islands.
LOG(a word of uncertain etymological origin,possibly onomatopoeic; the New English Dictionary rejects the derivation from Norwegian lag, a fallen tree), a large piece of, generally unhewn, wood.
On the Norwegian coast mackerel fishing does not begin before May, whilst on the English coasts large catches are frequently made in March.
German, Norwegian and other missions were also founded.
It had long the reputation of being almost constantly ice-bound, but after the Norwegian captain Johannesen had demonstrated its accessibility in 1869, and Nordenskield had crossed it to the mouth of the Yenisei in 1875, it was considered by many to offer a possible trade route between European Russia and the north of Siberia.
About the year 919 the country was invaded by Raegenald (Rdgnvaldr grandson of I'varr), a Norwegian king from Ireland, who seized York and occupied the lands of St Cuthbert.
In 937 a great fleet and army were brought together by Constantine and Anlaf, the son of Sihtric, another Norwegian chieftain who had allied himself with the Scots, helped by Anlaf Godfreyson from Ireland.
Stavanger is the first port of call for northward-bound passenger steamers from Hull and Newcastle, and has regular services from all the Norwegian coast towns, from Hamburg, &c. A railway runs south along the wild and desolate coast of Jaederen, one of the few low and unprotected shores in Norway, the scene of many wrecks.
But his success was short-lived, for in 1029 the Norwegian nobles, seething with discontent, rallied round the invading Knut the Great, and Olaf had to flee to Russia.
wide; and (4) the " Norwegian Sea," about 400 m.
The communication between the Atlantic and Arctic basins being cut off, as already described, at a depth of about 300 fathoms, the temperatures in the Norwegian Sea below that level are essentially Arctic, usually below the freezing-point of fresh water, except where the distribution is modified by the surface circulation.
Nansen, The Norwegian North Polar Expedition, 1893-1896 (Christiania and London, 1900); R.
This intermediate region, which has Atlantic characteristics down to 300 fathoms, and at greater depths belongs more properly to the Arctic Sea, commonly receives the name of Norwegian Sea.
It has little trade, but is the principal tourist centre on this part of the coast, and the steamers from Hull and Newcastle, the Norwegian ports, Hamburg, Antwerp, &c., call here.
It is bounded on the east by the North Atlantic, the Norwegian and Greenland Seas-Jan Mayen, Iceland, the Faeroe Islands and the Shetlands being the only lands between it and Norway.
Denmark Strait is the sea between it and Iceland, and the northern Norwegian Sea or Greenland Sea separates it from Spitsbergen.
These fjords are very deep; the greatest depth found by Ryder in Scoresby Sound was 300 fathoms, but there are certainly still greater depths; like the Norwegian fjords they have, however, probably all of them, a threshold or sill, with shallow water, near their mouths.
At Julianehaab in the extreme south-west the winter is not much colder than that of Norway and Sweden in the same locality; but its mean temperature for the whole year probably approximates to that on the Norwegian coast 600 m.
In the beginning of the 10th century the Norwegian Gunnbjdrn, son of Ulf Kraka, is reported to have found some islands to the west of Iceland, and he may have seen, without landing upon it, the southern part of the east coast of Greenland.
In 982 the Norwegian Eric the Red sailed from Iceland to find the land which GunnbjOrn had seen, and he spent three years on its south-western coasts exploring the country.
It was visited by whalers, chiefly Dutch, but nothing in the form of permanent European settlements was established until the year 1721, when the first missionary, the Norwegian clergyman Hans Egede, landed, and established a settlement near Godthaab.
But detailed studies of the circulation of the water in any small area show deviations from the calculated results that are to be expected: thus Nansen's investigation of the Norwegian sea shows that the main directions of streaming of the water are broken up by numerous large and small vortices.
Samples of water are collected periodically from a number of places in a large sea-area (the North or Norwegian seas, or the English Channel, for instance) at the surface, bottom and a number of intermediate levels.
river) side of the Grasbrook dock is the quay at which the emigrants for South America embark, and from which the mail boats for East Africa, the boats of the Woermann (West Africa) line, and the Norwegian tourist boats depart.
/misting, from Old Norwegian husthing), the "thing" or "ting," i.e.
If the Swedish Church has preserved the episcopal succession, it does not make much of that advantage, for it is in communion with the Danish and Norwegian bodies, which can advance no such claim.
The third class of Magyar novelists comprises those cosmopolitan writers who take their method of work, their inspiration and even many of their subjects from foreign authors, chiefly French, German, Russian and also Norwegian.
Lenkei, Zoltan Ferenczy, Aladar Ballagi, Ladislas Negyessy, have shown themselves somewhat too ready to follow the latest Norwegian or Parisian sensation.
The New English Dictionary points out that whereas the old Teutonic type of the word is neuter, corresponding to the Latin numen, in the Christian applications it becomes masculine, and that even where the earlier neuter form is still kept, as in Gothic and Old Norwegian, the construction is masculine.
It may here be remarked that the name "European frankincense" is applied to Pinus Taeda, and to the resinous exudation ("Burgundy pitch") of the Norwegian spruce firs (Abies excelsa).
The agent chosen to preside at the nomination ceremony was Mr (afterwards Sir) Theophilus Shepstone, who was in charge of native affairs in Natal and had won in a 1 Bishop Schreuder, a Norwegian missionary long resident in Zululand, gave Sir Bartle Frere the following estimate of the three brothers who successively reigned over the Zulu: " Chaka was a really great man, cruel and unscrupulous, but with many great qualities.
NIELS HENRIK ABEL (1802-1829), Norwegian mathematician, was born at Findoe on the 25th of August 1802.
Vessels set out to the fisheries, as far as Spitsbergen and the Kara Sea; and trade is brisk, not only Norwegian and Danish but British, German and particularly Russian vessels engaging in it.
It has a public library and the Freeborn County Court House, and is the seat of Albert Lea College (Presbyterian, for women), founded in 1884, and of Luther Academy (Norwegian Evangelical Lutheran), founded in 1888.
Four miles south is Fredriksvaern, formerly a station of the Norwegian fleet and the seat of a naval academy.
Of the 750 steamships which cleared the port in 1904, three out of every seven were German, two were Norwegian and one was British, but in 1905 two new companies, one British and the other Japanese, arranged for regular services to Bangkok, thereby altering these proportions.
higher than that of the open Norwegian Sea between Jan Mayen and the Lofoten Islands.
The earliest deep-sea sounding on record is that of cruise in the North Pacific, sounding out lines for a projected Captain Phipps on the 4th of September 1773 in the Norwegian Pacific cable.
The Norwegian Sea was of string left in the ball on board.
The time of touching bottom i studied by the Norwegian expedition on board the " VOringen " was judged by timing each loo-fathom mark and noting the in 1876-1878, and the north polar basin by Nansen and Sverdrup sudden increase in the time interval when the shot reached the in the " Fram " in 1893-1896, the Mediterranean by the Italians bottom.
m.) with depths down to 2200 fathoms. A rise between Spitsbergen and Greenland separates the Norwegian Trough (greatest depth 2005 fathoms in 68° 21' N., 2° 5' W.) which in turn is divided from the Atlantic by the Wyville Thomson Ridge which runs between the Faeroe and Shetland islands and is covered by only 314 fathoms of water at the deepest point.
In the North Sea the depth of ioo fathoms is only exceeded to any extent in the Norwegian gully, which has a maximum depth of 383 fathoms in the Skagerrack.
It is particularly in evidence round the whole of the Antarctic Shelf, where it occurs down to depths of 2500 fathoms. It is the chief deposit, according to Nansen, of the North Polar Basin and, according to Schmelck and Bdggild, of the Norwegian Sea also, where it is largely mixed with the shells of the bottom-living foraminifer Biloculina.
The Arctic Sea presents a great contrast between the salinity of the surface of the ice-free Norwegian Sea with 35 to 35.4 and that of the Central Polar Basin, which is dominated by river water and melted ice, and has a salinity less than 25 per mille in most parts.
Pack-ice forms regularly in the inner part of the Baltic every winter, but not in the Norwegian fjords.
A cyclonic circulation of the atmosphere is associated with a cyclonic circulation of the water of the ocean, as is well shown in the Norwegian Sea and North Atlantic between the Azores and Greenland.
Makaroff, The Yermak in the Ice (in Russian) (St Petersburg, 1901); The Norwegian North Atlantic Expedition (on the " Voringen "), 1876-1878 (Christiania, 1880-1900); Expeditions scientifiques du " Travailleur " et du " Talisman," 1880-1883 (Paris, 1891 et seq.); Die Ergebnisse der Plankton-Expedition, 1889 (Kiel, 1892 et seq.); Resultats des campagnes scientifiques accomplies sur son yacht par Albert I e ' Prince Souverain de Monaco (Monaco, from 1889); The Danish " Ingolf " Expedition, 1806 (Copenhagen, 1900); Prof. Luksch, Expeditionen S.M.
Reports of many minor expeditions and researches have appeared in the Reports of the Fishery Board for Scotland; the Marine Biological Association at Plymouth; the Kiel Commission for the Investigation of the Baltic; the Berlin Institut fur Meereskunde; the bluebooks of the Hydrographic Department; the various official reports to the British, German, Russian, Finnish, Norwegian, Swedish, Danish, Belgian and Dutch governments on the respective work of these countries in connexion with the international cooperation in the North Sea; the Bulletin du musee oceanographique de Monaco (1903 seq.); the Scottish Geographical Magazine; the Geographical Journal; Petermanns Mitteilungen; Wagner's Geogi'aphisches Jahrbuch; the Proceedings and Transactions of the Royal Societies of London and Edinburgh; the Annalen der Hydrographie; and the publications of the Swedish Academy of Sciences.
Vernon; Western College (United Brethren, 1856) at Toledo; Upper Iowa University (Methodist Episcopal, 1857) at Fayette; Leander Clark College (United Brethren, 1857) at Toledo; Lenox College (Presbyterian, 1859) at Hopkinton; Luther College (Norwegian Evangelical Lutheran, 1861) at Decorah; Des Moines College (Baptist, 1865) at Des Moines; Tabor College (Congregational, 1866) at Tabor; Simpson College (Methodist, 1867) at Indianola; Wartburg Kollege (Lutheran, 1868) at Clinton; Amity College (Non-sectarian, 1872) at College Springs; German College (Methodist Episcopal, 1873) at Mt.
He did all he could personally to strengthen the bonds between the Norwegians and the royal house of Denmark, and though his endeavours were opposed by the so-called Swedish party, which desired a dynastic union with Sweden, he placed himself at the head of the Norwegian party of independence, and was elected regent of Norway by an assembly of notables on the 16th of February 1814.
Alexander next attempted ï¿½ to seduce Ewen, the son of Duncan, lord of Argyll, from his allegiance to the Norwegian king.
Dahllite is a Norwegian phosphorite, containing calcium carbonate, named in 1888 by W.
Bi ckstr6m after the Norwegian geologists T.
The Swedish, Norwegian, Ontario and Michigan mines yield ores of this kind; and though none of them can be profitably worked as a source of phosphate, yet on reducing the ore it may be retained in the slags, and thus rendered available for agriculture.
either one or both parents were foreign-born), and of those having both parents of a given nationality 34,490 were of German, 19,359 of Swedish, 17,456 of Irish, 16,959 of Norwegian and 16,835 of English parentage.
HANS NIELSEN HAUGE (1771-1824), Norwegian Lutheran divine, was born in the parish of Thuno, Norway, on the 3rd of April 1771, the son of a peasant.
either one or both parents foreign-born - and of those having both father and mother of foreign birth there were 44,516 of German parentage, 44,119 of Norwegian, 25,113 of Russian and 11,222 of Irish parentage.
The Norwegian Lutherans have a normal school at Sioux Falls, and the Roman Catholics have schools of higher grade at Sioux Falls, Deadwood and Aberdeen.
From this time onward Haakon's reign was marked by more peace and prosperity than Norway had known for many years, Until in 1263 a dispute with the Scottish king concerning the Hebrides, a Norwegian possession, induced Haakon to undertake an expedition to the west of Scotland.
A division of his army seems to have repulsed a large Scottish force at Largs (though the later Scottish accounts claim this battle as a victory), and, having won back the Norwegian possessions in Scotland, Haakon was wintering in the Orkneys, when he was taken ill and died on the 15th of December 1263.
Worn out by internal strife fostered by Haakon's emissaries, the Icelandic chiefs acknowledged the Norwegian king as overlord in 1262.
Valdemar had indeed pledged it solemnly and irrevocably to King Magnus of Sweden, who had held it for twenty years; but profiting by the difficulties of Magnus with his Norwegian subjects, after skilfully securing his own position by negotiations with Albert of Mecklenburg and the Hanseatic League, Valdemar suddenly and irresistibly invaded Scania, and by the end of 1361 all the old Danish lands, except North Holland, were recovered.
Great Britain and Prussia very properly insisted that Charles John's first duty was to them, the former power rigorously protesting against the expenditure of her subsidies on the nefarious Norwegian adventure before the common enemy had been crushed.
Recently Sars has added a Norwegian species, N.
Paulo in Brazil supplied Sars with representatives of all the three in his Norwegian aquaria, in some of which the little Macrothrix elegans " multiplied to such an extraordinary extent as at last to fill up the water with immense shoals of individuals."
PETTER DASS (1647-1708), the "father" of modern Norwegian poetry, was the son of Peter Dundas, a Scottish merchant of Dundee, who, leaving his country about 1630 to escape the troubles of the Presbyterian chursh, settled in Bergen, and in 1646 married a Norse girl of good family.
Nordlands Trompet (The Trumpet of Nordland), his greatest and most famous poem, was not published till 1739; Den norska Dale-Vise (The Norwegian Song of the Valley) appeared in 1696; the Aandelig Tidsfordriv (Spiritual Pastime), a volume of sacred poetry, was published in 1711.
Pop. (1890) 37,806; (1900) 33,111, of whom 6592 were foreign-born (including 1460 Swedish, 1176 German and 1054 Norwegian); (1910, census) 47,828.
In 1816-1817 came the Norwegian Bible Society, the Polish Bible Society and ten minor German Bible Societies.
During 1905, nine cantonal Bible societies in Switzerland circulated altogether 71,000 copies; the Netherlands Bible Society reported a circulation of 54,544 volumes, 48,137 of which were in Dutch; the Danish Bible Society circulated 45,289 copies; the Norwegian Bible Society circulated 67,058 copies; and in Sweden the Evangelical National Society distributed about 110,000 copies.
The history of the Norsemen in Dublin has been dealt with by a Norwegian writer, L.
Soon afterwards they began to make incursions against their mother-country, and on this account Harald fitted out an expedition against them, and placed Orkney, Shetland, the Hebrides and the Isle of Man under Norwegian government.
The chief seat of the Norwegian sovereignty was Colonsay.
Their history under Norwegian rule is given in the Chronica regum Manniae et insularum, edited, with learned notes, from the MS. in the British Museum by Professor P. A.
When, owing to disputes between Icelandic and Norwegian merchants, Skuli thought of a military expedition to Iceland, Snorri promised to make the inhabitants submit to Haakon of their own free will.
The later work opens with the Ynglinga Saga, a brief history of the pretended immigration into Sweden of the Aesir, of their successors in that country, the kings of Upsala, and of the oldest Norwegian kings, their descendants.
Next come the biographies of the succeeding Norwegian kings, the most detailed being those of the two missionary kings Olaf Tryggvason and St Olaf.
On his return home, he was appointed commander-in-chief on the Norwegian frontier, but could do nothing owing to the ordres, contre-ordres et desordres of his lunatic master.
Shortly after they threw their pledges to the winds and took the Norwegian Eric Bloodaxe, son of Harold Fairhair (Harald Harfagar), as their king.
In 1848 he supported Denmark against Germany; placed Swedish and Norwegian troops in cantonments in Fiinen and North Schleswig (1849-1850); and mediated the truce of Malmo (August 26th, 1848).
In early times both the archbishop of Hamburg and the archbishop of York disputed with the Norwegians ecclesiastical jurisdiction over the Orkneys and the right of consecrating bishops; but ultimately the Norwegian bishops, the first of whom was William the Old, consecrated in 1102, continued the canonical succession.
Of passenger steamship services from Hull the principal are those to the Norwegian ports, which are greatly frequented during the summer; these, with others to the ports of Sweden, &c., are in the hands of the large shipping firm of Thomas Wilson & Co.
These considerations no doubt led the Swedish and Norwegian governments, in their settlement of September 1905, to establish a " buffer " zone of 15 kilometres on either side of the frontier between the two states in question.
The prizes shall be awarded as follows: For physical science and chemistry, by the Swedish Academy of Sciences; for physiological or medical work, by the Caroline Institution at Stockholm; for literature, by the Stockholm Academy, and for peace work, by a committee of five members elected by the Norwegian Storthing.
In their turn they are pursued and harassed by crowds of beasts The Norwegian Lemming (Lemmus Norvegicus).
These sudden appearances of vast bodies of lemmings, and their singular habit of persistently pursuing the same onward course of migration, have given rise to various speculations, from the ancient belief of the Norwegian peasants, shared by Olaus Magnus, that they fall down from the clouds, to the hypothesis that they are acting in obedience to an instinct inherited from ancient times, and still seeking the congenial home in the submerged Atlantis, to which their ancestors of the Miocene period were wont to resort when driven from their ordinary dwelling-places by crowding or scarcity of food.
To these must be added a large number of Old Norse writings including the older Edda and the prose Edda (the chief authorities for Northern mythology), Islands Landnamabok and many sagas dealing with the history of families in Iceland (such as Eyrbyggia Saga) or with the lives of Norwegian and other kings, both historical and legendary (in Heimskringla, Fornmanna Sogur and Rafn's Fornaldar Sogur Norr landa).
HENRIK STEFFENS (1773-1845), German philosopher, scientist and poet, of Norwegian extraction, was born on the 2nd of May 177 3 at Stavanger, and died in Berlin on the 13th of February 1845.
The Order of the Norwegian Lion, founded in 1904 by Oscar II., has only one class; foreigners on whom the order is conferred must be sovereigns or heads of states or members of reigning houses.
The old Swedish and Norwegian missionary societies work in South Africa, Madagascar and India; but large numbers of Scandinavians have been stirred up in missionary zeal, and have gone out to China in connexion with the China Inland Mission; several were massacred in the Boxer outbreaks.
The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel (1864), the Norwegian Missionary Society (1866), and the Friends' Foreign Missionary Association joined in the work, the prosperity of which received a severe check by the French annexation in 1896.
MARIUS SOPHUS LIE (1842-1899), Norwegian mathematician, was born at Nordfjordeif, near Bergen, on the 17th of December 1842, and was educated at the university of Christiania, where he took his doctor's degree in 1868 and became extraordinary professor of mathematics (a chair created specially for him) four years later.
long, reaching from a little north of Stockholm westerly toward the Norwegian frontier, between the latitudes 59° and 61 0 N.
On the European continent, however, some hundreds of thousands of skins, principally German, Russian and Norwegian, are sold annually,.
On the 23rd of January 1904, Aalesund was the scene of one of the most terrible of the many conflagrations to which Norwegian towns, built largely of wood, have been subject.
On that occasion, apparently by way of protest against the decree of the diet of Vesteras (r 5th of January 1 544), declaring the Swedish crown hereditary in Gustavus's family, the Danish king caused to be quartered on his daughter's shield not only the three Danish lions and the Norwegian lion with the axe of St Olaf, but also "the three crowns" of Sweden.
Bergen ranks first of the Norwegian ship-owning centres, having risen to this position from fifth in 1879.
Regular steamers serve the port from Hull and Newcastle (about 40 hours), from Hamburg, and from all the Norwegian coast towns.
among them the Vinland sagas, also a Norwegian work of the 13th century, called Speculum regale (The King's Mirror), and some papal letters, give interesting glimpses of the life of this colony.
Norwegian - -, 1565 817,483 720 347,811
Amongst the best-known theodolite determinations of height are those made at Bossekop in Norway by the French Expedition of 1838-1839 (16) and the Norwegian Expedition of 1882-1883, and those made in the latter year by the Swedes at Cape Thorsden and the Danes at Godthaab.
Both genera are found off the Norwegian coast.
The unit of the Danish monetarysystem, as of the Swedish and Norwegian, is the krone (crown), equal to is.
The Norwegian aristocracy was too weak, however, seriously to endanger the Union at any time, but Sweden was, from the first, decidedly hostile to Margaret's whole policy.
There can, indeed, be no doubt that the Danish and Norwegian merchants at the end of the i 6th century flourished exceedingly, despite the intrusion and competition of the Dutch and the dangers to neutral shipping arising from the frequent wars between England, Spain and the Netherlands.
It is clear that the majority of the Norwegian people hoped that the revolution would give them an administration independent of the Danish government; but these expectations were not realised.
Till the cessation of the Union in 1814, Copenhagen continued to be the headquarters of the Norwegian administration; both kingdoms had common departments of state; and the common chancery continued to be called the Danish chancery.
In January 1661 a land commission was appointed to investigate the financial and economical conditions of the kingdoms; the fiefs were transformed into counties; the nobles were deprived of their immunity from taxation; and in July 1662 the Norwegian towns received special privileges, including the monopoly of the lucrative timber trade.
Peder Clausen (1545-1614), a Norwegian by birth and education, wrote a Description of Norway, as well as an admirable translation of Snorri Sturlason's Heimskringla, published ten years of ter Clausen's death.
Tullin, a Norwegian by birth, represents the first accession of a study of external nature in Danish poetry; he was an ardent disciple of the English poet Thomson.
This group of writers is now claimed by the Norwegians as the founders of a Norwegian literature; but their true place is certainly among the Danes, to whom they primarily appealed.
In theology Christian Bastholm (1740-1819) and Nicolai Edinger Balle (1744-1816), bishop of Zealand, a Norwegian by birth, demand a reference.
But the only really great prose-writer of the period was the Norwegian, Niels Treschow (1751-1833), whose philosophical works are composed in an admirably lucid style, and are distinguished for their depth and originality.
Two intimate friends, Jonas Rein (1760-1821) and Jens Zetlitz (1761-1821), attempted, with indifferent success, to continue the tradition of the Norwegian group. Thomas Thaarup (1749-1821) was a fluent and eloquent writer of occasional poems, and of homely dramatic idylls.
In 1802 he happened to meet the young Norwegian Henrik Steffens (1773-1845), who had just returned from a scientific tour in Germany, full of the doctrines of Schelling.
This word represents the Old Norwegian heill, prosperity, cognate with O.
In the vicinity is the island Hanko, the most fashionable Norwegian seaside resort.
All Mercia south of a line from Dore (near Sheffield), through Whitwell to the Humber, was now in Edmund's hands, and the five Danish boroughs, which had for some time been exposed to raids from the Norwegian kings of Northumbria, were now freed from that fear.
1; this is called bastard sawing, and is the most Norwegian timber is stencilled with the shipper's initials in blue letters painted on the ends.
It is the seat of a state hospital for the insane (1887) with about 1600 patients, of a business college, of the Park Region Luther College (Norwegian Lutheran, 1892), and of the North-western College (Swedish Lutheran; opened in 1901).
The so-called "Norwegian anchovies" imported into England in little wooden kegs are nothing but sprats pickled in brine with bay-leaves and whole pepper.
- The eastern party decided to return with news of the Norwegian expedition to Cape Evans, and then to proceed as a northern party to some point beyond Cape North, but this also proved unattainable, and a landing had to be made at Cape Adare on Feb.
On the Norwegian side the Cambrian is perhaps represented by the Roros schists which lie at the base of a great series of crystalline schists, the probable equivalent of Ordovician and Silurian rocks.
The Norwegian Government has arranged for depots of food to be laid on the N.
his Popular Astronomy (1878) which has been translated into German, Russian, Norwegian, Czech, Dutch and Japanese, his Astronomy for Schools and Colleges (1880), written in conjunction with Professor E.
short of reaching the head of Norwegian Lyngen-fjord; then it runs south-east and north-east down the Tana and Pasis-joki, but does not reach the Artic Ocean, and 13 m.
The whole building, however, had been extensively and judiciously restored, and is the finest church in Norway and the scene of the coronation of the Norwegian sovereigns.
The port, which has regular communication with all the Norwegian coast towns - Hull, Newcastle, Hamburg, &c. - carries on an extensive trade in timber, oil, fish, copper, &c. The industries include shipbuilding, sawmilling, wood-pulp and fish-curing works and machine shops.
This is mainly occupied by Djurgarden (the deer-park), a beautiful park containing the buildings of the northern museum, a collection of Scandinavian costumes and domestic and agricultural utensils, and a biological museum housed in a wooden building imitating the early Norwegian timber churches (stavekirke).
The first was in answer to the question "Whether man's free will can be proved from self-consciousness," proposed by the Norwegian Academy of Sciences at Drontheim.
On April 12 he sailed for Ireland in a German submarine, which was accompanied by a vessel, laden with arms and ammunition, and purporting to be the Norwegian s.s.
are coastal, the Norwegian frontier is 1030 m., and the Finnish 333 m.
branch drains various small lakes on the Norwegian frontier, and in its lower course passes through the beautiful Lake Siljan.
The islands of the skargard as a whole are rugged and picturesque, though never lofty like many of those off the Norwegian coast.
The government works the trunk lines from Stockholm to Malmo, to Gothenburg and to Christiania as far as the Norwegian frontier, and other important through routes in the south.
In Norrland the deposits at Gellivara have long been worked, with the assistance of a railway to the Bothnian port of Lulea, but in 1903 the northern railway was completed across the Norwegian frontier to Narvik on Ofoten Fjord, and the vast deposits at the hills of Kirunavara and Luossavara began to be worked.
On the west coast north of Gothenburg are Stromstad, near the Norwegian frontier, and Uddevalla, on a deep inlet behind the island of Orust, 35 m.
In the year 1 000, when the Norwegian king was in Pomerania, a coalition was formed between the king of Sweden, Sweyn Forkbeard, king of Denmark, and earl Eric of Lade, and the allies waylaid their enemy off the coast near Riigen and overthrew him in Reign of the great sea-battle of Svolder.
Some years later we hear of hostilities between Olaf Skottkonung and another Norwegian prince, Olaf Haraldsson (the Fat), who raided Sweden and was besieged in the Malar by the Swedish king.
Gustavus could not accept as primate an open and Eric and of the Norwegian princess Ingeborg, determined traitor like Trolle.
The differences between the two states were finally adjusted by the peace of Copenhagen (May 27, 1660), Denmark ceding the three Scanian provinces to Sweden but receiving back the Norwegian province of Trondhjem and the isle of Bornholm which she had surrendered by the peace of Roskilde two years previously.
On the 2nd of April the king ordered a general levy of 30,000 men; but while two army corps, under Armfelt and Toll, together with a British contingent of Io,000 men under Moore, were stationed in Scania and on the Norwegian border in anticipation of an attack from Denmark, which, at the instigation of Napoleon, had simultaneously declared war against Sweden, the little Finnish army was left altogether unsupported.
When, however, the Norwegian Storthing, for the third time, passed a bill for a national or " pure " flag, which King Oscar eventually sanctioned, Count Douglas resigned in his turn and was succeeded by the Swedish minister at Berlin, Lagerheim, who managed to pilot the questions of the union into more quiet waters.
this matter should be opened with the Norwegian government, and that a joint committee, consisting of representatives from both countries, should be appointed to consider the question of a separate consular service without in any way interfering with the existing administration of the diplomatic affairs'of the two countries.
The proposal for these identical laws, which the Norwegian government in May 1904 submitted, did not meet with the approval of the Swedish government.
The latter in their reply proposed that the Swedish foreign minister should have such control over the Norwegian consuls as to prevent the latter from exceeding their authority.'
This proposal, however, the Norwegian government found unacceptable, and explained that, if such control were insisted upon, all further negotiations would be purposeless.
They maintained that the Swedish demands were incompatible with the sovereignty of Norway, as the foreign minister was a Swede and the proposed Norwegian consular service, as a Norwegian institution, could not be placed under a foreign authority.
Crown Prince Gustaf, who during the illness of King Oscar was appointed regent, took the initiative of renewing the negotiations between the two countries, and on the 5th of April in a combined Swedish and Norwegian council of state made a proposal for a reform both of the administration of diplomatic affairs and of the consular service on the basis of full equality between the two kingdoms, with the express reservation, however, of a joint foreign minister - Swedish or Norwegian - as a condition for the existence of the union.
On the 23rd of May the Norwegian Storthing passed the government's proposal for the establishment of separate Norwegian consuls, and as King Oscar, who again had resumed the reins of government, made use of his constitutional right to veto the bill, the Norwegian ministry tendered their resignation.
The king, however, declared he could not now accept their resignation, whereupon the ministry at a sitting of the Norwegian Storthing on the 7th of June placed their resignation in its hands.
The Riksdag declared that it was not opposed to negotiations being entered upon regarding the conditions for the dissolution of the union if the Norwegian Storthing, after a new election, made a proposal for the repeal of the Act of Union between the two countries, or, if a proposal to this effect was made by Norway after the Norwegian people, through a plebiscite, had declared in favour of the dissolution of the union.
of September the delegates came to an agreement, the principal points of which were: that such disputes between the two countries which could not be settled by direct diplomatic negotiations, and which did not affect the vital interests of either country, should be referred to the permanent court of arbitration at the Hague, that on either side of the southern frontier a neutral zone of about fifteen kilometres width should be established, and that within eight months the fortifications within the Norwegian part of the zone should be destroyed.
An offer from the Norwegian Storthing to elect a prince of the Swedish royal house as king in Norway was declined by King Oscar, who now on behalf of himself and his successors renounced the right to the Norwegian crown.
The collection of rhymed romances which bears the name of Queen Euphemia's Songs must have been written before the death of the Norwegian queen in 1312.
These are English philosophy in the writings of Herbert Spencer, French realism in the practice and the preaching of Zola, Norwegian drama mainly through Ibsen, and Danish criticism in the essays and monographs of Georg Brandes.
In the case of sea-fishes it is becoming increasingly recognized that the millions of cod fry which are annually turned out of the American, Newfoundland and Norwegian hatcheries are but an insignificant fraction of the billions of fry which are naturally produced.
A new era of scientific exploration began in 1868, while Norwegian seahunters brought in valuable geographical information.
In 1870 the Norwegian Captain Johannesen penetrated as far as 79° E., in 76° 13' N., and afterwards accomplished the second circumnavigation of Novaya Zemlya.
The Norwegian law of the later middle ages provided definitely that.
Instead, the soft clam, Mya arenaria, a Lamellibranch not used by English or Norwegian fishermen, though abundant on their shores, is employed as bait by the fishermen to the extent of 14 million bushels per annum, valued at £120,000.
Eight years later (October 24th, 153 r) he attempted to recover his kingdoms, but a tempest scattered his fleet off the Norwegian coast, and on the 1st of July 1532, by the convention of Oslo, he surrendered to his rival, King Frederick, and for the next 27 years was kept in solitary confinement, first in the Blue Tower at Copenhagen and afterwards at the castle of Kabendborg.
This is of Old Norwegian origin, and seems to have meant "landed possessions."
There is also another Old Norwegian leith, a court or judicial assembly, and modern Danish has laegd, a division of the country for military purposes.
A formal claim was laid before the Norwegian king Haakon.
The passenger traffic to the Norwegian ports, always very heavy in summer, is carried on chiefly from Hull and Newcastle.
One of the permanently striped colts, a bay, was out of a black Shetland mare by a black Shetland sire, one was by a dun Norwegian pony out of a roan-coloured Arab mare, while the third was by a Norwegian pony out of a half-bred bay Arab mare.
(1893); D.C.Danielssen, "Report Norwegian North Atlantic Exploring Expedition," Zoology, xix.
At any rate England was as helpless as the Empire when first the Danish and Norwegian galleys began to cross the North Sea, and to beat down both sides of Britain seeking for prey.
Nevertheless ~lthelred for a second time stooped to pay tribute, and bought the departure of Dane and Norwegian with 16,ooo pounds of silver.
either one or both parents were foreign-born - and 576,746 were of German, 134,293 of Norwegian, 76,593 of Irish and 70,585 of Polish parentage, both on the father's and on the mother's side.
The Lutheran bodies ranked next with 284,286 members (including 253,690 of the Evangelical church, 49,535 of the United Norwegian church, 23,927 of the Synod for the Norwegian Evangelical church, 15,471 of the Evangelical Lutheran Joint Synod of Ohio, 15,22015,220 of the Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Iowa and 8695 of the General Council).
into the sea, and is composed of Norwegian granite and Belgian limestone, strengthened at intervals by projecting jetties of piles and fascines.
Although the country is approximately comprised within the latitudes of Sicily and Lyons, it has a south Norwegian January and a Persian summer.
The Norwegian portion is thus insignificant; of the Russian only a little lies south of the Arctic circle, and the whole is less accessible and more sparsely populated than the Swedish, the southern boundary of which may be taken arbitrarily at about 64° N., though scattered families of Lapps occur much farther south, even in the Hardanger Fjeld in Norway.
The heads of the Swedish valleys are connected with the Norwegian fjords by passes generally traversed only by tracks; though from the head of the Ume a driving road crosses to Mo on Ranen Fjord.
Their working is facilitated by the railway from Stockholm to Gellivara, Kirunavara and Narvik on the Norwegian coast, which also connects them with the port of Lulea, on the Gulf of Bothnia.
Though fruit-trees will not bear there is an abundance of edible berries; the rivers and lakes abound with trout, perch, pike and other fish, and in the lower waters with salmon; and the cod, herring, halibut and Greenland shark in the northern seas attract numerous Norwegian and Russian fishermen.
In the spring they go down to the Norwegian coast and take part in the sea fisheries, returning to the lake about midsummer.
The lines in which James Thomson describes their simple life The reindeer form their riches: these their tents, Their robes, their beds, and all their homely wealth Supply; their wholesome fare and cheerful cups are still applicable in the main to the mountain Lapps; but even they have learned to use coffee as an ordinary beverage and to wear stout Norwegian cloth (vadmal).
In Russian Lapland alone there are three, due to the influence of Norwegian, Karelian and Russian (Lonnrot, Ada Soc. Sci.
By the peace of Kna.red (1613) Gustavus Adolphus gave up the Swedish claim to Finmark; and in 1751 mutual renunciations brought the relations of Swedish and Norwegian (Danish) Lapland to their present position.
The majority of the Norwegian Lapps lead a semi-nomadic existence; but the number of inveterate nomads can scarcely reach 1500 at the present day.
Qvigstad; a dictionary (1890) and two grammars (1891 and 1897) of the Lulea dialect, and a chrestomathy of Norwegian Lappish (1894), by K.
Halasz; and a grammar of Norwegian Lappish (1882), by S.
It was not until 1840 that the New Testament was translated into Norwegian Lappish, and not until 1895 that the entire Bible was printed in the same dialect.
The first disputes about the jurisdiction of the clergy were moved by Gudmund in the 13th century, bringing on a civil war, while the questions of patronage and rights over glebe and mortmainland occupied Bishop Arni and his adversaries fifty years afterwards, when the land was under Norwegian viceroys and Norwegian law.
They are abridgments made in Norway by Icelanders for their Norwegian patrons, the Life of St Olaf alone being preserved intact, for the great interest of the Norwegians lay in him, but all the other Kings' Lives being more or less mutilated, so that they cannot be trusted for historic purposes; nor do they give a fair idea of Snorri's style.
As the only Icelandic abridgment of Norwegian history taken not from Snorri but sources now lost, it is of worth.
The saga has already been shown in two forms, its original epic shape and its later development applied to the lives of Norwegian and Danish kings and earls, as heroic but deeper and broader subjects than before.
The Norwegian kings, Haakon Haakonson (c. 12 2 5), and Haakon V.
1 334), and the geography of Ivar Bardsson, a Norwegian (c. 1340), are of course of foreign origin.
The numerous editions of the classics by the Icelandic societies, the Danish Societe des Antiquites, Nordiske Litteratur Samfund, and the new Gammel Nordisk Litteratur Samfund, the splendid Norwegian editions of Unger, the labours of the Icelanders Sigurdsson and Gislason, and of those foreign scholars in Scandinavia and Germany who have thrown themselves into the work of illustrating, publishing and editing the sagas and poems (men like P. A.
This school is very dissimilar from the half-romantic school of Jonas Hallgrimsson; it is nearer the national Icelandic school represented by Pall Olafsson and porsteinn Erlingsson, but differs from those writers by introducing foreign elements hitherto unknown in Icelandic literature, and - especially in the case of the prose-writers - by imitating closely the style and manner of some of the great Norwegian novelists.
Other distinguished philologists are his successor as head of the Latin school, Bjorn Magnusson Olsen (Researches on Sturlunga, Ari the Wise, The Runes in the Old Icelandic Literature - the last two works in Danish); Finnur Jonsson, professor at the University of Copenhagen (History of the Old Norwegian and Icelandic Literature, in Danish, and excellent editions of many old Icelandic classical works); and Valtyr Guc?mundsson, lecturer at the University of Copenhagen (several works on the old architecture of Scandinavia) and editor of the influential Icelandic literary and political review, Eimre151n (" The Locomotive ").
It appears that about the beginning of the 9th century Grim Kamban, a Norwegian emigrant who had left his country to escape the tyranny of Harold Haarfager, settled in the islands.
He introduced Christianity, and, though he was subsequently murdered, Norwegian supremacy was upheld, and continued till 1386, when the islands were transferred to Denmark.
Numbers of them fled to Iceland, which grew into an independent commonwealth, while the Scottish isles fell under Norwegian rule.
It seems probable that his Norwegian name was Thorgils and he was possibly related to Godf red, father of Olaf the White, who figures prominently in Irish history a little later.
In 1866 the Norwegian Lutheran Society began work in Madagascar, and was joined in 1888 by an American Lutheran Society.
Besides care for the sick in ordinary diseases, asylums for lepers were for many years carried on; two by the London Missionary Society, one, a large one, with 800 or 900 inmates, by the Norwegian Society, and another by the Roman Catholic mission.
In Minneapolis are the Minneapolis College of Physicians and Surgeons (1883), the medical school of Hamline University; Augsburg Seminary (Norwegian Lutheran, 1869), the United Church Seminary (1890), the Minnesota College (Swedish, 1905), the Minneapolis Normal School for Kindergartners, the Froebellian Kindergarten Normal School, Graham Hall and Stanley Hall, the Minneapolis School of Music, Oratory and Dramatic Art, and the Northwestern Conservatory of Music. Between Minneapolis and St Paul are the main buildings of Hamline University (Methodist Episcopal, co-educational, 1854).
From 1152 to 1154 Nicholas was in Scandinavia as legate, organizing the affairs of the new Norwegian archbishopric of Trondhjern, and making arrangements which resulted in the recognition of Upsala as seat of the Swedish metropolitan in 1164.
It is practically united with Karl-Johansvaern, which is defended by strong fortifications, is the headquarters of the Norwegian fleet, and possesses an arsenal and shipbuilding yards.
Her lays were translated into Norwegian 2 by order of Haakon IV.; and Thomas Chestre, who is generally supposed to have lived in the reign of Henry VI., gave a version of Lanval.
5 (1907); The Norwegian North-Polar Expedition, iii.
The buildings of the Pacific College were erected here by the United Norwegian Lutheran Church in 1908.
hemp; Danish and Norwegian, hamp; Icelandic, hampr; and in Swed.
Gathering together a reconnaissance team, MacReady investigates the now desolate Norwegian camp to ascertain the source of their madness.
The bourse Director believes that Norway already has the prerequisites for building up a Norwegian or Scandinavian energy bourse.
Norwegian Caribbean cruises or call the you in selecting.
The Norwegian police caught five members of the hit squad and the subsequent court case exposed Mossad's murderous campaign.
wife Cathy to in separate pursuits golf program or shipping norwegian princess.
chile Peru and ecuador gone through the america norwegian princess.
christened at the Norwegian church nearby.
However, he has not been granted Norwegian citizenship.
To do so an EEA permit is required, which the Norwegian directorate of Immigration (UDI) issue.
Arrival in Britain The Norwegian elkhound arrived in England toward the end of the 19th century.
The Swedish and Norwegian Kennel Clubs again agreed a common standard for the gray Norwegian elkhound in 1937.
Norwegian cat fanciers in Norway worked very hard to preserve this breed by introducing a very strict breeding program me.
Banff Strike Wing Memorial Mosquito from Banff attacking shipping in Norwegian fiord, Spring 1945 Gp.
Take in the majesty of the Norwegian fjords or the newly offered Croatian Coast or the variety of Greek Islands.
A Norwegian freighter ' The Tampa ' received the distress calls from the Australian Coast Guard and picked up the refugees.
embedded internationalisms: building trans-national solidarity networks in the British and Norwegian trade union movements.
The norwegian star helped to bring rim trail ironwood.
European Bloc Eurosystem currencies plus the Danish krone, the Swedish krona, the Norwegian krone, the Greek drachma and the Swiss franc.
The Norwegian krone also continues to rise against the euro and dollar.
The traveling party is organized by Cook's Travel Agency, assisted by the Norwegian legation.
The Norwegian Leo are keeping alive hawaii cruise golf vacation the windows of with the breeze.
General Physical Description The Norwegian Forest Cat is a large but elegant breed with a semi longhair coat.
migrate northwards to the Norwegian Sea for the summer.
Published in the 1950s These contain lots of embroidery transfers as well as some knitting patterns: (See, Norwegian mittens!
neutered male, 20 months old, Norwegian Forest cat.
area onlookers onshore specific ship the new offers are norwegian cruise line.
parliamentarians of the Norwegian right-wing party of Progress think.
The sole survivor of the ancient Celtic line was an infant Norwegian princess.
He won several medals in relay races in the Norwegian Championships of 2000 to 2002.
I cycled with a Norwegian flag on my large rucksack.
I come also as a delegate from the Norwegian party to offer fraternal salutations.
In Norwegian scabies large numbers of mites exist in exfoliating scales.
scaloppine veal us discounts on shipping norwegian orient.
As a result of the attack a Norwegian seaman was wounded in the left arm.
septal closure is not confined to the Norwegian study  .
Henie and her third husband, the Norwegian shipowner Niels Onstad, the Henie Onstad Art Center, near Oslo.
The object of the operation was to attack enemy shipping in the area between Sogne Fjord and the Grip Light off the Norwegian coast.
For Norwegian GPs, a putative diagnosis of acute sinusitis is likely to be correct 63% of the time.
An airplane norwegian sojourn through the expanse alaska cruise hawaii of ocean a thatched teahouse.
Lorraine visit the Fresh Air studio Posted October 26th, 2006 by Tim Johns Lorraine are a Norwegian indie pop three-piece.
The Norwegian Forest cat is known for its dense, rich fur with a wooly undercoat covered by long, coarse guard hairs.
The massive boulder situated a short distance west of the Ross Theater is a gift from the Norwegian people.
The Norwegian whalers introduced deer to the Island many years ago.
The Danish sandeel fishery and the Norwegian pout fishery take many thousands of tons of cod and other whitefish as by-catch.
(A word found in Old English and Old Norwegian, from which come the Danish and Swedish words, and not in other Teutonic languages), originally a company of people, now mainly, except in figurative usages, of certain animals when gathered together for feeding or moving from place to place.
The three remaining Norwegian kings of this name are persons of minor importance '(see' NORWAY: History).
In the case of the Gulf Stream, which is not much impeded by the land, this descending motion is relatively slight, being perhaps largely due to the greater specific gravity of the water; it ceases to be perceptible beyond about 500 fathoms. On the European-African side the descending movement is more marked, partly because the coast-line is much more irregular and the northward current is deflected against it by the earth's rotation, and partly because of the outflow of salt water from the Mediterranean; here the movement is traceable to at least 1000 fathoms. The northward movement of water across the Norwegian Sea extends down from the surface to the IcelandShetland ridge, where it is sharply cut off; the lower levels of the Norwegian Sea are filled with ice-cold Arctic water, close down to the ridge.
The configuration of the continental slope has been treated in detail by Nansen in Scientific Results of Norwegian North Polar Expedition, vol.
MAN, Isle Of.) A Norwegian diocese of Sodor had been in existence previously, but its history is obscure, and the first union of Man with it in 1098 by Magnus Barefoot is only traditional.
S.S.E.), besides executing a considerable portion of the preliminary works for the continuation of the line on the Norwegian side from Ofoten Fjord upwards (see Narvik).
Greenland belonged to the Norwegian crown till 1814, when, at the dissolution of the union between Denmark and Norway, neither it nor Iceland and the Faeroes were mentioned, and they, therefore, were kept by the Danish king and thus came to Denmark.
It is the seat of the Baker School for Nervous and Backward Children, a private institution; of St Olaf College (Norwegian Lutheran), founded in 1874; and of Carleton College (founded in 1866 by Congregationalists but now non-sectarian, opened in 1870), one of the highest grade small colleges in the West, and the first in the North-west to abolish its preparatory academy.
m.) with depths down to 2200 fathoms. A rise between Spitsbergen and Greenland separates the Norwegian Trough (greatest depth 2005 fathoms in 68Ã‚° 21' N., 2Ã‚° 5' W.) which in turn is divided from the Atlantic by the Wyville Thomson Ridge which runs between the Faeroe and Shetland islands and is covered by only 314 fathoms of water at the deepest point.
In other enclosed seas which are shut off from the ocean by a very shallow sill the rule holds good that the homothermic water below the level of the sill is at the lowest temperature reached by the surface water in the coldest season of the year, provided always that the stratification of salinity is such as to permit of convection being set up. To this group belongs the Arctic Sea; the Norwegian Sea is homothermic below J50 fathoms at 29.8Ã‚° F., but this cold water does not penetrate into the Arctic Basin on account of the ridge between Spitsbergen and Greenland, and there the water below 1400 fathoms has a temperature of 30 6Ã‚° to 30.7Ã‚° F.
Alexander next attempted Ã¯¿½ to seduce Ewen, the son of Duncan, lord of Argyll, from his allegiance to the Norwegian king.
Snorri is the author of the great prose Edda (see Edda), and of the Heimskringla or Sagas of the Norwegian Kings, a connected series of biographies of the kings of Norway down to Sverri in 1177.
long, reaching from a little north of Stockholm westerly toward the Norwegian frontier, between the latitudes 59Ã‚° and 61 0 N.
The extraordinary details of this dramatic struggle will be found elsewhere (see FREDERICK III., king of Denmark, and Charles X., king of Sweden); suffice it to say that by the peace of Roskilde (February 26, 1658), Denmark consented to cede the three Scanian provinces, the island of Bornholm and the Norwegian provinces of Baahus and Trondhjem; to renounce all anti-Swedish alliances and to exempt all Swedish [[Viii.
Moreover, Great Britain and Russia very properly insisted that Charles John's first duty was to the anti-Napoleonic coalition, the former power vigorously objecting to the expenditure of her subsidies on the nefarious Norwegian adventure before the common enemy had been crushed.
In 1870 the Norwegian Captain Johannesen penetrated as far as 79Ã‚° E., in 76Ã‚° 13' N., and afterwards accomplished the second circumnavigation of Novaya Zemlya.
The Norwegian portion is thus insignificant; of the Russian only a little lies south of the Arctic circle, and the whole is less accessible and more sparsely populated than the Swedish, the southern boundary of which may be taken arbitrarily at about 64Ã‚° N., though scattered families of Lapps occur much farther south, even in the Hardanger Fjeld in Norway.
And scaloppine veal us discounts on shipping norwegian orient.
New migraine after septal closure is not confined to the Norwegian study [8 ].
Petter Solberg (Subaru) held fifth, a remarkable position considering the Norwegian crashed heavily in the final shakedown test yesterday morning.
Recent environmental surveys along the Norwegian coast indicate a six-fold increase in technetium concentrations in seaweed since 1996.
Included were a number of Norwegian seamen who had been torpedoed by a German submarine in the area.
There are many legends about the origins of the breed ranging from them being the remnants of Marie Antoinette's pets to having a Norwegian Forest Cat ancestor.
The version is available in the following languages: Chinese Simplified, Dutch, English, French, German, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Norwegian, Polish, Russian, Spanish, and Swedish.
The Norwegian company is one of the world leaders in cross-country ski design.
In the 1200 AD Battle of Oslo, Norwegian soldiers used skis to spy on their Swedish enemies.
This Northern Norwegian recreational ski race was held in a town called Tromso.
A Norwegian painter who helped develop expressionism, most of Munch's work is centered on anxiety, sadness, and mourning, basing much of his art on his early childhood experiences of losing both parents and two siblings.
Her father is a German medical services executive from Hamburg and her Norwegian mother once owned an art gallery.
Norwegian Cruise Line is one of the most innovative of the mainstream cruise lines.
For vacationers who prefer a relaxed experience, Norwegian Cruise Line is the only way to cruise.
With just over a dozen ships and more additions planned, the Norwegian fleet is small but distinctive.
Norwegian ships offer two types of experiences: older vessels operate with a more intimate feel, while the more modern, newer ships are comparable to any of the other mainstream lines, including Carnival and Royal Caribbean.
In recent years, all of the fleet's older vessels have undergone extensive renovations to expand passenger services and amenities, and today Norwegian Cruise Line is rapidly becoming one of the most popular cruise lines in the world.
Norwegian's smallest ship, the Norwegian Crown, is also the fleet's oldest, originally launched in 1988 and refurbished in 2003.
The small vessel can accommodate just over 1,000 passengers, which pales in comparison to the newest ships in the Norwegian fleet, the Norwegian Star and the Norwegian Dawn, both of which easily serve over 2,200 passengers.
Norwegian Cruise Line is based in Miami, FL, but sails from a wide variety of ports, including Baltimore, MD; New York, NY; New Orleans, LA; Boston, MA; Los Angeles, CA; and Honolulu, HI.
This range of departure ports makes Norwegian Cruise Line a viable option for passengers across the country, with cruise itineraries ranging from Bermuda and Bahamas voyages to both Alaskan and Hawaiian journeys.
Décor varies among Norwegian's ships and includes both traditional seafaring elements (cherry-wood trim and brass and chrome fittings) as well as modern glitz (vibrant, tropical-colored carpeting and art deco touches).
The most interesting decorating touch on the Pride of America, the Norwegian Dawn, and the Pride of Aloha are the colorful murals that decorate the ships' hulls.
From its widely varied departure ports, Norwegian Cruise Line offers a wide variety of vacation itineraries.
In fact, Norwegian has cornered the market on Hawaiian cruises and is the only mainstream line that currently offers year-round Hawaiian itineraries, with seven-, ten-, and eleven-night voyages.
Norwegian Cruise Line prides itself on offering passengers the widest variety of choices of any mainstream cruise line.
Norwegian's biggest innovation is its dining organization.
Like other mainstream cruise lines, Norwegian ships offer several casual options, including pizzerias, ice cream, and 24-hour room service.
The most popular culinary event on Norwegian ships, however, is the Chocoholic Extravaganza Buffet, which features more cocoa than anyone could consume, from brownies and tortes to elaborate masterpiece cakes and chocolate-covered treats.
Every evening, Norwegian passengers are treated to excellent entertainment, from soloists and comedians to revue shows and abridged drama productions.
Norwegian also offers several passenger-participation shows, such as the "Star Seeker" talent show program that operates with the same principles as the popular television show American Idol.
Numerous pools and hot tubs are available on all Norwegian Cruise Line ships, allowing passengers to relax in the sun no matter where the ship may be headed next.
Naturally, the largest ships also offer the largest number of onboard activities, but there is no lack of options aboard any Norwegian ship.
One unique opportunity offered aboard several Norwegian vessels is the opportunity for snorkeling demonstrations in the pool - a great option for guests planning on snorkeling during a tropical shore excursion.
As more and more families opt to try cruising during school holidays and summer vacations, Norwegian Cruise Line continues to expand its repertoire of children's programs.
One unique feature presented by Norwegian Cruise Line is that children receive their own daily newsletter detailing the day's children's events.
This eliminates potential problems with foreign accents and misunderstood communication, though Norwegian continues to hold all its crew members to exemplary standards of service.
The most frequent complaint about each of Norwegian's ships is the smaller-than-average cabin size.
A small cruise line now gaining in both size and popularity, Norwegian Cruise Line is rapidly becoming one of the most distinctive mainstream cruise lines in the world.
From spectacular hull artwork to innovative freestyle options, any Norwegian cruise is certain to be a unique and memorable experience.
The mainstream lines (typical glitzy vessels and megaships) offering southern routes include Carnival, Royal Caribbean, Norwegian, Celebrity and Princess.
Norwegian Cruise Line: The relaxed freestyle cruising atmosphere aboard Norwegian's ships is perfect for families with multiple children who need greater flexibility with their vacation plans.
Most major cruise lines, including Carnival, Norwegian, and Princess, have gradually increased ship sizes in recent years.
Los Angeles and nearby Long Beach are the Miami of the west coast, offering a wide range of cruise options from all major lines, including mainstream Carnival, Royal Caribbean, Norwegian Cruise Line, Princess, and Holland America.
The Pride of America is the ship you will be traveling on under the Norwegian Cruise Line.
Norwegian Cruise Line offers a variety of destination wedding packages from New Orleans to the Caribbean with various amenities, priced from under one hundred dollars per stateroom to over three hundred dollars per stateroom.
All Norwegian Cruises wedding packages include consultation with a wedding coordinator, ceremony, officiant, ceremony music, wedding cake for bride and groom and wine or champagne, a keepsake marriage certificate, and photography services.
Norwegian Cruise Line: The simple letters "NCL" floating atop gentle waves are a prominent feature of Norwegian Cruises.
Fewer than a dozen such voyages are usually offered annually, and the larger cruise companies such as Norwegian Cruise Line, Carnival Cruise Line, and Holland America Cruise Line are among the lines that offer these unique sailings.
Norwegian Cruise Line offers all-inclusive wedding ceremony packages for Alaskan cruises.
You will have a traditional Norwegian Christmas dinner, enjoy gifts from Santa, and get to explore Antarctica.
Norwegian Cruise Line operates a full schedule of cruises throughout the Christmas and New Years timeframe including locations like Hawaii, the Caribbean, and others.
Norwegian Cruises - The ship called the Pride of America has family suites equipped with a den, living room and a bedroom.
The Norwegian Dream has a fuel capacity of 1,150 metric tons which converts to 354,144 gallons.
Some of the major cruise lines are Norwegian Cruise Line, Carnival Cruise Line, and Holland America Cruise Line.
Norwegian Cruise Line offers two-night cruises departing from Los Angeles, California.
You might also find a one-night dinner and dancing cruise on Norwegian Cruise Line for as low as $149 each for interior rooms.
Both the Norwegian Gem and Norwegian Jewel depart from New York Harbor on scenic cruises to nowhere.
The trips depart Friday afternoon and return Saturday morning aboard the Norwegian Gem.
You could also enjoy a two-night getaway aboard the Norwegian Jewel.
In addition, deals can be found through Affordable Tours, which offers a variety of Bahamas cruises, including the affordable Norwegian Cruise Lines.
Norwegian Cruise Line, Carnival Cruise Line, and Holland America Cruise Line are among the larger cruise companies that offer these unique sailings.
Be one of the first to travel on the luxurious Norwegian Epic.
Debuting in summer 2010, the newest luxury ship in the Norwegian fleet is scheduled to offer seven-day Mediterranean cruises in Summer 2011 and thereafter.
Norwegian Cruise Line has somewhat of a monopoly on this itinerary, as it is the only American-flagged ship sailing the Hawaiian Islands.
As of April 2010, Norwegian is the only cruise line permitted to offer intra-island sailings.
Norwegian Cruise Lines also offers Hawaii cruises that travel from the northern tip of the state to the southernmost island.
The New York City port is home to Carnival Cruise Lines and to Norwegian Cruise Lines.
Norwegian Cruise Lines offers an bluegrass cruise to Alaska once a year, departing from Seattle.
It's a seven-day cruise aboard the Norwegian Star.
Cruise lines offering a longer stay include Norwegian Cruise Lines, Holland America and Celebrity Cruises.
Norwegian Cruise Lines: Norwegian Cruise Line offers a 15-day cruise from Los Angeles to Miami that travels through the Panama Canal and stops in Key West for a day excursion.
The popular Norwegian Cruise Line offers a number of higher end cruises for those who want luxury.
This cruise, on board the Norwegian Sky, includes stops in Nassau, Grand Bahama Island and Great Stirrup Cay.
For those on the west coast, consider the Los Angeles to Vancouver cruise onboard the Norwegian Jewel.
The cruise features stops in Marseille, Palma and Majorca as well in four days on board the Norwegian Epic.
The options available for Norwegian Cruise Lines can change frequently.
For an updated list of available cruises, visit the Norwegian Cruise Line website.
Be sure to check out popular tracks like Norwegian Echoes and The Caterpillar.
This form of scabies, with its major infestation, is referred to as crusted scabies or Norwegian scabies.
"Sen" was added to a Danish or Norwegian father's name.
My sea experience is over 15 years, including work with Norwegian crew.
Lefse griddles are used to cook a mixture of water, potatoes, and other simple ingredients to create a crepe-like food based on Norwegian cooking.
Lefse is the Norwegian version of a tortilla.
Besides tools, you can also purchase Norwegian calendars and recipe books.
In addition, Paraboot shoes for men and women are made using either Goodyear or Norwegian welted construction.
For instance, Interweave Knitting has a free pattern which includes illustrated instructions for the Norwegian Cast On and Kitchener Stitch used to graft the toes of the socks.
That's why some of the crew members call the Opilio crab "Norwegian Dollars."
Neutrogena Norwegian Formula Hand Cream is a less-than-$10 miracle worker for some of the most extreme cases of dry hands.
Neutrogena Norwegian Formula Hand Cream is worth another mention for those who need a hand lotion for sensitive skin or skin prone to eczema flare-ups.
Though it's listed as a cream, it isn't greasy like the Norwegian Formula Hand Cream that is also from Neutrogena.
And in particular 1-e told of the remarkable voyage of Other, a Norwegian of Helgelsnd, who was the first authentic Arctic explorer, the first to tell of the rounding of the North Cape and the sight of the midnight sun.
This voyage of the middle of the 9th century deserves to be held in happy memory, for it unites the first Norwegian polar explorer with the first English collector of travels.
The most important were: the Australian Antarctic expedition of 1911-4 under Sir Douglas Mawson; the Danish Oceanographical expeditions in the Mediterranean and adjacent seas of 1908-10; a short cruise made by Sir John Murray and Dr. Johan Hjort in the Norwegian Fishery exploring vessel " Michael Sars " in 1910, the general results of which were published as The Depths of the Ocean (1912) by the leaders of the expedition; and a short special cruise made by the " Scotia " in 1913 (after the loss of the " Titanic ") under the leadership of Dr. Matthews, which made observations upon the distribution of ice in the North Atlantic.
This confederacy of 937 was joined by Constantine, king of Scotland, the Welsh of Strathclyde, and the Norwegian chieftains Anlaf Sihtricsson and Anlaf Godfredsson, who, though they came from Ireland, had powerful English connexions.
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