The oak requires shelter in the early stages of growth; in England the Scotch pine is thought best for this purpose, though Norway spruce answers as well on suitable ground, and larch and other trees are sometimes substituted.
The most important of the firs, in an economic sense, is the Norway spruce (Picea excelsa), so well known in British plantations, though rarely attaining there the gigantic height and grandeur of form it often displays in its native woods.
The boughs and their side-branches, as they increase in length, have a tendency to droop, the lower tier, even in large trees, often sweeping the ground - a habit that, with the jagged sprays, and broad, shadowy, wave-like foliage-masses, gives a peculiarly graceful and picturesque aspect to the Norway spruce.
- Norway Spruce (Picea excelsa).
In the most prevalent variety of the Norway spruce the wood is white, apt to be very knotty when the tree has grown in an open place, but, as produced in the close northern forests, often of fine and even grain.
By the peasantry of its native countries the Norway spruce is applied to innumerable purposes of daily life.
The Norway spruce seems to have been the "Picea" of Pliny, but is evidently often confused by the Latin writers with their "Abies," the Abies pectinate of modern botanists.
pectinate), may be taken as the type, - a lofty tree, rivalling the Norway spruce in size, with large spreading horizontal boughs curving upward toward the extremities.
The larch is said not to succeed on arable land, especially where corn has been grown, but experience does not seem to support this view; that against the previous occupation of the ground by Scotch fir or Norway spruce is probably better founded, and, where timber is the object, it should not be planted with other conifers.
above the sea, the limit of the luxuriant growth of that hardy conifer in Britain; and in moist valleys or on imperfectly drained acclivities Norway spruce is more suitable.
The white fir, or Norway spruce (Abies excelsa), is exported fro Russia, Sweden and Norway, where it grows in enormous quantit It is the tallest and straightest of European firs, growing with a slender trunk to a height of from 80 to 100 ft.
Porter Smith, op. cit., p. 162.) Common frankincense or thus, Abietis resina, is the term applied to a resin which exudes from fissures in the bark of the Norway spruce fir, Abies excelsa, D.C.; when melted in hot water and strained it constitutes " Burgundy pitch," Pix abietina.
The dominant species are Sitka spruce and lodgepole pine although there is some Norway spruce.
Give preference where appropriate to those species of tree which deer prefer to browse or fray, such as Norway spruce and Lodgepole pine.
The conifer forests are largely of Sitka and Norway spruce with some lodgepole pine.
Spruce Fir (Picea) - Usually stately evergreen cone-bearing trees of the northern world and mountains, including among them the common Norway Spruce and the Douglas Fir, usually doing best in moist valley soils.
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