Edwin now became king over both Northumbrian provinces.
Under Edwin the Northumbrian kingdom became the chief power in the country.
He was a learned man and a patron of scholars, and during his reign the Northumbrian kingdom partially recovered its prosperity.
After his abdication Northumbrian history degenerates into a record of dynastic murders.
He died in 894, after which date little is known of Northumbrian history for a number of years.
Aldred, the son of Eadulf, who now ruled north of the Tyne, appealed to Constantine II., king of the Scots, for help, but the Scottish and Northumbrian armies were defeated at Corbridge.
The first successful attempt to convert them was made, under the powerful protection of Pippin of Heristal, by Willebrord, a Northumbrian monk, who became, A.D.
His position was assured, at least temporarily, in 617, when he decided to espouse the cause of the Northumbrian prince Edwin, then a fugitive at his court, and defeated zEthelfrith of Northumbria on the banks of the Idle, a tributary of the Trent, in Mercian territory.
636), he defeated the advancing Britons at Bampton in Oxfordshire in 614, and Cwichelm sought to arrest the growing power of the Northumbrian king Eadwine by procuring his assassination; the attempt, however, failed, and in 626 the West Saxons were defeated in battle and forced to own Eadwine's supremacy.
The chief of these appe a r to have been Urien, who is said to have fought against the Northumbrian king Theodoric, and Rhydderch Hen who is mentioned also in Adamnan's Life of S.
In 642, however, we find the two Celtic peoples at war with one another, for in that year the Britons under their king Owen defeated and slew the Scottish king Domnall Breac. In the same year they came into conflict with the Northumbrian king Oswio.
In 649 there appears to have been a battle between the Britons and the Picts, but about this time the former must have become subject to the Northumbrian kingdom.
Towards the middle of the 8th century Strathclyde was again threatened by an alliance between the Northumbrians and Picts, and in 750 the Northumbrian king Eadberht wrested from them a considerable part of their territories in the west including Kyle in Ayrshire.
The revival of learning was at hand, and William Turner, a Northumbrian, while residing abroad to avoid persecution at home, printed at Cologne in 1544 the first commentary on the birds mentioned by Aristotle and Pliny conceived in anything like the spirit that moves modern naturalists.'
The Epistle to Egbert, though not historical in form, may be mentioned here, because of the valuable information which it contains as to the state of the Northumbrian Church, on which the disorders and revolutions of the Northumbrian kingdom had told with disastrous effect.
687), bishop of Lindisfarne, was probably a Northumbrian by birth.
In the next year Sihtric died and Ethelstan took over the Northumbrian kingdom.
Traces of Kentish speech may be detected, however, in the Textus Roffensis, the MS. of the Kentish laws, and Northumbrian dialectical peculiarities are also noticeable on some occasions, while Danish words occur only as technical terms. At the conquest, Latin takes the place of English in the compilations made to meet the demand for Anglo-Saxon law texts as still applied in practice.
The second division is formed by the convention between the English and the Welsh Dunsaetas, the law of the Northumbrian priests, the customs of the North people, the fragments of local custumals entered in Domesday Book.
His family was of Northumbrian extraction.
4.-From a probable Northumbrian Copy of the Codex Amiatinus.
Of Jerome's revision we possess at least 8000 MSS., of which the earliest may be divided (in the gospels at all events) into groups connected with various countries; the most important are the Northumbrian, Irish, Anglo-Irish and Spanish, but the first named might also be called the Italian, as it represents the text of good MSS.
The earliest in date is a Northumbrian Gloss on the Gospels, contained in a beautiful and highly interesting MS. variously known as the Durham Book, the Lindisfarne Gospels, or the Book of St Cuthbert (MS. Cotton, Nero.
Skeat, The Holy Gospels in Anglo-Saxon, Northumbrian and Old Mercian Versions (Cambridge, 1871-1887).
LElfwine, the brother of Ecgfrith, was slain on this occasion, but at the intervention of Theodore, archbishop of Canterbury, !Ethelred agreed to pay a wergild for the Northumbrian prince and so prevented further hostilities.
Pontefract, in Yorkshire, where he received from Wulfstan, archbishop of York, and the Northumbrian "witan" confirmation of their submission.
After the brief rule of Anlaf Cuaran in Northumbria, Eric was once more restored, probably in 950, only to be expelled again in 953 or 954, when Edred took the Northumbrian kingdom into his own hands.
- 690), also known as BlscoP Baducing, English churchman, was born of a good Northumbrian family and was for a time a thegn of King Oswiu.
He was followed by the East Anglian king Raedwald, and the latter again by a series of Northumbrian kings with an even wider supremacy.
Ceolwulf was succeeded in 611 by Cynegils, whose son Cwichelm provoked a Northumbrian invasion by the attempted murder of Edwin in 626.
This narrative, as written out by Adamnan, was presented to Aldfrith the Wise, last of the great Northumbrian kings, at York about 701, and came to the knowledge of Bede, who inserted a brief summary of the same in his Ecclesiastical History of the English Nation, and also drew up a separate and longer digest which obtained great popularity throughout the middle ages as a standard guide-book (the so-called Libellus de locis sanctis) to the Holy Places of Syria.
Attempt, in concert with the Northumbrian and East Anglian Danes, to conquer England.
Alfred had been on his way to relieve his son at Thorney when he heard that the Northumbrian and East Anglian Danes were besieging Exeter and an unnamed fort on the coast of North Devon.
After the final dispersal of the Danish invaders Alfred turned his attention to the increase of the navy, and ships were built according to the king's own designs, partly to repress the ravages of the Northumbrian and East Anglian Danes on the coasts of Wessex, partly to prevent the landing of fresh hordes.
The earliest extant record of the Wayland legend is the repre - sentation in carved ivory on a casket of Northumbrian workmanship of a date not later than the beginning of the 8th century.
Mar never crossed the Forth, and the command of Mackintosh, who did, was captured, with his Northumbrian cavaliers, at Preston, on the very day (12th of November) when Argyll foiled Mar in the confused battle of Sheriffmuir.
A Northumbrian or Mercian) original; and this conclusion is supported by the fact that while the poem contains one important episode relating to the Angles, the name of the Saxons does not occur in it at all.
A modern cross in the churchyard commemorates St Caedmon, the Northumbrian poet (c. 670), who was a monk at the abbey and there died.
A copy of it, in the poet's own Northumbrian dialect, and in a handwriting of the 8th century, appears ona blank page of the Moore MS. of Beeda's History; and five other Latin MSS.
Hickes, whose chief argument, based on the character of the language, is now known to be fallacious, as most of the poetry that has come down to us in the West Saxon dialect is certainly of Northumbrian origin.
It is possible that some of the rest may be the composition of the Northumbrian herdsman; but in the absence of any authenticated example of the poet's work to serve as a basis of comparison, the internal evidence can afford no ground for an affirmative conclusion.
In all probability the Genesis is of Northumbrian origin.
The poem is certainly Northumbrian and earlier than the date of Cynewulf.
He had a voice both sweet and deep-toned, and its effect was not injured by his Northumbrian burr, which, though strong, was entirely free from harshness and vulgarity."
Leeds (Loidis, Ledes) is mentioned by Bede as the district where the Northumbrian kings had a royal vill in 627, and where Oswy, king of Northumbria, defeated Penda, king of the Mercians, in 665.
Edwin thereupon succeeded to the Northumbrian throne, driving out the sons of ZEthelfrith.
The Danes captured York and overthrew the Northumbrian kingdom, setting up a puppet king of their own.
The history of the Northumbrian kingdom is yet more obscure.
Lies Athelstaneford (locally, E1shinford), so named from the victory of Hungus, king of the Picts, in the 8th century over the Northumbrian Athelstane.
655), than his whole kingdom eagerly accepted Christianity, and received missionaries, Irish and Northumbrian, from the victorious Oswio.
Essex, which had received its first bishop from Augustines hands but had relapsed into heathenism after a few years, also owed its ultimate conversion to a Northumbrian preacher, Cedd, whom Oswio lent to King Sigeberht after the latter had visited his court and been baptized, hard by the Roman wall, in 653.
England gained a spiritual unity long crc she attained a political unity, for in these meetings, which were often attended by kings as well as by prelates, Northumbrian, West Saxon.
~thelfrith, the last heathen among the Northumbrian kings, cut off the Britons of the North from those of the West, by winning the battle of Chester (AD.
He must have known, from the experience of Mercian, Northumbrian and Frankish kings, that such blackmail only bought a short respite, but the condition of his realm was such that even a moderate time for reorganization might prove valuable.
Strangely enough it was this cession of a Northumbrian earldom to the Northern king that ultimately made Scotland an Englishspeaking country.
In Denmark the younger claimant was acknowledged by the whole people, but in England the Mercian and Northumbrian earls chose Harold as king, and Wessex only fell to Harthacnut.
He put down the Scottish usurper Macbeth with the swords of a Northumbrian army, and restored Malcolm III.
The witan cbose the earl as king without any show of doubt, though the assent of the Mercian and Northumbrian earls must have been half-hearted: Not a word was said in favor of the claim of the child Edgar, the heir of the house of Alfred, nothing (of course) for the preposterous claim of William of Normandy.
After taking a few Northumbrian castles, James was brought to action at Flodden Field by the earl of Surrey (September gth, 1513).
During the early part of Oswio's reign the Northumbrian kingdom was repeatedly invaded and ravaged by the Mercians, and on one occasion (before 651) Penda besieged and almost captured the Northumbrian royal castle at Bamborough.
Mercia then came again under Northumbrian rule.