Both these kings were slain by .Ceadwalla in the following year, but shortly afterwards the Welsh king was overthrown by Oswald, brother of Eanfrith, who reunited the whole of Northumbria under his sway and acquired a supremacy analogous to that previously held by Edwin.
The Mercians, however, recovered their independence in 658, and from this time onward Northumbria played little part in the history of southern England.
He was succeeded in 705 by his son Osred, and under him and his successors Northumbria began rapidly to decline through the vices of its kings and the extravagance of their donations.
lEthelbald of Mercia seems to have taken advantage of this campaign to ravage Northumbria.
It was during his reign in 827 that Northumbria acknowledged the supremacy of Ecgberht, king of Wessex.
The southern part of Northumbria now passed entirely into the hands of the invaders, but they allowed a certain Ecgberht to reign over the portion of the kingdom north of the Tyne.
He was the last English king who reigned in Northumbria.
In the winter of 874-875 Healfdene returned to Northumbria, which he partitioned among his followers.
He became king of Northumbria and extended his territories as far as Watling Street.
About two years later, however, both these kings were expelled by Edmund, and the whole of Northumbria was brought under his power.
Eadred placed Northumbria in the hands of a certain Osulf, who is called high-reeve at Bamburgh.
In the reign of Edgar, Oslac was appointed earl of southern Northumbria, but he was banished at the beginning of the following reign.
OSWIO (c. 612-670), king of Northumbria, son of .Ã†thelfrith and brother of Oswald, whom he succeeded in Bernicia in 642 after the battle of Maserfeld, was the seventh of the great English kings enumerated by Bede.
It was probably in 642 that he married Eanfled, daughter of Edwin, thus uniting the two rival dynasties of Northumbria.
Olaf Of Northumbria >>
ST HILDA, strictly Hild (614-680), was the daughter of Hereric, a nephew of Edwin, king of Northumbria.
According to Bede she took the veil in 614, when Oswio was king of Northumbria and Aidan bishop of Lindisfarne, and spent a year in East Anglia, where her sister Hereswith had married ZEthelhere, who was to succeed his brother Anna, the reigning king.
In 648 or 649 Hilda was recalled to Northumbria by Aidan, and lived for a year in a small monastic community north of the Wear.
Hilda exercised great influence in Northumbria, and ecclesiastics from all over Christian England and from Strathclyde and Dalriada visited her monastery.
St Wilfrid was justified and was sent back to his see, with papal letters to the kings of Northumbria and Mercia.
About 760 it became the capital of Northumbria; later it was a borough and was long represented in parliament.
It is customary to ascribe to Offa a policy of limited scope, namely the establishment of Mercia in a position equal to that of Wessex and of Northumbria.
His position was assured, at least temporarily, in 617, when he decided to espouse the cause of the Northumbrian prince Edwin, then a fugitive at his court, and defeated zEthelfrith of Northumbria on the banks of the Idle, a tributary of the Trent, in Mercian territory.
Two of his daughters, Saethryth and ZEthelberg, took the veil; while another, Sexburg, was married to Earconberht, king of Kent; and a fourth, Ã†thelthryth, after two marriages, with Tondberht of the South Gyrwe and Ecgfrith of Northumbria, became abbess of Ely.
In 654 Anna was slain by Penda of Mercia, and was succeeded by his brother 2Ethelhere, who was killed in 655 at the Winwaed, fighting for the Mercian king against Oswio of Northumbria.
Thus Bede records that in a certain year (which must have been 645, 647, 648 or 651) Queen Eanfleda, who had received her instruction from a Kentish priest of the Roman obedience, was fasting and keeping Palm Sunday, while her husband, Oswy, king of Northumbria, following the rule of the British church, was celebrating the Easter festival.
This diversity of usage was ended, so far as the kingdom of Northumbria was concerned, by the council of Streaneshalch, or Whitby, in 654.
It is probable that the Britons were allied with the Scots when Aidan, the king of the latter, invaded Northumbria in A.D.
In Anglo-Saxon England in the 7th and 8th centuries it seems certain that each of the larger kingdoms, Kent, Wessex, Mercia and Northumbria, had its separate witan, or council, but there is a difference of opinion as to whether this was identical with, or distinct from, the folkmoot, in which, theoretically at least, all freemen had the right to appear.
BERNICIA, the northern of the two English kingdoms which were eventually united in the kingdom of Northumbria.
Bernicia was again separate from Deira under Eanfrith, son of lEthelfrith (633-634), after which date the kings of Bernicia were supreme in Northumbria, though for a short time under Oswio Deira had a king of its own.
He married in 1113 Matilda, daughter and heiress of Waltheof, earl of Northumbria, and thus became possessed of the earldom of Huntingdon.
Being under the rule of the earls of Northumbria, York is not mentioned in the Domesday Survey.
His father, Wilgils, an Angle or, as Alcuin styles him, a Saxon, of Northumbria, withdrew from the world and constructed for himself a little oratory dedicated to St Andrew.
The southern Picts ultimately subdued the Britons, and the castle became their chief stronghold until they were overthrown in 617 (or 629) by the Saxons under Edwin, king of Northumbria, from whom the name of Edinburgh is derived.
Disturbances at once occurred in Northumbria, on the Welsh marches and in Kent; and he was compelled to return in December.
An outlawed Englishman, Hereward by name, fortified the Isle of Ely and attracted a number of desperate spirits to his side; amongst others came Morcar, formerly earl of Northumbria, who had been disappointed in the hopes which he based on William's personal favour.
They lived simply for plunder, and had neither the ambition nor the ability to found colonies like Normandy or Northumbria.
Despite the treachery of Elfric, the English were victorious; and the Danes sailed off to ravage Lindsey and Northumbria.
In 684 at the council of Twyford in Northumberland, Ecgfrith, king of Northumbria, prevailed upon him to give up his solitary life and become a bishop. He was consecrated at York in the following year as bishop of Hexham, but afterwards he exchanged his see with Eata for that of Lindisfarne.
One of Ethelstan's first public acts was to hold a conference at Tamworth with Sihtric, the Scandinavian king of Northumbria, and as a result Sihtric received Ethelstan's sister in marriage.
Edwy, to judge from the disproportionately large numbers of charters issued during his reign, seems to have been weakly lavish in the granting of privileges, and soon the chief men of Mercia and Northumbria were disgusted by his partiality for Wessex.
It is probable that no actual conflict took place, and in 959, on Edwy's death, Edgar acceded peaceably to the combined kingdoms of Wessex, Mercia and Northumbria.
It derives its present name from Oswald, king of Northumbria, who is said to have been killed here in 642, although it was not definitely known as Oswestry until the 13th century.
English exiles were welcomed at his court; he was mainly instrumental in restoring Eardwulf to the throne of Northumbria in 80 9; and Einhard includes the Scots within the sphere of his influence.
Having married as his second wife, (St) Margaret, a sister of Edgar lEtheling, who was a fugitive at his court, he invaded England in 1070 to support the claim of Edgar to the English throne, returning to Scotland with many captives after harrying Northumbria.
Almost at once he invaded Northumbria, and was killed at a place afterwards called Malcolm's Cross, near Alnwick, on the 13th of November 1093.
Paulinus, first archbishop of York, about the year 627 preached in the district of Dewsbury, where Edwin, king of Northumbria, whom he converted to Christianity, had a royal mansion.
15) states that the people of the more northern kingdoms (East Anglia, Mercia, Northumbria, &c.) belonged to the Angli, while those of Essex, Sussex and Wessex were sprung from the Saxons, and those of Kent and southern Hampshire from the Jutes.
AEthelred married Osthryth, the sister of Ecgfrith, king of Northumbria, but in spite of this connexion a quarrel arose between the two kings, presumably over the possession of the province of Lindsey, which Ecgfrith had won back at the close of the reign of Wulfhere.
He arranged a marriage between his sister ZEthelberg and Edwin of Northumbria, on whose defeat and death in 633 he received his sister and Paulinus, and offered the latter the bishopric of Rochester.
Edred recklessly ravaged all Northumbria in revenge, burning Ripon during his march.
On his return home Edred's rearguard was attacked at Castleford, and the infuriated king once more turned to ravage Northumbria, which was only saved by its abandonment of Eric and by compensation made to Edred.
After the brief rule of Anlaf Cuaran in Northumbria, Eric was once more restored, probably in 950, only to be expelled again in 953 or 954, when Edred took the Northumbrian kingdom into his own hands.
Five years later he built the monastery of St Peter at Wearmouth, on land granted him by Ecgfrith of Northumbria, and endowed it with an excellent library.
The districts north of the Humber contained two kingdoms, Bernicia (q.v.) and Deira, which were eventually united in Northumbria.
South of the Humber, Lindsey seems to have had a dynasty of its own, though in historical times it was apparently always subject to the kings of Northumbria or Mercia.
It is probable that similar classes existed also in Northumbria, though not under the same names.
No bronze coins were current except in Northumbria, where they were extremely common in the 9th century.
In Northumbria a totally different monetary system prevailed, the unit being the terms, which contained three sceattas or pence.
OSWALD (c. 605-642), king of Northumbria, was one of the sons of lEthelfrith and was expelled from Northumbria on the accession of Edwin, though he himself was a son of Edwin's sister Acha.
By this he avenged his brother Eanfrith, who had succeeded Edwin in Bernicia, and became king of Northumbria.
The energy which warriors were accustomed to put forth in their efforts to conquer was now " exhibited in the enterprise of conversion and teaching " 5 by Wilfrid on the coast of Friesland, 6 by Willibrord (658-715) in the neighbourhood of Utrecht,7 by the martyr-brothers Ewald or Hewald amongst the " old " or continental Saxons, 8 by Swidbert the apostle of the tribes between the Ems and the Yssel, by Adelbert, a prince of the royal house of Northumbria, in the regions north of Holland, by Wursing, a native of Friesland, and one of the disciples of Willibrord, in the same region, and last, not least, by the famous Winfrid or Boniface, the " apostle of Germany " (68 o-755), who went forth first to assist Willibrord at Utrecht, then to labour in Thuringia and Upper Hessia, then with the aid of his kinsmen Wunibald and Willibald, their sister Walpurga, and her thirty companions, to consolidate the work of earlier missionaries, and finally to die a martyr on the shore of the Zuider Zee.
The Chase is generally considered to have been the scene of the battle of Heathfield in 633, when King Edwin of Northumbria fell before the heathen King Penda of Mercia.
In the Chronicle the title is given to Ecgbert, king of the English, "the eighth king that was Bretwalda," and retrospectively to seven kings who ruled over one or other of the English kingdoms. The seven names are copied from Bede's Historia Ecclesiastica, and it is interesting to note that the last king named, Oswiu of Northumbria, lived 150 years before Ecgbert.
After the accession of Oswald, who married Cynegils's daughter, to the throne of Northumbria, both Cynegils and Cwichelm were baptized.
WILFRID (c. 634-709), English archbishop, was born of good parentage in Northumbria, c. 634.
A great council of the English Church held in Northumbria excommunicated him in 702.
Despite the intercession of Brihwald, archbishop of Canterbury, Aldfrith king of Northumbria refused to admit the aged prelate into his kingdom till his last illness (705).
It was first used during the 16th century because of the belief held by Camden and other older historians, that during this period there were exactly seven kingdoms in England, these being Northumbria, Mercia, East Anglia, Essex, Kent, Sussex and Wessex.
Some retired to Northumbria, some to East Anglia; those who had no connexions in England withdrew to the continent.
The church and monastery at Hexham (Hextoldesham) were founded about 673 by Wilfrid, archbishop of York, who is said to have received a grant of the whole of Hexhamshire from ' Ethelhryth, queen of Northumbria, and a grant of sanctuary in his church from the king.
1055), earl of Northumbria, was a Dane by birth and probably came to England with Canute.
He became earl of Deira after the death of Eadwulf Cutel, earl of Northumbria, about 1038, and earl of all Northumbria after murdering Eadwulf, earl of Bernicia, in 1041.
Each submission " held not long," and the practical result was that (945) Malcolm acquired northern Strathclyde, " Cumberland, Galloway (?) and other districts," while another Malcolm (1018) took Lothian, the northern part of Northumbria, after winning a great battle at Carham on the Tweed.
Duncan left sons, Malcolm, called Canmore (great head), and Donald Ban; and in 1054 Siward, earl of Northumbria, defeated Macbeth, whether acting under the order of Edward the Confessor in favour of the claims of Malcolm Canmore, or merely to punish Macbeth for sheltering Norman fugitives from the Confessor's court.
He held Cumberland (1070), and supported the claims of his brotherin-law, the IEtheling, while his relationship with Gospatric, earl of Northumbria, who retired into Scotland, gave him pretexts for invading the north-east of England.
All Mercia south of a line from Dore (near Sheffield), through Whitwell to the Humber, was now in Edmund's hands, and the five Danish boroughs, which had for some time been exposed to raids from the Norwegian kings of Northumbria, were now freed from that fear.
The peace was confirmed by the baptism of Kings Anlaf and Reegenald, Edmund standing as sponsor, but in 944 o r 945 the peace was broken and Edmund expelled Anlaf and Rwgenald from Northumbria.
Other pirates appeared in 793 on a different coast, Northumbria, attacked a monastery on Lindisfarne (Holy Island), slaying and capturing the monks; the following year they attacked and burnt Jarrow; after that they were caught in a storm, and all perished by shipwreck or at the hands of the countrymen.
The other half under Halfdan (Ragnar Lodbrog's son ?) had never troubled itself about Wessex, but had taken firm possession in Northumbria.
In 681 Wilfrid of York, on his expulsion from Northumbria by Ecgfrith, retired into Sussex, where he remained until 686 converting its pagan inhabitants.
The remnant of priests fled thither (after the great massacre of Bangor-is-coed in 613, by Ethelf ride of Northumbria) by the road of the Rivals (Yn Eifl) hill, S.
It is probable that down to the end of the 7th century, if not still later, the court poets of Northumbria and Mercia continued to celebrate the deeds of Beowulf and of many another hero of ancient days.
They seem especially to have had the care of the poor and the sick, and were interested in the musical part of worship. Meanwhile in Scotland the Iona monks had been expelled by the Pictish king Nechtan in 717, and the vacancies thus caused were by no means filled by the Roman monks who thronged into the north from Northumbria.
This was a foundation of Oswy, king of Northumbria, in 658, in fulfilment of a vow for a victory over Penda, king of Mercia.
It embraced an establishment for monks and (until the Conquest) for nuns of the Benedictine order, and under Hilda, a grand-niece of Edwin, a former king of Northumbria, acquired high celebrity.
Eccl.) that he wrote encouraging letters to Mellitus, archbishop of Canterbury, and Justus, bishop of Rochester, and quotes three letters - to Justus, to Eadwin, king of Northumbria, and to his wife IEthelberga.
AETHELFRITH, king of Northumbria, is said to have come to the throne in A.D.
The names assigned to the wives of Noah and his three sons (Phercoba, 011a, 0111va, 0111vani 1) have been traced to an Irish source, and this fact seems to point to the influence of the Irish missionaries in Northumbria.
DEIRA, the southern of the two English kingdoms afterwards united as Northumbria.
There are also indications that in the ancient kingdom of Mercia the tithing was originally a district and not a mere association of persons; but in Northumbria it is doubtful whether the system of frankpledge and tithing, either personal or territorial, was ever established.
He is said also to have carried out six invasions of Northumbria, in the course of which he burnt Dunbar and took Melrose.
Near Wrexham, but in a detached portion of Flintshire, to the S.E., is Bangor-is-coed (Bangor yn Maelor), the site of the most ancient monastery in the kingdom, founded before r80; some 1200 monks were slain here by IEthelfrith of Northumbria, who also spoiled the monastery.
Leeds (Loidis, Ledes) is mentioned by Bede as the district where the Northumbrian kings had a royal vill in 627, and where Oswy, king of Northumbria, defeated Penda, king of the Mercians, in 665.
EDWIN,' 'AEDUINI or EDIVINE (585-633), king of Northumbria, was the son of Ella of Deira.
It was made a condition that Christianity should be tolerated in Northumbria, and accordingly Paulinus was consecrated bishop by Justus in 625, and was sent to Northumbria with iEthelberg.
Thus Northern Mercia, East Anglia, the greater part of Essex and Northumbria were handed over to the Danes and henceforth constitute the district known as the Danelagh.
The three chief divisions of the Danelagh were (1) the kingdom of Northumbria, (2) the kingdom of East Anglia, (3) the district of the Five (Danish) Boroughs - lands grouped round Leicester, Nottingham, Derby, Stamford and Lincoln, and forming a loose confederacy.
It may be noted here that Northumbria north of the Tyne, the old Bernicia, seems never to have passed under Danish authority and rule, but to have remained in independence until the general submission to Edward in 924.
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