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normandy

normandy

normandy Sentence Examples

  • She chiefly lived in Normandy till 1663, when her husband died, and she came to Paris.

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  • After his father's death he crossed the Alps to found a school in France; but in a short while he decided that Normandy would afford him a better field.

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  • Still hankering after Burgundy, Charles saw his French estates again seized; but after some desultory warfare, chiefly in Normandy, peace was made in March 1365, and he returned to his work of interference in the politics of the Spanish kingdoms. In turn he made treaties with the kings of Castile and Aragon, who were at war with each other; promising to assist Peter the Cruel to regain his throne, from which he had been driven in 1366 by his half-brother Henry of Trastamara, and then assuring Henry and his ally Peter of Aragon that he would aid, them to retain Castile.

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  • Palgrave's most important work is his History of Normandy and England, which appeared in four volumes (London 1851-1864), and deals with the history of the two countries down to 1101.

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  • Of second rank are Reims and Sedan in the Champagne group; Elbeuf, Louviers and Rouen in Normandy; and Mazamet (Tarn).

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  • On the death of William Longsword, duke of Normandy, who had been assassinated by Arnulf, count of Flanders, in December 942, Louis endeavoured to obtain possession of the person of Richard, the young son and heir of the late duke.

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  • LOUIS NICOLAS VAUQUELIN (1763-1829), French chemist, was born at Saint-Andre-d'Hebertot in Normandy on the 16th of May 1763.

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  • Failing through his police to lure the comte d'Artois to land in Normandy, Napoleon pounced on a scion of the House of Bourbon who was within his reach.

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  • The town achieved some prosperity under the dukes of Normandy, who improved its harbour, but after the annexation of Normandy to France it was overshadowed by the rising port of Havre.

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  • The Ypodigma purports to be a history of the dukes of Normandy, but it also contains some English history and its value is not great.

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  • Returning to Normandy, Charles was partly responsible for some unrest in the duchy, and in April 1356 he was treacherously seized by the French king at Rouen, remaining in captivity until November 1357, when John, after his defeat at Poitiers, was a prisoner in England.

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  • They appear to have been produced in Normandy and the Vendee, where they were employed for sporting purposes, and originally were no very definite breed.

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  • JACQUES CHARLES DUPONT DE L'EURE (1767-1855), French lawyer and statesman, was born at Neubourg (Eure), in Normandy, on the 27th of February 1767.

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  • It was in the keep, and not, as tradition says, in the much later "Black Tower" (also called "Duke Robert's Tower"), that Robert, duke of Normandy, was imprisoned by order of his brother Henry I.

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  • When Robert's departure for the First Crusade left Normandy in the hands of Rufus (1096) Henry took service under the latter, and he was in the royal hunting train on the day of Rufus's death (August 2nd,.

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  • With Normandy he had more trouble, and the military skill which he had displayed at Tinchebrai was more than once put to the test against Norman rebels.

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  • granted the men and merchants of the town the same laws and customs as they had in the time of Edward the Confessor, and that they should be quit of toll throughout England, Normandy, Aquitaine and Anjou.

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  • Gudrun is carried off by a king of Normandy, and her kinsfolk, who are in pursuit, are defeated in a great battle on the island of Willpensand off the Dutch coast.

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  • His life was mainly spent in fighting the Welsh and in Normandy, and he died on the 27th of July 1101.

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  • PIERRE LE PESANT BOISGUILBERT, SIEUR DE (1676-1714), French economist, was born at Rouen of an ancient noble family of Normandy, allied to that of Corneille.

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  • granted the men and merchants of the town the same laws and customs as they had in the time of Edward the Confessor, and that they should be quit of toll throughout England, Normandy, Aquitaine and Anjou.

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  • His life was mainly spent in fighting the Welsh and in Normandy, and he died on the 27th of July 1101.

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  • Some of them were baptized; the territory which was afterwards known as the duchy of Normandy was ceded to them; but the story of the marriage of their chief Rollo with a sister of the king, related by the chronicler Dudo of Saint Quentin, is very doubtful.

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  • At length, however, his friends succeeded in reconciling him with Henry, and, after serving the king in Normandy, he was recalled to England, which he entered early in 1121.

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  • In 1074 he went to Normandy and made peace with William.

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  • and Robert of Normandy, Edgar sided with the latter.

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  • In 1642 she was married to the duc de Longueville, governor of Normandy, a widower twice her age.

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  • The Orne, which rises in the hills of Normandy and falls into the Channel below Caen, is of considerably less importance.

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  • The tall, fair and blue-eyed individuals who are found to the north-east of the Seine and in Normandy appear to be nearer in race to the Scandinavian and Germanic invaders; a tall and darker type with long faces and aquiline noses occurs in some parts of Franche-Co1nt and Champagne, the Vosges and the Perche.

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  • The vine grows generally in France, except in the extreme north and in Normandy and Brittany.

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  • (a) Normandy, Perche, Cotentin and maritime Flanders, where horses are bred in great numbers; (b) the strip of coast between the Gironde and the mouth of the Loire; (c) the Morvan including the Nivernais and the Charolais, from which the famous Charolais breed of oxen takes its name; (d) the central region of the central plateau including the districts of Cantal and Aubrac, the home of the famous beef-breeds of Salers and Aubrac.1 The famous pre-sal sheep are also reared in the Vende and Cotentin.

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  • The longest established is that of Normandy, having its centres at Rouen, Havre, Evreux, Falaise and Flers.

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  • The Ouest-Etat, a combination of the West and state systems. The former traversed Normandy in every directionand connected Paris with thetowns of Brittany.

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  • At length, however, his friends succeeded in reconciling him with Henry, and, after serving the king in Normandy, he was recalled to England, which he entered early in 1121.

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  • In 1642 she was married to the duc de Longueville, governor of Normandy, a widower twice her age.

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  • William Rufus, to the disgust of his supporters, permitted Odo to leave the kingdom after the collapse of this design (1088), and thenceforward Odo was the right-hand man of Robert in Normandy.

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  • to the seneschal of Normandy.

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  • Avranches, an important military station of the Romans, was in the middle ages chief place of a county of the duchy of Normandy.

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  • Pollock and Maitland, op. cit., as to Normandy).

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  • Where, as in England, they felt that they could improve, they substituted for the style of the country their own style - that is, a style which they had not created but which they had adopted, which they had made thoroughly their own, and which they went on improving in England no less than in Normandy.

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  • Her husband died after eleven years of wedlock, leaving her childless; and, since both her brothers were now dead, she was recalled to her father's court in order that she might be recognized as his successor in England and Normandy.

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  • and Marie Antoinette, was born at Versailles on the 27th of March 1785, was christened the same day Louis Charles, and given the title of duke of Normandy.

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  • Those of most interest to English ornithologists naturally refer to Britanny, Normandy and Picardy, and are by Baillon, Benoist, Blandin, Bureau, Canivet, Chesnon, Degland, Demarle, De Norguet, Gentil, Hardy, Lemetteil, Lemonnicier, Lesauvage, Maignon, Marcotte, Nourry and Tasle, while perhaps the Ornithologie parisienne of M.

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  • In 1137 he did homage for Normandy to Louis VII.

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  • Eustace was knighted in 1147, at which date he was probably from sixteen to eighteen years of age; and in 1151 he joined Louis in an abortive raid upon Normandy, which had accepted the title of the empress Matilda, and was now defended by her husband, Geoffrey of Anjou.

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  • OLIVIER BASSELIN (c. 1400-c. 1450), French poet, was born in the Val-de-Vire in Normandy about the end of the 14th century.

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  • of France, had reached Constantinople in November 1096, in a species of honourable captivity, and had done Alexius homage; Robert of Normandy and Stephen of Blois, to whom Urban II.

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  • Fulcher of Chartres originally followed Robert of Normandy, but in October 1097 he joined Baldwin of Lorraine in his expedition to Edessa, and afterwards followed his fortunes.

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  • THOMAS BASIN (1412-1491), bishop of Lisieux and historian, was born probably at Caudebec in Normandy, but owing to the devastation caused by the Hundred Years' War, his childhood was mainly spent in moving from one place to another.

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  • His pupils were drawn not only from France and Normandy, but also from Gascony, Flanders, Germany and Italy.

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  • The king of Navarre, who defended this deed, had, however, many friends in France and was in communication with Edward III.; and consequently John was forced to make a treaty at Mantes and to compensate him for the loss of Angouleme by a large grant of lands, chiefly in Normandy.

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  • EURE-ET-LOIR, an inland department of north-western France, formed in 1790 of portions of Orleanais and Normandy.

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  • In 1070 William sent him to assist Queen Matilda in the government of Normandy.

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  • In 1789 he was an advocate at the parlement of Normandy.

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  • Had Robert been in Normandy the claim of Henry too the English crown might have been effectually opposed.

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  • (1114) which saved Normandy in 1124; the detachment of the pope, Calixtus II., from the side of France and the Clito (1119), and the Angevin marriages which he arranged for his son William Aetheling (1119) and for the widowed empress Matilda (1129) after her brother's death.

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  • This latter match, though unpopular in England and Normandy, was a fatal blow to the designs of Louis VI., and prepared the way for the expansion of English power beyond the Loire.

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  • He spent more time in Normandy than in England.

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  • His itinerant justices were not altogether a novelty in England or Normandy.

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  • He was the bastard son of Robert the Devil, duke of Normandy, by Arletta, the daughter of a tanner at Falaise.

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  • Alarmed at the close connexion of Normandy with Flanders, Henry I.

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  • He joined forces with Geoffrey Martel in order to crush the duke, and Normandy was twice invaded by the allies.

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  • In 1062, however, Herbert died and Maine was formally annexed to Normandy.

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  • Early in 1067 he made a progress through parts of the south, receiving submissions, disposing of the lands of those who had fought against him, and ordering castles to be built; he then crossed the Channel to celebrate his triumph in Normandy.

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  • William Fitz Osbern, earl of Hereford, who had been his right-hand man in Normandy, fell in the civil wars of Flanders (1071).

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  • But the king himself worked hard in hearing lawsuits, in holding councils and ceremonious courts, in travelling between England and Normandy, and finally in conducting military operations.

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  • Robert fled from Normandy and after aimless wanderings obtained from King Philip the castle of Gerberoi, in the Beauvaisis, from which he harassed the Norman marches.

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  • By Matilda, who died in Normandy on the 3rd of November 1083, William had four sons, Robert, duke of Normandy, Richard, who was killed whilst hunting, and the future kings, William II.

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  • PIERRE SIMON LAPLACE, MARQUIS DE (1749-1827), French mathematician and astronomer, was born at Beaumont-en-Auge in Normandy, on the 28th of March 1749.

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  • He held command for a time at Calais, and took an active part in the French campaigns of Henry V., who created him earl and count of Aumale in Normandy.

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  • He had charge of the education of Henry VI., and in 1437 was appointed lieutenant of France and of Normandy.

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  • By this treaty Marie was given liberty to live wherever she wished, and the government of Anjou and of Normandy with several castles was entrusted to her.

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  • They lived simply for plunder, and had neither the ambition nor the ability to found colonies like Normandy or Northumbria.

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  • The Danish attacks were repeated in 997, 99 8, 999 and in 1000 !Ethelred availed himself of the temporary absence of the Danes in Normandy to invade Cumberland, at that time a Viking stronghold.

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  • London soon acknowledged him, and Ethelred, after taking refuge for a while with Thurkill's fleet, escaped to Normandy.

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  • Emma's marriage with Ethelred was an important step in the history of the relations between England and Normandy, and R.

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  • From the moment of Emma's marriage Normandy became a chief factor in English politics."/n==Authorities== - The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (edition by C. Plummer, 2 vols.

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  • After visiting and examining the principal churches, first of Normandy, then of central and southern France, he was on his return appointed by Guizot secretary to the Historical Committee of Arts and Monuments (1835); and in the following years he delivered several courses of lectures on Christian iconography at the Bibliotheque Royale.

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  • A little later we find great and royal personages resorting to Salerno for the restoration of their health, among whom was William of Normandy, afterwards the Conqueror.

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  • JACQUES DAVY DUPERRON (1556-1618), French cardinal, was born at St L6, in Normandy, on the 15th of November 1556.

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  • Returning to Normandy he was presented to the king by Jacques of Matignon; after he had abjured Protestantism, being again presented by Philip Desportes, abbot of Tiron, as a young man without equal for knowledge and talent, he was appointed reader to the king.

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  • Re-elected to the Convention, he was sent to Normandy, where he directed bitter reprisals against the Federalists.

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  • After his defeat and death on the hill on the Sussex Downs then called Senlac, the duke of Normandy had the country at his mercy, but he recognized the importance of London's position, and moved forward with the greatest caution and tact.

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  • There were glass-making districts both in Normandy and in Poitou.

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  • It is recorded that in the 7th century the abbot of Wearmouth in England obtained artificers in glass from France; and there is a tradition that in the 11th century glass-workers migrated from Normandy and Brittany and set up works at Altare near Genoa.

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  • Schuermans in his researches discovered that during the 15th and 16th centuries many glass-workers left Altare and settled in France, - the Saroldi migrated to Poitou, the Ferri to Provence, the Massari to Lorraine and the Bormioli to Normandy.

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  • Lorraine and Normandy appear to have been the most important centres.

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  • To Lorraine belong the well-known names Hennezel, de Thietry, du Thisac, de Houx; and to Normandy the names de Bongar, de Cacqueray le Vaillant and de Brossard.

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  • There were two kinds of flat glass, known respectively as " brode-glas " and " Normandy " glass.

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  • Normandy glass was made from glass circles or disks.

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  • In 1486, however, it is referred to in such a way as to suggest that it was superior to " Dutch, Venice or Normandy glass."

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  • In 1567 James Carre of Antwerp stated that he had erected two glass-houses at " Fernefol " (Fernfold Wood in Sussex) for Normandy and Lorraine glass for windows, and had brought over workmen.

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  • From this period began the records in England of the great glass-making families of Hennezel, de Thietry, du Thisac and du Houx from Lorraine, and of de Bongar and de Cacqueray from Normandy.

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  • While Philip Augustus was invading Normandy, Arthur tried to seize Poitou.

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  • declared war against France; and when, in August 1415, the English landed in Normandy, the Armagnacs and Burgundians united against them, but were defeated in the battle of Agincourt (October 25, 1415).

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  • The gild merchant came into existence in England soon after the Norman Conquest, as a result of the increasing importance of trade, and it may have been transplanted from Normandy.

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  • The evidence seems to indicate the pre-existence of the gild merchant in Normandy, but it is not mentioned anywhere on the continent before the 11th century.

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  • Returning to France he neglected the affairs of his diocese, and passed his time mainly at St Samson-sur-Risle in Normandy.

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  • Among the earlier of the modern forms of apparatus which came into practical adoption are the inventions of Dr Normandy and of Chaplin of Glasgow, the apparatus of Rocher of Nantes, and that patented by Gall& and Mazeline of Havre.

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  • Normandy's apparatus, although economical and producing water of good quality, is very complex in its structure, consisting of very numerous working parts, with elaborate arrangements of pipes, cocks and other fittings.

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  • Richard, being now the heir to England and Normandy, was invited to renounce Aquitaine in favour of Prince John.

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  • But the dissensions of the native Franks and the crusaders made it hopeless to continue the struggle; and Richard was alarmed by the news which reached him of John's intrigues in England and Normandy.

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  • The rule of the Plantagenets was still popular in Normandy and Aquitaine; but these provinces were unable or unwilling to pay for their own defence.

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  • The 10th of August uprooted his party, his paper and his friends, and the management of relatives who kept him out of the way in Normandy alone saved him from the massacre of September.

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  • Among other works with which Britton was associated either as author or editor are Historical Account of Redcliffe Church, Bristol (1813); Illustrations of Fonthill Abbey (1823); Architectural Antiquities of Normandy, with illustrations by Pugin (1825-1827); Picturesque Antiquities of English Cities (1830); and History of the Palace and Houses of Parliament at Westminster (1834-1836), the joint work of Britton and Brayley.

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  • His descendants seem to have been ousted from their possessions during the 12th century by Robert fitz Harding, an Angevin partisan, who already held the castle when, in 1153, Henry, duke of Normandy (who became King Henry II.

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  • A new phase of the French war begins when in July 1346 Edward landed in Normandy, accompanied by his eldest son, Edward, prince of Wales, a youth of sixteen.

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  • Besides homagium ligeum, there was a kind of homage which imposed no feudal duty; this was homagium per paragium, such as the dukes of Normandy rendered to the kings of France, and as the dukes of Normandy received from the dukes of Brittany.

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  • In 1257 the twelve peers were the chiefs of the great feudal provinces, the dukes of Normandy, Burgundy and Aquitaine, the counts of Toulouse, Champagne and Flanders, and six spiritual peers, the archbishop of Reims, the bishops of Laon, Chalons-sur-Marne, Beauvais, Langres and Noyon.

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  • Then he passed into the royal service, and being employed in the administration of Normandy was eventually made chancellor of the duchy.

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  • He was accused later of having taken part in the massacres of September, but was able to prove that at that time he had been sent by the provisional executive council to Normandy to oversee a requisition of 60,000 men.

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  • In the same year he was appointed captain of the Bastille and lieutenant-general of Normandy, and married Marie de Rohan, daughter of the duke of Montbazon.

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  • He accompanied William on his visit to Normandy (1067), but, returning, led a royal force to the relief of Montacute in September 1069.

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  • He appears to have been at Dover with William in January Togo, but, withdrawing to Normandy, died at Coutances three years later.

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  • From the outset of the reign of Charles the Bald, the integrity of Anjou was seriously menaced by a two-fold danger: from Brittany and from Normandy.

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  • In spite, however, of the concerted attacks of William the Bastard (the Conqueror), duke of Normandy, and Henry I., king of France, he was able in 1051 to force Maine to recognize his authority, though failing to revenge himself on William.

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  • the Young (14th of April 1109-1129) succeeded to the countship of Maine on the death of Elias (11th of July I I io); but this increase of Angevin territory came into such direct collision with the interests of Henry I., king of England, who was also duke of Normandy, that a struggle between the two powers became inevitable.

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  • William the Aetheling having perished in the wreck of the "White Ship" (25th of November 1120), Fulk, on his return from a pilgrimage to the Holy Land (1120-1121), married his second daughter Sibyl, at the instigation of Louis VI., to William Clito, son of Robert Courteheuse, and a claimant to the duchy of Normandy, giving her Maine for a dowry (11 22 or 1123).

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  • (1st of December 1135), laid the foundation of the conquest of Normandy by a series of campaigns: about the end of 1135 or the beginning of 11 3 6 he entered that country and rejoined his wife, the countess Matilda, who had received the submission of Argentan, Domfront and Exmes.

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  • In June 1138, with the aid of Robert of Gloucester, Geoffrey obtained the submission of Bayeux and Caen; in October he devastated the neighbourhood of Falaise; finally, in March 1141, on hearing of his wife's success in England, he again entered Normandy, when he made a triumphal procession through the country.

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  • Authorities.-(I) Principal Sources: The history of Anjou may be told partly with the aid of the chroniclers of the neighbouring provinces, especiall y those of Normandy (William of Poitiers, William of Jumieges, Ordericus Vitalis) and of Maine (especially Actus pontificum Cenomannis in urbe degentium).

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  • In spite of continued persecution a national synod was assembled in Paris in 1559, representing at least twelve Protestant churches in Normandy and central France, which drew up a confession of faith and a book of church discipline.

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  • On the appointment of the duke of Orleans as governor of Normandy, d'Amboise became his lieutenant-general.

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  • For a time the church belonged to Fontevrault Abbey in Normandy; but it was made over by Edward IV.

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  • It penetrated Piedmont and Lombardy in 1041 and Normandy in 1042.

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  • He had previously been made lord of La Roche-Tesson (1361) and chamberlain (1364); he was now made count of Longueville and lieutenant of Normandy.

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  • In July 1182 he went to his father-in-law's court in Normandy, and afterwards to England, returning to Germany with Frederick's permission in 1185.

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  • In 966 Richard I., duke of Normandy, founded in place of the oratory a Benedictine monastery, which in the succeeding century received a considerable share of the spoils of the conquest of England.

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  • Proscribed with the Girondists on the 2nd of June 1793, he succeeded in escaping, and took refuge in Normandy, where he contributed to organize a federalist insurrection against the Convention, which was speedily suppressed.

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  • For the history of the federalist movement in Normandy, see L.

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  • Sitting thus on the 13th of July he heard in the evening a young woman begging to be admitted to see him, saying that she brought news from Caen, where the escaped Girondins were trying to rouse Normandy.

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  • He took refuge with Robert Curthose in Normandy and became one of the advisers who pressed the duke to dispute the crown of England with his younger brother; Robert rewarded the bishop by entrusting him with the administration of the see of Lisieux.

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  • The founder of the family in England was a Norman baron, Guy or Guido de Baliol, who held the fiefs of Bailleul, Dampierre, Harcourt and Vinoy in Normandy.

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  • He left four sons, three of whom died without issue, and in 1278 his lands came to his son, John de Baliol, who was king of Scotland from 1292 to 1296, and who died in Normandy in 1315.

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  • Subsequently crossing over to France, he appears to have lived mainly on his lands in Normandy until 1324, when he was invited to England by King Edward II., who hoped to bring him forward as a candidate for the Scottish crown.

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  • He served with John in the continental wars which led up to the loss of Normandy.

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  • He escaped to Normandy to join Buzot, and after the defeat of the Girondists at Pacy-sur-Eure he found shelter in Brittany.

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  • NICOLAUS OF LYRA (c. 1265-1349), French commentator, was born in Lire, now Vieille-Lyre, in the department of Eure, Normandy.

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  • England and Normandy, after some hesitation, recognized John's title; the attempt of Anjou and Brittany to assert the rights of Arthur ended disastrously by the capture of the young prince at Mirebeau in Poitou (1202).

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  • The murder of Arthur (1203) ruined his cause in Normandy and Anjou; the story that the court of the peers of France condemned him for the murder is a fable, but no legal process was needed to convince men of his guilt.

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  • GUILLAUME AMONTONS (1663-1705), French experimental philosopher, the son of an advocate who had left his native province of Normandy and established himself at Paris, was born in that city on the 31st of August 1663.

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  • Ordericus Vitalis, who died in the first half of the 12th century, mentions that the bishop of St Evroul, in Normandy, brought with him from Apulia in southern Italy several large pieces of silk, out of the finest of which four copes were made for his cathedral chanters.

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  • The History of the Dukes of Normandy by Benoit de SainteMore is based on the work of Wace.

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  • Cardinal Beaufort, and after him Suffolk, sought by working for peace to secure at least Guienne and Normandy.

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  • But his home administration was unpopular, whilst the incapacity of Edmund Beaufort ended in the loss of all Normandy and Guienne.

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  • He was assisted by his father-in-law, to whose court he had repaired; but, failing to shake the old king's power either in Normandy or England, made peace in 1174.

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  • Under the altar lies Canute (Knud), the patron saint of Denmark, who intended to dispute with William of Normandy the possession of England, but was slain in an insurrection at Odense in 1086; Kings John and Christian II.

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  • He returned to Normandy in 1146.

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  • In 1150 he was invested with Normandy by his father, whose death in the next year made him also count of Anjou.

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  • He devoted infinite pains and thought to the reform of government both in England and Normandy.

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  • Yet the fact that Harold received knighthood from William of Normandy makes it clear either that Harold was not yet a knight, which in the case of so tried a warrior would imply that " dubbing to knighthood " was not yet known in England even under Edward the Confessor, or, as Freeman thinks, that in the middle of the iith century the custom had grown in Normandy into " something of a more special meaning " than it bore in England.

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  • 1850), who resided at Claremont in the neighbouring parish of Esher, his queen and other members of his family; but their bodies were subsequently removed to Dreux in Normandy.

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  • DANIEL FRANCCOIS ESPRIT AUBER (1782-1871), French musical composer, the son of a Paris printseller, was born at Caen in Normandy on the 29th of January 1782.

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    0
  • A little to the south of the town are the ruins of the reputed castle of Rollo, the founder, in the 9th century, of the dynasty of the dukes of Normandy.

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  • He seems to have been sent by the king on an errand to Duke William of Normandy, and on the return of Godwine from exile in 1052 he fled in great haste from England.

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  • it passed to the monks of Bec in Normandy, who in 1246 obtained the grant of an annual fair at the feast of the Nativity of the Virgin, and the next year of a market every Tuesday.

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  • URBAIN JEAN JOSEPH LEVERRIER (1811-1877), French astronomer, was born at St Lb in Normandy on the II th of March 1811.

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    0
  • His last campaign was against the English in Normandy in 1449.

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    0
  • That mysterious upheaval, most generally attributed to a love of adventure, stimulated by the pressure of over-population, began with the ravaging of Lindisfarne in 793, and virtually terminated with the establishment of Rollo in Normandy (9r r).

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    0
  • The rovers who first chastened and finally colonized southern England and Normandy were certainly Danes.

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    0
  • No measures were taken for her deliverance or her ransom, and Normandy and the Isle of France remained in English hands.

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    0
  • The conquest of Normandy was completed by the battle of Formigny (15th of April 1450).

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  • to Normandy in April 1430, and in December 1431 crowned him king of France.

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    0
  • Suffolk served in all the later French campaigns of the reign of Henry V., and in spite of his youth held high command on the marches of Normandy in 1421-22.

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    0
  • The renewal of the war and the loss of all Normandy were its direct consequences.

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  • Lower Normandy was quickly conquered, Rouen cut off from Paris and besieged.

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    0
  • Of these scenes there are seventy-two, beginning with Harold's visit to Bosham on his way to Normandy, and ending with the flight of the English from the battle of Hastings, though the actual end of the strip has perished.

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  • xvii.-xix.; Dawson Turner, Tour in Normandy (1820); C. A.

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  • William of Malmesbury, again, when relating the crusade of Count Robert of Normandy (1096), transfers into his Gesta regum anglorum (iv.

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  • 789) and the settlement of the Normans in Normandy by the treaty of St Clair-sur-Epte, A.D.

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    0
  • in Normandy, dates from the treaty of St Clair-sur-Epte, A.D.

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    0
  • Unfortunately at this point our best authority ceases; and we cannot well explain the changes which brought about the Christianization of the Normans and their settlement in Normandy as vassals, though recalcitrant ones, of the West Frankish kings.

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    0
  • The settlement of Normandy was the only permanent outcome of the Viking Age in France.

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    0
  • Normandy was the best-governed part of France in the nth century; and the Danes in East Anglia and the Five Burgs were in many regards a model to their Saxon neighbours (Steenstrup, op. cit.

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    0
  • In the historians of Normandy, especially in Dudo of St Quentin, much incidental matter may be found.

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  • UMFRAVILLE, the name of an English baronial family, derived from Amfreville in Normandy.

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    0
  • In 1 4 05 Bethencourt visited Normandy, and returned with fresh colonists who conquered Hierro.

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  • and Richard III., dukes of Normandy, the latter of whom was his son-in-law.

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  • JACQUES BASNAGE (1653-1723), French Protestant divine, was the eldest son of the eminent lawyer Henri Basnage, sieur de Franquenay (1615-1695), and was born at Rouen in Normandy in 1653.

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    0
  • The king yielded at all points; gave up the "Somme towns" in Picardy, for which he had paid 200,000 gold crowns, to Philip the Good, thus bringing the Burgundians close to Paris and to Normandy.

    0
    0
  • Charles, the king's brother, was given Normandy as an apanage, thus joining the territories of the rebellious duke of Brittany with those of Charles the Bold.

    0
    0
  • Two months after he had granted Normandy to Charles, he took advantage of a quarrel between the duke of Brittany and his brother to take it again, sending the duke of Bourbon "to aid" Charles, while Dunois and Chabannes prepared for the struggle with Burgundy.

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  • Normandy was completely reduced.

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  • who, as the ally of Charles the Bold, was menacing the coast of Normandy.

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    0
  • The states-general met but once in his reign, in 1468, and then no talk of grievances was allowed; his object was only to get them to declare Normandy inalienable from the crown.

    0
    0
  • He lived partly in Provence and partly in Normandy for many years after this event; but very little is known of his life during this period.

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    0
  • Under the dukes of Normandy, and particularly under William the Conqueror, it rapidly increased.

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    0
  • It became the capital of lower Normandy, and in 13 4 6 was besieged and taken by Edward III.

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    0
  • To this national category belong, besides the great German dukedoms, the dukes of Normandy, and the Lombard dukes of Spoleto and Benevento, who traced their origin, not to an administrative office, but to the leadership of Teutonic war bands.

    0
    0
  • In France the title duke at one time implied vast territorial power, as with the dukes of Burgundy, Normandy, Aquitaine and Brittany, who asserted a practical independence against the crown, though it was not till the 12th century that the title duke was definitely regarded as superior to others.

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    0
  • In England the title of duke was unknown till the Toth century, though in Saxon times the title ealdorman, afterwards exchanged for "earl," was sometimes rendered in Latin as dux,' and the English kings till John's time styled themselves dukes of Normandy, and dukes of Aquitaine even later.

    0
    0
  • Though the truce was for two years, Philip assembled an army in 1188 to invade Normandy, demanding Gisors and the conclusion of the marriage which had been arranged between his sister Alice and Richard of England, who had meanwhile deserted his father.

    0
    0
  • At an interview at Le Goulet on the 25th of March, Philip demanded the cession of Anjou, Poitou and Normandy to his ward, Arthur.

    0
    0
  • Philip invaded Normandy, took Lyonsla-Foret and Eu, and, establishing himself in Gournay, besieged Argues.

    0
    0
  • Then Philip continued his great task, the conquest of Normandy, capturing the towns around the fortress of Chateau-Gaillard which Richard had built to command the valley of the Seine.

    0
    0
  • The fall of Chateau-Gaillard, after a siege which lasted from September 1203 to April 1204, decided the fate of Normandy.

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    0
  • A truce for two years was made on the 26th of October 1206 by which John renounced all claims in Normandy, Maine, Brittany, Touraine and Anjou, but it did not last six months.

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    0
  • It is true that he suppressed some communes in the newly conquered fiefs, such as Normandy, where John had been prodigal of privileges, but he erected new communes in his own private domain, quite contrary to the custom of other kings.

    0
    0
  • The Tournois was substituted for the Angevin money in Normandy after 1204.

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    0
  • Artois, the Amienois, Valois, Vermandois, the greater part of the Beauvaisis, Normandy, Maine, Anjou, Touraine, and an important part of Poitou and Saintonge, were added to the domain during his reign.

    0
    0
  • In northern France Cambrian rocks, mostly purple conglomerates and red shales, rest with apparent unconformability upon pre-Cambrian strata in Brittany, Normandy and northern Poitou.

    0
    0
  • In 843 Brittany took from Neustria the countships of Rennes and Nantes; and gradually the term Neustria came to be restricted to the district which was later called Normandy, Dudo of Saint Quentin, who flourished about the year 1000, gives the name Neustria to the lands ceded to Rollo and his followers during the loth century.

    0
    0
  • In the year 1663, the Pere de Moustier gave to his work on the churches and abbeys of Normandy the title of Neustria pia.

    0
    0
  • In January 1436 he was appointed lieutenant-general of France and Normandy, but did not enter on his command till June.

    0
    0
  • He showed vigour and capacity, and recovered Fecamp and some other places in Normandy.

    0
    0
  • During his second governorship York maintained, if he could not improve, the English position in Normandy.

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  • " In this capacity William Fitz-Osbern, the steward of Normandy, and Odo of Bayeux, acted during the Conqueror's visit to the continent in 1067; they were left, according to William of Poitiers, the former to govern the north of England, the latter to hold rule in Kent, vice sua; Florence of Worcester describes them as "custodes Angliae," and Ordericus Vitalis gives to their office the name of " praefectura."

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  • AMBROISE DE LORE (1396-1446), baron of Ivry in Normandy and a French commander, was born at the château of Lore (Orne, arrondissement of Domfront).

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    0
  • In 1659 he was giving directions as to the suppression of the revolt of the gentry which threatened in Normandy, Anjou and Poitou, with characteristic decision arresting those whom he suspected and arranging every detail of their trial, the immediate and arbitrary destruction of their castles and woods, and the execution of their chief, Bonnesson.

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    0
  • Then, so the story ran, she drew him from his indolence, continuing the work of Joan of Arc, both by nerving the king to warlike enterprises - she did apparently induce him to take part personally in the conquest of Normandy - and by surrounding him with that band of wise advisers who really administered France during her ascendancy.

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  • But the Conqueror was anxious to get rid of him, although he took him in his train to Normandy in 1067.

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    0
  • After serving as a soldier he studied at Poitiers, and then returning to Normandy became chaplain to Duke William (William the Conqueror) and archdeacon of Lisieux.

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  • EURE, a department of north-western France, formed in 1790 from a portion of the old province of Normandy, together with the countship of Evreux and part of Perche.

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  • They are versions of three medieval stories taken from French and German sources, and dealt with the Chevalier au lion, of Chrestien de Troyes, with Duke Frederick of Normandy, and with Flores and Blancheflor.

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  • landed in Normandy, ravaged that province, part of the Ile de France and Picardy,.

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  • In 1415 his son, Henry V., landed in Normandy on the expiry of the truce of..

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  • He won the victory of Agincourt (October 25, 1415), and then seized Caen and part of Normandy, while France was exhausting herself in the feuds of Armagnacs and Burgundians.

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  • Normandy rose against them, while the constable De Richemont 1 drove them from Paris (1436) and retook Nemours, Montereau (1437) and Meaux (1439).

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  • In 1448 the English were driven from Mans; and in 1 449, while Richemont was capturing Cotentin and Fougeres, Dunois conquered Lower Normandy and Charles VII.

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  • He set sail from Shoreham on the 15th of October 1651, and landed at Fecamp in Normandy the next day.

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  • After her death in 1804, Chenedolle returned to Normandy, where he married and became eventually inspector of the academy of Caen (1812-1832).

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    0
  • This race is often termed `` Celtic " or " Alpine " from the fact of its occurrence all along the great mountain chain from south-west France, in Savoy, in Switzerland, the Po valley and Tirol, as well as in Auvergne, Brittany, Normandy, Burgundy, the Ardennes and the Vosges.

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  • in a tournament (June 30, 1559) he was disgraced and retired to his estates in Normandy.

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  • Returning to Normandy in 1574, he defended Domfront, which was being besieged by Marshal de Matignon, but was forced to capitulate on the 25th of May.

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  • Conan II., Geoffrey's grandson, threatened by the revolts of the nobles, was attacked also by the duke of Normandy (afterwards William I.

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  • About the age of fifteen he went to Caen (Normandy), taking with him a little stock of merchandise, on which he traded, and so maintained himself whilst learning French, improving himself in Latin and.

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  • During the Hundred Days he effected a descent upon Normandy.

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    0
  • JEAN DE BETHENCOURT (c. 1360-1422), French explorer, belonged to a noble family of Normandy, and held important offices at the court of Charles VI., king of France.

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  • In 1405 he visited Normandy, and returned with fresh colonists who occupied Hierro.

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    0
  • He returned to Normandy, where he appears to have spent the remainder of his days.

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    0
  • Taken in 890 by the Scandinavian chief, Rollo, it was soon after peopled by the Normans and became a residence of the dukes of Normandy, one of whom, Richard I., built about 960 a castle which survived till the 18th century.

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  • Till 1790 it was the capital of the Bessin, a district of lower Normandy.

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    0
  • The Marmions claimed descent from the lords of Fontenay, hereditary champions of the dukes of Normandy, and held the castle of Tamworth, Leicestershire, and the manor of Scrivelsby, Lincolnshire.

    0
    0
  • In accordance with an ordinance of the late king the duke of Anjou became regent, while the guardianship of the young king, together with the control of Paris and Normandy, passed to the dukes of Burgundy and Bourbon, who were to be assisted by certain of the councillors of Charles V.

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  • had completed the conquest of Normandy.

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  • Though formally reconciled to York in March 1458, she continued to intrigue with her partisans in England, and even with friends in France, like Pierre de Breze, the seneschal of Normandy.

    0
    0
  • This seal was furnished with a counterseal, the design being nearly Conqueror, as duke of Normandy, used an equestrian seal, representing him mounted and armed for battle.

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  • It is an ancient town, of which the manor was held successively by the abbots of St Ebrulph in Normandy and Combermere in Cheshire.

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    0
  • A lba Marla) in Normandy, a dependency of the archbishopric of Rouen, was granted to Odo of Champagne, brother-in-law of William the Conqueror, who founded the first line of counts of Aumale.

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  • Meanwhile, however, the territory of Aumale shared the fate of the rest of Normandy, and was annexed to the French crown by King Philip Augustus; but the title of earl of Albemarle, derived from it, continued to be borne in England by William de Fortibus, and was passed on to his heirs (see Albemarle).

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  • In alliance with his nephew, the duke of Brittany, he reconquered, during September and October 1449, nearly all the Cotentin; on the 15th of April 1450 he gained over the English the battle of Formigny; and during the year he recovered for France the whole of Normandy, which for the next six or seven years it was his task to defend from English attacks.

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  • NICOLAS ORESME (c. 1320-1382), French bishop, celebrated for his numerous works in both French and Latin on scholastic, scientific and political questions, was born in Normandy at the opening of the 14th century.

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    0
  • His mother, who favoured her younger son Robert, and had retired from court upon Henry's coronation, formed a powerful league against him, and he was forced to take refuge with Robert II., duke of Normandy.

    0
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  • Henry's success in these wars was largely due to the help given him by Robert of Normandy, but upon the accession of Robert's son William (the Conqueror), Normandy itself became the chief danger.

    0
    0
  • Except along the centre of the Irish Sea, at one point off the Tweed and one between Devon and Normandy, the depth of water between England and the nearest land nowhere exceeds 50 fathoms.

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  • Of specially remarkable species Lygeum is found on the sea-sand of the eastern half of the Mediterranean basin, and the minute Coleanthus occurs in three or four isolated spots in Europe (Norway, Bohemia, Austria, Normandy), in North-east ' Asia (Amur) and on the Pacific coast of North America (Oregon, Washington).

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  • Sardine is another name for the same fish, which on the coast of Britanny and Normandy is also called celan or celeren.

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  • In Normandy the farmers still employ children under twelve to run through the fields and orchards armed with torches, setting fire to bundles of straw, and thus it is believed driving out such vermin as are likely to damage the crops.

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  • Joan went into Normandy to assist the duke of Alencon, but in December returned to the court, and on the 29th she and her family were ennobled with the surname of du Lis.

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  • In 1593 he was made bishop of Coutances in Normandy, and had licence to hold the bishopric of Ross till he should obtain peaceable possession of the former see.

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  • BEAUMONT, BELMONT, or Bellomont, the name of a Norman and English family, taken from Beaumont -le-Roger in Normandy.

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    0
  • Early in the I ith century Roger de Beaumont, a kinsman of the dukes of Normandy, married a daughter of Waleran, count of Meulan, and their son, Robert De Beaumont (d.

    0
    0
  • According to Domesday, Streatham included several manors, two of which, Tooting and Balham (to follow the modern nomenclature), belonged to the abbot of St Mary de Bec in Normandy.

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  • There was a precarious interval of peace for three years after, but in 997 began a series of invasions led by Sweyn which lasted for seventeen years, and at last ended in the complete subjection of England and the flight of Aithelred to Normandy.

    0
    0
  • There was a general rising, the old king was brought over from Normandy, and Canute was driven out for a moment by force of arms. He returned next year witha greater army to hear soon after of IEthelreds death (1016).

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  • It is strange to find thatwhether from policy or from affectionhe married King ~thelreds young widow Emma of Normandy, though she was somewhat older than himselfso that his son King Harthacnut and that sons successor Edward the Confessor, the heir of the line of Wessex, were half-brothers.

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  • He fell into the hands of William the Bastard, of the duke of Normandy, King Edwards cousin and best- Norman loved relative.

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  • The witan cbose the earl as king without any show of doubt, though the assent of the Mercian and Northumbrian earls must have been half-hearted: Not a word was said in favor of the claim of the child Edgar, the heir of the house of Alfred, nothing (of course) for the preposterous claim of William of Normandy.

    0
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  • But while he was absent from the Channel the wind turned, and William of Normandy put to sea.

    0
    0
  • \Vhen William of Normandy was crowned at Westminster by Archbishop Aldred of York and acknowledged as king by the witan, it is certain that few Englishmen understood the full importance of the occasion.

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  • not as of Norn,an duke of Normandy, but as the head of a band of cosmo- settle.

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  • William died at Rouen on the 7th of September 1087; on his death-bed he expressed his wish that Normandy should pass to his elder son, Robert, in spite of all his rebellions, but gave his second son William (known by the nick- ~7 name of Rufus) the crown of England, and sent him thither with commendatory letters to archbishop Lanfranc and his other ministers.

    0
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  • But the results of the Conquest had made it hard to tear England and Normandy apart.

    0
    0
  • They used the name of the duke of Normandy and had secured his promise to cross the Channel for their assistance.

    0
    0
  • Since his brother had pawned the duchy of Normandy to him, so that he reigned at Rouen no less than at London, the danger of rebellion was almost removed.

    0
    0
  • He had just time to create a favorable impression by his first proceedings, when his brother Robert, who had returned from Palestine and resumed possession of Normandy, landed at Portsmouth to claim the crown and to rouse his partisans among the English baronage.

    0
    0
  • Henry bought him off, before the would-be rebels had time to join him, by promising him an annual tribute of 3000 marks and surrendering to him all his estates in Normandy (1101).

    0
    0
  • He confiscated their estates and drove them out of the realm; they fled for the most part to Normandy, to spur on duke Robert to make another bid for the English crown.

    0
    0
  • Nevertheless he was driven by the logic of events to attack Normandy, for as long as his brother reigned there, and as long as many English barons retained great holdings on both sides of the Channel and were subjects of the duke as well as of the king, intrigues and plots never ceased.

    0
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  • But though he had forced or cajoled every leading man in England and Normandy to take his oath to serve her, he must have been conscious that there was a large chance that such pledges would be forgotten at his death..

    0
    0
  • Henry died suddenly on the 25th of November 1135, while he was on a visit to his duchy of Normandy.

    0
    0
  • I-us supporters and those of Matilda were soon at blows all along the frontier of Normandy.

    0
    0
  • Meanwhile, however, he was encouraged to persevere by the fact that his brother Theobald had withdrawn his claim to the duchy of Normandy, and retired in his favor.

    0
    0
  • Matildas adherents were already in the field in Normandy; in England their rising was only delayed for a few months.

    0
    0
  • Henry then returned to Normandy, of which his mother had been in possession since 1145, while Stephen turned his small remaining strength to the weary task of endeavouring to restore the foundations of law and order.

    0
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  • king of England and duke of Normandy, while the younger strove all his life for an imperial position in western Europe.

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  • Added to Anjou and Normandy it made a realm far more important than England.

    0
    0
  • The news was carried overseas to Henry, who was then in Normandy.

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    0
  • Dermot MacMorrough, king of Leinster, an unquiet Irish prince who for good reasons had been expelled by his neighbors, came to Henrys court in Normandy, proffering his allegiance in return for restoration to his lost dominions.

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    0
  • The old king very naturally preferred to keep his dominions united under his own immediate government, but he had designated his eldest sonas his successor in England and Normandy, while Richard was to have his mothers heritage of Aquitaine, and Geoffreys wifes dowry, the duchy of Brittany, was due to him, now that he had reached the verge of manhood.

    0
    0
  • The best proof that King Henrys orderly if autocratic rgime was appreciated at its true value by his English subjects, is that when the second series of rebellions raised by his undutiful sons began In 1182, there was no stir whatever in England, though in Normandy, Brittany and Aquitaine the barons rose in full force to support the young princes, whose success would mean the triumph of particularism and the destruction of the Angevin empire.

    0
    0
  • Boldly asserting that Richard would never be seen alive again he went to France, and did homage to King Philip for Normandy and Aquitaine, as if.they were already his own.

    0
    0
  • At the same time King Philips invasion of Normandy was repulsed by the barons of the duchy.

    0
    0
  • Johns claim prevailed both in Normandy and in.

    0
    0
  • his cause by recognizing him once more as the rightful owner of all Johns continental fiefs save Normandy, which he intended to take for himself.

    0
    0
  • Philip then entered Normandy, while Arthur led a Breton force into Anjou and Poitou to aid the Lusignans.

    0
    0
  • The French armies met with little or no resistance when they invaded Normandy, Anjou and ~1a~-.

    0
    0
  • Meanwhile Philip Augustus conquered all western Normandy, without having to fight a battle.

    0
    0
  • Two ties alone had for the last century held the duchy to the English connection: the one was that many Norman baronial families held lands on this side of the Channel; the second was the national pride which looked upon England as a conquered appendage of Normandy.

    0
    0
  • The successes of Philip Augustus did not cease with the conquest of Normandy.

    0
    0
  • But the connection with Gascony meant little compared with the now vanished connection with Normandy.

    0
    0
  • The two years that followed the loss of Normandy were a time of growing discontent and incessant disputes about taxation.

    0
    0
  • Yet, with his usual inconsequence, he did not follow up his success, but made a two years truce with Philip of France on the basis of uti possidetiswhich left Normandy and all the territories on and about the Loire in the hands of the conqueror.

    0
    0
  • After this John1s spirits rose, and he talked of crossing the seas himself to recover Normandy and Anjou.

    0
    0
  • His greatest fault in the eyes of his subjects was his love of foreigners; since John had lost Normandy the English baronage had become as national in spirit as the commons.

    0
    0
  • In this year he landed in Normandy, where the English banner had not been seen since the days of King John, and executed a destructive raid through the duchy and up the Seine Edward .

    0
    0
  • While Lancaster landed in Normandy, and with the aid of local rebels occupied the greater part of the peninsula of the Ctentin, the prince of Wales accomplished greater things on the borders of Aquitaine.

    0
    0
  • had owned in 1360, with Anjou and Normandy in addition.

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    0
  • nothing more than the steady and gradual conquest of the province of Normandy.

    0
    0
  • He was engaged in a separate campaign with Henrys Conquest ally John the Fearless, and left Normandy to shift Nor,aandy.

    0
    0
  • The English king, however, seeing the manifest advantage of his position, tried to drive too hard a bargain; he demanded the old boundaries of 1360, with his new conquest of Normandy, the hand of the princess Catherine, and a great sum of ready money.

    0
    0
  • 6, 1435), at which the English were offered peace and the retention of Normandy and Guienne if they would evacuate Paris and the rest of France.

    0
    0
  • It was no wonder that Paris was lost within six months of the regents death, Normandy invaded, and Calais beleaguered by an army headed by Englands new enemy, Philip of Burgundy..

    0
    0
  • F with Though every town that they held was eager to revolt, and though they were hopelessly outnumbered in every quarter, they kept a tight grip on the greater part of Normandy, and on their old domain in the Bordelais and about Bayonne.

    0
    0
  • secret connivance, the English garrisons of Normandy carried out plundering raids of the most impudent sort on French territory.

    0
    0
  • Thereupon the French king once more declared war (July 1449) and invaded Normandy.

    0
    0
  • had dealt with Bordeaux and Bayonne as he had already dealt with Normandy, and had met with no better resistance while completing the conquest.

    0
    0
  • Later in the same year the duke of Normandy granted to Robert fitz Harding Berkeley manor and the appurtenant district called "Berkelaihernesse," to hold in fee by the service of one knight or at a rent of loo s.

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    0
  • double alliance, a covenant having been made at Bristol about November 1153 in the presence of Henry, duke of Normandy,, whereby Maurice, son of Robert fitz Harding, was to marry the daughter of Roger of Berkeley, Roger's own son Roger marrying the daughter of Robert.

    0
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  • He fought in the naval fight off Sluys and in the one off Winchelsea in 1350; he led armies into Scotland, Gascony and Normandy, his exploits in Gascony in 1345 and 1346 being especially successful; he served frequently under Edward III.

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  • Honoured with the special confidence of William Rufus he deserted his patron's cause at the first sign of rebellion, and joined with Odo of Bayeux in urging Duke Robert of Normandy to claim the crown (1088).(1088).

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  • Many of the counts of northern France did homage to him as their overlord, and Richard I., duke of Normandy, was both his vassal and his brother-in-law.

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  • During the struggle for the crown between William Rufus and Robert of Normandy, Bamburgh was besieged by William, who, finding the defence too strong, erected and garrisoned a new castle before Bamburgh called FIG.

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  • Bougainville obtained the rank of vice-admiral in 1791; and in 1792, having escaped almost miraculously from the massacres of Paris, he retired to his estate in Normandy.

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  • Meanwhile Dumouriez had devoted his attention to the internal state of his own country, and amongst the very numerous memorials which he sent in to the government was one on the defence of Normandy and its ports, which procured him in 1778 the post of commandant of Cherbourg, which he administered with much success for ten years.

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  • Remaining faithful to the English party, he became captain of Dreux, a councillor of Henry VI., and treasurer of France and Normandy.

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  • In 1515 she married Louis de Breze, grand seneschal of Normandy, by whom she had two daughters.

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  • to the Benedictine monks of St George of Boucherville in Normandy, and a cell from that abbey was subsequently established here.

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  • Attracted by the fame of his countryman, Lanfranc, then prior of Bec, he entered Normandy, and, after spending some time at Avranches, settled at the monastery of Bec. There, at the age of twentyseven, he became a monk; three years later, when Lanfranc was promoted to the abbacy of Caen, he was elected prior.

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  • After obtaining dispensation from his duties in Normandy, Anselm was consecrated in 1093.

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  • The beginning of his reign was occupied with wars against the vassals, particularly against the duke of Normandy.

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  • the Both sides employed similar methods: one was sup- Foreigner ported by Normandy, the other by Germany; the (936-954.) archbishop of Reims was for the Carolingians, the Robertinians had to be content with the less influential bishop of Sens.

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  • Louis soon proved to Hugh the Great, who was trying to play the part of a mayor of the palace, that he was by no means a roi fainant; and the powerful duke of the Franks, growing uneasy, allied himself with Herbert of Vermandois, William of Normandy and his brother-in-law Otto I.

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  • A peace advantageous to him was made in 942, and on the deaths of his two opponents, Herbert of Vermandois and William of Normandy, all seemed to be going well for him; but his guardianship of Richard, son of the duke of Normandy, aroused fresh strife, and on the 13th of July ~45 he fell into an ambush and suffered a captivity similar to his fathers of twenty-two years before.

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  • Hugh strengthened his position in Burgundy, Lorraine and Normandy by means of marriages; but just as his power was at its height he died (956).

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  • They were hemmed in by the powerful duchy of Normandy, the counties of Blois, Flanders and Champagne, and the duchy of Burgundy.

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  • Like his father, he subsequently managed to retrieve some of the crown lands from William the Bastard, the too-powerful duke of Normandy; and he made a praiseworthy though fruitless attempt to regain possession of Lorraine for the French crown; Finally, by the coronation of his son Philip (1059) he confirmed the hereditary right of the Capets, soon to be superior to the elective rights of the bishops and great barons of the kingdom.

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  • His bold endeavour to, establish William Clito in Flanders ended in failure; and his want of strength was particularly humiliating in his unfortunate struggle with Henry I., king of the English and duke of Normandy, who was powerful and well served, the real master of a comparatively weak baronage.

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  • in alliance with Henry Beauclerk of Normandy (Henry I.

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  • His first successes against Theobald of Champagne, who for thirty years had been the most dangerous of the great French barons and had refused a vassals services to Louis VI., as well as the adroit diplomacy with which he wrested from Geoffrey the Fair, count of Anjou, a part of the Norman Vexin long claimed by the French kings, in exchange for permitting him to conquer Normandy, augured well for his boldness and activity, had he but confined them to serving his own interests.

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  • For the proud and passionate Eleanor married, two months later (May 1152), the young Henry, count of Anjou and duke of Normandy, who held, besides these great fiefs, the whole of the south-west of France, and in two Rivafryof years time the crown of England as well.

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  • from the crusade; and his negotiations with his brother John Lackland, whom he acknowledged king of England in exchange for the cession of Normandy.

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  • suddenly liberated Richard, and in five years that devil set free took from Philip all the profit of his trickery, and shut him off from Normandy by the strong fortress of ChteauGaillard (1194-1199).

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  • He demanded renunciation on Johns part, not of Anjou only, but of Poitou and Normandy of all his French-speaking possessions, in fact in favor of Arthur, who was supported by William des Roches, the most powerful lord of the region of the Loire.

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  • Normandy in right of justice and of superior force, took the formidable fortress of Chftteau-Gaillard on the Seine after several months siege, and invested Rouen, which John abandoned, fleeing to England.

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  • method were due to those lawyers of the south and of Normandy who had been nurtured on Roman law in the universities of Bologna or Montpellier, had practised chicanery in the provincial courts, had gradually thrust themselves into the great arena of politics, and were now leading the king and filling his parlement.

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  • had wished to destroy on account of his ambitions with regard to the duchy of Normandy, Edward III.

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  • now invaded central France, ravaged Normandy, getting as near to Paris as Saint-Germain; and profiting by Philip VI.s hesitation and delay, he reached the north with his spoils by dint of forced marches.

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  • The Black Prince took this opportunity to ravage the southern provinces, and then marched to join the duke of Lancaster and Charles of Navarre in Normandy.

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  • Cited before the court of Paris, the Black Prince refused to attend, and war broke out in Gascony, Poitou and Normandy, but with fresh tactics (1369).

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  • had occupied the whole of Normandy and destroyed in two years the work of Philip Augustus.

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  • Normandy was lost to them at Formigny (1450), and Guienne, English since the 12th century, at Castillon (1453).

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  • But during the course of the second league, provoked by the recapture of Normandy, which he had promised to his brother in exchange for Berry, he was nearly caught in.

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  • There were three principal theatres of war: in the north Normandy and the valley of the Loire, where Orleans, the general centre of reform, ensured communications between the south and Germany; in the south-west Gascony and Guienne; in the south-east Lyonnais and Vivarais.

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  • Pilfering was suppressed, and the revolts of the malcontentsthe Gaut/ziers of The Normandy, the Croquants and Tard-aviss of Prigord achieve.

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  • In 1636 the Croquants ravaged Limousin, Poitou, Angoumois, Gascony and Prigord; in 1639 it needed an army to subdue the Va-nu-pieds (bare-feet) in Normandy.

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  • In Burgundy, Dijon saw her municipal liberties restricted in 1631; the provincial assembly of Dauphin was suppressed from 1628 onward, and that of Languedoc in 1629; that of Provence was in 1639 replaced by communal assemblies, and that of Normandy was prorogued from 1639 to 1642.

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  • A few more military disasters, royalist insurrections in the south, Chouan disturbances in Normandy, Orleanist intrigues and the end came.

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  • He was promoted to the rank of colonel in the regiment of Normandy in 1643, and three years later, after distinguishing himself at the siege of Orbitello, where he had an arm broken, he was made marechal de camp. His service seems to have been continuous until the conclusion of the peace of Westphalia in 1648, when he returned to his father's house in Paris and married, without the consent of her parents, Anne de la Grange-Trianon, a girl of great beauty, who later became the friend and confidante of Madame de Montpensier.

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  • After a mission into Normandy, Carrier was sent, early in October 1793, to Nantes, under orders from the Convention to suppress the revolt which was raging there, by the most severe measures.

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  • Since in his mission to Normandy he had been very moderate, it is possible that, as he was nervous and ill when sent to Nantes, his mind had become unbalanced by the atrocities committed by the Vendean and royalist armies.

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  • After arranging for the government of Normandy he proceeded to Paris, where he took the title of lieutenant of the kingdom.

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  • He forced his way into the dauphin's palace (February 1358), and Charles's servant, Jean de Conflans, marshal of Champagne, and Robert de Clermont, marshal of Normandy, were murdered before his eyes.

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  • Charles of Navarre, now in league with the English and master of lower Normandy and of the approaches to Paris, returned to the immediate neighbourhood of the city, and Marcel found himself driven to avowed co-operation with the dauphin's enemies, the English and the Navarrese.

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  • In 1793 he was employed in breaking up the Federalist movement in Normandy, but he was arrested by the Federalist authorities of Caen, and only released in July 1793 after the defeat of their forces at Vernon.

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  • In 1176 he was appointed justiciar and seneschal of Normandy, and was given full control of all the royal business in the duchy.

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  • He did not know a word of French when he reached Normandy; his book, though written many years later, shows that he never lost his English cast of mind or his attachment to the country of his birth.

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  • The fourth and fifth books contain long digressions on the deeds of William the Conqueror in Normandy and England.

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  • But his chief interest is in the histories' of Duke Robert of Normandy, William Rufus and Henry I.

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  • 1523), financial minister in Normandy, the château was confiscated by Francis I.

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  • He determined to quit Paris, where the life was far too exciting for his nerves, and to regain the quietude of Normandy.

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  • Its boundaries are Normandy on the N.

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  • He was born in Paris of a noble and influential family of Normandy; hence, being destined to the ecclesiastical state, he was when ten years old commendatory abbot of La Trappe and two other abbeys, prior of two priories, and canon of Notre Dame, Paris.

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  • The other main episodes of his reign were the quarrel over the Angevin inheritance and his wars with the dukes of Normandy.

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  • The bishop of Chartres, in consequence, refused to bring his vassals, to help Philip's ally, Robert, duke of Normandy, against his brother.

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  • allied invasion of Normandy.

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  • D-Day: On June 6 1944, the largest armada in history launched an assault on the Normandy beaches.

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  • One such battle group heading toward Normandy found itself surrounded by the US 8th Corps armor.

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  • This included a plan to use two airborne brigades to protect the flanks of the three landings in Normandy.

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  • casualtyd Parachute Division had suffered heavy casualties during its time in Normandy.

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  • cogeneration project in Normandy.

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  • Secondly, viking colonists who settled in north-western France created an independent duchy of the Northmen, or Normandy, as it became known.

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  • deception operation pointing to an attack on Calais also helped to keep the German focus away from the Normandy beaches.

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  • The chapter decided to send a deputation to King Richard in Normandy.

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  • Secondly, Viking colonists who settled in north-western France created an independent duchy of the Northmen, or Normandy, as it became known.

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  • Normandy: Starting with an overnight ferry Friday night we arrive in Normandy Saturday morning.

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  • Its historical claim to fame is being involved in the D-day landings of American troops on to the Normandy beaches in 1944.

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  • Next on the journey we drove through the coastal roads of Normandy, where many years ago the famous D-day landings commenced.

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  • I recently saw pictures of ambulances leaving the pontoon of the Mulberry Harbor and this made me visit Normandy.

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  • Had he not been almost physically restrained, he would have taken part in the Normandy landings.

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  • sixtieth anniversary of the allied invasion of Normandy.

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  • The restaurant also has a young French sommelier from Normandy who is knowledgeable almost to the point of obsession.

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  • Elsewhere on the Continent, William Duke of Normandy also thought he had a good claim to the vacant throne.

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  • uncle served in the Royal Navy on the Arctic convoys and my mother lost a cousin in Normandy.

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  • Unknown Soldierial to 296 unknown german soldiers who died in the Normandy campaign.

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  • Palgrave's most important work is his History of Normandy and England, which appeared in four volumes (London 1851-1864), and deals with the history of the two countries down to 1101.

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  • Some of them were baptized; the territory which was afterwards known as the duchy of Normandy was ceded to them; but the story of the marriage of their chief Rollo with a sister of the king, related by the chronicler Dudo of Saint Quentin, is very doubtful.

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  • William Rufus, to the disgust of his supporters, permitted Odo to leave the kingdom after the collapse of this design (1088), and thenceforward Odo was the right-hand man of Robert in Normandy.

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  • In 1074 he went to Normandy and made peace with William.

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  • and Robert of Normandy, Edgar sided with the latter.

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  • to the seneschal of Normandy.

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  • She chiefly lived in Normandy till 1663, when her husband died, and she came to Paris.

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  • Avranches was from 511 to 1790 a bishop's see, held at the end of the 17th century by the scholar Daniel Huet; and its cathedral, destroyed as insecure in the time of the first French Revolution, was the finest in Normandy.

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  • Avranches, an important military station of the Romans, was in the middle ages chief place of a county of the duchy of Normandy.

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  • The peninsula of Brittany and the coasts of Normandy on both sides of the Seine estuary are watered b numerous independent streams., Amongst these the Vilaine, whic passes Rennes and Redon, waters, with its tributaries, an area of 4200 sq.

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  • The Orne, which rises in the hills of Normandy and falls into the Channel below Caen, is of considerably less importance.

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  • The tall, fair and blue-eyed individuals who are found to the north-east of the Seine and in Normandy appear to be nearer in race to the Scandinavian and Germanic invaders; a tall and darker type with long faces and aquiline noses occurs in some parts of Franche-Co1nt and Champagne, the Vosges and the Perche.

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  • Vineyards (see WINE).The vine grows generally in France, except in the extreme north and in Normandy and Brittany.

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  • (a) Normandy, Perche, Cotentin and maritime Flanders, where horses are bred in great numbers; (b) the strip of coast between the Gironde and the mouth of the Loire; (c) the Morvan including the Nivernais and the Charolais, from which the famous Charolais breed of oxen takes its name; (d) the central region of the central plateau including the districts of Cantal and Aubrac, the home of the famous beef-breeds of Salers and Aubrac.1 The famous pre-sal sheep are also reared in the Vende and Cotentin.

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  • Of second rank are Reims and Sedan in the Champagne group; Elbeuf, Louviers and Rouen in Normandy; and Mazamet (Tarn).

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  • The longest established is that of Normandy, having its centres at Rouen, Havre, Evreux, Falaise and Flers.

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  • The Ouest-Etat, a combination of the West and state systems. The former traversed Normandy in every directionand connected Paris with thetowns of Brittany.

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  • On the death of William Longsword, duke of Normandy, who had been assassinated by Arnulf, count of Flanders, in December 942, Louis endeavoured to obtain possession of the person of Richard, the young son and heir of the late duke.

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  • After an unsuccessful expedition into Normandy, Louis fell into the hands of his adversaries, and was for some time kept prisoner at Rouen (945), and subsequently handed over to Hugh the Great, who only consented to release him on condition that he should surrender Laon.

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  • However, when ravaging the country near Alnwick, William was taken prisoner in July 1174, and after a short captivity at Richmond was carried to Normandy, where he soon purchased his release by assenting in December 1174 to the treaty of Falaise.

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  • The first line of its counts, supposed to be descended from the dukes of Normandy, had as heiress Alix (died 1227), who married Raoul (Ralph) de Lusignan, known as the Sire d'Issoudun from his lordship of that name.

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  • on his campaigns in Normandy and Guyenne, and was made lieutenant-general of these two provinces.

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  • Briefly, they are to be found in the conditions of the time; the increasing insularity of the English barons, now no longer the holders of estates in Normandy; the substitution of an unpopular for a popular king, an active spur to the rising forces of discontent; and the unprecedented demands for money - demands followed, not by honour, but by dishonour, to the arms of England abroad.

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  • Turning once more his attention to the recovery of Normandy, he asked the barons for assistance for this undertaking; in reply they, or a section of them, refused, and instead of crossing the seas the king marched northwards with the intention of taking vengeance on his disobedient vassals, who were chiefly barons of the north of England.

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  • With his mercenaries behind him he met with some small successes in his fight for Normandy, but on the 27th of July he and his ally, the emperor Otto IV., met with a crushing defeat at Bouvines at the hands of Philip Augustus, and even the king himself was compelled to recognise that his hopes of recovering Normandy were at an end.

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  • Pollock and Maitland, op. cit., as to Normandy).

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  • In the form of "Norman" (Northmannus, Normannus, Normand) it is the name of those colonists from Scandinavia who settled themselves in Gaul, who founded Normandy, who adopted the French tongue and French manners, and who from their new home set forth on new errands of conquest, chiefly in the British Islands and in southern Italy and Sicily.

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  • They adopted the growing feudal doctrines of France, and worked them, both in Normandy and in England, into a harmonious system.

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  • From northern Italy, as it would seem, they adopted a style of architecture which grew in their hands, both in Normandy and in England, into a marked and living form of art.

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  • It takes in one case the form of ceaseless enterprise, in another the form of that lawlessness which ever broke out, both in Normandy and in every other country settled by Normans, when the hand of a strong ruler was wanting.

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  • It is perhaps less wonderful that this characteristic should have been left out in a picture of the Normans in Apulia and Sicily than if it had been left out in a picture of the Normans in Normandy and England.

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  • The conquest of England was made directly from Normandy, by the reigning duke, in a comparatively short time, while the conquest of Sicily grew out of the earlier and far more gradual conquest of Apulia and Calabria by private men.

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  • A comparison of Norman buildings in England and in Normandy will show that the Norman style in England really was affected by the earlier style of England; but the modification was very slight, and it in no way affected the general character of the style.

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  • Where, as in England, they felt that they could improve, they substituted for the style of the country their own style - that is, a style which they had not created but which they had adopted, which they had made thoroughly their own, and which they went on improving in England no less than in Normandy.

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  • In Normandy itself, after the separation from England, architecture becomes French, but it is French of a remarkably good type.

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  • The buildings of the latest French style keep a certain purity and sobriety in Normandy which they do not keep elsewhere.

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  • Her husband died after eleven years of wedlock, leaving her childless; and, since both her brothers were now dead, she was recalled to her father's court in order that she might be recognized as his successor in England and Normandy.

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  • They wasted the next few years in the attempt to win Normandy; but Earl Robert of Gloucester, the half-brother of the empress, at length induced her to visit England and raise her standard in the western shires, where his influence was supreme.

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  • In 1148, having lost by the earl's death her principal supporter, she retired to Normandy, of which her husband had in the meantime gained possession.

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  • LOUIS ELLIES DU PIN (1657-1719), French ecclesiastical historian, came of a noble family of Normandy, and was born at Paris on the 17th of June 1657.

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  • The dissertations not embodied in his great work were collected by himself and (after his death) by his pupil, Camille Jullian, and published as volumes of miscellanies: Recherches sur quelques problemes d'histoire (1885), dealing with the Roman colonate, the land system in Normandy, the Germanic mark, and the judiciary organization in the kingdom of the Franks; Nouvelles recherches sur quelques problemes d'histoire (1891); and Questions historiques (1893), which contains his paper on Chios and his thesis on Polybius.

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  • Gudrun is carried off by a king of Normandy, and her kinsfolk, who are in pursuit, are defeated in a great battle on the island of Willpensand off the Dutch coast.

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  • and Marie Antoinette, was born at Versailles on the 27th of March 1785, was christened the same day Louis Charles, and given the title of duke of Normandy.

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  • LOUIS NICOLAS VAUQUELIN (1763-1829), French chemist, was born at Saint-Andre-d'Hebertot in Normandy on the 16th of May 1763.

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  • PIERRE LE PESANT BOISGUILBERT, SIEUR DE (1676-1714), French economist, was born at Rouen of an ancient noble family of Normandy, allied to that of Corneille.

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  • Facing the castle, on the western side of the pill, stand the considerable remains of Monkton Priory, a Benediction house founded by Earl William Marshal as a cell to the abbey of Seez or Sayes in Normandy, but under Henry VI.

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  • Failing through his police to lure the comte d'Artois to land in Normandy, Napoleon pounced on a scion of the House of Bourbon who was within his reach.

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  • Those of most interest to English ornithologists naturally refer to Britanny, Normandy and Picardy, and are by Baillon, Benoist, Blandin, Bureau, Canivet, Chesnon, Degland, Demarle, De Norguet, Gentil, Hardy, Lemetteil, Lemonnicier, Lesauvage, Maignon, Marcotte, Nourry and Tasle, while perhaps the Ornithologie parisienne of M.

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  • In 1137 he did homage for Normandy to Louis VII.

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  • Eustace was knighted in 1147, at which date he was probably from sixteen to eighteen years of age; and in 1151 he joined Louis in an abortive raid upon Normandy, which had accepted the title of the empress Matilda, and was now defended by her husband, Geoffrey of Anjou.

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  • OLIVIER BASSELIN (c. 1400-c. 1450), French poet, was born in the Val-de-Vire in Normandy about the end of the 14th century.

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  • of France, had reached Constantinople in November 1096, in a species of honourable captivity, and had done Alexius homage; Robert of Normandy and Stephen of Blois, to whom Urban II.

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  • The refusal of Raymund meant the choice of Godfrey of Bouillon, who had, as we have seen, become prominent since the siege of Arca; and Godfrey accordingly became - not king, but "advocate of the Holy Sepulchre," while a few days afterwards Arnulf, the chaplain of Robert of Normandy, and one of the sceptics in the matter of the Holy Lance, became "vicar" of the vacant patriarchate.

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  • Fulcher of Chartres originally followed Robert of Normandy, but in October 1097 he joined Baldwin of Lorraine in his expedition to Edessa, and afterwards followed his fortunes.

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  • THOMAS BASIN (1412-1491), bishop of Lisieux and historian, was born probably at Caudebec in Normandy, but owing to the devastation caused by the Hundred Years' War, his childhood was mainly spent in moving from one place to another.

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  • After his father's death he crossed the Alps to found a school in France; but in a short while he decided that Normandy would afford him a better field.

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  • His pupils were drawn not only from France and Normandy, but also from Gascony, Flanders, Germany and Italy.

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  • The town achieved some prosperity under the dukes of Normandy, who improved its harbour, but after the annexation of Normandy to France it was overshadowed by the rising port of Havre.

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  • The Ypodigma purports to be a history of the dukes of Normandy, but it also contains some English history and its value is not great.

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  • The king of Navarre, who defended this deed, had, however, many friends in France and was in communication with Edward III.; and consequently John was forced to make a treaty at Mantes and to compensate him for the loss of Angouleme by a large grant of lands, chiefly in Normandy.

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  • Returning to Normandy, Charles was partly responsible for some unrest in the duchy, and in April 1356 he was treacherously seized by the French king at Rouen, remaining in captivity until November 1357, when John, after his defeat at Poitiers, was a prisoner in England.

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  • Still hankering after Burgundy, Charles saw his French estates again seized; but after some desultory warfare, chiefly in Normandy, peace was made in March 1365, and he returned to his work of interference in the politics of the Spanish kingdoms. In turn he made treaties with the kings of Castile and Aragon, who were at war with each other; promising to assist Peter the Cruel to regain his throne, from which he had been driven in 1366 by his half-brother Henry of Trastamara, and then assuring Henry and his ally Peter of Aragon that he would aid, them to retain Castile.

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  • They appear to have been produced in Normandy and the Vendee, where they were employed for sporting purposes, and originally were no very definite breed.

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  • EURE-ET-LOIR, an inland department of north-western France, formed in 1790 of portions of Orleanais and Normandy.

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  • In 1070 William sent him to assist Queen Matilda in the government of Normandy.

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  • JACQUES CHARLES DUPONT DE L'EURE (1767-1855), French lawyer and statesman, was born at Neubourg (Eure), in Normandy, on the 27th of February 1767.

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  • In 1789 he was an advocate at the parlement of Normandy.

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  • It was in the keep, and not, as tradition says, in the much later "Black Tower" (also called "Duke Robert's Tower"), that Robert, duke of Normandy, was imprisoned by order of his brother Henry I.

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  • Receiving, under the Conqueror's last dispositions, a legacy of five thousand pounds of silver, but no land, he traded upon the pecuniary needs of Duke Robert of Normandy;, from whom he purchased, for the small sum of X3000, the: district of the Cotentin.

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  • When Robert's departure for the First Crusade left Normandy in the hands of Rufus (1096) Henry took service under the latter, and he was in the royal hunting train on the day of Rufus's death (August 2nd,.

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  • Had Robert been in Normandy the claim of Henry too the English crown might have been effectually opposed.

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  • With Normandy he had more trouble, and the military skill which he had displayed at Tinchebrai was more than once put to the test against Norman rebels.

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  • (1114) which saved Normandy in 1124; the detachment of the pope, Calixtus II., from the side of France and the Clito (1119), and the Angevin marriages which he arranged for his son William Aetheling (1119) and for the widowed empress Matilda (1129) after her brother's death.

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  • This latter match, though unpopular in England and Normandy, was a fatal blow to the designs of Louis VI., and prepared the way for the expansion of English power beyond the Loire.

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  • After 1124 the disaffection of Normandy was crushed.

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  • He spent more time in Normandy than in England.

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  • His itinerant justices were not altogether a novelty in England or Normandy.

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  • He was the bastard son of Robert the Devil, duke of Normandy, by Arletta, the daughter of a tanner at Falaise.

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  • Alarmed at the close connexion of Normandy with Flanders, Henry I.

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  • He joined forces with Geoffrey Martel in order to crush the duke, and Normandy was twice invaded by the allies.

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  • In 1062, however, Herbert died and Maine was formally annexed to Normandy.

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  • Early in 1067 he made a progress through parts of the south, receiving submissions, disposing of the lands of those who had fought against him, and ordering castles to be built; he then crossed the Channel to celebrate his triumph in Normandy.

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  • William Fitz Osbern, earl of Hereford, who had been his right-hand man in Normandy, fell in the civil wars of Flanders (1071).

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  • But the king himself worked hard in hearing lawsuits, in holding councils and ceremonious courts, in travelling between England and Normandy, and finally in conducting military operations.

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  • Robert fled from Normandy and after aimless wanderings obtained from King Philip the castle of Gerberoi, in the Beauvaisis, from which he harassed the Norman marches.

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  • By Matilda, who died in Normandy on the 3rd of November 1083, William had four sons, Robert, duke of Normandy, Richard, who was killed whilst hunting, and the future kings, William II.

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  • PIERRE SIMON LAPLACE, MARQUIS DE (1749-1827), French mathematician and astronomer, was born at Beaumont-en-Auge in Normandy, on the 28th of March 1749.

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  • He held command for a time at Calais, and took an active part in the French campaigns of Henry V., who created him earl and count of Aumale in Normandy.

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  • He had charge of the education of Henry VI., and in 1437 was appointed lieutenant of France and of Normandy.

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  • By this treaty Marie was given liberty to live wherever she wished, and the government of Anjou and of Normandy with several castles was entrusted to her.

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  • They lived simply for plunder, and had neither the ambition nor the ability to found colonies like Normandy or Northumbria.

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  • The Danish attacks were repeated in 997, 99 8, 999 and in 1000 !Ethelred availed himself of the temporary absence of the Danes in Normandy to invade Cumberland, at that time a Viking stronghold.

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  • London soon acknowledged him, and Ethelred, after taking refuge for a while with Thurkill's fleet, escaped to Normandy.

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  • Emma's marriage with Ethelred was an important step in the history of the relations between England and Normandy, and R.

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  • From the moment of Emma's marriage Normandy became a chief factor in English politics."/n==Authorities== - The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (edition by C. Plummer, 2 vols.

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  • After visiting and examining the principal churches, first of Normandy, then of central and southern France, he was on his return appointed by Guizot secretary to the Historical Committee of Arts and Monuments (1835); and in the following years he delivered several courses of lectures on Christian iconography at the Bibliotheque Royale.

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  • A little later we find great and royal personages resorting to Salerno for the restoration of their health, among whom was William of Normandy, afterwards the Conqueror.

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  • Giry himself published Les Etablissements de Rouen (1883-1885), a study, based on very minute researches, of the charter granted to the capital of Normandy by Henry II.; king of England, and of the diffusion of similar charters throughout the French dominions of the Plantagenets; a collection of Documents sur les relations de la royaute avec les villes de France de 1180 a 1314 (1885); and Etude sur les origines de la commune de Saint-Quentin (1887).

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  • JACQUES DAVY DUPERRON (1556-1618), French cardinal, was born at St L6, in Normandy, on the 15th of November 1556.

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  • Returning to Normandy he was presented to the king by Jacques of Matignon; after he had abjured Protestantism, being again presented by Philip Desportes, abbot of Tiron, as a young man without equal for knowledge and talent, he was appointed reader to the king.

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  • Re-elected to the Convention, he was sent to Normandy, where he directed bitter reprisals against the Federalists.

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  • After his defeat and death on the hill on the Sussex Downs then called Senlac, the duke of Normandy had the country at his mercy, but he recognized the importance of London's position, and moved forward with the greatest caution and tact.

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  • There were glass-making districts both in Normandy and in Poitou.

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  • It is recorded that in the 7th century the abbot of Wearmouth in England obtained artificers in glass from France; and there is a tradition that in the 11th century glass-workers migrated from Normandy and Brittany and set up works at Altare near Genoa.

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  • Schuermans in his researches discovered that during the 15th and 16th centuries many glass-workers left Altare and settled in France, - the Saroldi migrated to Poitou, the Ferri to Provence, the Massari to Lorraine and the Bormioli to Normandy.

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  • Lorraine and Normandy appear to have been the most important centres.

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  • To Lorraine belong the well-known names Hennezel, de Thietry, du Thisac, de Houx; and to Normandy the names de Bongar, de Cacqueray le Vaillant and de Brossard.

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  • There were two kinds of flat glass, known respectively as " brode-glas " and " Normandy " glass.

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  • Normandy glass was made from glass circles or disks.

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  • In 1486, however, it is referred to in such a way as to suggest that it was superior to " Dutch, Venice or Normandy glass."

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  • In 1567 James Carre of Antwerp stated that he had erected two glass-houses at " Fernefol " (Fernfold Wood in Sussex) for Normandy and Lorraine glass for windows, and had brought over workmen.

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  • From this period began the records in England of the great glass-making families of Hennezel, de Thietry, du Thisac and du Houx from Lorraine, and of de Bongar and de Cacqueray from Normandy.

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  • While Philip Augustus was invading Normandy, Arthur tried to seize Poitou.

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  • declared war against France; and when, in August 1415, the English landed in Normandy, the Armagnacs and Burgundians united against them, but were defeated in the battle of Agincourt (October 25, 1415).

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  • The gild merchant came into existence in England soon after the Norman Conquest, as a result of the increasing importance of trade, and it may have been transplanted from Normandy.

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