Norman Sentence Examples
If the Norman was a born soldier, he was also a born lawyer.
Your buddy Detective Norman Hunter is off fishing somewhere so you're supposed to go directly to the morgue on your own.
The church of St Mary is mainly Perpendicular, and contains a Norman font and monuments of the 8th century.
A picturesque avenue leads to the church of St Mary, principally Early English and Perpendicular, with remains of Norman work, having a lofty tower surmounted by a spire, and containing several fine monuments, tombs and brasses.
Norman Lockyer, and ascribed by him to a hypothetical element helium.Advertisement
The monastic buildings have practically disappeared, but the church was a splendid building of various dates from Norman to Decorated, the choir and Lady chapel representing the later period.
Of cattle besides the breeds named the Norman (beef and milk), the Limousin (beef), the Mont bfiard, the Bazadais, the Flamand, the Breton and tile larthenais breeds may be mentioned, societies and in many other ways.
There are numerous modern churches and chapels, many of them very handsome; and the former parish church of St Nicholas remains, a Decorated structure containing a Norman font and a memorial to the great duke of Wellington.
Along the portion of the south shore of the Gulf of Carpentaria which belongs to Queensland and the east coast, many large rivers discharge their waters, amongst them the Norman, Flinders, Leichhardt, Albert and Gregory on the southern shore, and the Batavia, Archer, Coleman, Mitchell, Staaten and Gilbert on the eastern shore.
Three of them, respectively commanded by Mr. Walker, Mr. Landsborough, and Mr. Norman, sailed to the north, where the latter two landed on the shores of the Gulf of Carpentaria, while Mr. Walker marched inland from Rockhampton.Advertisement
Towards the end of the 11th century, when the tide of Norman invasion swept upwards along the Wye valley, the district became a lordship marcher annexed to that of Brecknock, but was again severed from it on the death of William de Breos, when his daughter Matilda brought it to her husband, Roger Mortimer of Wigmore.
Its period is mainly Transitional Norman and Early English, and though considerably altered by restoration it contains some good details, with many monuments and brasses.
After the Norman Conquest the thegns appear to have been merged in the class of knights.
St Michael's church in East Teignmouth was rebuilt in 1824 in Decorated style, but retains a Norman doorway and other ancient portions; of St James', in West Teignmouth, the south porch and tower are Norman.
Some Norman adventurers, on pilgrimage to St Michaels shrine on Monte Gargano, lent their swords in 1017 to the Lombard cities of Apulia against the Greeks.Advertisement
This Norman conquest of the two Sicilies forms the most romantic episode in medieval Italian history.
When William II., the last monarch of the Norman race, died, Henry VI.
Although in later ages its importance was enormously magnified, it differs only in degree, not in kind, from other charters granted by the Norman and early Plantagenet kings.
The church of St Oswald at Filey is a fine cruciform building with central tower, Transitional Norman and Early English in date.
The French followed closely on the track of John Cabot, and Norman and Breton fishermen frequented the banks of Newfoundland at the beginning of the 16th century.Advertisement
After being almost entirely wrecked by Norman raiders it was rebuilt, on the original lines, in 983, by the emperor Otto III.
From this time the spreading genealogy of the Howards drew its origins from most of the illustrious names of the houses founded after the Norman Conquest.
The church of St Michael has a Norman square embattled tower surmounted by a spire, and an apsidal chancel.
In the form of "Norman" (Northmannus, Normannus, Normand) it is the name of those colonists from Scandinavia who settled themselves in Gaul, who founded Normandy, who adopted the French tongue and French manners, and who from their new home set forth on new errands of conquest, chiefly in the British Islands and in southern Italy and Sicily.
Like as the Norman still is to the Northman, the effects of a settlement of Normans are utterly different from the effects of a settlement of Northmen.Advertisement
There can be no doubt that the establishment of the Norman power in England was, like the establishment of the Danish power, greatly helped by the essential kindred of Normans, Danes and English.
To all outward appearance the Norman conquest of England was an event of an altogether different character from the Danish conquest.
The Norman settlers in England felt no community with the earlier Danish settlers in England.
The English and the Sicilian settlements form the main Norman history of the II th century.
Several of these features stand out very clearly in Norman history.
The Norman power in England was founded on full and speedy union with the one nation among whom they found themselves.
The Norman power in Sicily was founded on a strong distinction between the ruling people and the many nations which they kept in peace and prosperity by not throwing in their lot with any one among them.
The quality which Geoffrey Malaterra expresses by the word "effrenatissima" is also clearly marked in Norman history.
It is, in fact, the groundwork of the historic Norman character.
But it was balanced by another quality which Geoffrey does not speak of, one which is not really inconsistent with the other, one which is very prominent in the Norman character, and which is, no less than the other, a direct heritage from their Scandinavian forefathers.
Even Norman lawlessness in some sort took a legal shape.
Norman warriors had long before helped the Christians of Spain in their warfare with the Saracens of the Peninsula, and in Sicily it was from the same enemy that they won the great Mediterranean island.
The Norman, a strict observer of forms in all matters, attended to the forms of religion with special care.
The Norman, as a visible element in the country, has vanished from England, and he has vanished from Sicily.
Neither island has for ages been in any sense a Norman land, and the tongue which the Norman brought with him into both has not for ages been spoken in either.
Norman influence has been far stronger in England than in Sicily, and signs of Norman presence are far more easily recognized.
But the Norman, as a distinct people, is as little to be seen in the one island as in the other.
His disappearance in both cases is an illustration of one of the features which we have spoken of in the Norman character, the tendency which in fact made Normans out of Northmen, the tendency to adopt the language and manners of the people among whom they found themselves.
Moreover, every Norman to whom he granted lands and offices held them by English law in a much truer sense than the king held his; he was deemed to step into the exact position of his English predecessor, whatever that might be.
The fashionable use of French for nearly two centuries longer was far more a French fashion than a Norman tradition.
The Normans who came into Sicily must have been much less purely Norman than the Normans who came into England.
The army of Duke William was undoubtedly very far from being wholly made up of Normans, but it was a Norman army; the element which was not Norman, though considerable, was exceptional.
But we may doubt whether the Norman invaders of Sicily were Norman in much more than being commanded by Norman leaders.
The Norman settlements at Aversa and Capua were the work of adventurers, making their own fortunes and gathering round them followers from all quarters.
The conquest of Apulia, won bit by bit in many years of what we can only call freebooting, was not a national Norman enterprise like the conquest of England, and the settlement to which it led could not be a national Norman settlement in the same sense.
When Count Roger at last found himself lord of the whole island, he found himself lord of men of various creeds and tongues, of whom his own Norman followers were but one class out of several.
The characteristic point of Norman rule in Sicily is that it is the rule of princes who were foreign to all the inhabitants of the island, but who were not more foreign to the inhabitants of the island than different classes of them were to one another.
The Norman conqueror found in Sicily a Christian and Greekspeaking people and a Mussulman and Arabic-speaking people.
We speak of the Saracen very much as we speak of the Norman; for of the Mussulman masters of Sicily very many must have been only artificial Arabs, Africans who had adopted the creed, language and manners of Arabia.
In each case the Arab or the Norman was the kernel, the centre round which all other elements gathered and which gave its character to the whole.
Besides these two main races, Greek and Saracen, others came in through the Norman invasion itself.
There were the conquerors themselves; there were the Italians, in Sicily known as Lombards, who followed in their wake; there were also the Jews, whom they may have found in the island, or who may have followed the Norman into Sicily, as they certainly followed him into England.
The special character of Norman rule in Sicily was that all these various races flourished, each in its own fashion, each keeping its own creed, tongue and manners, under the protection of a common sovereign, who belonged to none of them, but who did impartial justice to all.
In the end something like a Sicilian nation did arise; but it arose rather by the dying out of several of the elements in the country, the Norman element among them, than by any such fusion as took place in England.
That is, as has been already said, the Norman as such has vanished in two different ways.
In England the Norman duke came in as a foreign intruder, without a native supporter to establish his rule over a single nation in its own land.
The Norman conquest of England was at the moment a curse; the Norman conquest of Sicily was at the moment a blessing.
But the gradual and indirect results of the Norman conquest of England are easily to be seen to this day, and they have been largely, though indirectly, results for good.
In Sicily and southern Italy there is hardly any visible Norman influence, except the great historic fact which we may call the creation of Sicily and southern Italy in their modern sense.
The coming of the Norman ruled that these lands should be neither Saracen nor Greek, nor yet Italian in the same sense as northern Italy, but that they should politically belong to the same group of states as the kingdoms and principalities of feudal Europe.
And yet, notwithstanding all this, and partly because of all this, real and distinct Norman influence has been far more extensive and far more abiding in England than it has been in Sicily.
In Sicily then the circumstances of the conquest led the Norman settlers to remain far more distinct from the older races of the land than they did in England, and in the end to lose themselves, not in those older races of the land, but in the settlers of other races who accompanied and followed them.
In his day a Latin element finally triumphed; but it was not a Norman or French-speaking element of any kind.
The use of language and nomenclature during the time of Norman rule in the two countries forms a remarkable contrast, and illustrates the circumstances of the two as they have just been sketched.
The chroniclers of the conquest of Apulia and Sicily use the Norman name in every page as the name of the followers of the conquerors from Hauteville.
It was the natural name for a body of men who must, by the time the conquest of Sicily was over, have been very mixed, but whose kernel was Norman, whose strength and feelings and traditions all came from a Norman source.
Of the various "Siciliae populi," we hear of Greeks, Saracens, Lombards, sometimes of Franci, for by that time there were many French-speaking settlers in Sicily who were not of Norman descent.
The narratives of the conquest of England use both the Norman and the French names to express the followers of William.
We can see also that, though several languages were in use in England during the time of Norman rule, yet England was not a land of many languages in the same sense in which Sicily was.
Before the Norman Conquest England had two official tongues; documents Sicily.
French, the language which the Normans brought with them, did not become an official language in England till after strictly Norman rule had passed away.
In Scotland again the Norman settlers were lost in the mixed nationality of the country, but not till they had modified many things in the same way in which they modified things in England.
They gave Scotland nobles and even kings; Bruce and Balliol were both of the truest Norman descent; the true Norman descent of Comyn might be doubted, but he was of the stock of the Francigenae of the Conquest.
In Wales the Norman came as a conqueror, more strictly a conqueror than in England; he could not claim Welsh crowns or Welsh estates under any fiction of Welsh law.
The Norman settler in Wales, therefore, did not to any perceptible extent become a Welshman; the existing relations of England and Wales were such that he in the end became an Englishman, but he seems not unnaturally to have been somewhat slower in so doing in Wales than he was in England.
At least Giraldus Cambrensis, the Norman Welshman or Welsh Norman, was certainly more alive to the distinction between Normans and English than any other of his contemporaries.
In Ireland the Norman was more purely a conqueror than anywhere else; but in Ireland his power of adaptation caused him to sink in a way in which he sank nowhere else.
Both countries are rich in works of architecture raised during the time of Norman rule.
And the buildings of both lands throw an instructive architec- light on the Norman national character, as we have tune in described it.
This Norman form of Romanesque most likely had its origin in the Lombard buildings of northern Italy.
But it took firm root on Norman soil; it made its way to England at an early stage of its growth, and from that time it went on developing and improving on both sides of the Channel till the artistic revolution came by which, throughout northern Europe, the Romanesque styles gave way to the Gothic. Thus the history of architecture in England during the 11th and 12th centuries is a very different story from the history of the art in Sicily during the same time.
A comparison of Norman buildings in England and in Normandy will show that the Norman style in England really was affected by the earlier style of England; but the modification was very slight, and it in no way affected the general character of the style.
Thus, while the institutions of England in the 12th century were English with very considerable Norman modifications, the architecture of England in that century was Norman with a very slight English modification.
That is, the discerning Norman, as ever, adapted himself, but adapted himself in an intelligent way, to the circumstances of each land in which he found himself.
And this comes out the more clearly if we compare Norman work in England and in Sicily with Norman work in at least some parts of Apulia.
At Bari, Trani and Bitonto we see a style in which Italian and strictly Norman elements are really mingled.
It is plain that the Norman settlers in Apulia were not so deeply impressed with the local style as they were in Sicily, while they thought much more of it than they thought of the local style of England.
Some early ambones are found in Ravenna, and in the south of Italy are many fine examples; the epistle ambo in the cathedral at Ravello (1130), which is perhaps the earliest, shows a Scandinavian influence in the design of its mosaic inlay, an influence which is found in Sicilian work and may be a Norman importation.
Stories like these prove even more than the real rise of Hagano and Eadric. In England the nobility of the thegns was to a great extent personally displaced, so to speak, by the results of the Norman Conquest.
The English thegn sometimes yielded to, sometimes changed into, the Norman baron, using that word in its widest sense, without any violent alteration in his position.
The French in the 17th century claimed that but for the loss of the archives of Dieppe they would be able to prove that vessels from this Norman port had established settlements at Grand Basa, Cape Mount, and other points on the coast of Liberia.
The church of St Andrew is principally late Norman.
Bermondsey was in favour with the Norman kings as a place of residence, and there was a palace here, perhaps from pre-Norman times.
The finest parts of the epic are those in which Gudrun, a prisoner in the Norman castle, refuses to become the wife of her captor, and is condemned to do the most menial work of the household.
Here, thirteen years later, Herwig and her brother Ortwin find her washing clothes by the sea; on the following day they attack the Norman castle with their army and carry out the long-delayed retribution.
Some pre-Norman work appears in the western wall, the tower arches and south porch are Norman, and there are an Early English chapel and some Decorated windows.
Of the old castle, the gatehouse and other parts are of Norman construction, but the mansion near it was built by Sir Walter Raleigh.
The Jews came to England at least as early as the Norman Conquest; they were expelled from Bury St Edmunds in 1190, after the massacres at the coronation of Richard I.; they were required to wear badges in 1218.
The church of St George has Norman portions, but the building is in the main Perpendicular.
There are traces of monastic buildings near the church, for it belonged to a Benedictine house of early Norman foundation.
The Saxon fort of Alaric was replaced by a Norman castle built by William de Mohun, first lord of Dunster, who founded the priory of St George.
He was the youngest son of Michel Etienne Turgot, "provost of the merchants" of Paris, and Madeleine Frangoise Martineau, and came of an old Norman family.
In the Church of England, on the other hand, the office of archdeacon, which was first introduced at the Norman conquest, survives, with many of its ancient duties and prerogatives.
It has a stately transitional Norman tower, and three fine Norman arches.
Examples of Norman work are frequent in doorways, as in the churches of Allestree and Willington near Repton, while a fine tympanum is preserved in the modern church of Findern.
There is a triple-recessed doorway, with arcade above, in the west end of Bakewell church, and there is another fine west doorway in Melbourne church, a building principally of the late Norman period, with central and small western towers.
At Steetley, near Worksop, is a small Norman chapel, with apse, restored from a ruinous condition; Youlgrave church, a building of much general interest, has Norman nave pillars and a fine font of the same period, and Normanton church has a peculiar Norman corbel table.
The remains of castles are few; the ancient Bolsover Castle is replaced by a castellated mansion of the 17th century; of the Norman Peak Castle near Castleton little is left; of Codnor Castle in the Erewash valley there are picturesque ruins of the 13th century.
Under the manorial system, the rise of which preceded the Norman Conquest, communal methods of husbandry remained, but the position of the cultivator was radically altered.
Free tenants and, after the Norman Conquest, slaves formed small proportions of the population.
Almost immediately after the Norman Conquest the word fell into disuse.
The family of Carteret was settled in the Channel Islands, and was of Norman descent.
It also possesses a remarkable Norman font of lead.
Further incursions made by the Danes in 998 and in 1015 under Canute probably resulted in the destruction of the priory, on the site of which a later house was founded in the 12th century as a cell of the Norman abbey of Lysa, and in the decayed condition of Wareham in 1086, when 203 houses were ruined or waste, the result of misfortune, poverty and fire.
In the restoration of 1866 some early mural painting was discovered, and a transition Norman clerestory was discovered, remaining above the later nave.
This industrial centre is continued eastward in the urban district of East Ham (pop. 96,018), where the old village church of St Mary Magdalene retains Norman portions.
Under the old forest laws of England it was one of the "beasts of the forest," and, as such, under the Norman kings the unprivileged killing of it was punishable by death or the loss of a member.
At the beginning of the 17th century a collection of songs was published by a Norman lawyer, Jean Le Houx, purporting to be the work of Olivier Basselin.
The church of St John the Baptist, founded in 1050, contains some portions of Norman architecture, the remainder being Decorated and Perpendicular.
The Norman conquest of Sicily may with justice be called a crusade before the Crusades; and it cannot but have given some impulse to that later attempt to wrest Syria from the Mahommedans, in which the virtual leader was Bohemund, a scion of the same house which had conquered Sicily.
Here Tancred, followed by Baldwin, turned into Cilicia, and began to take possession of the Cilician towns, and especially of Tarsus - thus beginning, it would seem, the creation of the Norman principality of Antioch.
Again, in 1104, the Normans, while attempting to capture Harran, were badly defeated on the river Balikh, near Rakka; and this defeat may be said to have been fatal to the chance of a great Norman principality.'
In Norman England the king insisted on his rights; in Frankish Jerusalem the barons insisted on his duties.
He had not those rights of sovereign which the Norman kings of England inherited from their AngloSaxon predecessors, or the Capetian kings of France from the Carolings; nor was he able therefore to come into direct touch with each of his subjects, which William I., in virtue of his sovereign rights, was able to attain by the Salisbury oath of 1086.
These fortresses, garrisoned not by the king, as in Norman England, but by their possessors, would only strengthen the power of the feudatories, and help to dissipate the kingdom into a number of local units.
As emperor, Henry was eager to resume the imperial Crusade which had been stopped by his father's death; while both as Frederick's successor and as heir to the Norman kings of Sicily, who had again and again waged war against the Eastern empire, he had an account to settle with the rulers of Constantinople.
In 1195 Henry took the cross; some time before, he had already sent to Isaac Angelus to demand compensation for the injuries done to Frederick I., along with the cession of all territories ever conquered by the Norman kings of Sicily, and a fleet to co-operate with the new Crusade.
The heirs of the Norman kings were the Hohenstaufen; and we have already seen Henry VI.
The pointed arch owes nothing to the Arabs; it is already used in England in early Norman work.
This is an octosyllabic poem in French verse, written by Ambroise, a Norman trouvere who followed Richard I.
The church of St Maddern is principally Perpendicular, with earlier portions and a Norman front.
It was Alexander II., the former pupil of Lanfranc, who gave the Norman Conquest the papal benediction - a notable advantage to William at the moment, but subsequently the cause of serious embarrassments.
It was Thomas who organized the Toulouse campaign of 1159; even in the field he made himself conspicuous by commanding a company of knights, directing the work of devastation, and superintending the conduct of the war after the king had withdrawn his presence from the camp. When there was war with France upon the Norman border, the chancellor acted as Henry's representative; and on one occasion engaged in single combat and unhorsed a French knight of reputation.
The front has a large late Norman portal of four orders, with rich Early English arcading above; the nave arcade is ornate Norman.
The Bohuns came into England at, or shortly after, the Norman Conquest; but their early history there is obscure.
The cruciform church of St Andrew has Norman and later portions; it is the burial-place of Henry Hallam the historian, and members of his family, including his sons Arthur and Henry.
Elbeuf was, in the 13th century, the centre of an important fief held by the house of Harcourt, but its previous history goes back at least to the early years of the Norman occupation, when it appears under the name of Hollebof.
The remains are principally of Norman date, and an unusual feature of the stronghold is the existence of various subterranean chambers in the rock.
The church of St Giles, formerly a chapel of ease to All Saints, but made parochial in the 18th century, is'of Norman date, but most of the present structure is modern.
One account says that it was caused by a broken bridge which delayed the Conqueror's advance to the north, but this is known to have been at Ferrybridge, three miles away; a second says that the new name was derived from a Norman town called Pontfrete, which, however, never existed; and a third that it was caused by the breaking of a bridge in 1153 on the arrival of the archbishop of York, St William,.
The conspirators, the chief of whom were Norman Leslie, master of Rothes, and William Kirkaldy of Grange, contrived to obtain admission at daybreak of the 29th of May 1546, and murdered the cardinal under circumstances of horrible mockery and atrocity.
The church of St Cuthbert shows good transitional Norman details.
The city walls date in part from Norman times, but are in the main of the 14th century.
It is a square tower built over a circular, probably Norman, arch, and has embattled corner turrets.
Others are Bootham Bar, the main entrance from the N., also having a Norman arch; Monk Bar (N.E.), formerly called Goodramgate, but renamed in honour of General Monk, and Walmgate Bar, of the time of Edward I., retaining the barbican repaired in 1648.
At the time of the Norman invasion the Saxon cathedral, with the library of Archbishop Egbert, perished in the fire by which the greater part of the city was destroyed, the only relic remaining being the central wall of the crypt.
St Mary's church is principally Perpendicular, but has Norman and Decorated portions; the church of St Andrew is also Decorated and Perpendicular.
With Normandy he had more trouble, and the military skill which he had displayed at Tinchebrai was more than once put to the test against Norman rebels.
His Norman, like his English administration, was popular with the non-feudal classes, but doubtless oppressive towards the barons.
The Norman conspiracies of 1112, 1118, and 1123-24 were all formed in the Clito's interest.
The battle is chiefly notable for the steadi- donor, ness with which the allied right, covered by the Light Division in squares, changed position in presence of the French cavalry; and for the extraordinary feat of arms of Captain Norman Ramsay, R.H.A., in charging through the French cavalry with his guns.
The same book contains an account of Norman's discovery and correct measurement of the dip (1576).
Some of the streets remain much as they were in the medieval period, and many of the houses display more or less of Norman decoration.
The Pointed arches rest upon pillars, possibly Norman, and above them, below the Decorated clerestory windows, is a series of semicircular arches with flamboyant tracery, a remarkable feature.
The parish church of St Giles is believed to have been erected in the reign of Alexander I., about 1110, and the huge Norman keep of the castle, built by his younger brother, David I., continued to be known as David's Tower till its destruction in the siege of 1572.
It was followed by the Lives of the Chief Justices of England, from the Norman Conquest till the death of Lord Mansfield, 8vo, 2 vols., a book of similar construction but inferior merit.
It was by no means his last encounter with Norman traitors, but for the moment the victory gave him an assured position.
This acquisition brought the Norman frontier almost to the Loire and isolated Brittany, long coveted by the Norman dukes, from the rest of France.
About 1064 the accidental visit of Harold to the Norman court added another link to the chain of events by which William's fortunes were connected with England.
Harold's perjury formed the chief excuse for the Norman Conquest of England, which in reality was a piratical venture resembling that of the sons of Tancred d'Hauteville in Lower Italy.
In 1069 Robert of Comines, a Norman to whom William had given the earldom of Northumberland, was murdered by the English at Durham; the north declared for Edgar Atheling, the last male representative of the West-Saxon dynasty; and Sweyn Estrithson of Denmark sent a fleet to aid the rebels.
Joining forces, the Danes and English captured York, although it was defended by two Norman castles.
Those whom he enfeoffed with land held it according to the law of Norman feudalism, which was already becoming precise.
From Scotland the king turned to Maine, which had profited by the troubles of 1069 to expel the Norman garrisons.
Robert fled from Normandy and after aimless wanderings obtained from King Philip the castle of Gerberoi, in the Beauvaisis, from which he harassed the Norman marches.
The church of St Andrew is cruciform and full of fine details of late Norman, Early English and Decorated work.
White Ladies was a Cistercian nunnery; and the slight remains are Norman.
Green says "it suddenly opened for its rulers a distinct policy, a distinct course of action, which led to the Norman conquest of England.
His son Ralph fought on the Norman side at Hastings, and was made earl of Norfolk by William the Conqueror.
There are remains of a Norman west tower; the Perpendicular tower stands on the north side.
The word is apparently from a Norman-French kenil (this form does not occur, but is seen in the Norman kinet, a little dog), modern French chenil, from popular Latin canile, place for a dog, canis, cf.
There are various Norman fragments, including a fine early window in the chancel.
The church of St Mary the Virgin has Norman remains in the tower and chancel.
Architectural remains of earlier date than the Norman period are very few, and of historical rather than topographical importance.
In architecture of the Norman and Gothic periods London must be considered rich, though its richness is poverty 1 1as- when its losses, particularly during the great fire of 1666, tical are recalled.
These losses were confined within the City, architec- but, to go no farther, included the Norman and Gothic tore.
The church of St Mary-le-Bow, in Cheapside, is built upon a Norman crypt, and that of St Olave's, Hart Street, which was Pepys's church and contains a modern memorial to him, is of the 15th century.
This church has various points of interest besides its Norman crypt, from which it took the name of Bow, being the first church in London built on arches.
It presents fine examples of Norman architecture; its historical associations are of the highest interest, and its armoury and the regalia of England, which are kept here, attract great numbers of visitors.
Among the survivals of names of non-ecclesiastical buildings Castle Baynard may be noted; it stood in the City on the banks of the Thames, and was held by Ralph Baynard, a Norman, in the time of William the Conqueror; a later building being erected in 1428 by Humphrey duke of Gloucester.
On his death the Witan which had attended his funeral elected to succeed him Harold, the foremost man in England, and the leader who had attempted to check the spread of the Norman influence fostered by the Confessor.
Before proceeding with the history of London during the Norman period it is necessary to say something of the counties more especially connected with London.
They were repulsed by the Norman horse, but with such loss to the latter that the duke thought it imprudent to lay siege to the city at that time, and he retired to Berkhampstead.'
Thus ends the Saxon period, and the Norman period in London begins with the submission of the citizens as distinct from the action of the rest of the kingdom, which submission resulted soon afterwards in the Conqueror's remarkable charter to William the bishop and Gosfrith the portcity, reeve, supposed to be the elder Geoffrey de Mandeville.
A great change was at once made both in the appearance and in the government of the city under Norman rule.
The Norman era closes with the death of Stephen in 1154.
One of the most striking changes in the appearance of Norman London was caused by the rebuilding of old churches and the building of new ones, and also by the foundation of bourhood of London, although the houses of nuns, of which there were many dotted over the suburbs of London, were governed by this rule.
Allusion has already been made to the great change in the aspect of London and its surroundings made during the Norman period by the establishment of a large number of monasteries.
As the chief feature of Norman London was the foundation of monasteries, and that of Plantagenet London was the estab-?
We have no materials to judge of the number of inhabitants before the Norman Conquest, but we can guess that there were many open spaces within the walls that were afterwards filled up. It is scarcely worth while to guess as to the numbers in Saxon London, but it is possible that in the early period there were about 10,000 inhabitants, growing later to about 20,000.
During the latter part of the Saxon period the numbers of the population of the country began to decay; this decay, however, was arrested by the Norman Conquest.
The Saxon title of reeve was continued during the Norman period and the shire-reeve or sheriff has continued to our own time.
Locks (East London Advertiser, 1902); Philip Norman, London vanished and vanishing (1905); Records of the London Topographical Society; Monographs of the Committee for the Survey of the Memorials of Greater London.
Only the chancel of the old church remains, but its red sandstone arch is a remarkably fine example of Norman work; it dates from the middle of the 12th century.
Norman Holbrook, successfull y passed the mine-fields of the Straits and torpedoed the old Turkish battleship " Messudieh " at anchor.
In Anglo-Saxon and Norman times it possessed a mint, and it is called a borough in the Pipe Rolls of Henry II., but it was not then in a flourishing condition.
He maintained an alliance with the Norman Duke Roger, Robert Guiscard's son and successor, and united the German with the Italian opposition to the emperor by promoting the marriage of the Countess Matilda with young Welf of Bavaria.
The body of legal rules and customs which obtained in England before the Norman conquest constitutes, with the Scandinavian laws, the most genuine expression of Teutonic legal thought.
The church of St Mary has some fine Norman portions.
The church of All Saints has Norman portions, and a cross and other remains of pre-Norman date were discovered in restoring the building.
The prime object of interest is the cathedral of St Magnus, a stately cruciform red sandstone structure in the severest Norman, with touches of Gothic. It was founded by Jarl Rognvald (Earl Ronald) in 1137 in memory of his uncle Jarl Magnus who was assassinated in the island of Egilshay in 1115, and afterwards canonized and adopted as the patron saint of the Orkneys.
It should also be noted that there is no trace of the existence of either craft or merchant gilds in England before the Norman Conquest.
The gild merchant came into existence in England soon after the Norman Conquest, as a result of the increasing importance of trade, and it may have been transplanted from Normandy.
Scholars are not yet agreed as to what would have been their result if their natural development had not been cut off by the violent introduction of Frankish feudalism with the Norman conquest, whether the historical feudal system, or a feudal system in the general sense.
Thus for instance when any feudal institution (be it Gothic, Norman, or Anglo-Saxon) eludes our deciphering faculty from the imperfect records of its use and operation, then we endeavour conjecturally to amend our knowledge by watching the circumstances in which that institution arose."
Saxon Witenagemot and Norman Curia regis seem very much alike.
The rise of Persian influence made itself felt in much the same way as the Norman influence in England by bringing a newer refinement into poetry.
There is abundant evidence that riding courts were held after the Norman Conquest.
Even Moslem historians speak favourably of the Norman rule in Africa; but it was brought to an early end by the Almohade caliph Abd ul-Mumin, who took Mandia in 1160.
References to important works on the species of marine Polyzoa by Busk, Hincks, Jullien, Levinsen, MacGillivray, Nordgaard, Norman, Waters and others are given in the Memoir (22) by Nickles and Bassler.
In Anglo-Saxon c was adopted to represent the hard stop. After the Norman conquest many English words were re-spelt under Norman influence.
The church of St Peter has a remarkable west tower of pre-Conquest workmanship, excepting the early Norman top storey.
These are of various dates from Norman onwards, but are incorporated with farm buildings.
Soon after the Norman invasion it became of the first importance as a port, a fact attested by the remains of no fewer than five castles in close proximity, which give the town a picturesque aspect.
Dilke, and long edited in later years by Norman MacColl (1843-1904), and afterwards by Mr Vernon Rendall; and the Academy (1869).
The church of St Mary is Norman and Early English, and has a fine chancel screen dating from the later part of the 13th century.
Its area coincides also approximately with that of the previous Achaean conquests; and if the Dorians were as backward culturally as traditions and archaeology suggest, it is not improbable that they soon adopted the language of the conquered, as the Norman conquerors did in England.
Fragments of Norman work areleft; the interior is elaborately adorned with sculptures and stained glass.
The church of Preshute, largely rebuilt, but preserving its Norman pillars, has a curious piscina, and a black basalt font of great size dating from 1100-1150, in which according to a very old tradition King John was baptized.
Near the site of the modern Marlborough (Merleberge, Marieberge) was originally a Roman castrum called Cunetio, and later there was a Norman fortress in which William I.
A lay reaction against the theocratic pretensions of Dagobert, who was counting on Norman support, was responsible for the summons; and in the strength of that reaction Baldwin was able to become the first king of Jerusalem.
The round-headed Norman portal is worthy of note.
The church of St Edmund is mainly Perpendicular, but there are Transitional Norman and Early English portions.
The upper classes h 've Norman, Spanish and Italian origin.
The site where the cathedral at Notabile now stands is reputed to have been the residence of Publius and to have been converted by him into the first Christian place of worship, which was rebuilt in 1090 by Count Roger, the Norman conqueror of Malta.
In 1090 Count Roger the Norman (son of Tancred de Hauteville), then master of Sicily, came to Malta with a small retinue; the Arab garrison was unable to offer effective opposition, and the Maltese were willing and able to welcome the Normans as deliverers and to hold the island after the immediate withdrawal of Count Roger.
Under the will of Corradino a representative of the blood of Roger the Norman, Peter of Aragon claimed the succession, and it came to him by the revolution known as " the Sicilian Vespers " when 28,000 French were exterminated in Sicily.
When the pledge, given by the Treaty of Amiens, to restore the Order of St John with a national Maltese "langue," could not be fulfilled, political leaders began demanding instead the re-establishment of the " Consiglio Popolare " of Norman times (without reflecting that it never had legislative power); but by degrees popular aspirations developed in favour of a free constitution on English lines.
The Sicilians under Roger the Norman took it in the 12th century, and in the 16th the Spaniards occupied it for a brief period.
Charlemagne's wars in Italy, Spain and Saxony formed part of the common epic material, and there are references to his wars against the Sla y s; but especially he remained in the popular mind as the great champion of Christianity against the creed of Mahomet, and even his Norman and Saxon enemies became Saracens in current legend.
But he was ill-supported in his task of maintaining the Norman kingdom, faced with general apathy, and threatened by a baronial revolt, and, in addition, Richard Coeur-de-Lion, at Messina, 1190, threatened him with war.
The ancient church of St Mungo, now in ruins, was a building in the Norman or Early Pointed style.
The church of St Mary, the ancient parish church of East Bourne, is a fine transitional Norman building; and there are numerous modern churches and chapels.
The earthworks, commanding a ford of the river, are apparently of very early date, and probably bore a castle from Norman times.
Pictorial representations in early manuscripts, and the rude effigies on their coins, are not very helpful in deciding as to the form of crown worn by the Anglo-Saxon and Danish kings of England before the Norman Conquest.
The church of St Nicholas, with a graceful tower and spire, is mainly Early English, but has Norman and later portions.
There are considerable remains of the old town walls, dating from Norman times, but strengthened on various later occasions.
The two old churches, St Michael's, the central tower and lofty spire of which rise from Norman arches, and Holy Rood, partly Decorated, are greatly modernized.
St Michael's contains a Norman font of black marble, comparable with that in Winchester Cathedral.
The chapel of St Julian, where French Anglican services are held, is of transitional Norman architecture, greatly altered by restoration.
The Norman walls are so darkened and weathered that, from a little distance, they seem a part of the rock itself.
Although it has been restored, there remain traces of Saxon workmanship in the chancel, besides two Norman doorways, a font of the same period, a stone altar bearing five crosses and a fine 15th-century brass.
Under the Norman earls of Cornwall this was rebuilt, embattled and furnished with munitions of war.
The treuga Dei was decreed for Flanders at the Synod of Therouanne (1063) and was instituted in southern Italy in 1089, probably through Norman influence.
In England, where the Truce of God does not seem to have acquired a firm footing, state law against private warfare obtained practically from the time of the Norman conquest.
This step, fatal to the Norman kingdom, was possibly taken that William might devote himself to foreign conquests.'
Ancient demesne signified lands or manors vested in the king at the time of the Norman Conquest.
After the Norman Conquest the mints increased to about seventy, a greater number than now exists in the world, but they were gradually reduced and in the reign of Edward I.
Okehampton Castle, one of the most picturesque ruins in Devon, probably dates from the 15th century, though its keep may be late Norman.
There are remains of the church of the Holy Cross in transitional Norman style.
The chief events connected with the county under the Norman kings were the capture of Rochester by William Rufus during the rebellion of Odo of Bayeux; the capture of Dover and Leeds castles by Stephen; the murder of Thomas a Becket at Canterbury in 1170; the submission of John to the pope's legate at Dover in 21 3, and the capture of Rochester Castle by the king in the same year.
Among numerous Norman examples the first in interest is the small church at Barfreston, one of the most perfect specimens of its kind in England, with a profusion of ornament, especially round the south doorway and east window.
Though he regards the Norman domination as a "bondage," he is loud in his praises of Edward I., "Edward of Inglond."
His reputation as a historian will chiefly rest on his History of the Norman Conquest (1867-1876), his longest completed book.
Yet if he judges too favourably the leaders of the national party in England on the eve of the Norman Conquest, that is a small matter to set against the insight which he exhibits in writing of Aratus, Sulla, Nicias, William the Conqueror, Thomas of Canterbury, Frederick the Second and many more.
The quantity of work which he turned out is enormous, for the fifteen large volumes which contain 'his ' Norman Conquest, his unfinished History of Sicily, his William Rufus (1882), and his Essays (1872-1879), and the crowd of his smaller books, are matched in amount by his uncollected contributions to periodicals.
The body of the church, however, is mainly transitional Norman with additions principally Decorated, including a beautiful east window, much ancient woodwork, and other details of interest.
At the enfeoffments of 1072 and 1002 no great undivided fiefs were created, and the mixed Norman, French and Italian vassals owed their benefices to the count.
In the autumn of 1096 the nobles of France and Italy, joined by the Norman barons of England and Sicily, set out to wrest the Holy Land from the unbelievers; and for more than a century the cry, " Christ's land must be won for Christ," exercised an unparalleled power in Western Christendom.
He began his labours with The Age of Casimir the Great (1848), and Boleslaw the Brave (1849), following these with Jadwiga and Jagiello, in three volumes (1855-1856) - a work which Spasovich, in his Russian History of Slavonic Literature, compares in vigour of style and fullness of colour with Macaulay's History of England and Thierry's Norman Conquest.
It contains many handsome monuments and private mausoleums, and a beautiful mortuary chapel in the Norman style.
The church of All Saints is of various dates from Norman onwards.
There are ruins of a castle and an old decayed church, which contains some fine Norman work.
In and after the middle of that century the Norman monastery of Bec flourished under the rule of Lanfranc and Anselm, both of whom had begun their career in northern Italy, and closed it at Canterbury.
It is usual to speak of the English burgagetenure as a relic of Saxon freedom resisting the shock of the Norman conquest and its feudalism, but it is perhaps more correct to consider it a local feature of that general exemption from feudality enjoyed by the municipia as a relic of their ancient Roman constitution.
Mary and Elfleda is one of the finest examples in England of a great Norman church little altered by later builders.
In some of the genera parthenogenetic propagation is carried to such an extent that of the familiar Cypris it is said, " until quite lately males in this genus were unknown; and up to the present time no male has been found in the British Islands " (Brady and Norman, 1896).
Brady and Norman, in their Monograph of the Ostracoda of the North Atlantic and North-Western Europe (1889), give a bibliography of 125 titles, and in the second part (1896) they give 55 more.
Norman or transitional work appears in the base of both towers, of which the southern also shows Early English and Decorated work, while the northern is chiefly Perpendicular.
The founder of the family in England was a Norman baron, Guy or Guido de Baliol, who held the fiefs of Bailleul, Dampierre, Harcourt and Vinoy in Normandy.
The nave is of ornate Norman work, with a massive triforium, surmounted by a Perpendicular clerestory and a beautiful wooden roof.
The term "Anglo-Saxon" is commonly applied to that period of English history, language and literature which preceded the Norman Conquest.
They are probably of the Norman period, and were kept in the Pyx Chapel at Westminster, now in the custody of the Commissioners of Works.
The church of St Luke is a beautiful building with Norman and Early English portions, but is mainly Decorated, with a western tower and spire.
Amongst the latter was the magnificently illuminated Norman Commentary on the Apocalypse, some of the earliest copies of which were written in an English hand.
The parish church of St Peter is Perpendicular, dating from 1485, and occupies the site of a Norman church.
He gathered a fine Norman army (perhaps the finest division in the crusading host), at the head of which he crossed the Adriatic, and penetrated to Constantinople along the route he had tried to follow in 1082-1084.
The crypt embodies remains of the founder's work; the rest is Transitional Norman and Early English in style.
The castle has remains of Norman work in the keep, and other ancient portions (including the gateway) of later date, but is in part modernized as a residence.
The chief sources of revenue in Norman times were the valuable fisheries and numerous mills.
St Mary's, in the centre of the town, and St David's, beyond the Usk, are now mainly modern, though the former has some of the Norman arches of the original church.
This, the greatest of all the monuments of the wealth and artistic taste of the Norman kings in northern Sicily, was begun about 1170 by William II., and in 1182 the church, dedicated to the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, was, by a bull of Pope Lucius III., elevated to the rank of a metropolitan cathedral.
Here they dwell in the "raths," old earth-forts, or earthen bases of later palisaded dwellings of the Norman period, and in the subterranean houses, common also in Scotland.
In the course of time the status of the ceorl was probably reduced; but although his political power was never large, and in some directions his freedom was restricted, it hardly seems possible previous to the Norman Conquest to class him among the unfree.
After the Norman Conquest the ceorls were reduced to a condition of servitude, and the word translates the villanus of Domesday Book, although it also covers classes other than the villani.
At its north-east corner access was given from the dormitory to the necessarium, a portentous edifice in the form of a Norman hall, 145 ft.
A modern church replaces the ancient one, of which there are ruins, and a fine Norman font is preserved.
The church of St Andrew is a spacious transitional Norman and Early English building, with later additions, and was formerly a chapel of ease to Waverley Abbey, of which a crypt and fragmentary remains, of Early English date, stand in the park attached to a modern residence of the same name.
The nave is transitional Norman, with a Decorated superstructure including the clerestory.
The south porch is one of the finest Norman examples extant, both the outer and the inner doorways (especially the first) exhibiting the typical ornament of the period in remarkable exuberance.
The town derives its name from the river Avon (corrupted from Avan), which also gave its name to a medieval lordship. On the Norman conquest at Glamorgan, Caradoc, the eldest son of the defeated prince, Lestyn ab Gwrgan, continued to hold this lordship, and for the defence of the passage of the river built here a castle whose foundations are still traceable in a field near the churchyard.
The words of Wace, the Norman poet who translated the Historia into verse, are here admirably to the point.
The neighbouring building of the grammar school preserves a Norman door from another church, which formerly stood in the same churchyard with St Peter's.
Shepton, before the conquest called Sepeton, was in the possession of the abbots of Glastonbury for four hundred years, and then passed to a Norman, Roger de Courcelle.
Afterwards it came into the possession of the Norman barons Malet or Mallet, one of whom was fined for rebellion in the reign of King John.
It was founded probably about 1046 by Peter, the first Norman count of Andria.
Sir Henry Norman stated that to his personal knowledge Hodson remitted several thousand pounds to Calcutta which could only have been obtained by looting.
They were, however, unable to win either English or Norman support and their schemes collapsed with Richard's return (March 1194).
The church of St Peter and St Paul, mainly Perpendicular, retains a Norman font and other remains of an earlier building.
Beyond the fact that he was of Saxon, not of Norman race, and applies to himself the cognomen of Parvus, " short," or "small," few details are known regarding his early life; but from his own statements it is gathered that he crossed to France about 1136, and began regular studies in Paris under Abelard, who had there for a brief period re-opened his famous school on Mont St Genevieve.
The church of All Saints is a large cruciform structure, Norman, Early English and Perpendicular, with a central tower 80 ft.
The Norman and Angevin kings were fully alive to the advantages which accrued to the people through borrowing at usury from the Jews, but they were also alive to the advantages which they themselves were able to reap by extorting from the Jews the wealth which the latter had acquired from the people.
It possesses a town hall, a grammar school (1576), and a Martyr's Memorial HallThe most noteworthy building, however, is the parish church, restored in 1863, which contains a curious old fresco and several interesting brasses, and has a Norman tower.
Crickhowell Castle, of which only a tower remains, probably dated from the Norman conquest of the country.
Their presence indicates the characteristic difference between the spark and the arc. The name is due to Sir Norman Lockyer, who has studied these lines and drawn the attention of astronomers to their importance in interpreting stellar spectra.
The date of the erection of the cathedral is probably about 1179; it retains some traces of Norman architecture, and the facade has a fine figured cornice by Bartolommeo da Foggia; the crypt has capitals of the 11th (?) century.
A Norman font remains from the older foundation.
The church of St Mary is a very fine Norman building with Decorated additions.
This is pure Norman work, and there is a crypt of that period beneath, which was formerly filled with unburied bones.
The chapel remains, with its interesting Norman work, its low side-windows, said to have allowed the lepers to follow the services, and its pre-Reformation altar of stone, a rare example.
The church of St Michael is a fine example of Norman work, with certain late details, having clerestoried nave, chancel and aisles, with central and two western towers.
The principal manor of Enfield, which was held by Asgar, Edward the Confessor's master of horse, was in the hands of the Norman baron Geoffrey de Mandeville at the time of Domesday, and belonged to the Bohun family in the 12th and 13th centuries.
With the rise of the Norman kingdom in Sicily and the Italian naval powers, it again became a frequent object of attack.
The church of St Michael and All Angels is mainly Perpendicular, but the tower (formerly central) and the portion west of it are Norman.
Among numerous buildings of antiquarian interest the first is the ruined keep of the castle, a majestic specimen of Norman architecture, the largest of its kind in England, covering nearly twice the area of the White Tower in London.
As in other ancient buildings in Colchester there are evidences of the use of material from the Roman town which occupied the site, but it is clearly of Norman construction.
Among ecclesiastical buildings are remains of two monastic foundations - the priory of St Botolph, founded early in the 12th century for Augustinian canons, of which part of the fine Norman west front (in which Roman bricks occur), and of the nave arcades remain; and the restored gateway of the Benedictine monastery of St John, founded by Eudo, steward to William II.
The Norman danger ended for the time with Robert Guiscard's death (1085) and the conquests were recovered.
The Tomba di Rotari is a domed building of the Norman period.
His marriage with the heiress of the old Norman kings had made him master of Sicily and the duchy of Apulia and Calabria, and he succeeded in conquering and retaining almost, all the remainder of the peninsula.
The Norman kingdom, which had conquered Sicily and southern Italy at the end of the nth century, was almost as grave a source of anxiety to the popes of this period.
Not only was its very existence an obstacle to .the T he Parcy a n d the spread of their temporal power in the peninsula, Norman but it frequently acted in concert with the pope 's Kingdom enemies and thwarted the papal policy.
At this period, moreover, the " Norman Question " was intimately connected with the " Eastern Question."
The Norman adventurers in possession of Palermo and Naples perpetually tended to look for their aggrandizement to the Byzantine Empire.
The tempest descended on the pope and on Rome with a violence which cannot be paralleled, even in the days of Alaric and Genseric, or of the Norman Robert Guiscard.
There remain only the fine Early English choir, with Decorated additions, the Norman south transept and the majestic Decorated tower; while slight fragments of a Norman nave are seen.
A mile north of Coalville is Whitwick, with remains of a castle of Norman date, while to the north again are slight remains of the nunnery of Gracedieu, founded in 1240, where, after its dissolution, Francis Beaumont, the poet-colleague of John Fletcher, was born about 1586.
He accompanied the Norman army to England in 1066, and obtained permission from William to strike the first blow at the battle of Hastings.