Remember the remarkable Norman Borlaug?
According to Detective Norman Hunter of the Norfolk Police Department, Byrne's bed had not been slept in.
A picturesque avenue leads to the church of St Mary, principally Early English and Perpendicular, with remains of Norman work, having a lofty tower surmounted by a spire, and containing several fine monuments, tombs and brasses.
If the Norman was a born soldier, he was also a born lawyer.
Your buddy Detective Norman Hunter is off fishing somewhere so you're supposed to go directly to the morgue on your own.
Detective Norman Hunter, who met the arriving aircraft, was unperturbed by the overdue flight.
Detective Norman Hunter called Dean from Norfolk later the same week.
At the Norman accession it became part of the possessions of Earl Edwin, and was granted to Robert de Romille.
Fouillee, Descartes (Paris, 1893); Revue de metaphysique et de morale (July, 1896, Descartes number); Norman Smith, Studies in the Cartesian Philosophy (1902); R.
The church of St Lawrence has Norman portions, and an arch and window apparently of pre-Conquest date.
The cruciform church of St Mary, with a central tower and short spire, is in great part Early English, with Perpendicular additions; but considerable traces of a Norman building were revealed during a modern restoration.
The church of St Andrew retains some ornate Norman work, but is mainly a Perpendicular reconstruction.
The church of St Mary is mainly Perpendicular, and contains a Norman font and monuments of the 8th century.
justiciarius or justitiarius, a judge), in English history, the title of the chief minister of the Norman and earlier Angevin kings.
Norman Lockyer, and ascribed by him to a hypothetical element helium.
The monastic buildings have practically disappeared, but the church was a splendid building of various dates from Norman to Decorated, the choir and Lady chapel representing the later period.
The nave passes from Norman to Early English in the course of its eight bays from east to west and also from the arcade through the triforium to the clerestory.
Of cattle besides the breeds named the Norman (beef and milk), the Limousin (beef), the Mont bfiard, the Bazadais, the Flamand, the Breton and tile larthenais breeds may be mentioned, societies and in many other ways.
There are numerous modern churches and chapels, many of them very handsome; and the former parish church of St Nicholas remains, a Decorated structure containing a Norman font and a memorial to the great duke of Wellington.
Along the portion of the south shore of the Gulf of Carpentaria which belongs to Queensland and the east coast, many large rivers discharge their waters, amongst them the Norman, Flinders, Leichhardt, Albert and Gregory on the southern shore, and the Batavia, Archer, Coleman, Mitchell, Staaten and Gilbert on the eastern shore.
Three of them, respectively commanded by Mr. Walker, Mr. Landsborough, and Mr. Norman, sailed to the north, where the latter two landed on the shores of the Gulf of Carpentaria, while Mr. Walker marched inland from Rockhampton.
Towards the end of the 11th century, when the tide of Norman invasion swept upwards along the Wye valley, the district became a lordship marcher annexed to that of Brecknock, but was again severed from it on the death of William de Breos, when his daughter Matilda brought it to her husband, Roger Mortimer of Wigmore.
Its period is mainly Transitional Norman and Early English, and though considerably altered by restoration it contains some good details, with many monuments and brasses.
After the Norman Conquest the thegns appear to have been merged in the class of knights.
1584), discoverer of the northern passage to Archangel in Russia (1553) St Bartholomew's chapel, originally attached to the hospital for lepers (one of the first in England), founded by Gundulph, bishop of Rochester, in 1070, is in part Norman.
St Michael's church in East Teignmouth was rebuilt in 1824 in Decorated style, but retains a Norman doorway and other ancient portions; of St James', in West Teignmouth, the south porch and tower are Norman.
Some Norman adventurers, on pilgrimage to St Michaels shrine on Monte Gargano, lent their swords in 1017 to the Lombard cities of Apulia against the Greeks.
This Norman conquest of the two Sicilies forms the most romantic episode in medieval Italian history.
When William II., the last monarch of the Norman race, died, Henry VI.
Although in later ages its importance was enormously magnified, it differs only in degree, not in kind, from other charters granted by the Norman and early Plantagenet kings.
of Chipping Barnet, has an ancient parish church retaining Norman portions, though enlarged in modern times.
The church of St Oswald at Filey is a fine cruciform building with central tower, Transitional Norman and Early English in date.
The French followed closely on the track of John Cabot, and Norman and Breton fishermen frequented the banks of Newfoundland at the beginning of the 16th century.
After being almost entirely wrecked by Norman raiders it was rebuilt, on the original lines, in 983, by the emperor Otto III.
From this time the spreading genealogy of the Howards drew its origins from most of the illustrious names of the houses founded after the Norman Conquest.
The church of St Michael has a Norman square embattled tower surmounted by a spire, and an apsidal chancel.
In the form of "Norman" (Northmannus, Normannus, Normand) it is the name of those colonists from Scandinavia who settled themselves in Gaul, who founded Normandy, who adopted the French tongue and French manners, and who from their new home set forth on new errands of conquest, chiefly in the British Islands and in southern Italy and Sicily.
Like as the Norman still is to the Northman, the effects of a settlement of Normans are utterly different from the effects of a settlement of Northmen.
There can be no doubt that the establishment of the Norman power in England was, like the establishment of the Danish power, greatly helped by the essential kindred of Normans, Danes and English.
To all outward appearance the Norman conquest of England was an event of an altogether different character from the Danish conquest.
The Norman settlers in England felt no community with the earlier Danish settlers in England.
The English and the Sicilian settlements form the main Norman history of the II th century.
Several of these features stand out very clearly in Norman history.
The Norman power in England was founded on full and speedy union with the one nation among whom they found themselves.
The Norman power in Sicily was founded on a strong distinction between the ruling people and the many nations which they kept in peace and prosperity by not throwing in their lot with any one among them.
The quality which Geoffrey Malaterra expresses by the word "effrenatissima" is also clearly marked in Norman history.
It is, in fact, the groundwork of the historic Norman character.
But it was balanced by another quality which Geoffrey does not speak of, one which is not really inconsistent with the other, one which is very prominent in the Norman character, and which is, no less than the other, a direct heritage from their Scandinavian forefathers.
2 But nothing so well illustrates this formal side of the Norman character as the whole position of William the Conqueror himself.
Even Norman lawlessness in some sort took a legal shape.
Norman warriors had long before helped the Christians of Spain in their warfare with the Saracens of the Peninsula, and in Sicily it was from the same enemy that they won the great Mediterranean island.
The Norman, a strict observer of forms in all matters, attended to the forms of religion with special care.
The Norman, as a visible element in the country, has vanished from England, and he has vanished from Sicily.
Neither island has for ages been in any sense a Norman land, and the tongue which the Norman brought with him into both has not for ages been spoken in either.
Norman influence has been far stronger in England than in Sicily, and signs of Norman presence are far more easily recognized.
But the Norman, as a distinct people, is as little to be seen in the one island as in the other.
His disappearance in both cases is an illustration of one of the features which we have spoken of in the Norman character, the tendency which in fact made Normans out of Northmen, the tendency to adopt the language and manners of the people among whom they found themselves.
Moreover, every Norman to whom he granted lands and offices held them by English law in a much truer sense than the king held his; he was deemed to step into the exact position of his English predecessor, whatever that might be.
The fashionable use of French for nearly two centuries longer was far more a French fashion than a Norman tradition.
The Normans who came into Sicily must have been much less purely Norman than the Normans who came into England.
The army of Duke William was undoubtedly very far from being wholly made up of Normans, but it was a Norman army; the element which was not Norman, though considerable, was exceptional.
But we may doubt whether the Norman invaders of Sicily were Norman in much more than being commanded by Norman leaders.
The Norman settlements at Aversa and Capua were the work of adventurers, making their own fortunes and gathering round them followers from all quarters.
The conquest of Apulia, won bit by bit in many years of what we can only call freebooting, was not a national Norman enterprise like the conquest of England, and the settlement to which it led could not be a national Norman settlement in the same sense.
When Count Roger at last found himself lord of the whole island, he found himself lord of men of various creeds and tongues, of whom his own Norman followers were but one class out of several.
The characteristic point of Norman rule in Sicily is that it is the rule of princes who were foreign to all the inhabitants of the island, but who were not more foreign to the inhabitants of the island than different classes of them were to one another.
The Norman conqueror found in Sicily a Christian and Greekspeaking people and a Mussulman and Arabic-speaking people.
We speak of the Saracen very much as we speak of the Norman; for of the Mussulman masters of Sicily very many must have been only artificial Arabs, Africans who had adopted the creed, language and manners of Arabia.
In each case the Arab or the Norman was the kernel, the centre round which all other elements gathered and which gave its character to the whole.
Besides these two main races, Greek and Saracen, others came in through the Norman invasion itself.
There were the conquerors themselves; there were the Italians, in Sicily known as Lombards, who followed in their wake; there were also the Jews, whom they may have found in the island, or who may have followed the Norman into Sicily, as they certainly followed him into England.
The special character of Norman rule in Sicily was that all these various races flourished, each in its own fashion, each keeping its own creed, tongue and manners, under the protection of a common sovereign, who belonged to none of them, but who did impartial justice to all.
In the end something like a Sicilian nation did arise; but it arose rather by the dying out of several of the elements in the country, the Norman element among them, than by any such fusion as took place in England.
That is, as has been already said, the Norman as such has vanished in two different ways.
In England the Norman duke came in as a foreign intruder, without a native supporter to establish his rule over a single nation in its own land.
The Norman conquest of England was at the moment a curse; the Norman conquest of Sicily was at the moment a blessing.
But the gradual and indirect results of the Norman conquest of England are easily to be seen to this day, and they have been largely, though indirectly, results for good.
In Sicily and southern Italy there is hardly any visible Norman influence, except the great historic fact which we may call the creation of Sicily and southern Italy in their modern sense.
The coming of the Norman ruled that these lands should be neither Saracen nor Greek, nor yet Italian in the same sense as northern Italy, but that they should politically belong to the same group of states as the kingdoms and principalities of feudal Europe.
And yet, notwithstanding all this, and partly because of all this, real and distinct Norman influence has been far more extensive and far more abiding in England than it has been in Sicily.
In Sicily then the circumstances of the conquest led the Norman settlers to remain far more distinct from the older races of the land than they did in England, and in the end to lose themselves, not in those older races of the land, but in the settlers of other races who accompanied and followed them.
In his day a Latin element finally triumphed; but it was not a Norman or French-speaking element of any kind.
The use of language and nomenclature during the time of Norman rule in the two countries forms a remarkable contrast, and illustrates the circumstances of the two as they have just been sketched.
The chroniclers of the conquest of Apulia and Sicily use the Norman name in every page as the name of the followers of the conquerors from Hauteville.
It was the natural name for a body of men who must, by the time the conquest of Sicily was over, have been very mixed, but whose kernel was Norman, whose strength and feelings and traditions all came from a Norman source.
But if we turn to Hugo Falcandus, the historian of Sicily in the 12th century, the Norman name is hardly found, unless when it is used historically to point out (as in Muratori vii.
260) that the royal house of Sicily was of Norman descent.
Of the various "Siciliae populi," we hear of Greeks, Saracens, Lombards, sometimes of Franci, for by that time there were many French-speaking settlers in Sicily who were not of Norman descent.
The narratives of the conquest of England use both the Norman and the French names to express the followers of William.
We can see also that, though several languages were in use in England during the time of Norman rule, yet England was not a land of many languages in the same sense in which Sicily was.
Before the Norman Conquest England had two official tongues; documents Sicily.
French, the language which the Normans brought with them, did not become an official language in England till after strictly Norman rule had passed away.
In Scotland again the Norman settlers were lost in the mixed nationality of the country, but not till they had modified many things in the same way in which they modified things in England.
They gave Scotland nobles and even kings; Bruce and Balliol were both of the truest Norman descent; the true Norman descent of Comyn might be doubted, but he was of the stock of the Francigenae of the Conquest.
In Wales the Norman came as a conqueror, more strictly a conqueror than in England; he could not claim Welsh crowns or Welsh estates under any fiction of Welsh law.
The Norman settler in Wales, therefore, did not to any perceptible extent become a Welshman; the existing relations of England and Wales were such that he in the end became an Englishman, but he seems not unnaturally to have been somewhat slower in so doing in Wales than he was in England.
At least Giraldus Cambrensis, the Norman Welshman or Welsh Norman, was certainly more alive to the distinction between Normans and English than any other of his contemporaries.
In Ireland the Norman was more purely a conqueror than anywhere else; but in Ireland his power of adaptation caused him to sink in a way in which he sank nowhere else.
Both countries are rich in works of architecture raised during the time of Norman rule.
And the buildings of both lands throw an instructive architec- light on the Norman national character, as we have tune in described it.
than the buildings of the Norman kings in England and the buildings of the Norman kings in Sicily.
of the Norman kings at Palermo and Monreale and Cefalu and Messina are in style simply Saracenic; they were most likely the work of Saracen builders; they were beyond doubt built after Saracenic models.
This Norman form of Romanesque most likely had its origin in the Lombard buildings of northern Italy.
But it took firm root on Norman soil; it made its way to England at an early stage of its growth, and from that time it went on developing and improving on both sides of the Channel till the artistic revolution came by which, throughout northern Europe, the Romanesque styles gave way to the Gothic. Thus the history of architecture in England during the 11th and 12th centuries is a very different story from the history of the art in Sicily during the same time.
A comparison of Norman buildings in England and in Normandy will show that the Norman style in England really was affected by the earlier style of England; but the modification was very slight, and it in no way affected the general character of the style.
Thus, while the institutions of England in the 12th century were English with very considerable Norman modifications, the architecture of England in that century was Norman with a very slight English modification.
That is, the discerning Norman, as ever, adapted himself, but adapted himself in an intelligent way, to the circumstances of each land in which he found himself.
And this comes out the more clearly if we compare Norman work in England and in Sicily with Norman work in at least some parts of Apulia.
At Bari, Trani and Bitonto we see a style in which Italian and strictly Norman elements are really mingled.
It is plain that the Norman settlers in Apulia were not so deeply impressed with the local style as they were in Sicily, while they thought much more of it than they thought of the local style of England.
2140; also, for sources for the Norman invasion of France, Molinier, Sources de l'hist.
of the Norman Conquest (Oxford, 1867-1879) and Hist.
Some early ambones are found in Ravenna, and in the south of Italy are many fine examples; the epistle ambo in the cathedral at Ravello (1130), which is perhaps the earliest, shows a Scandinavian influence in the design of its mosaic inlay, an influence which is found in Sicilian work and may be a Norman importation.
Stories like these prove even more than the real rise of Hagano and Eadric. In England the nobility of the thegns was to a great extent personally displaced, so to speak, by the results of the Norman Conquest.
The English thegn sometimes yielded to, sometimes changed into, the Norman baron, using that word in its widest sense, without any violent alteration in his position.
The French in the 17th century claimed that but for the loss of the archives of Dieppe they would be able to prove that vessels from this Norman port had established settlements at Grand Basa, Cape Mount, and other points on the coast of Liberia.
The church of St Andrew is principally late Norman.
Norman, All the Russias (London, 1902); Sir D.
SIR JOSEPH NORMAN LOCKYER (1836-), English astronomer, was born at Rugby on the 17th of May 1836.
Bermondsey was in favour with the Norman kings as a place of residence, and there was a palace here, perhaps from pre-Norman times.
of Germany at once forced the pontiff to crown him emperor, and three or four years later took possession of the Norman kingdom of Sicily; he refused tribute and the oath of allegiance, and even appointed bishops subject to his own jurisdiction; moreover, he gave his brother in fief the estates which had belonged to the countess Matilda of Tuscany.
The finest parts of the epic are those in which Gudrun, a prisoner in the Norman castle, refuses to become the wife of her captor, and is condemned to do the most menial work of the household.
Here, thirteen years later, Herwig and her brother Ortwin find her washing clothes by the sea; on the following day they attack the Norman castle with their army and carry out the long-delayed retribution.
Some pre-Norman work appears in the western wall, the tower arches and south porch are Norman, and there are an Early English chapel and some Decorated windows.
Of the old castle, the gatehouse and other parts are of Norman construction, but the mansion near it was built by Sir Walter Raleigh.
The Jews came to England at least as early as the Norman Conquest; they were expelled from Bury St Edmunds in 1190, after the massacres at the coronation of Richard I.; they were required to wear badges in 1218.
The church of St George has Norman portions, but the building is in the main Perpendicular.
There are traces of monastic buildings near the church, for it belonged to a Benedictine house of early Norman foundation.
The Saxon fort of Alaric was replaced by a Norman castle built by William de Mohun, first lord of Dunster, who founded the priory of St George.
McCall, Daniel Webster (Boston, 2902); and Norman Hapgood, Daniel Webster (Boston, 28 99).
He was the youngest son of Michel Etienne Turgot, "provost of the merchants" of Paris, and Madeleine Frangoise Martineau, and came of an old Norman family.
In the Church of England, on the other hand, the office of archdeacon, which was first introduced at the Norman conquest, survives, with many of its ancient duties and prerogatives.
It has a stately transitional Norman tower, and three fine Norman arches.
Examples of Norman work are frequent in doorways, as in the churches of Allestree and Willington near Repton, while a fine tympanum is preserved in the modern church of Findern.
There is a triple-recessed doorway, with arcade above, in the west end of Bakewell church, and there is another fine west doorway in Melbourne church, a building principally of the late Norman period, with central and small western towers.
At Steetley, near Worksop, is a small Norman chapel, with apse, restored from a ruinous condition; Youlgrave church, a building of much general interest, has Norman nave pillars and a fine font of the same period, and Normanton church has a peculiar Norman corbel table.
The remains of castles are few; the ancient Bolsover Castle is replaced by a castellated mansion of the 17th century; of the Norman Peak Castle near Castleton little is left; of Codnor Castle in the Erewash valley there are picturesque ruins of the 13th century.
Under the manorial system, the rise of which preceded the Norman Conquest, communal methods of husbandry remained, but the position of the cultivator was radically altered.
Free tenants and, after the Norman Conquest, slaves formed small proportions of the population.
Freeman (History of The Norman Conquest).
Almost immediately after the Norman Conquest the word fell into disuse.
ROBERT I., "THE Bruce" (1274-1329), king of Scotland, was the son of the 7th Robert de Bruce, earl of Carrick by right of his wife Marjorie, daughter of Niel, or Nigel, earl of Carrick, and was the eighth in direct male descent from a Norman baron who came to England with William the Conqueror.
The family of Carteret was settled in the Channel Islands, and was of Norman descent.
It also possesses a remarkable Norman font of lead.
Further incursions made by the Danes in 998 and in 1015 under Canute probably resulted in the destruction of the priory, on the site of which a later house was founded in the 12th century as a cell of the Norman abbey of Lysa, and in the decayed condition of Wareham in 1086, when 203 houses were ruined or waste, the result of misfortune, poverty and fire.
In the restoration of 1866 some early mural painting was discovered, and a transition Norman clerestory was discovered, remaining above the later nave.
This industrial centre is continued eastward in the urban district of East Ham (pop. 96,018), where the old village church of St Mary Magdalene retains Norman portions.
Lappenberg, History of England under the Norman Kings (trans.
Freeman, History of the Norman Conquest (Oxford, 1867-1879).
Under the old forest laws of England it was one of the "beasts of the forest," and, as such, under the Norman kings the unprivileged killing of it was punishable by death or the loss of a member.
At the beginning of the 17th century a collection of songs was published by a Norman lawyer, Jean Le Houx, purporting to be the work of Olivier Basselin.
The church of St John the Baptist, founded in 1050, contains some portions of Norman architecture, the remainder being Decorated and Perpendicular.
The Norman conquest of Sicily may with justice be called a crusade before the Crusades; and it cannot but have given some impulse to that later attempt to wrest Syria from the Mahommedans, in which the virtual leader was Bohemund, a scion of the same house which had conquered Sicily.
They appealed to the old Norse instinct for wandering - an instinct which, as it had long before sent the Norseman eastward to find his El Dorado of Micklegarth, could now find a natural outlet in the expedition to Jerusalem: they appealed to the Norman religiosity, which had made them a people of pilgrims, the allies of the papacy, and, in England and Sicily, crusaders before the Crusades: finally, they appealed to that desire to gain fresh territory, upon which Malaterra remarks as characteristic of Norman princes.
Here Tancred, followed by Baldwin, turned into Cilicia, and began to take possession of the Cilician towns, and especially of Tarsus - thus beginning, it would seem, the creation of the Norman principality of Antioch.
9, 1098); he put the besiegers in touch with the Genoese ships lying in the harbour of St Simeon, the port of Antioch (March 1098) - a move which at once served to remedy the want of provisions from which the crusaders suffered, and secured materials for the building of castles, with which Bohemund sought - in the Norman fashion - to overawe the besieged city.
3 But a party in Jerusalem, headed by the late "vicar" Arnulf, opposed itself to the hierarchical pretensions of Dagobert and the Norman influence by which they were backed; and this party, representing the Lotharingian laity, carried the day.
Again, in 1104, the Normans, while attempting to capture Harran, were badly defeated on the river Balikh, near Rakka; and this defeat may be said to have been fatal to the chance of a great Norman principality.'
In Norman England the king insisted on his rights; in Frankish Jerusalem the barons insisted on his duties.
He had not those rights of sovereign which the Norman kings of England inherited from their AngloSaxon predecessors, or the Capetian kings of France from the Carolings; nor was he able therefore to come into direct touch with each of his subjects, which William I., in virtue of his sovereign rights, was able to attain by the Salisbury oath of 1086.
The king was also bound to insure the horses of his men by a system called the restor: if a vassal lost his horse otherwise than by his own fault, it must be replaced by the treasury (which was termed, as it also was in Norman Sicily, the secretum).'
These fortresses, garrisoned not by the king, as in Norman England, but by their possessors, would only strengthen the power of the feudatories, and help to dissipate the kingdom into a number of local units.
As emperor, Henry was eager to resume the imperial Crusade which had been stopped by his father's death; while both as Frederick's successor and as heir to the Norman kings of Sicily, who had again and again waged war against the Eastern empire, he had an account to settle with the rulers of Constantinople.
In 1195 Henry took the cross; some time before, he had already sent to Isaac Angelus to demand compensation for the injuries done to Frederick I., along with the cession of all territories ever conquered by the Norman kings of Sicily, and a fleet to co-operate with the new Crusade.
The heirs of the Norman kings were the Hohenstaufen; and we have already seen Henry VI.
he also took over their policy - the "forward" policy in the East which had also been followed by the old Norman kings.
The pointed arch owes nothing to the Arabs; it is already used in England in early Norman work.
This is an octosyllabic poem in French verse, written by Ambroise, a Norman trouvere who followed Richard I.
The church of St Maddern is principally Perpendicular, with earlier portions and a Norman front.
It was Alexander II., the former pupil of Lanfranc, who gave the Norman Conquest the papal benediction - a notable advantage to William at the moment, but subsequently the cause of serious embarrassments.
in riveting Norman rule upon the English Church and people.
It was Thomas who organized the Toulouse campaign of 1159; even in the field he made himself conspicuous by commanding a company of knights, directing the work of devastation, and superintending the conduct of the war after the king had withdrawn his presence from the camp. When there was war with France upon the Norman border, the chancellor acted as Henry's representative; and on one occasion engaged in single combat and unhorsed a French knight of reputation.
The front has a large late Norman portal of four orders, with rich Early English arcading above; the nave arcade is ornate Norman.
The Bohuns came into England at, or shortly after, the Norman Conquest; but their early history there is obscure.
The cruciform church of St Andrew has Norman and later portions; it is the burial-place of Henry Hallam the historian, and members of his family, including his sons Arthur and Henry.
Elbeuf was, in the 13th century, the centre of an important fief held by the house of Harcourt, but its previous history goes back at least to the early years of the Norman occupation, when it appears under the name of Hollebof.
The remains are principally of Norman date, and an unusual feature of the stronghold is the existence of various subterranean chambers in the rock.
The church of St Giles, formerly a chapel of ease to All Saints, but made parochial in the 18th century, is'of Norman date, but most of the present structure is modern.
One account says that it was caused by a broken bridge which delayed the Conqueror's advance to the north, but this is known to have been at Ferrybridge, three miles away; a second says that the new name was derived from a Norman town called Pontfrete, which, however, never existed; and a third that it was caused by the breaking of a bridge in 1153 on the arrival of the archbishop of York, St William,.
See Freeman, Norman Conquest, vols.
The conspirators, the chief of whom were Norman Leslie, master of Rothes, and William Kirkaldy of Grange, contrived to obtain admission at daybreak of the 29th of May 1546, and murdered the cardinal under circumstances of horrible mockery and atrocity.
The church of St Cuthbert shows good transitional Norman details.
The city walls date in part from Norman times, but are in the main of the 14th century.
It is a square tower built over a circular, probably Norman, arch, and has embattled corner turrets.
Others are Bootham Bar, the main entrance from the N., also having a Norman arch; Monk Bar (N.E.), formerly called Goodramgate, but renamed in honour of General Monk, and Walmgate Bar, of the time of Edward I., retaining the barbican repaired in 1648.
At the time of the Norman invasion the Saxon cathedral, with the library of Archbishop Egbert, perished in the fire by which the greater part of the city was destroyed, the only relic remaining being the central wall of the crypt.
With the rebuilding of the choir the whole of the ancient Norman edifice was removed, the only Norman architecture now remaining being the E.
wall and the ruins of the church, in the Early English and Decorated styles, and the principal gateway with a Norman arch.
had raised, putting to death the whole of the Norman garrison.
THE Norman Cavalry Attacks The English Shield Wall.
high, of a once strong Norman castle still remain; the cathedral belongs to the same period.
St Mary's church is principally Perpendicular, but has Norman and Decorated portions; the church of St Andrew is also Decorated and Perpendicular.
With Normandy he had more trouble, and the military skill which he had displayed at Tinchebrai was more than once put to the test against Norman rebels.
His Norman, like his English administration, was popular with the non-feudal classes, but doubtless oppressive towards the barons.
The Norman conspiracies of 1112, 1118, and 1123-24 were all formed in the Clito's interest.
Lappenberg, History of England under the Norman Kings (tr.
The battle is chiefly notable for the steadi- donor, ness with which the allied right, covered by the Light Division in squares, changed position in presence of the French cavalry; and for the extraordinary feat of arms of Captain Norman Ramsay, R.H.A., in charging through the French cavalry with his guns.
Norman, Terebratulina caput-serpentis L., Terebratula (Gwynia) capsules Jeff., Magellania (Macandrevia) cranium Mull.,M.
is that of Tickhill, where there are remains of a Norman castle.
The same book contains an account of Norman's discovery and correct measurement of the dip (1576).
Some of the streets remain much as they were in the medieval period, and many of the houses display more or less of Norman decoration.
The Pointed arches rest upon pillars, possibly Norman, and above them, below the Decorated clerestory windows, is a series of semicircular arches with flamboyant tracery, a remarkable feature.
The parish church of St Giles is believed to have been erected in the reign of Alexander I., about 1110, and the huge Norman keep of the castle, built by his younger brother, David I., continued to be known as David's Tower till its destruction in the siege of 1572.
It was followed by the Lives of the Chief Justices of England, from the Norman Conquest till the death of Lord Mansfield, 8vo, 2 vols., a book of similar construction but inferior merit.
It was by no means his last encounter with Norman traitors, but for the moment the victory gave him an assured position.
This acquisition brought the Norman frontier almost to the Loire and isolated Brittany, long coveted by the Norman dukes, from the rest of France.
About 1064 the accidental visit of Harold to the Norman court added another link to the chain of events by which William's fortunes were connected with England.
Harold's perjury formed the chief excuse for the Norman Conquest of England, which in reality was a piratical venture resembling that of the sons of Tancred d'Hauteville in Lower Italy.
In 1069 Robert of Comines, a Norman to whom William had given the earldom of Northumberland, was murdered by the English at Durham; the north declared for Edgar Atheling, the last male representative of the West-Saxon dynasty; and Sweyn Estrithson of Denmark sent a fleet to aid the rebels.
Joining forces, the Danes and English captured York, although it was defended by two Norman castles.
Those whom he enfeoffed with land held it according to the law of Norman feudalism, which was already becoming precise.
From Scotland the king turned to Maine, which had profited by the troubles of 1069 to expel the Norman garrisons.
Robert fled from Normandy and after aimless wanderings obtained from King Philip the castle of Gerberoi, in the Beauvaisis, from which he harassed the Norman marches.
Freeman's History of the Norman Conquest, vols.
The church of St Andrew is cruciform and full of fine details of late Norman, Early English and Decorated work.
White Ladies was a Cistercian nunnery; and the slight remains are Norman.
Green says "it suddenly opened for its rulers a distinct policy, a distinct course of action, which led to the Norman conquest of England.
1070), was the son of a Norman who had held high positions in East Anglia, perhaps that of earl, in the reign of Edward the Confessor (c. X055).
His son Ralph fought on the Norman side at Hastings, and was made earl of Norfolk by William the Conqueror.
Thu: church of St Peter and St Paul has a double nave, with aisles, the north arcade being Norman; but the rest of the building is mainly Decorated and Perpendicular.
There are remains of a Norman west tower; the Perpendicular tower stands on the north side.
The word is apparently from a Norman-French kenil (this form does not occur, but is seen in the Norman kinet, a little dog), modern French chenil, from popular Latin canile, place for a dog, canis, cf.
There are various Norman fragments, including a fine early window in the chancel.
The church of St Mary the Virgin has Norman remains in the tower and chancel.
Architectural remains of earlier date than the Norman period are very few, and of historical rather than topographical importance.
In architecture of the Norman and Gothic periods London must be considered rich, though its richness is poverty 1 1as- when its losses, particularly during the great fire of 1666, tical are recalled.
These losses were confined within the City, architec- but, to go no farther, included the Norman and Gothic tore.
The church of St Mary-le-Bow, in Cheapside, is built upon a Norman crypt, and that of St Olave's, Hart Street, which was Pepys's church and contains a modern memorial to him, is of the 15th century.
This church has various points of interest besides its Norman crypt, from which it took the name of Bow, being the first church in London built on arches.
It presents fine examples of Norman architecture; its historical associations are of the highest interest, and its armoury and the regalia of England, which are kept here, attract great numbers of visitors.
Among the survivals of names of non-ecclesiastical buildings Castle Baynard may be noted; it stood in the City on the banks of the Thames, and was held by Ralph Baynard, a Norman, in the time of William the Conqueror; a later building being erected in 1428 by Humphrey duke of Gloucester.
On his death the Witan which had attended his funeral elected to succeed him Harold, the foremost man in England, and the leader who had attempted to check the spread of the Norman influence fostered by the Confessor.
Before proceeding with the history of London during the Norman period it is necessary to say something of the counties more especially connected with London.
They were repulsed by the Norman horse, but with such loss to the latter that the duke thought it imprudent to lay siege to the city at that time, and he retired to Berkhampstead.'
Thus ends the Saxon period, and the Norman period in London begins with the submission of the citizens as distinct from the action of the rest of the kingdom, which submission resulted soon afterwards in the Conqueror's remarkable charter to William the bishop and Gosfrith the portcity, reeve, supposed to be the elder Geoffrey de Mandeville.
A great change was at once made both in the appearance and in the government of the city under Norman rule.
The Norman era closes with the death of Stephen in 1154.
One of the most striking changes in the appearance of Norman London was caused by the rebuilding of old churches and the building of new ones, and also by the foundation of bourhood of London, although the houses of nuns, of which there were many dotted over the suburbs of London, were governed by this rule.
Allusion has already been made to the great change in the aspect of London and its surroundings made during the Norman period by the establishment of a large number of monasteries.
As the chief feature of Norman London was the foundation of monasteries, and that of Plantagenet London was the estab-?
We have no materials to judge of the number of inhabitants before the Norman Conquest, but we can guess that there were many open spaces within the walls that were afterwards filled up. It is scarcely worth while to guess as to the numbers in Saxon London, but it is possible that in the early period there were about 10,000 inhabitants, growing later to about 20,000.
During the latter part of the Saxon period the numbers of the population of the country began to decay; this decay, however, was arrested by the Norman Conquest.
The Saxon title of reeve was continued during the Norman period and the shire-reeve or sheriff has continued to our own time.
Locks (East London Advertiser, 1902); Philip Norman, London vanished and vanishing (1905); Records of the London Topographical Society; Monographs of the Committee for the Survey of the Memorials of Greater London.
Only the chancel of the old church remains, but its red sandstone arch is a remarkably fine example of Norman work; it dates from the middle of the 12th century.
Norman Holbrook, successfull y passed the mine-fields of the Straits and torpedoed the old Turkish battleship " Messudieh " at anchor.
In Anglo-Saxon and Norman times it possessed a mint, and it is called a borough in the Pipe Rolls of Henry II., but it was not then in a flourishing condition.
He maintained an alliance with the Norman Duke Roger, Robert Guiscard's son and successor, and united the German with the Italian opposition to the emperor by promoting the marriage of the Countess Matilda with young Welf of Bavaria.
The body of legal rules and customs which obtained in England before the Norman conquest constitutes, with the Scandinavian laws, the most genuine expression of Teutonic legal thought.
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