The relative pronouns are nominative and accusative a, oblique cases ydd, yr, y.
Thus Delitzsch formerly derived the name from an Akkadian god, I or Ia; or from the Semitic nominative ending, Yau; 7 but this deity has since disappeared from the pantheon of Assyriologists.
Some nominative formsDis (anciently Dios, and in the Castilian of the Jews Dlo), Cdrias, Mdrcos, sastre (s a r t 0 r) have been adopted instead of forms derived from the accusative, but the vulgar Latin of the Peninsula in no instance presents two forms (subjective and objective case) of the same substantIve.
In the meantime we have proper names to argue from; and these give us at least the significant indication that the Hittite nominative ended in s and the accusative in m.
The accusative is often the case represented in Welsh; but we have also the nominative, and sometimes both, as in cawed from civit-as, and ciwdod from civitat-em, now two words, not two cases of the same word.
It is true that in certain texts (especially metrical, texts) certaic traces of case-endings are to be met with, as, for example Deus and Deu, amors and amor, clans and clan, forti and fo~t, tuyt and tots, abduy and abdos, senyer and senyon, empenaine and emperador; but, since these forms are used convertibly, the nominative form when the word is in the objective, and the accusative form, when the word is the subject, we can only reaognize in these cases a c nfused recollection of the Provenal rules known only to the litCrte but of which the transcribers of manuscripts took no account.
Some instanCes of ii occur in the ancient tongue, applying indifferently to the nominative and the objective case; el applying to the singular is also not wholly unknown.
Each of the personal pronouns (except the 3rd plur.) exists in a longer and a shorter form: the one is used as a nominative and is a separate word, the other is attached to verbs and (in a slightly different form) to nouns to express the accusative or genitive.
An active or causal verb requires before it the instrumental instead of the nominative case, which goes only before a neuter or intransitive verb.
Old Persian abara, Sanskrit abharat, rid abarat, f4~ps: nominative baga, root-form baga-s, Sanskrit rgas.