the nomads of the Turanian desert.
The Masai (q.v.) and allied tribes are nomads and cattle raisers.
So long as a great horde of nomads was encamped on the frontier the country was liable to be invaded by an overwhelming force of ruthless marauders.
of Constantine by the railway to Biskra, commands the passage of the Aures mountains by which the nomads of the Sahara were wont to enter the Tell.
The population may number about 125,000, of whom 75, 000 are settled and about 50,000 nomads (Grum-Grzimailo).
Amongst nomads the tribe is the unit of government, the political bond is personal, and there is no definite territorial association of the people, who may be loyal but cannot be patriotic. The idea of a country arises only when a nation, either homogeneous or composed of several races, establishes itself in a region the boundaries of which may be defined and defended against aggression from without.
to the 97,000 pure nomads, there are half a million Bedouins described as semi-sedentaries, i.e.
"The Semitic nomads," remarks Renan in his History of Israel (tome 1, p. 50), "were the religious race par excellence, because in fact they were the least superstitious of the families of mankind, the least duped by the dream of a beyond, by the phantasmagory of a double or a shadow surviving in the nether regions..
They are represented as warlike nomads and with a certain reputation for wisdom (Baruch iii.
Wide grassy steppes lead to the organization of the people as nomads whose wealth consists in flocks and herds, and their dwellings are tents.
If the Scyths came out of upper Asia, the Scythian colonists beyond the Iyrcae might be a division which had remained nearer the homeland, but in dealing with nomads we can suppose such a return as that of the Calmucks (Kalmuks) in the 18th century.
We are justified in supposing that the cult of the moon-god was brought into Babylonia by the Semitic nomads from Arabia.
Tribes also moved down from the north: nomads, or offshoots from the powerful states which stretch into Asia Minor.
Herodotus adduces this to show how much the Scyths hated foreign customs, but with the things found in the graves it rather proves how strong was the attraction exercised upon the nomads by the higher culture of their neighbours.
- Herodotus expressly divides the Scythians into the Agriculturists, Callipidae, Alazones, Aroteres and Georgi in the western part of the country, and the Nomads with the Royal Scyths to the east.
Until the advent of the nomads from central Asia, and the devastation of Mesopotamia and the opposite Syrian shore of the river, there were many flourishing cities along its course, the ruins of which, representing all periods, still dot its banks.
1045 a vast horde of Beduins from Upper Egypt (Beni Hilal and Solaim), the ancestors of the modern nomads of Barbary.
The Scythian nomads became the ruling race; they were invested with large landed property, and formed the council of the king, who appointed the successor.
The greater part of its body is covered by a pattern of acanthus leaves, but on the shoulder is a frieze showing nomads breaking in wild mares, our chief authority for Scythian costume.
The nomads of the patriarchal ages, whilst mainly dependent upon their flocks and herds, practised also agriculture proper.
There are four classes in Somaliland: (I) nomads who breed ponies, sheep, cattle and camels, live entirely on milk and meat, and follow the rains in search of grass; (2) settled Somali, comparatively few, living in or near the coasts; (3) outcast races, not organized in tribes but living scattered all over Somaliland; they are hunters, workers in iron and leather, and the chief collectors of gum and resin; (4) traders.
Only some 9000 are still nomads, while some 20,000 more are seminomads.
In this story the names make sense in Iranian, the tribes are not again mentioned except when this passage is copied, the objects are hardly such as would be held sacred by nomads, the form of ordeal is to be paralleled in Iranian legends, and the people say themselves that they are not really Scythae.
Indeed, where men live mainly on milk and flesh, consuming the latter raw or roasted, so that its salts are not lost, it is not necessary to add sodium chloride, and thus we understand how the Numidian nomads in the time of Sallust and the Bedouins of Hadramut at the present day never eat salt with their food.
To sum up the history of Scythia, the oldest inhabitants of whom we hear in Scythia were the Cimmerii; the nature of the country makes it probable that some of them were nomads, while others no doubt tilled some land in the river valleys and in the Crimea, where they left their name to ferries, earthworks and the Cimmerian Bosporus.
Nearly 20% of the population are nomads and about 15% semi-nomads.
The representations of nomads on objects of Greek art show people with full beards and shaggy hair, such as cannot be reconciled with Hippocrates; but the only reliefs which seem to be accurate belong to a late date when the ruling clan was Sarmatian rather than Scythic.
Again the closest analogy is the state of the Mongols in the 13th century, but too much weight must not be put on this, as the natural conditions of steppe-ranging nomads dictated the greater part of them.
The Chinese statement that the Hoa or Ye-tha were a section of the great Yue-Chi, and that their customs resembled those of the Turks (Tu-Kiue), is probably correct, but does not amount to much, for the relationship did not prevent them from fighting with the Yue-Chi and Turks, and means little more than that they belonged to the warlike and energetic section of central Asian nomads, which is in any case certain.
As late as 1571 Moscow was pillaged by a Tatar horde; but there was no longer any question of permanent political subjection to the Asiatics, and the Russian frontier was being gradually pushed forward at the expense of the nomads of the steppe by the constant advance of the agricultural population in quest of virgin soil.
Schweinfurth declares them the best-looking of the Nile nomads, and the men are types of physical beauty, with fine heads, erect athletic bodies and sinewy limbs.
When about 255 B.C. Diodotus had made himself king of Bactria and tried to expand his dominions, the chieftain of a tribe of Iranian nomads (Dahan Scyths) east of the Caspian, the Parni or Aparni, who bore the Persian name Arsaces, fled before him into Parthia.
To nomads, Astarte may well have been a sheep-goddess, but this, if her earliest, was not her only type, as is clear from the sacred fish of Atargatis, the doves of Ascalon (and of the Phoenician sanctuary of Eryx), and the gazelle or antelope of the goddess of love (associated also with the Arabian Athtar).
Water is plentiful in the Elburz, and situated in well-watered valleys and gorges are innumerable flourishing villages, embosomed in gardens and orchards, with extensive cultivated fields and meadows, and at higher altitudes small plateaus, under snow until March or April, afford cool camping grounds to the nomads of the plains, and luxuriant grazing to their sheep and cattle during the summer.
North of Katif it is desert and only inhabited by nomads; at Katif, however, and throughout the district to the south bordering on the Gulf of Bahrein there are ample supplies of underground water, welling up in abundant springs often at a high temperature, and bringing fertility to an extensive district of which El Hofuf, a town of 15,000 to 20,000 inhabitants, is the most important centre.
The old Hebrew prohibition of graven images was surely based on a like superstition, so far as it was not merely due to the physical impossibility for nomads of heavy statues that do not admit of being carried from camp to camp and from pasture to pasture.
(6) A few Tuareg, another division of the Berbers, are among the nomads found in the Algerian Sahara.
The people of the interior are mostly of the old Iranian stock, and there are also a few nomads of the Turkish Baharlu tribe which came to Persia in the lath century when the province was subdued by a Turkish chief.
For some years the Porte has been applying steady pressure on the nomads to induce them to settle, by increasing the number of military posts, by introducing Circassian colonies, as at Ras al-`Ain, sometimes by forcible settlement.
In the middle of the 3rd century B.C. Bactria and Sogdiana broke away from the Seleucid empire; independent Greek kings reigned there till the country was conquered by nomads from Central Asia (Sacae and Yue-chi) a kingdoms. century later.
The only historical fact which we can learn from the Iranian tradition is that the contrast and the feud between the peasants of Iran and the nomads of Turan was as great in old times as it is now: it is indeed based upon the natural geographical conditions, and is therefore eternal.
The pressure of the nomads of the steppe, the quest of plunder or revenge, these seem the only motives of these early expeditions; but in the long struggle between the Roman and Persian empires, of which Armenia was often the battlefield, and eventually the prize, the attitude of the Khazars assumed political importance.
The nomads are represented by about 18,000 Kalmucks, and the remainder by Kirghiz.
In fact, during the reign of Assur-bani-pal Moab played the vassal's part in helping to repulse the invasion of the Nabayati and nomads of Kedar, a movement which made itself felt from Edom nearly as far as Damascus.
In Sweden there are about 3500 nomads.
It is considered that these nomads will be gently pushed back towards the Sahara, leaving cultivable Tunisia to the settled Berber stock, a stock fundamentally one with the peoples of Mediterranean Europe.
Graves at Keszthely and elsewhere in the Theiss valley, shown by their contents to belong to nomads of the first centuries A.D., are referred to the Iazyges.
Eastward rose the mountains of Elam, southward were the sea-marshes and the Kalda or Chaldaeans and other Aramaic tribes, while on the west the civilization of Babylonia encroached beyond the banks of the Euphrates, upon the territory of the Semitic nomads (or Suti).
21, and the successors of Jeroboam 2), attacks by nomads and wars with Ammon and Moab; conflicts between newly settled Israelites and indigenous Canaanites have been suspected in the story of Abimelech, and it is not impossible that the post-Deuteronomic writer who inserted ch.
To the Egyptians they were known as " Lebu," " Mashuasha," " Tamahu," " Tehennu " and " Kahaka "; a long list of names is found in Herodotus, and the Romans called them Numidae, Gaetuli and Mauri, terms which have been derived respectively from the Greek voµaSes (nomads), the name Gued'oula, of a great Berber tribe, and the Hebrew mahur (western).
the "enemies," a general name of the rapacious nomads, used also for the Turanian tribes), Mardi, Dropici, Sagartii (called by Darius Asagarta, in the central desert; cf.
Within the Baluchistan half of the desert are to be found scattered tribes of nomads, called Rekis (or desert people), the Mohamadani being the most numerous.
In this march he was much harassed by the nomads, with whom he could not come to close quarters, but no mention is made of his having any difficulty with the rivers (he gets his water from wells), and no reason for his proceedings is advanced except a desire to avenge legendary attacks of Scyths upon Asia.
The Hejaz and Tehama were cleared of the plundering nomads by `Attab and Tahir.
The latter were indubitably the Ugrian nomads of the steppe, akin to the Tatar invaders of Europe, who filled the armies and convoyed the caravans of the ruling caste.
Apart from these polar nomads, the American indigenes group roughly into a single division of mankind, of course with local variations.
From the 11th century B.C. the Chinese used to call by the name of Kiang (or Shepherds) the tribes (about 150 in number) of nomads and shepherds in Koko Nor and the north-east of present Tibet; but their knowledge continued to be confined to the border tribes until the sixth century of our era.
The Hittites were invading Syria; nomads from the desert supported the invasion; and many of the local chiefs were ready to seize the opportunity to throw off the yoke of Egypt.
Originally nomads (hunters and fishers), all the Finnic people except the Lapps and Ostyaks have long yielded to the influence of civilization, and now everywhere lead settled lives as herdsmen, agriculturists, traders, &c. Physically the Finns (here to be distinguished from the Swedish-speaking population, who retain their Scandinavian qualities) are a strong, hardy race, of low stature, with almost round head, low forehead, flat features, prominent cheek bones, eyes mostly grey and oblique (inclining inwards), short and flat nose, protruding mouth, thick lips, neck very full and strong, so that the occiput seems flat and almost in a straight line with the nape; beard weak and sparse, hair no doubt originally black, but, owing to mixture with other races, now brown, red and even fair; complexion also somewhat brown.
Among the nomads a different system of titles prevails, the chiefs who are responsible for the taxes and the orderly conduct of their tribes and clans being known as ilklzani, ilbegi (both meaning tribe-lord, but the latter being considered an inferior title to the former), khan, rais, amir, mir, shaikh, tushmal, &c.
To the settled peasantry, these nomads of the steppe were always the enemy (dana, daha, i~iiaL, Dahae).
The east of Iran was further subdued, and, after Cyrus met his end (528 B.C.) in a war against the eastern Nomads (Dahae, Massagetae), his son Cambyses conquered Egypt (525 B.C.).
It was obviously an attempt to take the nomads of the Turanian steppe in the rear and to reduce them to quiescence, which led to his unfortunate expedition against the Scythians of the Russian steppes (c. 512 B.C.; cf.
We have already seen that the attempt of Darius to control the predatory nomads in the nortI~ led to his expedition against the Scythians; this, again, led tc the incorporation of Thrace and Macedonia, whose king Perdiccm submitted.
58: see PARTH1A), derives the line of these chieftains of the Parnian nomads from Artaxerxes II.
Soon, however, the nomads (Dahae) gained their independence, and, as we have seen, repeatedly attacked and devastated the Parthian Empire in conjunction with the Tocharians and other tribes of Sacae and Scythians.
Consequently, these nomads were the main pillar of the empire, and from them were obviously derived the great magnates, with their huge estates and hosts of serfs, who composed the imperial council, led the armies, governed the provinces and made and unmade the kings (Strabo xi.
nomads were amalgamated with the native peasantry, and, with their religion, had adopted their dress and manners.
So the rival faction brought out another .Arsacid, resident among the Scythian nomads, Artabanus II., who easily expelled Vononesonly to create a host of enemies by his brutal cruelty, and to call forth fresh disorders.
For the A hlee- defence of these provinces the mounted archers, who formed the basis of the army, possessed adequate strength; and though the Scythian nomads from the east, or the Romans from the west, might occasionally penetrate deep into the country, they never succeeded in maintaining their position.
Only occasional Sassanla,ii notices show that the inroads of the Oriental nomads Empire.
The Mohamadani nomads occupy the central mountain region, to the south of which lie the Mashkel and Kharan deserts, inhabited by a people of quite different origin, who possess something approaching to historical records.
They are nomads, supporting themselves by cattle-breeding and fishing; few are agriculturists.
The inhabitants are Seistanis or Parsiwans, Baluch nomads and Afghans.
The term " Bilad-es-Sudan " (" country of the blacks ") is not altogether applicable to the Anglo-Egyptian condominium, the northern portion being occupied by Hamitic and Semitic tribes, chiefly nomads, and classed as Arabs.
is said to have conquered the Shasu, or Arabian nomads, from the fortress of Taru (Shur?) to " the Ka-n-`-na," and Rameses III.
Not, as was at first thought by some, specially the Israelites, but all those tribes of land-hungry nomads (" Hebrews ") who were attracted by the wealth and luxury of the settled regions, and sought to appropriate it for themselves.
1° Nomads of the Syrian desert.
Though still the market of the nomads, the surer and cheaper sea route has almost destroyed the transit trade to which it once owed its wealth, and has even diminished the importance of the annual pilgrim caravan to Mecca.
The nomads were subjected to great pressure of moving populations and gradually migrated westward, where they had increasing contact with European countries.
Two late goals finally saw nomads run out winners.
A mass of ex-slaves wandering around aimlessly for a few decades do not just become nomads!
Keith Simpson giving the nomads the lead in the first half.
nomads used to season the meat.
Twice during the first period Tommy Mutton spurned chances to put nomads further ahead with Williams saving at his feet on both occasions.
The first four clan families are generally pastoral nomads.
Those affected by the famine and forced to move southward are Arab nomads and other pastoral tribes.
In the second half nomads responded to the coaches l5: request for more passing movement with some very fluid play.
This area is very high and desolate, with only a few nomads.
Traditional hospitality ensured that I was invited into the felt tents of ' gers ' of Mongolian nomads.
nomads defense, he slipped the ball to Forrest.
By these means, the steppe nomads were welded into a single ' Mongol ' people (pp.
They wandered far South to the Arabian peninsular to dwell among the desert nomads; there Ishmael founded the Arabic people.
shanty dwellings of displaced desert nomads.
steppe nomads were welded into a single ' Mongol ' people (pp.
Many a peaceful settlement that Englishmen call home Was once a howling wilderness where nomads used to roam.
SHUKRIA, a large tribe of African nomads living in the "Island of Meroe," i.e.
The decline of the country dates from the appearance of Turkish nomads in the 11 th century; its ruin was completed by the Shammar Arabs in the 17th century; but, if the ancient system of irrigation were restored, sufficient grain could be grown to alter the conditions of the wheat supply of the world.
About a third of the population is composed of turbulent and lawless nomads who, when on the march between their winter and summer camping grounds, frequently render the roads insecure and occasionally plunder whole districts, leaving the inhabitants without means of subsistence.
The latter dies away over the plains east and south-east of Aleppo, making them afford good spring pasture, which has attracted the nomads from farther south: but below the latitude of Rakka-Homs thin steppe begins, and quickly degenerates into sheer desert broken only by a chain of poor oases, south of a low ridge running from Anti-Lebanon to Euphrates.
They were not nomads, but husbandmen, and their irrigation canals are still to be seen.
The Libyan nomads made their huts of asphodel stalks (cf.
The Blemmyes, remaining pagan after the Nubas had embraced Christianity (6th century) were soon after driven from the Nile valley eastwards to the kindred Megabares, Memnons and other nomads, who, with the Troglodytes, had from time immemorial held the whole steppe region between the Nile and the Red Sea from Axum to Egypt.
Pushyamitra nomads from Central Asia (see Saka), the Pahlavas, whose name is supposed to be a corruption of " Parthiva " (i.e.
In the desert (as among the Arabian and Turanian nomads), in wild and sequestered mountains (as in Zagros in north Media, and Mysia, Pisidia, Paphlagonia and Bithynia in Asia Minor), and also in many Iranian tribes, the old tribal constitution, with the chieftain as its head, was left intact even under the imperial suzerainty.
The principal Arab tribes are the Kab (generally known as Chaab) and Beni Lam, the former mostly settled in towns and villages and by religion Shiites, the latter nomads and Sunnites.
1Ã‚° Nomads of the Syrian desert.
The Nomads had a shaky start with a couple of unlucky points against them.
It is a well planned but shabby town surrounded by the shanty dwellings of displaced desert nomads.
Nomads hit back when a defense splitting pass from skipper Marc Lambert found Tommy Mutton, who forced a save from Gerard Doherty.
One team portrays Bella and Edward while the other represents the hunting nomads James and Victoria.
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48), lived in the East among the Dahan nomads.
85) are nomads.
About 50,000 persons are settled in the coast towns; the rest are nomads.
m., chiefly desert, and an estimated population of ioo,000, mostly Arab nomads.
A considerable number of these Indians have been gathered together in aldeas under the charge of government tutors, but the larger part still live in their own villages or as nomads.
The Arabs of more or less unmixed descent are purely nomads.
Part of the Kalmucks are settled (chiefly in the hilly parts), the remainder being nomads.
as "urbs deserta," and Synesius, a native, describes it in the following century as a vast ruin at the mercy of the nomads.
m., and has some 250,000 inhabitants, inclusive of nomads.
In a new war with Gotarzes he gained a great success against the eastern nomads.
Other explanations suggested are arborigines, "tree-born," and aberrigines, "nomads."
6 is suitable only for agriculturists and cannot have originated among nomads.
It is a wide steppe region which (though it contains many remains of ancient towns and settlements, and was evidently at one time a terri tory of great importance) is now almost entirely inhabited by nomads.
The nomads are Mussulmans and are, as a rule, docile and pacific, though the Danakils are given to occasional raiding.
The nomads of the plains possess large herds of cattle and camels.
In the course of ages race distinction has been almost obliterated by fusion of blood; by the complete Hellenization of the country, which followed the introduction of Christianity; by the later acceptance of Islam; and by migrations due to the occupation of cultivated lands by the nomads.
The nomads and semi-nomads are, for the most part, representatives of the Turks, Mongols and Tatars who poured into the country during the 350 years that followed the defeat of Romanus.
Large districts passed out of cultivation and were abandoned to the nomads, who replaced wheeled traffic by the pack horse and the camel.
The peasants either became nomads themselves or took refuge in the towns or the mountains.
The population of the town is greatly mixed, and, having a large element of nomads in it, varies much from time to time.
of our era the Tarim region had a mixed population of Aryans and Ural-Altaians, some being settled agriculturists and others nomads.
The majority of the Norwegian Lapps lead a semi-nomadic existence; but the number of inveterate nomads can scarcely reach 1500 at the present day.
Also Hiung-nu seems to be the name of warlike nomads in general, not of a particular section.
Large districts on the southern slopes of the Taurus chain are covered with forests of oak and fir, and there are numerous yailas or grassy "alps," with abundant water, to which villagers and nomads move with their flocks during the summer months.
To the above numbers may be added io,000 Baluch nomads.
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