Sieyês had drawn up at his request, and was elected in three - by the noblesse of Paris, Villers-Cotterets and Crepy-en-Valois.
Joachim Descartes, his father, having purchased a commission as counsellor in the parlement of Rennes, introduced the family into that demi-noblesse of the robe which, between the bourgeoisie and the high nobility, maintained a lofty rank in French society.
The esquires, knights, lesser barons, even the remote descendants of peers, that is, the noblesse of other countries, in England remained gentlemen, but not noblemen - simple commoners, that is, without legal advantage over their fellowcommoners who had no jus imaginum to boast of.
There can be no doubt that the class in England which answers to the noblesse of other lands is the class that bears coat-armour, the gentry strictly so called.'
C. Fox-Davies's Armorial Families (Edinburgh, 1895, and subsequent editions) represents an unhistorical attempt to create the idea of a noblesse in the United Kingdom.
Luchaire, Manuel des institutions francaises (Paris, 1892), and P. Guilhiermoz, Essai sur l'origine de la noblesse en France au moyen age (1902); for their later status and privileges, A.
ANTOINE AGENOR ALFRED GRAMONT, Duc DE, Duc DE Guiche, Prince De Bidache (1819-1880), French diplomatist and statesman, was born at Paris on the 14th of August 1819, of one of the most illustrious families of the old noblesse, a cadet branch of the viscounts of Aure, which took its name from the seigniory of Gramont in Navarre.
Shortly before returning to his regiment in the early weeks of 1791 he indited a letter inveighing in violent terms against Matteo Buttafuoco, deputy for the Corsican noblesse in the National Assembly of France, as having betrayed the cause of insular liberty in 1768 and as plotting against it again.
While the body of the noblesse formed the high court, the court of the burgesses was composed of twelve legists (probably named by the king) under the presidency of the vicomte - a knight also named by the king, who was a great financial as well as a judicial officer.
In each there was a court for the noblesse, and a court (or courts) for the bourgeoisie.
He was descended from a well-known family of the legal nobility (noblesse de la robe).
Espousing the principles of the Revolution in 1789, he was commissioned by the noblesse of the province to draw up the cahier (statement of principles and grievances); and the senechaussee of Montpellier elected him deputy to the states-general of Versailles; but the election was annulled on a technical point.
The Macedonian cavalry was recruited from a higher grade of society than the infantry, the petite noblesse of the nation.
Luchaire, Manuel des instituticns francaises (Paris, 1892); P. Guilhiermoz, Essai sur l'origine de la noblesse en France au moyen age (Paris, 1902); Brunner, Deutsche Rechtsgeschichte, Band ii.
The noblesse were divided on the matter of toleration, but the cahiers (lists of grievances and suggestions for reform) submitted by the Third Estate demanded, besides regular meetings of the estates every five years, complete toleration and a reform of the Church.
He opposed Napoleon's restoration of the noblesse, and in 1808 only reluctantly accepted the title of duc de Plaisance (Piacenza).
Seebohm, Tribal Custom in AngloSaxon Law (London, 1902); P. Guilhiermoz, Essai sur l'origine de la noblesse en France (Paris, 1902); M.
He was elected to the states-general of 1789 by the noblesse of Paris, and was the spokesman of the minority of Liberal nobles who joined the Third Estate on the 25th of June.
P. 97 et seq.; Fustel de Coulanges, La Monarchie franque, p. 80 et seq.; Maxime Deloche, La Trustis et l'antrustion royal sous les deux premieres races (Paris, 1873), collecting and discussing the principal texts; Guilhermoz, Les Origines de la noblesse (Paris, 1902), suggesting a system which is new in part.
Beneath the freeholders and noblesse were free tenants, farmers paying rents, mainly in kind, and in services of labour and of war.
The first step of the Scottish noblesse (mainly men of Norman names), after Alexander's death, was to send a secret verbal message to Edward of England.
It was led by what may be called the spiritual noblesse of Islam, which, as distinguished from the hereditary nobility of Mecca, might also be designated as the nobility of merit, consisting of the "Defenders" (Ansar), and especially of the Emigrants who had lent themselves to the elevation of the Koreish, but by no means with the intention of allowing themselves thereby to be effaced.
Elected in 1789 to the states-general by the noblesse of Paris, he soon revealed a remarkable eloquence.
But there were always individuals, more numerous among the noblesse than among the citizens, whose private interests impelled them to seek the aid of France.
The war did not entirely cease, but became local and spasmodic. In Brittany the factions which supported the two claimants to the ducal title were so embittered that they never laid down their arms. In 1351 the French noblesse of Picardy, apparently without their masters knowledge or consent, made an attempt to surprise Calais, which was beaten off with some difficulty by King Edward in person.
From the first Poitou, Quercy, Rouergue and the Limousin chafed beneath the English yoke; the noblesse in especial found the comparatively orderly and constitutional governance to which they were subjected most intolerable~ They waited for the first opportunity to revolt, and meanwhile murmured against every act of theit duke, the prince of Wales, though he did his best to behave as a gracious sovereign.
The heavily armoured French noblesse, embogged in miry meadows, proved helpless before the lightly equipped English archery.
Could not only reward his adherents with it, so as to Personal create a whole new court noblesse, but had enough ruleof over to fill his exchequer for many years, and to Edward enable him to dispense with parliamentary grants of ~ money for an unexampled period.
The bourgeoisie, conscious of their opportunity, decided for a single chamber against the will of the noblesse; against that of the king they declared it permanent, and, if they accorded him a suspensory veto, this was only in order to guard them against the extreme assertion of popular rights.
In 1789, with his debts paid up by his father, he was elected by the noblesse of Limoges a deputy to the States General.
There were very wide distinctions within the French noblesse, but they all formed one privileged class as distinguished from the rolurier.