Nobles Sentence Examples
Rome fell once more into the hands of her nobles.
The great Italian nobles, in their turn, appealed to Germany.
My father had just landed a gig working for one of the lesser nobles after he saved the life of the noble's son.
Hortensius, and he had the sympathy and support of several of the leading Roman nobles.
She trotted through the square until she found it and crouched beside it to see names at the very bottom, the names of the nobles' servants.Advertisement
Kossuth, indeed, was not content with advocating those reforms - the abolition of entail, the abolition of feudal burdens, taxation of the nobles - which were demanded by all the Liberals.
The emperor Frederick III., and King Matthias of Hungary, Podebrad's former ally, joined the insurgent Bohemian nobles.
But his success was short-lived, for in 1029 the Norwegian nobles, seething with discontent, rallied round the invading Knut the Great, and Olaf had to flee to Russia.
William, Egmont, and Hoorn therefore placed themselves at the head of a league of nobles against Granvelle (who had become cardinal in 1561) with the object of undermining his influence and driving him from power.
The nobles protested, and Egmont was deputed to go to Madrid and try to obtain from the king a mitigation of the edicts and redress of grievances.Advertisement
Bothwell invited any one of the nobles to single combat, but Mary forbade the acceptance of the challenge.
Accepting the position in which the Tudor king would have his great nobles, he became the faithful soldier, diplomatist and official of the new power.
War broke out with England, but James, made a prisoner by his nobles, was unable to prevent Albany and his ally, Richard, duke of Gloucester (afterwards Richard III.), from taking Berwick and marching to Edinburgh.
His policy of living at peace with England and of arranging marriages between the members of the royal families of the two countries did not commend itself to the turbulent section of his nobles; his artistic tastes and lavish expenditure added to the discontent, and a rebellion broke out.
He served in the American War of Independence under Rochambeau, and in 1789 was sent as deputy to the States General by the nobles of the bailliage of Peronne.Advertisement
But his halfnaked, ill-armed ploughboys were at last overmatched by the mailclad chivalry of the nobles.
A rebellion among his nobles robbed him of his native kingdom, and while marching to recover it his troops deserted him, and he lost Samarkand also.
Ibrahim, emperor of Delhi, had made himself detested, even by his Afghan nobles, several of whom called upon Baber for assistance.
But all five leaders were romanized nobles, with Roman names and Roman citizenship, and their risings were directed rather against the Roman government than the Roman empire.
They gave Scotland nobles and even kings; Bruce and Balliol were both of the truest Norman descent; the true Norman descent of Comyn might be doubted, but he was of the stock of the Francigenae of the Conquest.Advertisement
Such privileges, even of an honorary kind, as the nobles did enjoy by law belonged to them, not as nobles, but as senators and senators' sons.
Just as the old patricians had striven to keep plebeians out of high offices, so now the new nobles, patrician and plebeian alike, strove to keep "new men," men who had not the jus imaginum, out of high office.
The nobles of many cities were simply the nobles of the surrounding country changed, sometimes greatly against their will, into citizens.
But in many Italian cities the position of the nobles, if it did not begin in violence, was maintained by violence, and was often overthrown by violence.
The nobles of modern Europe are rather thegnas than eorlas.Advertisement
And, as modern changes have commonly attacked the power both of kings and of nobles, the common notion has come that kingship and nobility have some necessary connexion.
They were too moderate to please the people, too democratic for the nobles.
Hence their attachment to Peisistratus, the "man of the people," who called upon them to sweep away the last barriers which separated rich and poor, nobles and commoners, city and countryside.
Like Cleisthenes of Sicyon and Periander of Corinth, he realized that one great source of strength to the nobles had been their presidency over the local cults.
Of the elected members 3 are returned by the " black " clergy (the monks), 3 by the " white " clergy (seculars), 5 18 by the corporations of nobles, 6 by the academy of sciences and the universities, 6 by the chambers of commerce, 6 by the industrial councils, 34 by the governments having zemstvos, 16 by those having no zemstvos, and 6 by Poland.
During the years 1861 to 1892 the land owned by the nobles decreased 30%, or from 210,000,000 to 150,000,000 acres; during the following four years an additional 2,119,500 acres were sold; and since then the sales have gone on at an accelerated rate, until in 1903 alone close upon 2,000,000 acres passed out of their hands.
The opposition which he encountered came not from the burghers but from the boyars and the nobles.
All through his reign he preferred to employ as officials men of humble origin, and habitually treated the boyars and great nobles very unceremoniously.
That opportunity came when Basil died in 1533, leaving as successor a child only three years old, and the chances seemed all on the side of the nobles; but the result belied the current expectations, for the child came to be known in history as Ivan the Terrible, and died half a century later in the full enjoyment of unlimited autocratic power.
During Ivan's minority the country was governed, or rather misgoverned, first by his mother, and then by rival factions led by great nobles such as the princes Shuiski and Belski.
Thus apparently he asserted his authority, but in reality, being only thirteen years old, he was a mere puppet in the hands of one of the opposition factions, who wished to oust their rivals, and for the next four years the misgovernment of the nobles went on as before.
With the assistance of these two counsellors he held in check the lawless, turbulent nobles, and ruled justly, to the satisfaction of the people, for fourteen years.
The two countries were thus once more united and better able to resist aggression, but some of the great nobles were discontented and Basil hoped with their assistance to attain his ends.
His son and successor, Theodore (Feodor), was a weak man of saintly character, very ill fitted to consolidate his father's work and maintain order among the ambitious, turbulent nobles; but he had the good fortune to have an energetic brother-in-law, with no pretensions to sanctity, called Boris Godunov, who was able, with the tsar's moral support, to keep his fellow-boyars in order.
This change was, of course, popular among the lower and middle ranks of the landlord class, but was very displeasing to the great nobles.
Under the influence of the great nobles who had unsuccessfully opposed the election of Godunov, the general discontent took the form of hostility to him as a usurper, and rumours were heard that the late tsar's younger brother Dimitri (Demetrius), supposed The to be dead, was still alive and in hiding.
The throne was vacant, the great nobles quarrelling among themselves, the Catholic Poles in the Kremlin of Moscow, the Protestant Swedes in Novgorod, and enormous bands of brigands everywhere.
On the other hand the great nobles of more conservative tendencies wished to get the young son of the cesarevich Alexius made emperor under their own control.
A certain amount of local self-government was entrusted to the nobles and the burghers, and the judicial administration was thoroughly reorganized in an enlightened and humane spirit.
At one moment the idea of emancipating all the serfs was entertained, but the project was speedily abandoned, because it would have alienated the nobles - the only class on which Catherine could rely for support.
All political authority was in the hands of turbulent nobles who quarrelled among themselves, who were always inclined to submit the questions at issue to the arbitrament of arms, and who did not scruple to invite foreign powers to intervene on their behalf.
Petitions continued to flow in to the emperor's cabinet, praying for a national representation, from the zemstvos, from the nobles and from the professional classes, and their moral was enforced by general agitation, by partial strikes, and by outrages which culminated at Moscow in the murder of the Grand-duke Sergius (February 4th, 1 9 05).
The victims were often feted for a whole year and treated as divine; the heart was an offering to the god, the body was eaten by the priests and nobles and the head was preserved with those of previous victims.
In this connexion it should be observed that the old Milesian nobles traced their descent back to the Phoenician or one of his companions.
But the heads of the church carried the day, and, more stringent measures being adopted against dissenters, Schwenkfeld left Strasburg for a time, residing in various cities of south Germany and corresponding with many nobles.
Jehoash, it is said, turned away from Yahweh after the death of Jehoiada and gave heed to the Judaean nobles, " wrath came upon Judah and Jerusalem for their guilt," prophets were sent to bring them back but they turned a deaf ear.
The Judaean narratives do not allow us to fill the gap or to determine whether Judaean policy under the regent Jehoiada would be friendly or hostile to Israel, or whether Judaean nobles may have severed the earlier bond of union.
The country is under Persian officials, the nobles and priests form the local government, and the ground is being prepared for the erection of a hierocracy.
Tobiah and his son Johanan were related by marriage to Judaean secular and priestly families, and active intrigues resulted, in which nobles and prophets took their part.
Nehemiah was faced with old abuses, and vehemently contrasted the harshness of the nobles with the generosity of the exiles who would redeem their poor countrymen from slavery.
With his priests and Levites, and with the chiefs and nobles of the Jewish families, the high priest directs this small state, and his death marks an epoch as truly as did that of the monarchs in the past.
The priests deserted the Temple for the palaestra and the young nobles wore the Greek cap. The Jews of Jerusalem were enrolled as citizens of Antioch.
In 1904 the financial and legal administration was put into the hands of the British High Commissioner for the Western Pacific. The native king is assisted by a legislative assembly consisting, in equal numbers, of hereditary nobles and popular (elected) representatives.
Having completed his studies in the Capranica College' at Rome, and having taken holy orders, he studied diplomacy at the College of Ecclesiastical Nobles, and in 1875 was appointed councillor to the papal nunciature at Madrid.
To this end John Locke drafted for them in 1669 the famous Fundamental Constitutions providing for the division of the province into eight counties and each county into seigniories, baronies, precincts and colonies, and the division of the land among hereditary nobles who were to grant three-fifths of it to their freemen and govern through an elaborate system of feudal courts.
Tradition Introduc= made him a descendant of the ancient nobles of lion t0 Saul.
Apart from the Mahratta Brahmans, as already mentioned, the Mahratta nobles and princes are not generally fine-looking men.
In the beginning of the 12th century the country was divided between the two landgraviates of Upper and Lower Alsace, but to counteract the power of the nobles the emperors established in Alsace a great number of free towns.
Above all, there arose in 1440 the Prussian League (Preussischer Bund), in which the nobles and towns joined together, nominally for common protection of their rights, but really against the Order.
Edward hoped still to conciliate the nobles and gain Scotland by a policy of clemency to all who did not dispute his authority.
The nobles were exhorted not to oppress the commons.
Being apprised by one of the nobles of the court of what had taken place, Firdousi passed the night in great anxiety; but passing in the morning by the gate that led from his own apartments into the palace, he met the sultan in his private garden, and succeeded by humble apologies in appeasing his wrath.
When she provoked a war with England in 1 557 the nobles refused to cross the border.
During the ensuing interregnum he powerfully contributed, at the head of the nobles of Funen and Jutland, to the election of Christian III.
She added that all the parties except the Jacobins were full of confidence; and that the nobles now cherished hopes of a reaction, seeing that the reduction of the number of rulers from five to three pointed towards monarchy.
Tiepolo, followed by members of the Quirini family and many nobles with their followers, attempted to seize the Piazza on the 15th of June 1310.
He tells us that all men of any rank and dignity in Gaul were included among the Druids or the nobles.
The majority, however, were laymen, of all kinds and degrees - nobles, artisans, scholars, students, labouring men.
But the conception of the equality of the king and his peers in the long run led to hereditary monarchy; for if the king held his kingdom as a fief, like other nobles, the laws of descent which applied to a fief applied to the kingdom, and those laws demanded heredity.
Two great central courts sat in Jerusalem to do justice - the high court of the nobles, and the court of burgesses for the rest of the Franks.
If the king presides in the court, the motive of its action is none the less the preservation of the rights of the nobles, and not, as in England, the extension of the rights of the crown.
They preferred an unwritten law, as Prutz suggests, partly because it suited the barristers (who often belonged to the baronage, for the Frankish nobles were "great pleaders in court and out of court"), and partly because the high court was left unbound so long as there was no written code.
Burgesses and nobles, however different in status, were both of the same Frankish stock, and both occupied the same superior position with regard to the native Syrians.
Like the nobles, again, the burgesses had the right of confirming royal grants and of taking part in legislation; and they may be said to have formed - socially, politically and judicially - an independent and powerful estate.
Among other places of interest are Rynsburg, the site of a convent for nobles founded in 1133 and destroyed in the time of Spanish rule; Voorschoten; Wassenaar, all of which were formerly minor lordships; Loosduinen, probably the Lugdunum of the Romans, and the seat of a Cistercian abbey destroyed in 1579; Naaldwyk, an ancient lordship; and 's Gravenzande, which possessed a palace of the counts of Holland in the 12th century, when it was a harbour on the Maas.
He resolved to suppress many abuses, but, above all things, to check feudalism and limit the power of the nobles.
This system was further supported by religious prescriptions which the nobles retained as a corporate secret.
This was a notable concession, by which the nobles lost that exclusive legal knowledge which had formed one of their main instruments of oppression.
Unhappily for himself and for Spain, he wanted the singleness of purpose required by a ruler who would devote himself to organization, and also the combination of firmness with temper needed for dealing with his nobles.
His nobles, whom he tried to cow by sporadic acts of violence, rebelled against him.
Son and nobles alike supported the Moors, when he tried to unite the nation in a crusade; and when he allied himself with the rulers of Morocco they denounced him as an enemy of the faith.
Persian nobles were admitted into the agema of the Macedonian cavalry.
The most striking declaration of his ideals was the marriage feast at Susa in 32 4, when a large number of the Macedonian nobles were induced to marry Persian princesses, and the rank and file were encouraged by special rewards to take Eastern wives.
But during the delicate negotiations which were required to secure the support of the Hungarian nobles she undoubtedly did appeal to them with passionate eloquence, and, we may believe, with a very pardonable sense of the advantage she obtained from her youth, her beauty and her sex.
He had received from his father the smatterings of a liberal education, but until the outbreak of the Revolution he was a domestic servant, and from 1785 occupied the invidious office of cornmissaire a terrier, his function being to assist the nobles and priests in the assertion of their feudal rights as against the unfortunate peasants.
By his own example of simplicity of life, he put to shame the luxury and extravagance of the Roman nobles and initiated in many respects a marked improvement in the general tone of society.
The nobles, dissatisfied with these, now sought to have them revised.
A circular was soon after sent to the governors and marshals of the nobility all over Russia proper, informing them of this desire of the Lithuanian nobles, and setting out the fundamental principles which should be observed " if the nobles of the provinces should express a similar desire."
Public opinion strongly favoured the projected reform; and even the masters who were opposed to it saw that, if the operation became necessary, it would be more safely for their interests intrusted to the nobles than to the bureaucracy.
The plan was formed, and, in spite of some opposition from the nobles, which was suppressed, it became law, and serfdom was abolished (19th February 3rd March 1861).
The schools include a high school affiliated to the university of Allahabad, a school for the sons of nobles, and a girls' school called after Lady Elgin.
Its converts nevertheless included many of the Bosnian nobles and the ban Kulin (1180-1204), whose reign was long proverbial for its prosperity, owing to the flourishing state of commerce and agriculture, and the extensive mining operations carried on by the Ragusans.
Many of the janissaries had married and settled on the land, forming a strongly conservative and fanatical caste, friendly to the Moslem nobles, who now dreaded the curtailment of their own privileges.
Two years later came a most formidable outbreak; the sultan was denounced as false to Islam, and the Bosnian nobles gathered at Banjaluka, determined to march on Constantinople, and reconquer the Ottoman empire for the true faith.
The power of the Bosnian nobles, though shaken by their defeat, remained unbroken; and they resisted vigorously when their kapetanates were abolished in 1837; and again when a measure of equality before the law was conceded to the Christians in 1839.
He sent large bribes to influential persons at Constantinople; he aided the Turkish vali to repress the Christians, who had again revolted; and he supported the Bosnian nobles against reforms imposed by the vali.
The possessor or controller of this wealthy mosque is the nakib, locally pronounced najeeb, or marshal of the nobles, whose office is to determine who are Se`ids, i.e.
This elaboration of the pontifical vestments was contemporaneous with, and doubtless partly determined by, the assimilation of the bishops during those centuries to the type of the great feudal nobles whose ambitions and love of pomp they shared.
The king and nobles of the district endowed him with estates till he was at last able to build a church, over which Alcuin afterwards ruled.
The knights and nobles of Bohemia and Moravia, who were in favour of church reform, sent to the council at Constance (September 2nd, 1415) a protest, known as the "protestatio Bohemorum" which condemned the execution of Huss in the strongest language.
The nobles, who though favourable to the Hussite cause yet supported the regent, promised to act as mediators with Sigismund; while the citizens of Prague consented to restore to the royal forces the castle of Vysehrad, which had fallen into their hands.
His authority was recognized by the Utraquist nobles, the citizens of Prague, and the more moderate Taborites, including Zizka.
Louis XI., in particular, had to struggle against the appanaged nobles.
In the preface it is stated that Howel, "seeing the laws and customs of the country violated with impunity, summoned the archbishop of Menevia, other bishops and the chief of the clergy, the nobles of Wales, and six persons (four laymen and two clerks) from each comot, to meet at a place called Y Ty Gwyn ar Da y, or the white house on the river Tav, repaired thither in person, selected from the whole assembly twelve of the most experienced persons, added to their number a clerk or doctor of laws, named Bllgywryd, and to these thirteen confided the task of examining, retaining, expounding and abrogating.
The taille seigneuriale was a true tax, levied by a lord on all his subjects who were neither nobles nor ecclesiastics.
The royal taille naturally retained the distinctive characteristics of the seigniorial, as can be seen from an examination of the way in which it was assessed and collected; the chief characteristic being that ecclesiastics and nobles, who were exempt from the seigniorial taille, were also exempt from the royal.
The biens nobles (fiefs) and the biens ecclesiastiques were exempt; tenures roturieres, however, by whomsoever held, were taxed.
But it was the chief form of tax in the pays d'etats, and even there an attempt had generally been made to check the exemption of nobles' property.
Montrose, on the other hand, wished to bring the king's authority to bear upon parliament to defeat this object, and offered him the support of a great number of nobles.
Nevertheless, even the combative Wallqvist was appalled when on the 16th of February 1789 the king privately informed him that he meant on the following day soundly to trounce the Estate of Nobles in the presence of the three other estates and bend them to his royal will.
Jean de Masles, who annotated a portion of his verse, has recorded how the pages and young gentlemen of that epoch were required daily to learn by heart passages of his Breviaire des nobles.
His vision of the ideal state was that of a patriarchial monarchy, surrounded and advised by the traditional estates of the realm - nobles, peasants, burghers - and cemented by the bonds of evangelical religion; but in which there should be no question of the sovereign power being vested in any other hands than those of the king by divine right.
The organization of the Protestant Church was formerly connected with the corporation of the nobles of Livonia and Courland, but the rights of presentation pertaining to the manorial estates of the knights and to the Government estates have been abolished by the introduction of a democratic free church.
From him also the reigning sovereign is lineally descended, and he is the liege lord of whom all the chiefs or nobles hold their lands in feu, for services which they or their ancestors had performed, or in virtue of their relationship to the family.
The discoveries of silver brought great wealth to the margraves, but they resorted at times to bedes, which were contributions from the nobles and ecclesiastics who met in a kind of diet.
In the oldest register of Philip Augustus counts are reckoned with dukes in the first of the five orders into which the nobles are divided, but the list includes, besides such almost sovereign rulers as the counts of Flanders and Champagne, immediate vassals of much less importance - such as the counts of Soissons and Dammartin - and even one mediate vassal, the count of Bar-sur-Seine.
Casanova remarked that in some Italian cities all the nobles were baroni, in others all were conti.
Conscious of her unpopularity she banished, and afterwards put to death, three Gothic nobles whom she suspected of intriguing against her rule, and at the same time opened negotiations with the emperor Justinian with the view of removing herself and the Gothic treasure to Constantinople.
This government, formed of gentiluomini or nobles, did not remain unchanged throughout the whole period, but was gradually forced to accept the participation of the popolani or lower classes, whose efforts to rise to power were continuous and determined.
Thus in 1137 they obtained a third part of the government by the reconstitution of the general council with Too nobles and 50 popolani.
In 1199 the institution of a foreign podestd (a form of government which became permanent in 1212) gave a severe blow to the consular magistracy, which was soon extinguished; and in 1233 the people again rose against the nobles in the hope of ousting them entirely from office.
The strife was largely economic, the people desiring to deprive the nobles of the immunity of taxation which they had enjoyed.
The attempt was not completely successful; but the government was now equally divided between the two estates by the creation of a supreme magistracy of twenty-four citizens - twelve nobles and twelve popolani.
During the rule of the nobles and the mixed rule of nobles and popolani the commune of Siena was enlarged by fortunate acquisitions of neighbouring lands and by the submission of feudal lords, such as the Scialenghi, Aldobrandeschi, Pannocchieschi, Visconti di Campiglia, &c.
Exasperated by the tyranny of the Salimbeni and other patrician families allied to the Ghibellines, it decreed in 127 7 the exclusion of all nobles from the supreme magistracy (consisting since 1270 of thirty-six instead of twenty-four members), and insisted that this council should be formed solely of Guelf traders and men of the middle class.
These new rulers were to some extent under the influence of the nobles who had fomented the rebellion, but the latter were again soon excluded from all share in the government.
The twelve who replaced the council of nine (as these had previously replaced the council of the nobles) consisted - both as individuals and as a party - of ignorant, incapable, turbulent men, who could neither rule the state with firmness nor confer prosperity on the republic. They speedily broke with the nobles, for whose manoeuvres they had at first been useful tools, and then split into two factions, one siding with the Tolomei, the other, the more restless and violent, with the Salimbeni and the noveschi (partisans of the nine), who, having still some influence in the city, probably fomented these dissensions, and, as we shall see later on, skilfully availed themselves of every chance likely to restore them to power.
In 1368 the adversaries of the twelve succeeded in driving them by force from the public palace, and substituting a government of thirteen - ten nobles and three noveschi.
The nobles were worsted, being driven from the city as well as from power; but the absolute rule of the twelve was brought to an end, and right of participation in the government was extended to another class of citizens.
So, the better to repress them, it created in 1369 a chief of the police, with the title of esecutore, and a numerous association of popolani - the company or casata grande of the people - as bulwarks against the nobles, who had been recalled from banishment, and who, though fettered by strict regulations, were now eligible for offices of the state.
Dividing the power between their two orders of the nine and the people, they excluded the riformatori and replaced them by a new and heterogeneous order styled the aggregati, composed of nobles, exiles of 1456 and citizens of other orders who had never before been in office.
The city then placed itself under the protection of the emperor .Charles V., created a magistracy of "ten conservators of the liberties of the state" (December 1524), united the different monti in one named the "monte of the reigning nobles," and, rejoicing to be rid of the last of the Petrucci, dated their public books, ab instaurata libertate year I., II., and so on.
The right, not often exercised, of the Magyar nobles to meet in general assembly and the elective character of the crown Stephen also did not venture to touch.
The title of count (grof) was assumed later (15th century) by those nobles who had succeeded, in spite of the Golden Bull, in making their authority over whole counties independent and hereditary.
On the other hand, the principle of the exemption of all the nobles from taxation is confirmed, as well as their right to refuse military service abroad, the defence of the realm being their sole obligation.
All nobles were also to have the right to appear at the court which was to be held once a year at Szekesfehervar, by the king, or in his absence by the palatine,' for the purpose of hearing causes.
A clause also guarantees all nobles against arbitrary arrest and punishment at the instance of any powerful person.
Thus the Kumanian colonists, mostly pagans, whom he settled in vast numbers on the waste lands, threatened to overwhelm the Christian population; while the numerous strongholds, which he encouraged his nobles to build as a protection against future Tatar invasions, subsequently became so many centres of disloyalty.
The ancient royal tenants became the feudatories of the great nobles, and fell naturally into two classes, the nobiles bene possessionati, and the nobiles unius sessionis, in other words the richer and the poorer gentry.
On the other hand the great nobles were the only class who won for themselves a recognized political position.
The kings were fighting for their lives, the great nobles were indistinguishable from brigands and the whole nation seemed to be relapsing into savagery.
More important in its ulterior consequences to Hungary was the law of 1351 which, while confirming the Golden Bull in general, abrogated the clause (iv.) by which the nobles had the right to alienate their lands.
Much as he owed to them, however, Sigismund was no mere nobles' king.
There is not a single branch of the law which he did not simplify and amend, and the iron firmness with which he caused justice to be administered, irrespective of persons, if it exposed him to the charge of tyranny from the nobles, also won for him from the common people the epithet of " the Just."
Signatures to documents of the period are rare; seals served instead of signatures, because most of the nobles were unable to sign their names.
Other great nobles were at perpetual feud with the towns whose wealth they coveted.
The diet, indeed, voted him aids and subsidies, but the great nobles either forbade their collection within their estates, or confiscated the amount collected.
The Magyar nobles were now systematically spoliated on trumped-up charges of treason; 1 In contradistinction to Turkish Hungary and Transylvanian Hungary.
These perverts were mostly to be found among nobles desirous of amassing church property, or among those of the clergy who clamoured for communion in both kinds.
Basta was authorized to Germanize and Catholicize without delay, and he began by dividing the property of most of the nobles among his officers, appropriating the lion's share himself.
The conduct of the Hungarian nobles in the past, indeed, somewhat justified this estimate, for the fall of the ancient monarchy was entirely due to their persistent disregard of authority, to their refusal to bear their share of the public burdens.
The circle of spearmen around the king grew less and less, and in the end James and a few of his nobles were alone left standing.
Practically nothing is recorded of him, his pontificate falling in the period when Rome was in the power of the Roman nobles.
Protestant nobles of England, enraged at the tolerant policy of James, had been in negotiation with William of Orange since 1687.
Although he had some trouble with the peasantry, the lands and treasures of the church enabled him to propitiate the nobles and for a time to provide for the expenses of the court.
There were no longer church lands available with which to conciliate the nobles, the burden of taxation was heavy, and Albert's rule became unpopular.
The Angevin king was thereupon set free, leaving three of his sons and sixty Provencal nobles as hostages, promising to pay 30,000 marks and to return a prisoner if the conditions were not fulfilled within three years.
He followed the policy of his predecessors in enforcing the royal authority over the nobles, but the machinery of a centralized government strong enough to hold nobility in check increased the royal expenditure, to meet which Charles had recourse to doubtful financial expedients.
The marquis fled abroad with his second son Louis at the time of the emigration of the nobles.
Martaban from the revolted Peguans; and in the following year he sailed down the Irrawaddy with an army of 50,000 men, and, arriving at Rangoon, put to death the aged monarch of Pegu, along with many of his nobles, who had shared with him in the offence of rebellion.
In 1379 they massacred seventeen nobles in the town hall, but this crime brought down on them the vengeance of the duke, to whom in 1383 they made the most abject and complete surrender.
On his death in 1189, the nobles of Anjou, Maine and Touraine refused to recognize John of England, and did homage to Arthur, who declared himself the vassal of Philip Augustus.
It is at this Ghibel- time that the people of Florence first began to acquire influence, and while the countess presided at the courts of justice in the name of the Empire, she was assisted by a group of great feudal nobles, judges, lawyers, &c., who formed, as elsewhere in Tuscany, the boni homines or sapientes.
Florence frequently waged war with these nobles and with other cities on its own account, although in the name of the countess, and the citizens began to form themselves into groups and associations which were the germs of the arti or gilds.
In 1125 Fiesole was sacked and destroyed, but the feudal nobles of, the contado (surrounding country), protected by the imperial margraves, were still powerful.
By 1176 the Florentines were masters of all the territory comprised in the dioceses of Florence and Fiesole; but civil commotion within nobles, headed by the Alberti and strengthened by the many feudal families who had been forced to leave their castles and dwell in the city (1177-1180).
But the work of crushing the nobles of the contado and of asserting the city's position among rival communes continued.
The tumults against the Paterine heretics (1244-1245), among whom were many Ghibelline nobles favoured by the podestd Pace di Pesamigola, indicate a successful Guelphic reaction; but Frederick II., having defeated his enemies both in Lombardy and in the Two Sicilies, appointed his natural son, Frederick of Antioch, imperial vicar in Tuscany, who, when civil war broke out, entered the city with 1600 German knights.
The attempt to seize Montevarchi and other castles where the Guelph exiles were congregated failed, and in 1250 the burghers elected thirty-six caporali di popolo, who formed the basis of the primo popolo or body of citizens independent of the nobles, headed by the capitano del popolo.
He was assisted by the consiglio speciale of 9 0 and the consiglio generale e speciale of 300, composed of nobles, while the capitano del popolo had also two councils composed of burghers, heads of the gilds, gonfalonieri of the companies, &c. The anziani had a council of 3 6 burghers, and then there was the parlamento or general assembly of the people, which met only on great occasions.
As Charles perpetually interfered in their affairs, always favouring the grandi or Guelph nobles, some of the Ghibellines were recalled as a counterpoise, which, however, only led to further civil strife.
The former councils were replaced by the consiglio del popolo, consisting of 300 popolani and presided over by the capitano, and the consiglio del comune of 250 members, half of them nobles and half popolani, presided over by the podesta.
The expulsion of the duke of Athens was followed by several measures to humble the grandi still further, while the popolo minuto or artisans began to show signs of discontent at the rule of the merchants, and thepopulace destroyed the houses of many nobles.
Rioting occurred on the 21st of June, and the houses of the Albizzi and other nobles were burnt.
In August the Spaniards took Prato by storm and committed hideous atrocities on the inhabitants; Florence was in a panic, a group of the Ottimati, or nobles, forced Soderini to resign and leave the city, and Cardona's new terms were accepted, viz.
At that time the officers of the Frency navy were divided into two parties - the reds or nobles, and the blues or roturiers.
Under the English rule the counts of Armagnac were turbulent and untrustworthy vassals; and the administration of the Black Prince, tending to favour the towns of Aquitaine at the expense of the nobles, drove them to the side of France.
With the object of combating the duke of Burgundy's preponderant influence, a league was formed at Gien, including the duke of Orleans and his father-inlaw, the dukes of Berry, Bourbon and Brittany, the count of Alengon and all the other discontented nobles.
On the 25th of June 1870 he was recalled to Paris, where his mother abdicated in his favour, in the presence of a number of Spanish nobles who had followed the fortunes of the exiled queen.
The two cities were governed by Arabian nobles (sherifs), often at feud with one another, recognizing formally the overlordship of the caliph at Bagdad or the caliph of Egypt.
Baladhuri's excellent Ansab al-Ashraf (Genealogies of the Nobles) is a history of the Arabs on a genealogical plan.
In Germany, at his instigation, the archbishops with a few of the secular nobles in 1246 elected Henry Raspe, landgrave of Thuringia, German king; but the "priests' king," as he was contemptuously called, died in the following year, William II., count of Holland, being after some delay elected by the papal party in his stead.
As in most continental towns, the custom of living in flats is prevalent in Vienna, where few except the richer nobles occupy an entire house.
Even before it fell from its high estate as the social centre of the German-speaking world, it had suffered severely by the crushing defeats of 1859 and the consequent exodus of the Austrian nobles.
But in fact the chief authority was still vested in the nobles, who, both in Pisa and in Sardinia, exercised almost sovereign power.
The archbishop Ruggieri, having put himself at the head of the nobles, was elected podesta by the Lanfranchi, Sismondi and Gualandi, and a section of the popular party.
Many curacas were descended from the imperial family of the Incas, or from great nobles of the Incarial court.
The nobles resented the king's withdrawal, and he was induced by Dunstan and Cynesige, bishop of Lichfield, to return to the feast.
It is said that to the dead body, crowned and robed in royal raiment, and enthroned beside the king, the assembled nobles of Portugal paid homage as to their queen, swearing fealty on the withered hand of the corpse.
The city was governed by two Venetian nobles, a podesth.
The treasury was managed by two chamberlains; and every five years the Paduans sent one of their nobles to reside as nuncio in Venice, and to watch the interests of his native town.
Just as Arthur was eclipsed by his companions, so Charlemagne's vassal nobles, except in the Chanson de Roland, are exalted at the expense of the emperor, probably the result of the changed relations between the later emperors and their barons.
Both sexes dressed with Puritan plainness; husbands and wives quitted their homes for convents; marriage became an awful and scarcely permitted rite; mothers suckled their own babes; and persons of all ranks - nobles, scholars and artists - renounced the world to assume the Dominican robe.
Within ten years she had created 17 counts, 46 barons and 428 lesser nobles; and, to provide these new peers with adequate appanages, she had sold or mortgaged crown property representing an annual income of 1,200,000 rix-dollars.
In 1388-1389 Frankfort assisted the South German towns in their wars with the princes and nobles (the Stadtekrieg), and in a consequent battle with the troops of the Palatinate, the town banner was lost and carried to Kronberg, where it was long preserved as a trophy.
Down to the end of this era painting was entirely in the hands of a patrician castecourtiers, priests, feudal nobles and their military retainers, all men of high education and gentle birth, living in a polished circle.
In the gth century, after the capital had been established at KiOto, the palace of the sovereigns and the mansions of ministers and nobles were built on a scale of unprecedented grandeur.
They were established by the abbeys, the nobles and the crown, frequently by two of these authorities in co-operation, and were intended to serve as defensive posts and centres of population for sparsely-inhabited districts.
In his civil administration he followed out his own ideas without deferring to the nobles or the Church, and the opposition which he encountered from these quarters went far to paralyse his attempts at reform.
Rappoltsweiler, known in the 8th century as Rathaldovilare, passed from the bishops of Basel to the lords of Rappoltstein, who were among the most famous nobles in Alsace.
It is probable that after the time of the synoecism the nobles who had hitherto governed the various independent communities were obliged to reside in Athens, now the seat of government; and at the beginning of Athenian history the noble clans form a class which has the monopoly of political privilege.
But in the last years during which this circle kept together a new spirit appeared in Roman politics and a new power in Roman literature, the revolutionary spirit evoked by the Gracchi in opposition to the long-continued ascendancy of the senate, and the new power of Roman satire, which was exercised impartially and unsparingly against both the excesses of the revolutionary spirit and the arrogance and incompetence of the extreme party among the nobles.
Quickly attaining a prominent position among the Frankish nobles, he appears as rector of the abbey of Marmoutier in 852, and as one of Charles the Bald's missi dominici, in 853; but soon afterwards he was among those who rebelled against Charles, and invited the king's halfbrother, Louis the German, to invade West Francia.
Though proclaimed king, he was regarded as a mere name by the unruly nobles to whom a minority was convenient.
His latter years were troubled by conspiracies and dissensions on the part of the nobles and even of his own son, Philip, count of Bresse.
The government subsequently passed into the hands of a small corporation of nobles descended from a former king Bacchis, and known as the Bacchidae, who nominated annually a Prytanis (president) from among their number.
The French plundered the churches, abolished monks, nuns and nobles, and set up forthwith the ways and doings of the French Revolution.
A silver casket (originally Mary's property, but then in the possession of Bothwell) was placed in his hands on the 10th of June, and was inspected by several nobles and gentlemen on the 21st of June 1567.
Locally it is ruled by an Imperial governor (the Statthalter) who resides at Innsbruck, where, too, meets annually the local legislature or Diet (the Landtag), composed (according to the constitution of 1861) of 68 members; the archbishop of Salzburg, the bishops of Trent and Brixen, and the rector of the university of Innsbruck sit in person, while the great ecclesiastical corporations send four deputies, the chambers of commerce of Innsbruck, Trent and Rovereto each one, the nobles ten, the towns 13, and the peasants 34.
He afterwards won the esteem of Conrad to such an extent that in 918 the king advised the nobles to make the Saxon duke his successor.
The founder of her town life and the creator of her army, he ruled in harmony with her nobles and secured her frontiers from attack.
The story that he received the surname of "Fowler" because the nobles, sent to inform him of his election to the throne, found him engaged in laying snares for the birds, appears to be mythical.
He held that the people, as distinguished from the nobles and the clergy, were the pith and fibre of nations; yet this same people had to become wax in the hands of the politician - their commerce and their comforts, the arts which give a dignity to life and the pleasures which make life liveable, neglected - their very liberty subordinated to the one tyrannical conception.
The king's intention was, no doubt, to secure himself and the prince against the unruly nobles, though the queen's Roman Catholic tendencies were probably another reason for his decision.
The trend of his letters was to impress on the boy a profound sense of the high destinies to which he was born, the necessity for keeping his nobles apart from all share in the conduct of the internal government of his kingdom, and the wisdom of distrusting counsellors, who would be sure to wish to influence him for their own ends.
He obtained permission to return, and on reaching the city made a secret survey of the ruins and called upon the nobles and rulers to assist in repairing them.
In eastern Europe the Avars had owned themselves completely under his power in 805; campaigns against the Czechs in 805 and 806 had met with some success, and about the same time the land of the Sorbs was ravaged; while at the western extremity of the continent the Breton nobles had done homage to Charles at Tours in 800.
His son Thomas, who inherited the title, took the lead among the nobles of Edward II.'s time in opposition to Piers Gaveston and the Despensers, and was beheaded for treason at Pontefract.
He was supported by the chancellor Matthew d'Ajello and the official class, while the rival claims of Roger II.'s daughter Constance and her husband, Henry VI., king of the Romans and emperor, were supported by most of the nobles.
In spite of the treaty of 1710 and the efforts of the Livonian nobles, it was not till 1802 that its restoration was effected under the patronage of Alexander I.
He was made governor of Picardy in 1619; suppressed an uprising of nobles in 1620; and in 1621, with slight military ability or achievement, was appointed constable of France.
But there were strong Italian nationalists and anti-Austrian tendencies among the younger nobles and army officers, and the Carbonari and other revolutionary societies had made much progress.
The nobles were awed by her warlike preparations or won over by adroit diplomacy, and their league was broken up. St Louis owed his realm to his mother, but he himself always remained somewhat under the spell of her imperious personality.
Hundreds of castles and monasteries were destroyed by the frantic peasantry, and some of the nobles were murdered with shocking cruelty.
He took the part of the nobles against the burghers, but Duke Charles of Gelderland, jealous of the growing power of the house of Habsburg, intervened, put an end to the strife, and, in 1527, himself occupied the city.
In 589 his fellow citizens entrusted Pittacus with despotic power (with the title of Aesymnetes) for the purpose of protecting them against the exiled nobles, at the head of whom were Alcaeus and his brother Antimenides.
During the disturbed reigns of Basil's seven immediate successors, Isaac by his prudent conduct won the confidence of the army; in 1057 he joined with the nobles of the capital in a conspiracy against Michael VI., and after the latter's deposition was invested with the crown, thus founding the new dynasty of the Comneni.
The Truce of God was most powerful in the 12th century, but with the 13th its influence waned as the kings gradually gained control over the nobles and substituted the king's peace for that of the Church.
On the establishment of the Bahmani dynasty in the Deccan (1348) Berar was constituted one of the four provinces into which their kingdom was divided, being governed by great nobles, with a separate army.
Eugenius was the candidate of the nobles, and the clerical faction brought forward a competitor.
Lothair, however, came to Rome in person, and took advantage of this opportunity to redress many abuses in the papal administration, to vest the election of the pope in the nobles, and to confirm the statute that no pope should be consecrated until his election had the approval of the emperor.
After a period of tranquillity a reaction set in against Frankish influences, and in 840 the freemen and liti separated themselves from the nobles, formed a league, or stellinga, and obtained a promise from the emperor Lothair I.
As he refused to give up his duchy he was kept in prison, while Henry confiscated the estates of powerful nobles, demanded the restoration of ducal lands by the bishops, and garrisoned newly-erected forts with Swabians, who provisioned themselves from the surrounding country.
The Saxon nobles refused to join the host until their grievances were redressed, and in 1073 a league was formed at Wormesleben.
The privileges of the nobles were curtailed; the administration of justice was put on a better footing; the press was unshackled; publicity in legal proceedings was granted; trial by jury was introduced for some special cases; and the German Catholics were recognized.
Notwithstanding the opposition of the Protestants and nobles of France, the queen carried through her purpose and the marriages were concluded in 1615.
It not only brought him into unremitting conflict with the Protestants and the nobles of France, but also made him the enemy of his mother, of his brother Gaston of Orleans, who made himself the champion of the cause of the nobles, and sometimes even of his wife.
In 119 as tribune he proposed a law intended to limit the influence of the nobles at elections.
Meantime, Sulla having left Italy for the Mithradatic war, Cinna's sudden and violent revolution put the senate at the mercy of the popular leaders, and Marius greedily caught at the opportunity of a bloody vengeance, which became in fact a reign of terror in which senators and nobles were slaughtered wholesale.
Fortified by this success and assured of the support of the parliament and of the great nobles, James, acting as an absolute king, could view without alarm the war which had broken out with England.
In 1032, with the rest of the kingdom of Burgundy or Arles, it reverted to the emperor Conrad II.,who was crowned king at Payerne in 1033, and in 1034 was recognized as such at Geneva by a great assembly of nobles from Germany, Burgundy and Italy, this rather unwilling surrender signifying the union of those 3 kingdoms. It is said that Conrad granted the temporal sovereignty of the city to the bishop, who, in 1162, was raised to the rank of a prince of the Holy Roman Empire, being elected, from 1215, by the chapter, but, after 1418, named directly by the pope himself.
In the Empire all churches, and all the property of the Church, were at the disposal of the bishops; in Germanic countries, on the contrary, the territorial nobles were looked upon as the owners of churches built upon their lands, and these became " proprietary churches."
The logical consequence of this was that the territorial nobles claimed the right of appointing clergy, and the enjoyment of the revenues of these churches derived from the land (tithes).
In the autumn of 1096 the nobles of France and Italy, joined by the Norman barons of England and Sicily, set out to wrest the Holy Land from the unbelievers; and for more than a century the cry, " Christ's land must be won for Christ," exercised an unparalleled power in Western Christendom.
The great majority of the landlords were nobles of foreign origin who acquired their 'estates at the hands of the Habsburg conqueror from 1621 onwards, when, after the battle of the White Mountain, the lands of the Czech nobles and yeomen were confiscated, the owners being executed or, as adherents of the Moravian Brotherhood and other Protestant churches, preferring to pass into exile rather than surrender their faith.
Under him began the great assemblies of nobles known as the champs de Mars.
Towards the end of the 14th century the Polish towns even attained some degree of political influence, and their delegates sat with the nobles and clergy in the king's councils, a right formally conceded to them at Radom in March 1384.
Even the peasants, who had suffered severely from the wholesale establishment of prisoners of war as serfs on the estates of the nobles, still preserved the rights of personal liberty and free transit from place to place, whence their name of lazigi.
The machinery of government was framed of a council of state, at which the Imperial government was represented by a commissioner plenipotentiary, and a diet divided into a senate composed of the princes of the blood, the palatines and councillors named for life, and a house of nuntii elected for seven years, 77 chosen by the "dietines" of the nobles, and 51 by the commons.
The nobles who dominated the diet did nothing to remove the most crying evil of the country - the miserable state of the peasants, who had been freed from personal serfdom by Napoleon in 1807, but were being steadily driven from their holdings by the landlords.
In Poland itself the tsar left much of the current civil administration in the hands of the nobles, whose power over their peasants was hardly diminished and was misused as of old.
The Polish nobles, gentry and Church - the educated classes generally - were crushed.
The former was now mixed with Latin and classical expressions; much of the literature consists of fulsome panegyric, verses written on the marriages and funerals of nobles, with conceits and fantastic ideas, devoid of all taste, drawn from their coats of arms. The poets of this period are, as may be imagined, in most cases mere rhymesters; there are, however, a few whose names are worth recapitulating, such as Waclaw Potocki (c. 1622 - c. 1696), now known to have been the author of the Wojna Chocimska, or "War of Khotin," the same campaign which afterwards formed the subject of the epic of Krasicki.
Bernardo is the hero of a cantar de gesta (chanson de geste) written to please the anarchical spirit of the nobles.
The great nobles, the Howards, and Gardiner would not hear of such a proposal; and all the efforts of the court throughout Mary's reign failed to induce parliament to listen to the suggestion that Elizabeth should be deprived of her legal right to the succession.
From the year 1425 the provinces were desolated by party wars among the lesser nobles (parientes mayores) but these came to an end in 1460-1498, when Henry IV.
Although Edward did not give Baliol any active assistance, the claimant placed himself at the head of some disinherited Scottish nobles, raised a small army and sailed from Ravenspur.
He shared in the negotiations between the Scottish nobles and Edward I.
Nobles and ministers of state, with the chief ecclesiastics not only of the Russian Church but of the Roman, the Uniat, the Armenian, the Greek, the Georgian and the Lutheran Churches, found themselves constrained to serve on its committees.
The German college, for the children of poor nobles, was founded in 1552; and in the same year Ignatius firmly settled the discipline of the Society by putting down, with promptness and severity, some attempts at independent action on the part of Rodriguez at Coimbra - this being the occasion of the famous letter on obedience; while 1553 saw the despatch of a mission to Abyssinia with one of the fathers as patriarch, and the first rift within the lute when the pope thought that the Spanish Jesuits were taking part with the emperor against the Holy See.
The Mexican chronicles, however, show instances of the king's son succeeding or of powerful chiefs being elected to the kingship. The term republic is sometimes used to describe the little state of Tlascala, but this was in fact a federation of four chiefs, with an assembly of nobles.
Below the king was a numerous and powerful class of nobles, the highest of whom (tlatoani) were great vassals owing little more than homage and tribute to their feudal lord, while the natural result of the unruliness of the noble class was that the king to keep them in check increased their numbers, brought them to the capital as councillors, and balanced their influence by military and household officers, and by a rich and powerful merchant class.
The nobles not only had privileges of rank and dignity, but substantial power over the plebeian or peasant class (macehualli).
Those fit for a soldier's life were trained to the use of weapons and sent early to learn the hardships of war; children of craftsmen were usually taught by their fathers to follow their trade; and for the children of nobles there was elaborate instruction in history, picture-writing, astrology, religious doctrines and laws.
The ballgame of the Mexicans, called tlachtli, was, like tennis, the pastime of princes and nobles; special courts were built for it, and the ball of india-rubber (perhaps the first object in which Europeans became acquainted with this valuable material) might not be touched by the hands, but was driven against the walls by blows of the knee or elbow, shoulder or buttock.
He studied theology under Calvin and Beza at Geneva and, returning to the Netherlands in 1560, threw himself energetically into the cause of the Reformation, taking an active part in the compromise of the nobles in 1565 and the assembly of St Trond.
The party of the nobles, who had been ready to make terms, were attacked in the Diet at Prague, by the Orphans and Taborites.
The nobles were victorious at Lipau on the 29th of May 1434, and it was reported in England that Payne was killed.
His suspicion suggested to him that, if his own brother failed him, the loyalty of the great nobles, especially the members of the ancient Sture family, who had been notable in Sweden when the Vasas were unknown, could not be depended upon.
The gymnasium, however, was deserted; the nobles of Styria began to murmur at subsidizing a teacher without pupils; and he found it prudent to look elsewhere for employment.
In the States of the province of Holland pensionary of the order of nobles (Ridderschap) was the foremost official of that assembly and he was named - until the death of Oldenbarneveldt in 1619 - the land's advocate, or more shortly, the advocate.
He established himself as a private tutor in Paris, and presently set up a school for the army at Versailles, which was attended by commoners as well as nobles.
He appears first as one of the most reckless and extravagant of the young nobles who surrounded Nero.
His relations with the imperial house, however, never became cordial; and he was also unsuccessful in winning the sympathy of the Roman nobles.
Here occurs the earliest mention of Vinland, and here are also references of great interest to Russia and Kiev, to the heathen Prussians, the Wends and other Slav races of the South Baltic coast, and to Finland, Thule or Iceland, Greenland and the Polar seas which Harald Hardrada and the nobles of Frisia had attempted to explore in Adam's own day (before 1066).
Aristotle, when speaking of the aristocratic character of the horse, as requiring fertile soil for its support, and consequently being associated with wealth, instances its use among the Chalcidians and Eretrians, and in the former of those two states we find a class of nobles called Hippobotae.
It was a period of constant conflict conducted by shifting coalitions of the nobles, who under pretence of freeing the king from the undue influence of his favourite were intent on making a puppet of him for their own ends.
He fought for his own hand, but his supremacy was certainly better than the rule of gangs of plundering nobles.
Thus in 1427 he was solemnly expelled by a coalition of the nobles, only to be recalled in the following year.
In 1431 he endeavoured to employ the restless nobles in 'a war for the conquest of Granada.
In 1445 the faction of the nobles allied with Alvaro's main enemies, the Infantes de Aragon, were beaten at Olmedo, and the favourite, who had been constable of Castile and count of Santesteban since 1423, became Grand Master of the military order of Santiago by election of the Knights.
During his father's lifetime he ruled Moravia, but when in 1248 some discontented Bohemian nobles acknowledged him as their sovereign, trouble arose between him and his father, and for a short time Ottakar was imprisoned.
Originally accepted as a political necessity, he soon came to be detested by the people as a tyrant and despised by the nobles for his cowardice and sloth.
His remaining years were spent in futile plans to make Poland a hereditary monarchy, to weaken the power of the Saxon nobles, and to gain territory for his sons in various parts of Europe.
As the war had progressed, Mazarin had steadily followed Richelieu's policy of weakening the nobles on their country estates.
At first he professed to rule only with the advice of a council formed of the nobles, but when his power became established he dispensed with this show of republican government, and then gave himself the appearance of a legitimate title by protecting an impostor who professed to be the caliph Hisham II.
During the 14th century the nobles and the townsmen began to take part in the government, and about this time Upper Lusatia was known as the district of the six towns (Sechsstddtelandes), these being Bautzen, Gorlitz, Zittau, Lobau, Lauban and Kamenz.
His inability to resist the demands of his nobles left a heritage of trouble in Aragon.
But these measures failing, he proposed to the king the suppression of internal customs, duties and the taxation of the property of nobles and clergy.
Like those of the other districts of Germany, the estates of the different provinces which formed the kingdom of Hanover had met for many years in an irregular fashion to exercise their varying and ill-defined authority; and, although the elector Ernest Augustus introduced a system of administrative councils into Celle, these estates, consisting of the three orders of prelates, nobles and towns, together with a body somewhat resembling the English privy council, were the only constitution which the country possessed, and the only check upon the power of its ruler.
Two chambers were established, the one formed of nobles and the other of elected representatives; but although they were authorized to control the finances, their power with regard to legislation was very circumscribed.
In Rome, where he restored Pope Benedict VII., he held a splendid court, attended by princes and nobles from all parts of western Europe.
His defence of church property and privilege against the predatory instincts of the nobles and the pretensions of the state brought him into conflict with Lethington and others; but he seems to have condoned, if he was not privy to, Riccio's murder.
Maio continued Roger's policy of excluding the nobles from the administration, and sought also to curtail the liberties of the towns.
The policy of the minister led to a general conspiracy, and in November 1160 he was murdered in Palermo by Matthew Bonello, leader of the Sicilian nobles.
He himself and all the young nobles of his staff dismounted and led the infantry forward again, the prince threw his baton into the enemy's lines for the soldiers to retrieve, and in the end, after a bitter struggle, the Bavarians, whose reserves had been taken away to oppose Turenne in the Merzhausen defile, abandoned the entrenchments and disappeared into the woods of the adjoining spur.
The usual prognostication of future distinction is attributed in the case of More to Cardinal Morton, " who would often tell the nobles sitting at table with him, where young Thomas waited on him, whosoever liveth to trie it shall see this child prove a notable and rare man."
Thus the downfall of the monarchy and of the ancient cults have been nearly fatal to some of the more beautiful birds; feather ornaments, formerly worn only by nobles, came to be a common decoration; and many species (for example the Hawaiian gallinule, Gallinula sandwicensis, which, because of its crimson frontal plate and bill, was said by the natives to have played the part of Prometheus, burning its head with fire stolen from the gods and bestowed on mortals) have been nearly destroyed by the mongoose, or have been driven from their lowland homes to the mountains, such being the fate of the mamo, mentioned above, and of the Sandwich Island goose (Bernicla sandwicensis), which is here a remarkable example of adaptation, as its present habitat is quite arid.
The superiority in physique of the nobles to the common people may have been due in part to a system of massage, the lomi-lomi; it is certainly contrary to the belief in the bad effects of inbreeding - among the upper classes marriage was almost entirely between near relatives.
Like other South Sea Islanders they made an intoxicating drink, awa or kava, from the roots of the Macro piper latifolium or Piper methysticum; in early times this could be drunk only by nobles and priests.
The great feudatories did not even respect the lives of the royal family, for Andrew was recalled from a futile attempt to reconquer Galicia (which really lay beyond the Hungarian sphere of influence), through the murder of his first wife Gertrude of Meran (September 24, 1213), by rebellious nobles jealous of the influence of her relatives.
The poor queen was surrounded by intrigues and plots, and although the people of the coast towns loved her, the Cypriot nobles were her bitter enemies and hostile to Venetian influence.
Encouraged perhaps by sympathetic Romans, spurred on still more by their own instincts, and led no doubt by their nobles, they began to speak Latin, to use the material resources of Roman civilized life, and in time to consider themselves not the unwilling subjects of a foreign empire, but the British members of the Roman state.
The inhabitants were plainly as various - a few of them great nobles and wealthy landowners, others small farmers or possibly bailiffs.
Indeed, we are told that popular kings like Os wine attracted young nobles to their service from all quarters.
In general we may perhaps define them as nobles and commons, though in view of the numbers of the higher classes it would probably be more correct to speak of gentry and peasants.
Invited by Pope Formosus to deliver him from the power of Guido III., duke of Spoleto, who had been crowned emperor, Arnulf went to Italy in 894, but after storming Bergamo and receiving the homage of some of the nobles at Pavia, he was compelled by desertions from his army to return.
There is a good deal of uncertainty in regard to both the exact position and the numbers of the nobles and freedmen of Tacitus's age.
The large amounts fixed for the wergelds of nobles and even of freemen were paid no doubt, as in later times, not only by the slayer himself, but by every member of his kindred in proportion to the nearness or remoteness of his relationship; and in like manner they were distributed among the kindred of the slain.
The new pope was chosen by the principal members of the clergy and nobles, and then set before the assembled people, who gave their decision by acclamation; and this acclamation was accepted as the vote of the assembly of the faithful.
Other adversaries of the episcopate, the burgesses and the petty nobles dwelling in the city, also profited by these frequent changes of bishops, and the disorders that ensued.
He succeeded in imposing his will on the nobles and communes in the patrimony of St Peter, and, as guardian of Henry VI.'s son Frederick, was for some time able to conduct the government of the kingdom of the Two Sicilies, but in his claims on the rest of Italy the failure of the temporal power was manifest.
The fruits of this compact were reaped by Cesare Borgia, who resigned his cardinal's hat, became duke of Valentinois, annihilated the minor nobles of the papal state, and made himself the true dictator of Rome.
Matthias enforced his authority by the vigorous use of his mercenaries and by wholesale confiscations of the lands of turbulent nobles.
The family were nobles in Brittany, and their name was so spelt by themselves.
The educational institutions include the Mayo Rajkumar college, opened in 1875, for training the sons of the nobles of Rajputana, on the lines of an English public school.
Already, in the r3th century, they were hard pressed by the growing wealth of the burghers, and even the greatest nobles could scarcely keep up their state without careful business management.
Although by the code of chivalry no candidate could be knighted before the age of twenty-one, we have seen how great nobles like the Berkeleys obtained that honour for their infant heirs in order to avoid possible pecuniary loss; and French writers of the r4th century complained of this knighting of infants as a common and serious abuse.'
While knighthood was avoided by poor nobles, it was coveted by rich citizens.
Popes, princes and nobles endowed it with estates and privileges, including that of administering and succeeding to the property of lepers, which eventually led to grave 1 It has been taken as the Latin word meaning " he bears " or as representing the initials of the legend Fortitudo Ejus Rhodum Tenuit, with an allusion to a defence of the island of Rhodes by an ancient count of Savoy.
In 858 Louis the German, summoned by the disaffected nobles, invaded the kingdom of Charles, who fled to Burgundy, and was only saved by the help of the bishops, and by the fidelity of the family of the Welfs, who were related to Judith.
He has been accused of being incapable of resisting them, but we must take into account the unwillingness of the nobles, who continually refused to join the royal army; moreover, the Frankish army does not seem to have been sufficiently accustomed to war to make any headway against the pirates.
In the meantime, John VIII., who was menaced by the Saracens, was continually urging him to come to Italy, and Charles, after having taken at Quierzy the necessary measures for safeguarding the government of his dominions in his absence, again crossed the Alps, but this expedition had been received with small enthusiasm by the nobles, and even by Boso, Charles's brother-in-law, who had been entrusted by him with the government of Lombardy, and they refused to come with their men to join the imperial army.