Such nobility may be immemorial or it may not.
From the hall of the nobility the Emperor went to that of the merchants.
Aristocracy implies the existence of nobility; but nobility does not imply aristocracy; it may exist under any form of government.
But if differed from the old patriciate in this, that, while the privileges of the old patriciate rested on law, or perhaps rather on immemorial custom, the privileges of the new nobility rested wholly on a sentiment of which men could remember the beginning.
Nor is nobility the same thing as aristocracy.
That the English peerage does not answer to the true idea of a nobility will be seen with a very little thought.
Here, then, is a nobility in the strictest sense.
In England nobility is apt to be confounded with the peculiar institution of the British peerage.
In the first place, I tell you we have no right to question the Emperor about that, and secondly, if the Russian nobility had that right, the Emperor could not answer such a question.
In strictness nobility and gentry are the same thing.
But their position as a nobility or privileged class arose solely because a class with inferior rights to their own grew up around them.
They were not a nobility or a privileged class as long as there was no less privileged class to distinguish them from.
This is not nobility in the true sense; it is not nobility as nobility was understood either in the French kingdom or in the Venetian commonwealth.
The nobility don't gwudge theah lives--evewy one of us will go and bwing in more wecwuits, and the sov'weign" (that was the way he referred to the Emperor) "need only say the word and we'll all die fo' him!" added the orator with animation.
Or it would be more accurate to say that the new nobility had really no privileges at all.
This was the Marshal of the Nobility of the district, who had come personally to point out to the princess the necessity for her prompt departure.
The family of Thun-Hohenstein, one of the wealthiest of the Austrian nobility, which has for more than 200 years settled at Tetschen, in Bohemia, has given several distinguished members to the Austrian public service.
Livy could never get rid of the idea that the old struggle between patrician and plebeian was something like the struggle between the nobility and the people at large in the later days of the commonwealth.
Sparta is the best case of a nobility of conquest.
"I have talked and talked at the Assembly of the Nobility," Prince Vasili interrupted, "but they did not listen to me.
What gentleness and nobility there are in her features and expression! thought he as he looked at her and listened to her timid story.
He hesitated before vaulting to the ground, unable to explain the quickening of his heart or the sense that the woman's teal gaze - the color of the eyes of Karyan nobility - reminded him of the home he hadn't thought of in years.
This new nobility gradually became as well marked and as exclusive as the old patriciate.
The way in which nobility has arisen in different times and places is very various, and there are several nations whose history will supply us with examples of a nobility of one kind giving way to a nobility of another kind.
This nobility consisted of all those who, as descendants of curule magistrates, had the jus imaginum - that is, who could point to forefathers ennobled by office.
nobility and peerage.
The plebs, like the English commons, contained families differing widely in rank and social position, among them those families which, as soon as an artificial barrier broke down, joined with the patricians to form the new older settlement, a nobility which had once been the whole people, was gradually shorn of all exclusive privilege, and driven to share equal rights with a new people which had grown up around it.
In Tuscany, where the Guelph party was very strongly organized, and the commercial constitution of Florence kept the nobility in check, the communes remained as yet free from hereditary masters.
The old people of Rome thus grew, or rather shrank up, into a nobility by the growth of a new people by their side which they declined to admit to a share in their rights, powers, and possessions.
Yet practically the new nobility was a privileged class; it felt itself to be so, and it was felt to be so by others.
We hardly look on the Spartans as a nobility among the other Lacedaemonians; Sparta rather is a ruling city bearing sway over the other Lacedaemonian towns.
The renowned patriciate of Venice was as far removed as might be from the character either of a nobility of conquest or of a nobility of older settlement.
But nobility is not necessarily a political term; the distinction which it implies may be accompanied by political privileges or it may not.
This definition seems to take in all the kinds of nobility which have existed in different times and places.
I should be thankful to do nothing, but here on the one hand the local nobility have done me the honor to choose me to be their marshal; it was all I could do to get out of it.
He permitted laymen to hold certain public offices, under surveillance of the prelates, organized a guard from among the Roman nobility, decreed a plan for redeeming the base coinage, permitted the communes a certain degree of municipal liberty, and promised the liquidation of the public debt.
The nobility and clergy were on the side of the ducal authority; its opponents were the municipalities, especially those of Flanders.
Thus the history of nobility at Athens supplies a close analogy to the earlier stages of its history at Rome, but it has nothing answering to its later stages.
In the wars against the English in the 14th and 15th centuries and the religious wars of the 16th century the town had its full participation; and in 1665 it acquired a terrible notoriety by the trial and execution of many members of the nobility of Auvergne who had tyrannized over the neighbouring districts.
Nobility thus implies the vesting of some hereditary privilege or advantage in certain families, without deciding in what such privilege or advantage consists.
In one point, however, the Venetian nobility differed from either the older or the newer nobility of Rome, and also from the older nobilities of the medieval Italian cities.
The consequences of this marriage were to alienate many of the most powerful of the nobility, especially the earls of Arran and Home, and to make Margaret entirely dependent on the house of Douglas.
Joachim Descartes, his father, having purchased a commission as counsellor in the parlement of Rennes, introduced the family into that demi-noblesse of the robe which, between the bourgeoisie and the high nobility, maintained a lofty rank in French society.
A new magistrate, the gonfalonier of justice, appears in some of the Guelph cities, with the special duty of keeping the insolence of the nobility in check.
Yet nobility, in some shape or another, has existed in most places and times of the world's history, while the British peerage is an institution purely local, and one which has actually hindered the existence of a nobility in the sense which the word bears in most other countries.
He was elected a deputy of the nobility to the states-general, where he sat alongside of his friend La Fayette.
Prince Andrew had to see the Marshal of the Nobility for the district in connection with the affairs of the Ryazan estate of which he was trustee.
Count Ilya Rostov had resigned the position of Marshal of the Nobility because it involved him in too much expense, but still his affairs did not improve.
In the first were the nobility and gentry in their uniforms, in the second bearded merchants in full-skirted coats of blue cloth and wearing medals.
Again, it is sometimes thought that both nobility and aristocracy are in some special way connected with kingly government.
What we may call the nobility of earlier occupation makes way for the nobility of office.
Nor was it strictly a nobility of office, though it had more in common with that than with either of the other two.
As Athens supplies us with a parallel to the older nobility of Rome without any parallel to the later, so Venice supplies us with a parallel to the later nobility of Rome without any parallel to the earlier.
Uruguay at that time was inhabited by Indians, of whom the dominant tribe was called Charrua, a people described as physically strong and well-formed, and endowed with a natural nobility of character.
To form a true understanding of what is strictly implied in the word "nobility," in its social as opposed to a purely moral sense, it is needful to distinguish its meaning from that of several words with which it is likely to be confounded.
To not a few it would seem a contradiction to speak of nobility or aristocracy in a republic. Yet, though many republics have eschewed nobility, there is nothing in a republican, or even in a democratic, form of government inconsistent with the existence of nobility; and it is only in a republic that aristocracy, in the strict sense of the word, can exist.
It is hardly needful to prove that nobility does not imply wealth, though nobility without wealth runs some risk of being forgotten.
We may now compare the history of nobility at Rome with its history in some other of the most famous city-commonwealths.
Isabella had been for many years prepared, and she and Ferdinand, now that the proposal for this new tribunal came before them, saw in it a means of overcoming the independence of the nobility and clergy by which the royal power had been obstructed.
At Sparta we have a third instance of a people shrinking up into a nobility, but it is a people whose position differs altogether from anything either at Rome or at Athens.
Nowhere else did nobility so distinctly rise out of wealth, and that wealth gained nobility.
But the nobility of a large country, even though used to act politically as an order, could never put on that orderly and legal character which distinguishes the true civic patriciates.
All that kind of pre-established harmony Wagner left behind him the moment he deserted the heroes and villains of romantic opera for the visionary and true tragedy of gods and demi-gods, giants and gnomes, with beauty, nobility and love in the wrong, and the forces of destruction and hate set free by blind justice.
The upper consists of princes of the grand-ducal family, heads of mediatized houses, the head of the Roman Catholic and the superintendent of the Protestant church, the chancellor of the university, two elected representatives of the land-owning nobility, and twelve members nominated by the grand duke.
The nobility is very numerous in Silesia, chiefly in the Polish districts.
Christian revenged himself by executing the magnate Torben Oxe, who, on very creditable evidence, was supposed to have been Dyveke's murderer, despite the strenuous opposition of Oxe's fellow-peers; and henceforth the king lost no opportunity of depressing the nobility and raising plebeians to power.
The dauphins flight from Paris excited a wild outburst of monarchist loyalty and anger against the capital among the nobility and in the statesgeneral of Compigne.
He had already begun his work of toleration, for he had recently produced a drama (Die Juden, 1749), the motive of which was to prove that a Jew can be possessed of nobility of character.
The thegn became a member of a territorial nobility, and the dignity of thegnhood was attainable by those who fulfilled certain conditions.
There may or there may not be a power vested somewhere of conferring nobility; but it is essential to the true idea of nobility that, when once acquired, it shall go on for ever to all the descendants - or, more commonly, only to all the descendants in the male line - of the person first ennobled or first recorded as noble.
On the 25th of November Cromwell charged Manchester with "unwillingness to have the war prosecuted to a full victory"; which Manchester answered by accusing Cromwell of having used expressions against the nobility, the Scots and Presbyterianism; of desiring to fill the army of the Eastern Association with Independents to prevent any accommodation; and of having vowed if he met the king in battle he would as lief fire his pistol at him as at anybody else.
This was the growth of the new nobility of Rome, that body, partly patrician, partly plebeian, to whom the name nobilitas strictly belongs in Roman history.
The Emperor is to be here tomorrow... there's to be an Extraordinary Meeting of the nobility, and they are talking of a levy of ten men per thousand.
Lucky me, another creature of nobility.
Though the rule of Podébrad had proved very successful and Bohemia had under it obtained a degree of prosperity which had been unknown since the time of Charles IV., the Calixtine king had many enemies among the Romanist members of the powerful Bohemian nobility.
His brass instruments have lost nothing of their ancient nobility.
The former existence of so many separate sovereignties and fountains of honor gave nse to a great many hereditary titles of nobility.
The masses were still more or less indifferent, but among the nobility and the educated middle Secret classes, cut off from all part in free political life, there societies, was developed either the spirit of despair at Italys The Car..
His grandson Thomas succeeded him in 1554, and in 1556 made the second of those marraiges which have given the Howards their high place among the English nobility.
As the non-privileged order increased in numbers, while the privileged order, as every exclusive hereditary body must do, lessened, the larger body gradually put on the character of the nation at large, while the smaller body put on the character of a nobility.
The Athenian eb rarpl8at, who were thus gradually brought down from their privileged position, seem to have been quite as proud and exclusive as the Roman patricians; but when they lost their privileges they lost them far more thoroughly, and they did not, as at Rome, practically hand on many of them to a new nobility, of which they formed part, though not the whole.
Athenian At Athens, as at Rome, an old patriciate, a nobility of by commerce.
The Venetian nobility is an example of a nobility which gradually arose out of the mass of the people as certain families step by step drew all political power into their own hands.
This was what the later nobility of Rome was always striving at, and what they did to a great extent practically establish.
But, as the exclusive privileges of the nobility were never recognized by any legal or formal act, men like Gaius Marius would ever and anon thrust themselves in.
The privileges which the Venetian nobility took to themselves were established by acts which, if not legal, were at least formal.
The Roman nobility, resting wholly on sufferance, was overthrown by the ambition of one of its own members.
The Venetian nobility, resting also in its beginnings on sufferance, but on sufferance which silently obtained the force of law, lasted as long as Venice remained a separate state.
Thus the optimates of Venice did what the optimates of Rome strove to do: they established a nobility whose one qualification was descent from those who had held office in past times.
This is what the nobility of office, if left unchecked, naturally grows into.
These families and branches of families, however noble they might be in descent, were thus shut out from all the n political privileges of nobility.
The nobility which was thus formed at Venice is the very model of a civic nobility, a nobility which is also an aristocracy.
But in the Venetian commonwealth the nobility was a real aristocracy.
But we are concerned with them now only as instances of one form of nobility.
In not a few of the Italian cities nobility had an origin and ran a course quite unlike the origin and the course which were its lot at Venice.
Such a nobility differed far more widely from either the Roman or the Venetian patriciate than they differed from one another.
The privileges of the Roman patriciate, whatever we may call them, were not usurpations; and, if we call the privileges of the Venetian nobility usurpations, they were stealthy and peaceful usurpations, founded on something other than mere violence.
A nobility of this kind often gave way to a democracy which either proved as turbulent as itself, or else grew into an oligarchy ruling under democratic forms. Thus at Florence the old nobles became the opposite to a privileged class.
But something like a new nobility presently grew up among the commons themselves; there were popolani grossi at Florence just as there were noble plebeians at Rome.
In short, the shutting out of the old nobility was, if not the formation of a new nobility, at least the formation of a Civic new privileged class.
It is in these only that we can see nobility in its purest form - nobility to which no man can rise and from which no man can come down except by the will of the noble class itself.
Nor could it be kept in the later nobility of Rome.
That in the better times of the aristocracy nobility was not uncommonly granted to worthy persons, that in its worse times it was more commonly sold to unworthy persons, was the affair of the aristocratic body itself.
From this purest type of nobility, as seen in the aristocratic commonwealths, we may pass to nobility as seen in states of greater extent - that is, for the most part in monarchies.
The member of a civic nobility is more than a member of an order; he is a member of a corporation; he has no powers, he has hardly any being, apart from the body of which he is a member.
Now many of these tendencies were carried into those Italian cities where the civic nobility was a half-tamed country nobility; but they have no place in the true civic aristocracies.
The other point of difference is that, whatever we take for the origin and the definition of nobility, in most countries it became something that could be given from outside, without the need of any consent on the part of the noble class itself.
We have seen how much this takes away from the true notion of nobility as understood in the aristocratic commonwealths.
The nobility is no longer all-powerful; it may be constrained to admit within its own body members for whose presence it has no wish.
Where this power exists the nobility is no longer in any strictness an aristocracy; it may have great privileges, great influence, even great legal powers, but it is not the real ruling body, like the true aristocracy of Venice.
In the modern states of western Europe the existing nobility seems to have for the most part had its origin in personal service to the prince.
And this nobility by personal service seems commonly to have supplanted an older nobility, in early the origirrof which was, in some cases at least, strictly immemorial.
In this way the later nobility of the thegns was in England substituted for the older nobility of the eorls.
In both cases the older nobility gives way to a newer; and in both cases the newer nobility was a nobility of office.
This new nobility of office supplanted, or perhaps rather absorbed, the older nobility, just as the later nobilitas of Rome supplanted or absorbed the old patriciate.
For, as almost everywhere else, this Teutonic nobility admits of degrees, though it is yet harder to say in what the degrees of nobility consisted than to say in what nobility consisted itself.
The older nobility is independent of the possession of land; it is independent of office about the sovereign; it is hard to say what were the powers and privileges attached to it; but of its existence there is no doubt.
But in no part of Europe can the existing nobility trace itself to this immemorial nobility of primitive days; the nobility of medieval and modern days springs from the later nobility of office.
Stories like these prove even more than the real rise of Hagano and Eadric. In England the nobility of the thegns was to a great extent personally displaced, so to speak, by the results of the Norman Conquest.
But the idea of nobility did not greatly change.
But the connexion between nobility and the holding of land comes out in the practice by which the lord so constantly took the name of his lordship. It is in this way that the prefixes de and von, descriptions in themselves essentially local, have become in other lands badges of nobility.
And before long nobility won for itself a distinguishing outward badge.
Those who possessed the right of coatarmour by immemorial use, or by grant in regular form, formed the class of nobility or gentry, words which, it must again be remembered, are strictly of the same meaning.
They held whatever privileges or advantages have attached in different times and places to the rank of nobility or gentry.
In England indeed a variety of causes hindered nobility or gentry from ever obtaining the importance which they obtained, for instance, in France.
That institution at once set up a new standard of nobility, a new form of the nobility of office.
The peer - in strictness, the peer in his own person only, not even his children - became the only noble; the ideas of nobility and gentry thus became divorced in a way in which they are not in any other country.
Those who would elsewhere have been counted as the nobility, the bearers of coat-armour bygood right, were hindered from forming a class holding any substantial privilege.
Had they been able to establish and to maintain any kind of privilege, even that of mere honorary precedence, they would exactly answer to continental nobility.
In short, there is no real nobility in England; for the class which answers to foreign nobility has so long ceased to have any practical privileges that it has long ceased to be looked on as a nobility, and the word nobility has been transferred to another class which has nothing answering to it out of the three British kingdoms. 2 This last ' This statement is mainly interesting as expressing the late Professor Freeman's view; it is, however, open to serious criticism.
Coat-armour was in itself not necessarily a badge of nobility at all; it could be, and was, worn by people having no pretensions to be "gentlemen," and this is true both of England and the continent.
No attempt has been here made to trace Out the history of nobility in the various countries and, we must add, cities of Europe.
Once more, it must be borne in mind that, while it is essential to the idea of nobility that it should carry with it some hereditary privilege, the nature and extent of that privilege may vary endlessly.
In the 18th century the nobility of France and the nobility of Poland alike answered to the very strictest definition of nobility; but the political positions of the two were as broadly contrasted as the positions of any two classes of men could be.
The nobility of France, keeping the most oppressive social and personal privileges, had been shorn of all political and even administrative power; the tyrants of the people were the slaves of the king.
And, as modern changes have commonly attacked the power both of kings and of nobles, the common notion has come that kingship and nobility have some necessary connexion.
It has seemed as if any form of nobility was inconsistent with a republican form of government, while nobility, in some shape or other, has come to be looked on as a natural, if not a necessary, appendage to a monarchy.
And from one point of view, that from which the kingly house is but the noblest of the noble, kingship and nobility are closely allied.
His younger daughter married a subaltern in a line regiment, belonging to the lesser nobility; as ennobled by marriage (according to the liberal rule of this particular court), she was duly "presented."
political view monarchy and nobility are strongly opposed.
Even the modified form of absolute monarchy which has existed in some Western countries, while it preserves, perhaps even strengthens, the social position of a nobility, destroys its political power.
Under the fully-developed despotisms of the East a real nobility is impossible; the prince raises and thrusts down as he pleases.
It is only in a commonwealth that a nobility can really rule; that is, it is only in a commonwealth that the nobility can really be an aristocracy.
And even in a democratic commonwealth the sentiment of nobility may exist, though all legal privilege has been abolished or has never existed.
We have seen that this was the case at Athens; it was largely the case in the democratic cantons of Switzerland; indeed the nobility of Rome itself, after the privileges of the patricians were abolished, rested on no other foundation.
F.)/n==Authorities== - Selden's Titles of Honor (London, 1672) remains the best comparative account in the English language of the nobility of various countries up to his date.
For the origin and growth of the nobility in France, see A.
For the German and Austrian nobility, see v.
For the Italian nobility see the eight magnificent folio volumes of Count Pompeo Litta, Celebri famiglie italiane, continued by various editors (Milan, 1819-1907); for Spanish, Fernandez de Bethencourt, Hist.
The authoritative manual for the royal houses and the "higher nobility" of Europe is the Almanach de Gotha, published yearly.
In 1549 they spread into Great Poland; in the latter half of the century they opened many voluntary schools, and were joined by many of the nobility; and the result was that by 1609, when Rudolph II.
Had Shakespeare treated it, he would hardly have contented himself with investing the hero with the nobility given by Ford to this personage of his play, - for it is hardly possible to speak of a personage as a character when the clue to his conduct is intentionally withheld.
Thus among those who became "tyrants" in the Greek world he gained his position as one of the old nobility, like Phalaris of Agrigentum, and Lygdamis of Naxos; but unlike Orthagoras of Sicyon, who had previously been a cook.
The great mass of the people, 81.6%, belong to the peasant order, the others being: nobility, 1.3%; clergy, 0.9; the burghers and merchants, 9.3; and military, 6.1.
From that time he was hunted from place to place, though his wide connexions with the nobility and the friendship of his numerous followers provided for him secure hiding-places and for his books a large circulation.
His method was to travel over the country on foot and barefooted, in extreme poverty, simplicity and austerity, preaching and instructing in highways and villages and towns, and in the castles of the nobility, controverting and discussing with the heretics.
The Sadducean nobility continued in power under his brother and successor Alexander Jannaeus (103-78); and the breach between the king and the mass of the people widened.
While Scotland and England were preparing for the " First Bishops' War," Henderson drew up two papers, entitled respectively The Remonstrance of the Nobility and Instructions for Defensive Arms. The first of these documents he published himself; the second was published against his wish by John Corbet (1603-1641), a deposed minister.
Nor is his character without nobility.
Personally he had that which is the truest mark of nobility of mind, a power of attracting love and winning faithful friends.
But the inevitable opposition of the nobility to this policy was not mitigated by the fact that it was carried out by a churchman; the result was to embitter the antagonism of the secular party to the church and to concentrate it upon Wolsey's head.
Parliament, which he had kept at arm's length, was hostile; he was hated by the nobility, and his general unpopularity is reflected in Skelton's satires and in Hall's Chronicle.
When Ravenna is taken, and Vitigis carried into captivity, Jordanes almost exults in the fact that "the nobility of the Amals and the illustrious offspring of so many mighty men have surrendered to a yet more illustrious prince and a yet mightier general, whose fame shall not grow dim through all the centuries."
In an article in the Quarterly Review he threw out a suggestion for "an association of our nobility, clergy, gentry and philosophers," which was taken up by others and found speedy realization in the British Association for the Advancement of Name.
Few among the ancient Danish nobility occupy so prominent a place in Danish history as Johan Friis, who exercised a decisive influence in the government of the realm during the reign of three kings.
He once remarked that the house of Bonaparte dated from the coup d'etat of Brumaire (November 1 799); but it is certain the de Buonapartes had received the title of nobility from the senate of the republic of Genoa which, during the 18th century, claimed to exercise sovereignty over Corsica.
In one respect the new institution marked an enormous advance on titles of nobility, which had been granted nearly always for warlike exploits, or merely as a mark of the favour of the sovereign.
This was so: abolished in 1790 by the constituent assembly, titles of nobility were virtually restored by Napoleon in 1806 and legally in 1808.
More important were the titular changes Napoleon, as we have seen, did not venture to create an order of nobility until 1808, but he at once established an imperial hierarchy.
Napoleon also suppressed the Tribunate; and in the year 1808 instituted an order of nobility.
They had to combat the feudal nobility, and later, the younger branches of the royal house established in the great duchies, and the main reason for the permanence of their power was, perhaps, the fact that there were few minorities among them.
In 1882, on account of his great services in connexion with the Bavarian National Exhibition of Nuremberg, the order of the crown of Bavaria was conferred upon him, carrying with it the honour of nobility.
The predominance of the nobility in this way became as characteristic of feudalism in the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem as the supremacy of the crown was of contemporary feudalism in England; and that predominance expressed itself in the position and powers of the high court, in which the ultimate sovereignty resided.
No alliance was actually formed between the king and the mesne nobility against the immediate baronage.
But the strength of the kingdom lay less perhaps in the army than in the magnificent fortresses which the nobility, and especially the two orders, had built; and the most visible relic of the crusades to-day is the towering ruins of a fortress like Krak (Kerak) des Chevaliers, the fortress of the Knights of St John in the principality of Tripoli.
It refused to throw its weight into the scale, and to strengthen the hands of the king against an over-mighty nobility.
As minister he carried through an important judicial reform which had been prepared by his predecessor, but had to retire from office because he was opposed to the reactionary measures for restoring the influence and privileges of the nobility.
He was descended from a well-known family of the legal nobility (noblesse de la robe).
When the monarchy was supplanted in the usual Greek fashion by a hereditary nobility - a process accomplished, according to tradition, between about l000 and 683 B.C. - all power was appropriated by a privileged class of Eupatridae; the Geomori and Demiurgi, who formed the bulk of the community, enjoyed no political rights.
An opportunity of retaliating on the nobility was afforded him by the arrival (1 o 1) of ambassadors from Mithradates VI.
The governors appointed by Alexander were, in the west of the empire, exclusively Macedonians; in the east, members of the Old Persian nobility were still among the satraps at Alexander's death, Atropates in Media, Phrataphernes in Parthia and Hyrcania, 1 For the events which brought this empire into being see Alexander The Great.
Transplanted into this foreign soil, the monarchy became an absolute despotism, unchecked by a proud territorial nobility and a hardy peasantry on familiar terms with their king.
A circular was soon after sent to the governors and marshals of the nobility all over Russia proper, informing them of this desire of the Lithuanian nobles, and setting out the fundamental principles which should be observed " if the nobles of the provinces should express a similar desire."
Most of the private owners belong to the nobility.
Below the feudal nobility and their Moslem soldiers came the Christian serfs, tillers of the soil and taxpayers, whose lives and property were at the mercy of their lords.
Towards the close he incurred the hostility of some of the nobility, especially, it is said, of the Metelli, by the attacks which he made upon them on the stage, and at their instance he was imprisoned (Plautus, Mil.
As in the rest of Indo-China, there is no hereditary nobility, but there exist castes founded on blood relationship - the members of the royal family within the fifth degree (the Brah-Vansa) those beyond the fifth degree (BrahVan), and the Bakou, who, as descendants of the ancient Brahmans, exercise certain official functions at the court.
This was Frederick's first collision with the Danish nobility, who ever afterwards regarded him with extreme distrust.
In 1429 he wrote the Livre d'esperance, which contains a fierce attack on the nobility and clergy.
Thus, at the time of the Gracchi, these equites-publicani formed a close financial corporation of about 30,000 members, holding an intermediate position between the nobility and the lower classes, keenly alive to their own interests, and ready to stand by one another when attacked.
In France, by the 10th century, the process of decomposition of the old organization had gone far, and in the 11th century titles of nobility were still very loosely applied.
The heads of these countly families of the "high nobility" are entitled (by a decree of the federal diet, 1829) to the style of Erlaucht (illustrious, most honourable); (2) Counts of the Empire 2 (Reichsgrafen), descendants of those counts who, before the end of the Holy Roman Empire (1806), were Reichsstiindisch, i.e.
they must no longer be liable to military service, and they were possibly restricted to the nobility.
He created a regency in Lisbon, and departed for Brazil on the 29th of November 1807, accompanied by the queen Donna Maria I., the royal family, all the great officers of state, a large part of the nobility and numerous retainers.
In the narrow " wynds " the nobility and gentry paid their visits in sedan chairs, and proceeded in full dress to the assemblies and balls, which were conducted with aristocratic exclusiveness in an alley on the south side of High Street, called the Assembly Close, and in the assembly rooms in the West Bow.
Plan of ' Main Entrance II Impluvium Bath IV Principal Hall 'V birth to the Christian kingdoms of the Peninsula, while the Monge de Cister, published in 1848, describes the time of King John I., when the middle class and the municipalities first asserted their power and elected a king in opposition to the nobility.
He sought the establishment of a Czech kingdom which should include Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia, and in his zeal for Czech autonomy he even entered into an alliance with the Conservative nobility and with the extreme Catholics.
Politically it increased the power of the nobility at the expense of the crown, every competing pretender naturally endeavouring to win adherents by distributing largesse in the shape of crown-lands.
The Golden Bull has been described as consecrating the humiliation of the crown by the great barons, whose usurpations it legalized; the more usually accepted view, however, is that it was directed not so much to weakening as to strengthening the crown by uniting its interests with those of the mass of the Magyar nobility, equally threatened by the encroachments of the great barons.
It enabled the king to curb the lawlessness of the Magyar nobility, and explains why none of the numerous rebellions against him ever succeeded.
ARMAND JEAN DU PLESSIS DE, CARDINAL RICHELIEU (1585-1642), French statesman, was born of an ancient family of the lesser nobility of Poitou.
At home there were two opponents to be dealt with: the Huguenots and the feudal nobility.
The nobility and clergy favoured the League, and urged the king to force his subjects to profess the Catholic religion.
While he thus resisted the clergy and nobility he successfully opposed the demand of the king to be allowed to alienate the public lands and royal demesnes, although the chief deputies had been won over to assent.
It was he who on this occasion obtained privileges for the burgesses of Copenhagen which placed them on a footing of equality with the nobility; and he was the life and soul of the garrison till the arrival of the Dutch fleet practically saved the city.
Lamartine has been extolled as a pattern of combined passion and restraint, as a model of nobility of sentiment, and as a harmonizer of pure French classicism in taste and expression with much, if not all, the better part of Romanticism itself.
He followed the policy of his predecessors in enforcing the royal authority over the nobles, but the machinery of a centralized government strong enough to hold nobility in check increased the royal expenditure, to meet which Charles had recourse to doubtful financial expedients.
There are also notable collections of pictures in several of the mansions of the nobility, government buildings, halls of the City Companies and elsewhere.
When on the eve of St John's Day, 1510, the king in the habit of a yeoman of his own guard saw the famous march of the city watch, he was so delighted that on the following St Peter's Eve he again attended in Cheapside to see the march, but this time he was accompanied by the queen and the principal nobility.
The Babylonian king remained a priest to the last, under the control of a powerful hierarchy; the Assyrian king was the autocratic general of an army, at whose side stood in early days a feudal nobility, and from the reign of Tiglath-pileser III.
The citizens found themselves in opposition to the nobility of the hills around the city, Teutonic feudatories of Ghibelline sympathies, who interfered with their commerce.
As the proper form of address "my lord" is used not only to those members of the nobility to whom the title "Lord" is applicable, and to bishops, but also to all judges of the High Court in England, and of the Scottish and Irish Superior Courts, and to lord mayors and lord provosts.
But the old nobility, represented by the Dolgorukis and the Golitsuins, united to overthrow him, and he was deprived of all his dignities and offices and expelled from the capital (Sept.
Making their way up from a position among the nobility to be the rulers of the land, and finally to supplant the kings, the Carolingians had especial need of resources from which to purchase and reward faithful support.
It was often the policy of kings to increase the social privileges and legal exemptions of the nobility while taking away all political power, so that it is necessary in the history of institutions to distinguish sharply between these nobilities and the feudal baronage proper.
It is only in certain backward parts of Europe that the terms feudal and baronage in any technical sense can be used of the nobility of the 15th century.
The inner town, which lies almost exactly in the centre of the others, is still, unlike the older parts of most European towns, the most aristocratic quarter, containing the palaces of the emperor and of many of the nobility, the government offices, many of the embassies and legations, the opera house and the principal hotels.
The gaiety of Vienna had for centuries depended on the brilliancy of its court, recruited from all parts of Europe, including the nobility of the whole empire, and on its musical, light-hearted and contented population.
Under the constitution of 1868 there is a legislative diet of 15 members, 10 elected by the towns and rural districts and 1 each by the nobility, clergy and educated classes, the remaining 2 nominated by the prince.
Something was done for the education of the sons of the Indian " nobility," schools being created at Lima and Cuzco.
The upper chamber is composed of all the princes of the reigning family who are of full age; the chiefs of the mediatized families; the archbishop of Freiburg; the president -of the Protestant Evangelical church; a deputy from each of the universities and from the technical high school, eight members elected by the territorial nobility for four years, three representatives of the chamber of commerce, two of that of agriculture, one of that of trades, two mayors of municipalities, one burgomaster of lesser towns, one member of a district council, and eight members (two of them legal functionaries) nominated by the grand-duke.
By the unusual development he gave to the court he converted the nobility into a brilliant household of dependants.
Queen Ulrica elevated him and his family to the rank of nobility, by which his name was changed from Swedberg to Swedenborg, the "en" corresponding to the German "von."
The Revue de Bruxelles (1837-1848), supported by the nobility and the clergy, had a longer career.
In order to improve his financial position, he accepted early in 1786 the post of librarian to the elector-archbishop of Mainz, who bestowed many important offices upon him and obtained his elevation to nobility from the emperor in 1791.
All these pictures are characterized by nobility of conception, by almost perfect draughtsmanship, by colour which, if not of the highest quality, is always original, choice and effective.
" Sons of noble fathers"), the ancient nobility of Attica.
It seems probable that the Eupatridae were the governing class, the only recognized nobility, the Geomori the country inhabitants of all ranks, and the Demiurgi the commercial and artisan population.
The division attributed to Theseus is always spoken of by ancient authorities as a division of the entire population; but Busolt has recently maintained the view that the three classes represent three elements in the Attic nobility, namely, the city nobility, the landed nobility and the commercial nobility, and exclude altogether the mass of the population.
At any rate it seems certain from the little we know of the early constitutional history of Athens, that the Eupatridae represent the only nobility that had any political recognition in early times.
This abortive insurrection in which the Polish nobility and intelligentsia were primarily involved, though the Lithuanians also took a prominent part, led to the suppression of the printing of Lithuanian books by the dictator Gen.
The lawlessness of the nobility was most noticeable in the province of Great Poland, where outrageous acts of violence were of everyday occurrence.
The knights of St John of Jerusalem, commonly called " of Malta," were drawn from the nobility of Catholic Europe.
At the British occupation there were about two dozen families bearing titles of nobility granted, alt.
The Order thus reached the highest pinnacle of its fame, and new knights flocked to be enrolled therein from the flower of the nobility of Europe; La Valette refused a cardinal's hat, determined not to impair his independence.
Also parliamentary papers for Grievances of the Maltese Nobility, and Constitutional Changes.
THE PRAGUERIE, a revolt of the French nobility against King Charles VII.
The attempt to reduce the brigand-soldiery, and especially the ordinances passed by the estates of Languedoil at Orleans in 1439, which not only gave the king an aid of ioo,000 francs (an act which was later used by the king as though it were a perpetual grant and so freed him from that parliamentary control of the purse so important in England), but demanded as well royal nominations to officerships in the army, marked a gain in the royal prerogative which the nobility resolved to challenge.
Within four years there rose upon its site a pile of stately buildings under the title of St Benedict's Abbey and school, a monastic and collegiate institution intended for the higher education of the sons of the Roman Catholic nobility and gentry.
The king was secured a minimum civil list of £1500 a year out of the native revenues; pensions were accorded to other members of the Buganda royal family; the salaries of ministers and governing chiefs were guaranteed; compensation in money was paid for removing the king's control over waste lands; definite estates were allotted to the king, royal family, nobility and native landowners; the native parliament or " Lukiko " was reorganized and its powers were defined; and many other points in dispute were settled.
When Luther made his first great appeal to the German people in his Address to the German Nobility, he scarcely adverts to religious matters at all.
It was not, however, until 1520 that Luther became in a sense the leader of the German people by issuing his three great pamphlets, all of which were published in German as well as in Latin - his Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation, his Babylonish Captivity of the Church, and his Freedom of the Christian.
In addressing the German nobility Luther had refrained from taking up theological or religious doctrines; but in September 1520 he attacked the whole sacramental system of the medieval Church in his Babylonish Captivity of the Church.
The articles of Heilbronn demanded that the property of the Church should be confiscated and used for the community; clergy and nobility alike were to be deprived of all their privileges, so that they could no longer oppress the poor man.
In order to do this it was necessary to reduce the power of the nobility and clergy, privileged classes exempt from taxation and rivals of the royal power.
first martyr of Luther's gospel had been Patrick Hamilton, who had suffered in 1528; but in spite of a number of executions the new ideas spread, even among the nobility.
John Knox, who, after a chequered career, had come under the influence of Calvin at Geneva, returned to Scotland for a few months in 1 555, and shortly after (1557) that part of the Scottish nobility which had been won over to the new faith formed their first " covenant " for mutual protection.
Public worship was permitted everywhere where it had existed in 1596-1597, in two places within each bailliage and senechaussee, and in the châteaux of the Protestant nobility, with slight restrictions in the case of lower nobility.
Its chief buildings are the Johannisburg, built (1605-1614) by Archbishop Schweikard of Cronberg, which contains a library with a number of incunabula, a collection of engravings and paintings; .the Stiftskirche, or cathedral, founded in 980 by Otto of Bavaria, but dating in the main from the early 12th and the 13th centuries, in which are preserved various monuments by the Vischers, and a sarcophagus, with the relics of St Margaret (1540); the Capuchin hospital; a theatre, which was formerly the house of the Teutonic order; and several mansions of the German nobility.
It was at one time a favourite residence of the Frisian nobility, many of whom had their castles here, and it possessed a celebrated university, founded by the Frisian estates in 1585.
Nearly all the soil belongs to the nobility, the extent of the peasants estates being only 15% of the entire area of the government.
He was born on the 2nd of December 1817 at Dusseldorf, where his father held important posts in the public service both under the French and the Prussians; in 1831 he had been raised to the hereditary nobility.
Kdrber' s successor, Clam-Martinitz,' who belonged to the violently Czech feudal nobility, tried to form a national coalition Cabinet, including two German politicians.
He was released only through the intercession of Queen Mary of Scotland and some of the principal nobility, and retired with his pupil to Bourges.
In especial he vindicates the propriety of resistance to kingly oppression or misrule, upholds the existence of an hereditary nobility interested in their country's good as the firmest barrier against such oppression, and maintains the authority of parliaments.
The highest nobility in the nome sought the honour of priesthood in the service of the local deity.
The Union of Horodlo also established absolute parity between the nobility of Poland and Lithuania, but the privileges of the latter were made conditional upon their profession of the Roman Catholic faith, experience having shown that difference of religion in Lithuania meant difference of politics, and a tendency Moscow-wards, the majority of the Lithuanian boyars being of the Greek Orthodox Confession.
It is in this reign, too, that we meet with the first rokosz, or insurrection of the nobility against the executive.
John Albert's second diet (1496), after granting subsidies the burden of which fell entirely on the towns and peasantry, passed a series of statutes benefiting the nobility at the expense of the other classes.
Nevertheless, so long as the Jagiello dynasty lasted, the political rights of the cities were jealously protected by the Crown against the usurpations of the nobility.
Again and again the nobility attempted to exclude the deputies of Cracow from the diet, in spite of a severe edict issued by Sigismund I.
Disappointed in his hope of obtaining the great seal on the death of Zamoyski, he at once conceived that the whole of the nobility had been insulted in his person, and proceeded to make all government impossible for the next three years.
The old Calvinist nobility of Lithuania were speedily reconverted; a Uniate Church in connexion with Rome was established; Greek Orthodox congregations, if not generally persecuted, were at least depressed and straitened; and the Cossacks began to hate the Pans, or Polish lords, not merely as tyrants, but as heretics.
Many of the chief nobility were Calvinists, and the Socini came to reside in the country.
Occasionally he is didactic, as in Worek Judaszow (The Bag of Judas) and Victoria deorum, where, under the allegory of the gods of Olympus, he represents the struggles of parties in Poland, not without severely satirizing the nobility and ecclesiastics.
The existence of so many ecclesiastical writers was a natural feature in Polish literature; they formed the only really cultured class in the community, which consisted besides of a haughty ignorant nobility living among their serfs, and (at a vast distance) those serfs themselves, in a brutalized condition.
The nobility, however, were too infatuated to be willing to adopt these wise measures.
She appointed an agent to reside at Rome, and a papal agent, a Scotsman named George Conn, accredited to her, was soon engaged in effecting conversions amongst the English gentry and nobility.
In 1521 an insurrection of the peasantry against the nobility, whom they massacred, took place in Majorca, and was not suppressed without much bloodshed.
The youthful aristocracy were thus withdrawn from the old Latin schools of Germany, but the aristocratic schools vanished with the dawn of the 19th century, and the ordinary public schools were once more frequented by the young nobility.
His father, Prince Alexei Petrovich Kropotkin, belonged to the old Russian nobility; his mother, the daughter of a general in the Russian army, had remarkable literary and liberal tastes.
Only a hundred and fifty boys - mostly children of the nobility belonging to the court - were educated in this privileged corps, which combined the character of a military school endowed with special rights and of a Court institution attached to the imperial household.
Two months later Eric was crowned at Upsala, on which occasion he first introduced the titles of baron and count into Sweden, by way of attaching to the crown the higher nobility, these new counts and barons receiving lucrative fiefs adequate to the maintenance of their new dignities.
This powerful upstart was the natural enemy of the nobility, who suffered much at his hands, though it is very difficult to determine whether the initiative in these prosecutions proceeded from him or his master.
Two days later Nils Sture arrived at Upsala fresh from his embassy to Lorraine, and was at once thrown into prison, where other members of the nobility were already detained.
was proclaimed king by the army and the nobility; and a Riksdag, summoned to Stockholm, confirmed the choice and formally deposed Eric on the 25th of January 1569.
Before her relatives could be brought to countenance his pretensions, Kepler was obliged to undertake a journey to Wurttemberg to obtain documentary evidence of the somewhat obscure nobility of his family, and it was thus not until the 27th of April 1597 that the marriage was celebrated.
Its members formed the local nobility, and at, an early date special privileges were granted by Rome to provincials who were senators in their native towns.
and xv.) make any treaty or alliance; coin money or make anything, save gold and silver coin, a legal tender; pass any bill of attainder or ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts; have any but a republican form of government; grant any title of nobility; maintain slavery; abridge the privileges of any citizen of the United States, or deny to him the right of voting on account of race, colour or previous condition of servitude; deprive any person of life, liberty or property without due process of law; deny to any person the equal protection of the laws.
The prior's group "entered at the south-east angle of the green court, placed near the most sacred part of the cathedral, as befitting the distinguished ecclesiastics or nobility who were assigned to him."
He remained absolutely faithful to Gustavus when nearly the whole of the nobility fell away from him; brilliantly distinguished himself in the later phases of the Russian war; and was the Swedish plenipotentiary at the conclusion of the peace of Verela.
The irritation of the latter was greatly Mazarin's own fault; he had tried consistently to play off the king's brother Gaston of Orleans against Conde, and their respective followers against each other, and had also, as his carnets prove, jealously kept any courtier from getting into the good graces of the queen-regent except by his means, so that it was not unnatural that the nobility should hate him, while the queen found herself surrounded by his creatures alone.
In character he was pious, courtly and valiant, popular alike with the nobility and the middle classes, whose increasing welfare he did so much to promote, and much beloved by the clergy.
Yet it may generally be allowed that a strain of nobility, of which we occasionally catch illuminating glimpses, extorts from time to time an all-forgiving admiration.
the nobility among the Franks and the freedmen (as a distinct class) in the AngloSaxon kingdoms, except Kent.
The bourgeoisie sought the support of the clergy, and irreligion became as unfashionable among them as it had been among the nobility after 1793.
The constitutional guarantee of religious liberty had from the outset been resisted by the powerful and resolute priesthood, supported by numerous sympathizers among the nobility.
The numerous townships which then sprang_up acquired rights of self-government according to German law, Breslau being refounded about 1250 as a German town, and a feudal organization was introduced among the landholding nobility.
Ischl is one of the most fashionable spas of Europe, being the favourite summer residence of the Austrian Imperial family and of the Austrian nobility since 1822.
For the origin and history of this order see Patricians and Nobility.
Itagaki was raised to the nobility with the title of "count" in 1887.
The main divisions of the army were distributed under the royal and other principal standards, smaller divisions under the banners of some of the greater nobility or of knights banneret, and smaller divisions still under the pennons of knights or, as in distinction from knights banneret they came to be called, knights bachelors.
On the Continent the distinction which is commonly but incorrectly made between the nobility and the gentry has never arisen, and it was unknown here while chivalry existed and heraldry was understood.
Hence Du Cange divides the medieval nobility of France and Spain into three classes: first, barons or ricos hombres; secondly, chevaliers or caballeros; and thirdly, ecuyers or infanzons; and to the first, who with their several special titles constituted the greater nobility of either country, he limits the designation of banneret and the right of leading their followers to war under a banner, otherwise a " drapeau quarre " or square flag.
In England all the barons or greater nobility were entitled to bear banners, and therefore Du Cange's observations would apply to them as well as to the barons or greater nobility of France and Spain.
Brydall, Jus Imaginis aped Anglos, or the Law of England relating to the Nobility and Gentry (London, 1675), p. 20.
Sir Robert Knolles and Sir Thomas Dagworth) were of obscure birth, while on the French side even Du Guesclin had to wait long for his knighthood because he belonged only to the lesser nobility.
The grand cross is only for members of the imperial house and ladies of the highest nobility.
This was a democratic measure which marked the party to which the Torriani belonged and rendered them hateful to the nobility.
The grand flight of external steps entering the mansions of the medieval nobility or high officials was considered in itself a mark of jurisdiction, as it is said that sentence was there pronounced against criminals, who were afterwards executed at the foot of the steps--as at the Giant's Stairs of the Doge's palace at Venice.
at La Magliana and of Cardinal Trivulzio at Salone, - and these continued to be frequented until the end of the 18th century, when the French Revolution dealt a fatal blow to the prosperity of the Roman nobility.
The quarter north-east of Kongens Nytor y and Gothersgaden is the richest in the city, including the palaces of Amalienborg, the castle and gardens of Rosenborg and several mansions of the nobility.
He kept on the best of terms, though a Protestant, with the Roman Catholic clergy and nobility, and his subsequent marriage with the daughter of the French king (9th of August 1832), and the contract that the children of the marriage should be brought up in the Roman Catholic faith, did much to inspire confidence in his good intentions.
In Russia they constitute, with Jews, Lithuanians, Ruthenians and White Russians, the town population, as also the landed nobility and the country gentry, in several governments west of the Dvina and the Dnieper.
Pursuing a policy intended to reconcile the peasantry to Russian rule and to break the power of the Polish nobility, the Russian government promulgated, during the outbreak in 1864, a law by which those peasants who were holders of land on estates belonging to private persons, institutions (such as monasteries and the like), or the Crown were recognized as proprietors of the soil-the state paying compensation to the landlords in bonds, and the peasants having to pay a yearly annuity to the state until the debt thus contracted had been cleared off.
Of those who held no land a number received grants out of the confiscated estates of the nobility and monasteries.
Fine breeds of horses and cattle are kept on the larger estates of the nobility, and cattle are exported to Austria.
The elective municipal councils, which enjoyed de jure very large rights, including that of maintaining their own police, although in reality they were under the rule of the nobility, were practically abolished, and Russian officials were nominated in their place and entrusted with all their rights.
The accounts of early writers as to its courage, nobility and magnanimity have led to a reaction, causing some modern authors to accuse it of cowardice and meanness.
Lucretius is a proof, if any were needed, that Epicureanism is compatible with nobility of soul.
The marriage of the duke of Cumberland (the title by which the king called himself till he could come into his possessions) with Princess Thyra of Denmark in the same year was made the occasion of a great demonstration, at which a deputation of the Hanoverian nobility assured the duke of their continued attachment to his house.
The grand-duchies, which, though divided between two lines of the ducal The Meckhouse, had a common constitution, were the only lenburg state in Germany in which the parliament still took the constituform of a meeting of the estatesthe nobility and the lion.
Of these the most important were the so-called Guelphs (Welf en), described by themselves as the Hannoverische Rechtspartei, member of the old Hanoverian nobility who represented the rural districts of Hanover and still regarded the deposed King George V.
The violence with which it was conducted, coming, as it did, from the highest circles of the Prussian nobility, appeared almost an imitation of Socialist methods; but the emperor, with his wonted energy, personally rebuked the leaders, and warned them that the opposition of Prussian nobles to their king was a monstrosity.
In October 1894 he was dismissed suddenly, without warning, and almost without cause, while the emperor was on a visit to the Eulenburgs, one of the most influential families of the Prussian nobility.
It was, moreover, the tradition of the Prussian court and the Prussian government (and it must be remembered that the imperial government is inspired by Prussian traditions) that the nobility and peasants were in a peculiar way the support of the crown and the state.
In these parts, owing to the changes introduced at the revolution, the nobility, who hold little land, are, comparatively speaking, without political importance.
The government, therefore, were compelled to turn for support tothe Centre and the Conservatives, the latter being almost completely under the influence of the old Prussian nobility from the north-east.
Originally the opponents of the landed interest and the nobility, they were the party of th educated middle class, of the learned, of the officials and finance They never succeeded in winning the support of the workinl men.
He belonged to a poor family whose nobility dated from the 12th century.
give greater power to the German inhabitants of the towns; the votes of the proprietors would, moreover, nearly always givethe final decision to the court and the government, for the influence exercised by the government over the nobility would generally be strong enough to secure a majority in favour of the government policy.
From that time, no doubt, a certain degree of literary culture was general among the Macedonian nobility; their names in the days of Philip are largely Greek; the Macedonian service was full of men from the Greek cities within Philip's dominions.
In Asia Minor, we have seen how, even before Alexander, Hellenism had begun to affect the native races and Persian nobility.
There is none of the mannerism of a long tradition, but a nobility pervades them which has no self-consciousness.
The seats of the nobility and landed gentry are called Herregaarde.
Here the clergy and part of the nobility were favourable to the Union; but the vast majority of the people hated it as a foreign usurpation.
The crown-lands and most of the towns were under his immediate jurisdiction, but by the side of the crown-lands lay the estates of the nobility, which already comprised about one-half of the superficial area of Denmark, and were in many respects independent of the central government both as regards taxation and administration.
In a word, the monarchy had to share its dominion with the nobility; and the Danish nobility in the 16th century was one of the most exclusive and selfish aristocracies in Europe, and already far advanced in decadence.
All below the king and the nobility were generally classified together as " subjects."
Since then too it had become quite detached from the nobility, which ostentatiously despised the teaching profession.
The old municipal patriciate, which used to form the connecting link between the bourgeoisie and the nobility, had disappeared, and a feeling of common civic fellowship had taken its place.
In the first place, it marks the termination of the Adelsvaelde, or rule of the nobility.
The nobility at first claimed exemption from taxation altogether, while the clergy and burgesses insisted upon an absolute equality of taxation.
In accordance with this proposal, the two Lower Estates, on the 16th of September, subscribed a memorandum addressed to the Rigsraad, declaring their willingness to renounce their privileges, provided the nobility did the same; which was tantamount to a declaration that the whole of the clergy and burgesses had made common cause against the nobility.
But the nobility soon perceived the necessity of complete surrender.
The significance of this ordinance lay in the fact that it shattered the privileged position of the nobility, by abolishing the exclusive right to the possession of fiefs.
The so-called " Instrument," now signed by the Lower Estates, offered the realm to the king and his house as a hereditary monarchy, by way of thank-offering mainly for his courageous deliverance of the kingdom during the war; and the Rigsraad and the nobility were urged to notify the resolution to the king, and desire him to maintain each Estate in its due privileges, and to give a written counterassurance that the revolution now to be effected was for the sole benefit of the state.
He had steadily to oppose Sigismund's reactionary tendencies; he had also to curb the nobility, which he did with cruel rigour.
The complete identification of the Danish king with the Danish people was accomplished at the Herredag of Copenhagen, 1542, when the nobility of Denmark voted Christian a twentieth part of all their property to pay off his heavy debt to the Holsteiners and Germans.
Meanwhile the princes of the blood and the great nobles resented the ascendancy of councillors and soldiers drawn from the smaller nobility and the bourgeoisie.
The John and Paul are conceived and executed really in the great style, with a commanding nobility and force alike in the character of the heads, the attitudes, and the sweep of draperies; they represent the highest achievement of early German art in painting.
This policy was not due to any belief on Henry's part in parliamentary government, but to opportunism, to the circumstance that parliament was willing to do most of the things which Henry desired, while competing authorities, the church and the old nobility, were not.
His death in 12 4 9 left the crown to his son, Alexander III., a child of eight, in whose minority began the practice by which parties among the nobility seized the person of the sovereign.
In Germany, Austria and Italy no period of residence is prescribed, while in Austria a ten years' residence confers per se the rights of citizenship. In the United States an alien desiring to be naturalized must declare on oath his intention to become a citizen of the United States; two years afterwards must declare on oath his intention to support the constitution of the United States and renounce allegiance to every foreign power, including that of which he was before a subject; must prove residence in the United States for five years, and in the state where his application is made for one year, as a good citizen; and must renounce any title of nobility.
Under the later Roman Empire the name was revived by the Byzantine emperors as the title of a new order of nobility.
In Italy it is still used for the hereditary nobility.
A comparison of this procedure with the original conception of the patriciate as revealed by the derivation of the word, is significant of the history of the conception of nobility at Rome, and illustrative of the tenacity with which the Romans clung to the name and form of an institution which had long lost its significance.
Instead of the old hereditary nobility, consisting of the members of the patrician clans, there arose a nobility of office, consisting of all those families, whether patrician or plebeian, which had held curule office.
The explanation of this is that the plebeians had long been organized, like the patricians, in genies, and nothing remained distinctive of the old nobility except a vague sense of dignity and worth.
The states consisted of two members - the nobility and the towns.
The nobility possessed great influence in Gelderland and retained it in the time of the republic. (G.
They were, On the Liberty of a Christian Man, An Address to the Nobility of the German Nation, and On the Babylonian Captivity of the Church of God - the three primary treatises, as they have been called.
In his appeal to the Nobility of the German Nation he had stated with severe precision the causes of social discontent.
But Herod held his ground as governor of Coele-Syria and retained the favour of Cassius and Mark Antony in turn, despite the complaints of the Jewish nobility.
His clear, exhaustive and dignified style of treatment evidences the rectitude and nobility of the man.
If, as has been claimed, Louis owed to them any of his tendency to prefer the society of the poor, or rather of the bourgeois, to that of the nobility, their example was his best lesson in the craft of kingship. In June 1436, when scarcely thirteen, he was married to Margaret (c. 1425-1445), daughter of James I.
He dismissed the governor; he determined advantageously to himself the boundaries between his state and the territories of the duke of Savoy and of the papacy; and he enforced his authority over perhaps the most unruly nobility in western Europe, both lay and ecclesiastical.
On the other hand, Louis granted privileges to the towns and consistently used their alliance to overthrow the nobility.
The dissatisfied nobility found their greatest ally in Charles the Bold, afterwards duke of Burgundy, and in 1465 formed a "league of public welfare" and declared war on their king.
won back England by the battles of Barnet and Tewkesbury, Charles the Bold besieged Amiens, and Louis was glad to make a truce, availing himself of the double dealing of the constable, the count of Saint Pol, who, trying to win an independent position for himself in Picardy, refused his aid to Charles unless he would definitely join the French nobility in another rising against the king.
At that time also Clive was enrolled among the nobility of the Mogul empire, with the rank of commander of 6000 foot and 5000 horse.
The Sikh nobility and gentry wear two turbans, either both of pagri form or one of pagri and one of amamah form.
The old divisions of nobility, clergy and people were a maintained and their mutual rivalry encouraged; the nobles were won over by titles and by the splendour of the viceregal court, but many persons of low birth who showed talent were raised to high positions.
In Sicily Spanish rule was less absolute, for the island had not been conquered, but had given itself over voluntarily to the Aragonese; and the parliament, formed by the three bracci or orders (the militare consisting of the nobility, the ecclesiastico, of the clergy, and the demaniale, of the communes), imposed certain limitations on the viceroy, who had to play off the three bracci against each other.
The wildest confusion prevailed, and the lazzaroni massacred numbers of persons suspected of republican sympathies, while the nobility and the educated classes, finding themselves abandoned by their king in this cowardly manner, began to contemplate a republic under French auspices as their only means of salvation from anarchy.
He reformed the constitution in an aristocratic sense, most of the nobility being Imperialists, and put an end to the factions which divided the city.
The majority of the nation and three-quarters of the nobility were on his side, while his uncle, the emperor Charles VI., through the imperial ambassador at St Petersburg, Rabutin, persistently urged his claims. The matter was arranged between Menshikov, Osterman and Rabutin; and on the 18th of May 1727 Peter II., according to the terms of the supposed last will of Catherine I., was proclaimed sovereign autocrat.
His family was of some position, though it seems not to have been able to establish to the satisfaction of heralds the claims which it made to nobility older than the 16th century.
Under this weak sovereign the government of Islam fell entirely into the hands of the Koreish nobility.
It was led by what may be called the spiritual noblesse of Islam, which, as distinguished from the hereditary nobility of Mecca, might also be designated as the nobility of merit, consisting of the "Defenders" (Ansar), and especially of the Emigrants who had lent themselves to the elevation of the Koreish, but by no means with the intention of allowing themselves thereby to be effaced.
It was the same opposition of the spiritual to the secular nobility that afterwards showed itself in the revolt of the sacred cities against the Omayyads.
But, that the spiritual nobility was fighting not for principle but for personal advantage was as apparent in Ali's hostilities against Zobair and Talha as in that of the Abbasids against the followers of Ali.
Herzog), the title of one of the highest orders of the European nobility, and of some minor sovereign princes.
In Italy, where titles of nobility give no precedence at court, that of duke (duca) has lost nearly all even of its social significance owing to lavish creations by the popes and minor sovereigns, and to the fact that the title often passes by purchase with a particular estate.
At first (in the Toth and 11th centuries) it had no defined significance, and even a baron of the higher nobility called himself in charters duke, count or even marquis, indifferently.
RAGMAN ROLLS, the name given to the collection of instruments by which the nobility and gentry of Scotland were compelled to subscribe allegiance to Edward I.
As the result of his steadiness of aim and patient sagacity, at the end of his reign the Crown was victorious over the feudal nobility and the royal domain extended to the frontiers along with royal authority.
Landgraf, from Land, " a country" and Graf, " count"), a German title of nobility surviving from the times of the Holy Roman Empire.
The sugar pine, the yellow or silver pine and the Douglas spruce (considerably smaller than in Oregon and Washington), are rivals in stature and nobility, all attaining 200 ft.
The ordinamenti della giustizia of that year robbed the nobility of all political power.
While in all prominent Italian cities the leading classes of the community were largely made up of merchants, in Venice the nobility was entirely commercial.
Another feature which these southern towns had in common with their Italian neighbours was the prominent part played by the native nobility.
These revolutions were in the first place directed against the bishops; but the position both of the higher clergy and of the nobility was here of a nature distinctly more hostile to the aspirations of the citizens than it was in the south.
They represented either a class of the whole population, or, according to Busolt, a commercial nobility (see Eupatridae).
The enthusiasm aroused by Liszt's playing and his personality - the two are inseparable - reached a climax at Vienna and Budapest in 1839-1840, when he received a patent of nobility from the emperor of Austria, and a sword of honour from the magnates of Hungary in the name of the nation.
These qualities she owed to her material prosperity, to her freedom from feudalism, to her secularized church, her commercial nobility, her political independence in a federation of small states.
Yet the annals of that age, and the anecdotes retailed by Brantome, prove that the royalty and nobility of France had been largely Italianized.
This diet was on the old Swedish model, consisting of representatives of the four estates - nobility, clergy, burghers and peasants - sitting and voting in separate " Houses."
His predecessor having created an order of nobility, - counts, barons and nobles, Gustavus Adolphus in the beginning of the 17th century established the diet of Finland, composed of the four orders of the nobility, clergy, burghers and peasants.
It was by an assembly that the second reformation was effected; but the assembly contained the most influential of the nobility and gentry, and was carried on the crest of a great national movement.
Not only the nobility, but many others who had no legal claim to exemption, paid no taxes; the weight of the burden fell on the wretched country-folk.
of France, was born of a family of the lesser nobility at Fromenteau in Touraine.
The Riddarhus (house of the nobility) was the meeting-place of the Council of the Nobles until 1866, and its hall is adorned with the armorial bearings of noble families.
In1878 the nobility, mostly of German descent, owned and farmed 52% of the land; 42% was farmed, but not owned, by the peasants, mostly Esths or Ehsts, and only 3% was owned by persons outside the ranks of the 'nobility.
In his first year abroad he consulted Calvin and Bullinger as to the right of the civil "authority" to prescribe religion to his subjects - in particular, whether the godly should obey "a magistrate who enforces idolatry and condemns true religion," and whom should they join "in the case of a religious nobility resisting an idolatrous sovereign."
Scripture-reading and the new views had spread widely, and the regent was disposed to wink at this in the case of the "religious nobility."
"A subject born within the same," was the answer of the son of the East Lothian peasant; and the Scottish nobility, while thinking him overbold, refused to find him guilty of any crime, even when, later on, he had "convocated the lieges" to Edinburgh to meet a crown prosecution.
Mary and the lords still in her council ordered Knox not to preach while she was in Edinburgh, and he was absent or silent during the weeks in which the queen's growing distaste for her husband, and advancement of Rizzio over the nobility remaining in Edinburgh, brought about the conspiracy by Darnley, Morton and Ruthven.
orders, or estates, was promoted by Magnus Ladulas, who extended the privileges of the clergy and founded an hereditary nobility (Ordinance of Alsno, 1280).
The knights too now Nobles and became distinguishable from the higher nobility.
of Denmark, the prelates and higher nobility of Sweden being favourable to the union, though the great majority of the Swedish people always detested it as a foreign usurpation.
One of the nobility (first called the Landtmarskalk), or marshal of the Diet, in the Riksdag ordinance of 1526) was now regularly appointed by the king as the spokesman of the Riddarhus, or House of Nobles, while the primate generally acted as the talman or president of the three lower estates, the clergy, burgesses and peasants, though at a later day each of the three lower estates elected its own talman.
In a word, the natural equilibrium of Swedish society was seriously threatened by the preponderance of the nobility; and the people at large looked to the new king to redress the balance.
The nobility attempted to escape taxation as cheaply as possible by stipulating that the 6th of November 1632, the day of Gustavus Adolphus's death, should be the extreme limit of any restrospective action on the part of the crown in regard to alienated crown property, and that the present subsidy should be regarded as " a perpetual ordinance " unalterably to be observed by all future sovereigns - in other words, that there should be no further restitution of alienated crown property.
Then the king intervened personally; not to quell the commons, as the senate insisted, but to compel the nobility to give way.
No measure could now become law till it had obtained the assent of three at least of the four estates; but this provision, which seems to have been designed to protect the lower orders against the nobility, produced evils far greater than those which it professed to cure.
their majority was merely nominal, while the mass of the nobility was dead against them.
A second attempt of the king to mediate between them foundered on the suspicions of the estate of burgesses; and, on the 24th of February 1772, the nobility yielded from sheer weariness.
For this the nobility never forgave him.
the stimulating leadership of the anti-aristocratic " Prince Charming," and becoming more and more inoculated with French political ideas, drifted into an antagonism not merely to hereditary nobility, but to hereditary monarchy likewise.
At his very first Riksdag, held at Norrkoping in March 1800, the nobility were compelled, at last, to ratify Gustavus III.'s detested Act of Union and Security, which hitherto they had steadily refused to do.
The nobility took advantage of this opportunity to pay off old scores against Gustavus III.
It consisted mostly of the larger and smaller peasant proprietors, who at the time of the old " Standers Riksdag " were always opposed to the nobility and the clergy.
There he soon became popular, especially with the lay nobility; but, denounced anew by St Bernard to the ecclesiastical authorities, he returned to Italy, and turned his steps towards Rome (1145).
Formerly all cases, civil and criminal, were referred to the clergy, and until the 17th century the clergy were subordinate to a kind of chief pontiff, named sadr-us-sodur, who possessed a very extended jurisdiction, nominated the judges, and managed all the religious endowments of the mosques, colleges, shrines, &c. Shah Safi (1629-1642), in order to diminish the influence of the clergy, appointed two such pontiffs, one for the court and nobility the other for the people.
Consequently, beside the council of the nobility, there is a second council of Magians and wise men (Strabo xi.
Not strong enough to break up the nobility, with its great estates, they were forced to utilize its services and still further to promote its interests; while their dependence on its good-will and assistance led inevitably to incessant gifts of money, lands and men.
Below these there was an inferior nobility, the dikhans (.
In fact he was compelled to proceed with great caution whenever he wished to elevate a favorite of humbler origin to an office which custom reserved for the nobility.
Thus it is all the more worthy of recognition that the Sassanian Empire was a fairly orderly empire, with an excellent legal administration, and that the later sovereigns did their utmost to repress the encroachments of the nobility, to protect the commonalty, and, above all, to carry out a just system of taxation.
Meanwhile the invader, in 1723, invited 300 of the principal Persian nobility to a banquet and massacred them.
Five main cycles of story may be distinguished: (1) the foundation of the citadel Cadmea by Cadmus, and the growth of the Sparti or "Sown Men" (probably an aetiological myth designed to explain the origin of the Theban nobility which bore that name in historical times); (2) the building of a "seven-gated" wall by Amphion, and the cognate stories of Zethus, Antiope and Dirce; (3) the tale of the "house of Laius," culminating in the adventures of Oedipus and the wars of the "Seven" and the Epigoni; (4) the advent of Dionysus; and (5) the exploits of Heracles.
Finding, as he said, that the liberality of former kings had left the Crown " no estates except the high roads of Portugal," he determined to crush the feudal nobility and seize its territories.
Though it secured the favour of the humanists and the nobility, and banished the old popular plays from both court and university soon after Gil Vicente's death, its victory was shortlived.