Half a century later, nitrous oxide came into use as an anesthetic.
It decomposes slowly on standing, yielding water and nitrous oxide.
indicates that if 28 grammes of nitrogen could be made to unite directly with 16 grammes of oxygen to form nitrous oxide, the union would cause the absorption of 18500 calories.
Wagner, Ber., 1888, 21, p. 1231), or by the action of nitrous acid on the diamines.
Wurtz); by the action of nitrous acid on aniline; by passing oxygen into boiling benzene containing aluminium chloride (C. Friedel and J.
Amongst endothermic compounds may be noted hydriodic acid, HI, acetylene, C 2 H 2, nitrous oxide, N 2 O, nitric oxide, NO, azoimide, N 3 H, nitrogen trichloride, NC1 3.
Again, in nitrous oxide we have a compound of 8 parts by weight of oxygen and 14 of nitrogen; in nitric oxide a compound of 16 or 8 X 2 parts of oxygen and 1 4 of nitrogen; in nitrous anhydride a compound of 24 or 8 X 3 parts of oxygen and 14 of nitrogen; in nitric peroxide a compound of 3 2 or 8 X 4 parts of oxygen and 14 of nitrogen; and lastly, in nitric anhydride a compound of 4 o or 8 X 5 parts of oxygen and 14 of nitrogen.
For example take the oxides of nitrogen, N 2 0, NO, N 2 0 3, NO 2, N 2 0 5; these are known respectively as nitrous oxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen trioxide, nitrogen peroxide and nitrogen pentoxide.
nitrous acid, HN02, nitric acid, HN03.
Secondary amines yield nitrosamines, R 2 N NO, with nitrous acid.
More important are Kekule's observations that nitrous acid oxidizes pyrocatechol or [I.2]-dioxybenzene, and protocatechuic acid or [3.4]- dioxybenzoic acid to dioxytartaric acid, (C(OH) 2 COOH) 2 (Ann., 1883, 221, p. 230); and 0.
The prism formula also received support from the following data: protocatechuic acid when oxidized by nitrous acid gives carboxytartronic acid, which, on account of its ready decomposition into carbon dioxide and tartronic acid, was considered to be HO C(COOH) 3.
The first class includes those substances which require no preliminary treatment, and comprises the amides and ammonium compounds, pyridines, quinolines, alkaloids, albumens and related bodies; the second class requires preliminary treatment and comprises, with few exceptions, the nitro-, nitroso-, azo-, diazoand amidoazo-compounds, hydrazines, derivatives of nitric and nitrous acids, and probably cyanogen compounds.
19, p. 1910) determines sulphur and the halogens by oxidizing the substance in a current of oxygen and nitrous fumes, conducting the vapours over platinum foil, and absorbing the vapours in suitable receivers.
Meyer, which are formed when nitrous acid acts on primary aliphatic nitro compounds.
Knorr, by the action of ammonia on aceto-acetic ester, obtained (3-imidobutyric ester, which with nitrous acid yields a-isonitroso-(3-imidobutyric ester, CH 3 C(:NH) C(:N OH) CO 2 C 2 H 5.
nitrous oxide, N 2 0, nitric oxide, NO, nitrogen trioxide, N203, nitrogen peroxide, N02, and nitrogen pentoxide, N205, whilst three oxyacids of nitrogen are known: hyponitrous acid, H2N202, nitrous acid, HN02, and nitric acid, HNO 3 (q.v.).
Nitrous oxide, N 2 O, isolated in 1776 by J.
It is decomposed by water, giving at o° C. a mixture of nitric and nitrous acids: 2N02+H20=HN03+HN02.
In acid solution, potassium permanganate oxidizes it to nitric acid, but in alkaline solution only to nitrous acid.
It is decomposed by sulphuric acid, with evolution of nitrous oxide.
Nitrous acid, HN02, is found to some extent in the form of its salts in the atmosphere and in rain water.
It is very unstable, decomposing into nitrous oxide and water when mixed with copper oxide, lead chromate or even powdered glass.
The reagents in common use are: Millon's reagent, a solution of mercuric nitrate containing nitrous acid, this gives a violet-red coloration; nitric acid, which gives a yellow colour, turning to gold when treated with ammonia (xanthoproteic reaction); fuming sulphuric acid, which gives violet solutions; and caustic potash and copper sulphate, which, on warming, gives a red to violet coloration (biuret reaction).
When methyl iodide is used, nitromethane is the sole product, but the higher homologues give more or less of the isomeric nitrous esters.
The nitro compounds are colourless, somewhat pleasant smelling liquids, which distil without decomposition and possess boiling points much higher than those of the isomeric nitrous esters.
The reactions of the nitroparaffins with nitrous acid are very characteristic and have been used as a method for discriminating between the primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols (V.
The primary compounds form nitrolic acids of the type R C (: NOH) NO, the secondary yield pseudo-nitrols of the type RR': C(NO)(NO 2), whilst the tertiary nitro compounds are not acted upon by nitrous acid.
When heated with water and mineral acids, the nitrolic acids are completely decomposed, yielding fatty acids and nitrous oxide.
The pseudo-nitrols, RR':C(NO)(NO 2), may be obtained by the action of nitrous acid on the secondary nitroparaffins; by the action of silver nitrite on such bromnitrosoparaffins as contain the bromine and the nitroso group united to the same carbon atom (0.
Derivatives of triazines are formed by the action of nitrous acid on ortho-aminobenzylamines (M.
Nitrous acid converts it into benzoyl glycollic acid, C,H 5 CO.
Iron, zinc, cadmium, also tin under certain conditions, reduce the dilute acid, partially at least, to nitrous oxide, N 2 0, or ammonium nitrate, NH4N03.
A ketose may also be obtained by reducing the osazone with zinc and acetic to an osamine, which with nitrous acid gives the ketose: R R R C :N NHPh.
Cold dilute nitric acid dissolves zinc as nitrate, with evolution of nitrous oxide.
At higher temperatures, or with stronger acid, nitric oxide, NO, is produced besides or instead of nitrous.
It may be prepared by the fusion of para-toluene sulphonic acid with potash; by the action of nitrous acid on para-toluidine; or by heating para-oxyphenyl acetic acid with lime.
With nitrous acid, the primary amines yield alcohols, the secondary amines yield nitrosamines and the tertiary amines do not react: Rï¿½NH 2 +0NOH= Rï¿½OH+N2+H20; R2NH+ [[Onoh= R 2 Nï¿½No H]] 2 0.
It is an alkaline liquid, which when anhydrous boils at 116.5° C. Nitrous acid converts it into ethylene oxide.
Both classes readily exchange the imide hydrogen for acid radicals, and give nitrosamines with nitrous acid.
The three classes of diamines may be distinguished by their behaviour towards nitrous acid.
This formula was very nearly confirmed for hydrogen, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide.
at its broadest, covered for the most part with a nitrous incrustation, separated from the alluvial plain about Moghair by a low, pebbly, sandstone range, called the Hazem, but open toward the north to the Euphrates and stretching southward to the Khanega wadi below Suk-esh-Sheiukh.
It is obtained by the dry distillation of nitrogenous vegetable and animal products; by the reduction of nitrous acid and nitrites with nascent hydrogen; and also by the decomposition of ammonium salts by alkaline hydroxides or by slaked lime, the salt most generally used being the chloride (sal-ammoniac, q.v.) thus 2NH 4 C1+Ca(OH) 2 =CaC1 2 +2H 2 O+2NH 3.
On gentle heating, it is decomposed into water and nitrous oxide.
Heated in a current of carbon dioxide sodamide yields caustic soda and cyanamide, and with nitrous oxide it gives sodium azoimide; it deflagrates with lead or silver nitrate and explodes with potassium chlorate.
Acids yield a sodium salt and free oxygen or hydrogen peroxide; with carbon dioxide it gives sodium carbonate and free oxygen; carbon monoxide gives the carbonate; whilst nitrous and nitric oxides give the nitrate.
Nitrous acid and chlorine readily decompose them with liberation of iodine; the same effect being produced when they are heated with concentrated sulphuric acid and manganese dioxide.
OK, is obtained; on evaporating the ether solution, after it has stood for 24 hours, red prisms of the amidochromate separate; it is slowly decomposed by boiling water, and also by nitrous acid, with liberation of nitrogen.
C 6 H 4 N2 C6H3(NH2)2, is prepared by the action of nitrous.
Diazo-Amines.-The diazo-amines, R N: N NHR I, are obtained by the action of primary amines on diazonium salts; by the action of nitrous acid on a free primary amine, an isodiazohydroxide being formed as an intermediate product which then condenses with the amine; and by the action of nitrosamines on primary amines.
Whatever were the means employed to rid air of accompanying oxygen, a uniform value of the density was arrived at, and this value was z% greater than that appertaining to nitrogen extracted from compounds such as nitrous oxide, ammonia and ammonium nitrite.
In his memoir of 1785 he writes: "As far as the experiments hitherto published extend, we scarcely know more of the phlogisticated part of our atmosphere than that it is not diminished by lime-water, caustic alkalies, or nitrous air; that it is unfit to support fire or maintain life in animals; and that its specific gravity is not much less than that of common air; so that, though the nitrous acid, by being united to phlogiston, is converted into air possessed of these properties, and consequently, though it was reasonable to suppose, that part at least of the phlogisticated air of the atmosphere consists of this acid united to phlogiston, yet it may fairly be doubted whether the whole is of this kind, or whether there are not in reality many different substances confounded together by us under the name of phlogisticated air.
I therefore made an experiment to determine whether the whole of a given portion of the phlogisticated air of the atmosphere could be reduced to nitrous acid, or whether there was not a part of a different nature to the rest which would refuse to undergo that change.
Having by these means condensed as much as I could of the phlogisticated air, I let up some solution of liver of sulphur to absorb the dephlogisticated air; after which only a small bubble of air remained unabsorbed, which certainly was not more than of the bulk of the dephlogisticated air let up into the tube; so that, if there be any part of the dephlogisticated air of our atmosphere which differs from the rest, and cannot be reduced to nitrous acid, we may safely conclude that it is not more than 7a part of the whole."
This corresponds to N+1 7 5 0, the oxygen being decidedly in excess of the proportion required to form nitrous acid.
This is possibly due to the accelerating action of the nitrous acid which is produc-ed in the direct action of the copper on the nitric acid and which, when a certain amount has been formed in the system, begins to decompose, thus 3HNO 2 = HN03+ 2N0+H 2 0 (V.
It may be noted that in a paper on the "Proportion of the gases or elastic fluids constituting the atmosphere," read by him in November 1802, the law of multiple proportions appears to be anticipated in the words - "The elements of oxygen may combine with a certain portion of nitrous gas or with twice that portion, but with no intermediate quantity," but there is reason to suspect that this sentence was added some time after the reading of the paper, which was not published till 1805.
Fischer (Ber., 1880, 13, p. 2204) as follows: Nitrous acid converts pararosaniline into aurin, which when superheated with water yields para-dioxybenzophenone.
With nitrous acid (obtained from amyl nitrite and gaseous hydrochloric acid, the ketone being dissolved in acetic acid) they form isonitroso-ketones, R CO CH:NOH (L.
NHR, may be prepared by the action of the primary and secondary amines on the diazonium salts, or by the action of nitrous acid on the free primary amine.
Nitrous acid converts them, in acid solution, into diazonium salts.
Diazosuccinic ester, N2 C(C02C2H5)2, is similarly prepared by the action of nitrous acid on the hydrochloride of aspartic ester.
Ethyl nitrate, C2H5.0N02, is a colourless liquid which boils at 86.3° C. It is prepared by the action of nitric acid on ethyl alcohol (some urea being added to the nitric acid, in order to destroy any nitrous acid that might be produced in secondary reactions and which, if not removed, would cause explosive decomposition of the ethyl nitrate).
The offensive taste of rape oil may also be removed by treatment with a small proportion of sweet spirit of nitre (nitrous ether).
synthetically prepared by the reduction of benzoyl chloride; by the action of nitrous acid on benzylamine; by boiling benzyl chloride with an aqueous solution of potassium carbonate, or by the so-called "Cannizzaro" reaction, in which benzaldehyde is shaken up with caustic potash, one half of the aldehyde being oxidized to benzoic acid, and the other half reduced to the alcohol.
Alkaline hypobromites or hypochlorites or nitrous acid decompose urea into carbon dioxide and nitrogen.
Hyponitrous acid is formed by passing nitrous fumes into its methyl alcohol solution.
Oxygen is also administered in chloroform poisoning, and in threatened death from the inhalation of coal gas or nitrous oxides.
It may be synthetically prepared by the fusion of cymol sulphonic acid with caustic potash; by the action of nitrous acid on 1-methyl-2-amino-4-propyl benzene; by prolonged heating of 5 parts of camphor with r part of iodine; or by heating carvol with glacial phosphoric acid.
By the action of nitrous acid on a nitric acid solution of amidoguanidine, diazoguanidine nitrate, NH 2 (HN): C NH N 2 NO 3, is obtained.
Amidotetrazotic acid yields addition compounds with amines, and by the further action of nitrous acid yields a very explosive derivative, diazotetrazol, CN 3.
It is obtained by condensing benzal chloride with mercury diphenyl (Kekule and Franchimont, Ber., 1872, 5, p. 907); from benzal chloride or benzotrichloride and zinc dust or aluminium chloride; from chloroform or carbon tetrachloride and benzene in the presence of aluminium chloride; and deamidating diand tri-aminotriphenylmethane with nitrous acid and alcohol (0.
His last chemical paper, published in 1788, on the "Conversion of a mixture of dephlogisticated and phlogisticated air into nitrous acid by the electric spark," describes measures he took to authenticate the truth of the experiment described in the 1785 paper, which had "since been tried by persons of distinguished ability in such pursuits without success."
The first products of this reaction are copper nitrate and nitric oxide, but, as the concentration of the copper nitrate increases, nitrous oxide and, eventually, free nitrogen are liberated.
Sulphuric acid may be applied as such on the ores placed in lead, brick, or stone chambers; or as a mixture of sulphur dioxide, nitrous fumes (generated from Chile saltpetre and sulphuric acid), and steam, which permeates the ore resting on the false bottom of a brick chamber.
Two very old remedies for fever are acetate of ammonia and nitrous ether.
Now we can see the reason for their administration, because the nitrous ether, consisting chiefly of ethyl nitrite, dilates the superficial vessels and thus allows greater escape of heat from the surface; while acetate of ammonia, by acting as a diaphoretic and stimulating the secretion of sweat, increases the loss of heat by evaporation.
bodies kept by being inhumed in nitrous earth), with accompanying utensils, ornaments, braided sandals and other relics, were found in Short and Salt Caves near by, and removed to Mammoth Cave for exhibition.
On the other hand, the more soluble gases, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, sulphur dioxide, and steam, at once caused union.] Stability of the Catenoid.
nitrification; one of these, which he terms the Nitroso-bacteria., is only capable of bringing about the oxidation of the ammonia to nitrous acid, and the astonishing result was obtained that 12.42.1140, 10.01 10;3U 2.13, 2.35 2.58 4.52 3.43 :` 4.3 0 4.12 this can be done, in the dark, by bacteria to which only pure mineral salts - e.g.
In addition to the bacterial actions which result in the oxidization of ammonia to nitrous acid, and of the latter to nitric acid, the reversal of such processes is also brought about by numerous bacteria in the soil, rivers, &c. Warington showed some time ago that many species are able to reduce nitrates to nitrites, and such reduction is now known to occur very widely in nature.
It may be prepared synthetically by fusing meta-iodophenol, phenol meta-sulphonic acid, and benzene meta-disulphonic acid with potash; by the action of nitrous acid on meta-aminophenol; or by the action of 10% hydrochloric acid on meta-phenylene diamine (J.
One of his first discoveries at the Pneumatic Institution on the 9th of April 17 9 9 was that pure nitrous oxide (laughing gas) is perfectly respirable, and he narrates that on the next day he became "absolutely intoxicated" through breathing sixteen quarts of it for "near seven minutes."
The gas itself was inhaled by Southey and Coleridge among other distinguished people, and promised to become fashionable, while further research yielded Davy material for his Researches, Chemical and Philosophical, chiefly concerning Nitrous Oxide, published in 1800, which secured his reputation as a chemist.
Hantzsch (Ann., 1882, 215, p. I; Ber., 1882, 15, p. 2914) which consists in the condensation of two molecules of aceto-acetic ester with one of an aldehyde and one of ammonia: RO 2 C CH 2 R' CHO CH 2 CO 2 R RO 2 C C CHR' C C02R CH 3 CO + NH 3 + CO CH 3 -' CH3 C-NH-C CH3 The resulting dihydro-compound is then oxidized with nitrous acid, the ester hydrolysed and the resulting acid heated with lime; carbon dioxide is eliminated and a trisubstituted pyridine of the type CH C(CH3) is obtained.
The orthoand parasemidines can be readily distinguished by their behaviour with different reagents; thus with nitrous acid the ortho-semidines give azimido compounds, whilst the para-semidines give complex diazo derivatives; with formic or acetic acids the ortho-semidines give anhydro compounds of a basic character, the para-semidines give acyl products possessing no basic character.
Nitric acid oxidizes it to all the fatty acids from acetic to capric. Nitrous acid gives the isomeric elaidic acid, C $ H 17 CH: CH (CH 2] 7 CO 2 H, which is crystalline and melts at 51°.
It crystallizes in long needles; forms salts C5H5N5.2HI and (C5H5N5)2.H2SO4.2H2O, and is converted by nitrous acid into hypoxanthine or 6-oxypurin.
Canine is a secondary base, forming a nitroso derivative with nitrous acid, a urethane with chlorcarbonic ester and a tertiary base (methyl conine) with methyl iodide; reactions which point to the presence of the = NH group in the molecule.
Where the nitrous fumes prevail and there is less water present, sulphur dioxide combines with nitrous acid and oxygen to form nitroso-sulphuric acid, a crystalline substance of the formula SO 2 (OH)(ONO).
The solid substance is, however, only exceptionally met with, as it at once dissolves in the mist of sulphuric acid floating in the chamber and forms" nitrous vitriol."Wherever this nitrous vitriol comes into contact with liquid water (not steam), which is also present in the chamber in the shape of mist, and practically as dilute sulphuric acid, it is decomposed into sulphuric and nitrous acid, thus: SO 2 (OH)(ONO) + H 2 O = H 2 SO 4 + HN02.
The re-formed nitrous acid, although not stable, any more than is its anhydride, N203, is nevertheless the j` oxygen carrier" in question, as the products of its spontaneous decomposition, when meeting with other compounds, always react like nitrous acid itself and thus may transfer an indefinite quantity of oxygen to the corresponding quantities of SO 2 and H 2 O, with the corresponding formation of H2S04.
It is evident that the "nitrous gases" present in the vitriol chamber consist essentially of a mixture of NO and N02, the latter being formed from NO by the excess of oxygen present.
For similar reasons it is necessary to employ much more water than is required to form H 2 SO 4; and this is all the more necessary as strong sulphuric acid dissolves the nitrous compounds in the shape of nitroso-sulphuric acid, and thus withdraws these oxygen carriers from the gas-space of the chambers where the necessary reactions take place.
The commercial production of sulphuric acid imperatively requires that the nitrogen oxides (which originally were always introduced in the shape of nitric acid) should be available as long as possible, before being lost mechanically or by reduction to the inactive forms of nitrous oxide or elementary nitrogen.
The first step towards securing this requirement was taken as early as 1827 by Gay-Lussac, who discovered that the nitrous fumes, otherwise carried away from the lead chambers by the waste atmospheric nitrogen and oxygen, could be retained by bringing the gases into contact with moderately strong sulphuric acid, the result being the formation of nitroso-sulphuric acid: 2H 2 SO 4 + N203 = 2S0 2 (OH) (ONO) + H 2 O, and the latter remaining dissolved in sulphuric acid as "nitrous vitriol."
But this important invention was of little use until John Glover, about 1866, found that the nitrous vitriol could be most easily reintroduced into the process by subjecting it to the action of burner-gas before this enters into the lead chambers, preferably after diluting it with chamber acid, that is, acid of from 65 to 70%, H 2 SO 4, as formed in the lead chambers.
The reaction is then: 2SO 2 (OH) (ONO) + SO 2 + 2H 2 O = 3H 2 SO 4 + 2NO; that is to say, all the "nitre" is returned to the chambers in the shape of NO; the sulphuric acid employed in the Gay-Lussac process is not merely recovered, but an additional quantity is formed from fresh S02; as the heat of the burner-gases also comes into play, much water is evaporated, which supplies part of the steam required for the working of the chambers; and the acid issues from the apparatus in a "denitrated" and sufficiently concentrated state (78 to 80% H2S04) to be used over again for absorbing nitrous vapours or any other purpose desired.
The gases now pass on to the lead chambers, described above, where they meet with more nitrous vapours, and with steam, or with water, converted into a fine dust or spray.
This gas is now passed through the Gay-Lussac tower, which somewhat resembles the Glover tower, but is usually filled with coke, over which sulphuric acid of about 80% H2504 trickles down in sufficient quantity to retain the nitrous vapours.
On the continent of Europe makers generally prefer to employ liquid nitric acid, which is run through the Glover tower together with the nitrous vitriol.
Many attempts have been made to reduce the chamber space by apparatus intended to bring about a better mixture of the gases, and to facilitate the interaction of the misty particles of nitrous vitriol and dilute acid floating in the chamber with each other and with the chamber atmosphere.
rend., 1892, 114, p. 1429) obtained it by acting with nitrous oxide on metallic iron at 200°, and Tissandier by heating the metal to 900 in carbon dioxide; Donau (Monats., 1904, 25, p. 181), on the other hand, obtained a magnetic and crystalline-ferroso-ferric oxide at 1200°.
The dinitroso acid slowly decomposes into sulphuretted hydrogen, nitrogen, nitrous oxide, and the heptanitroso acid.
A typical member is nitric oxide; carbon monoxide and nitrous oxide may also be put in this class, but it must be remembered that these oxides may be regarded, in some measure at least, as the anhydrides of formic and hyponitrous acid, although, at the same time, it is impossible to obtain these acids by simple hydration of these oxides.
Examples of mixed anhydrides are C10 2 and N02, which give chlorous and chloric acid, and nitrous and nitric acid: 2C102+ H20=HC102+HC103, 2N02+H20=HN02+HN03; and of mixed salts Pb203 and Pb304, which may be regarded as lead metaand ortho-plumbate: Pb0 Pb02, 2PbO Pb02.
Another method is based upon the different behaviour of the corresponding nitro-alkyl with nitrous acid.
By this treatment a primary nitro-alkyl yields a nitrolic acid, the potassium salt of which forms an intense red solution; a secondary nitro-alkyl forms a pseudo nitrol, which gives an intense blue solution, while the tertiary compound does not act with nitrous acid.
Primary alcohols are obtained by decomposing their sulphuric acid esters (from sulphuric acid and the olefines) with boiling water; by the action of nitrous acid on primary amines; or by the reduction of aldehydes, acid chlorides or acid anhydrides.
It crystallizes in prisms, containing one molecule of water of crystallization, the anhydrous form melting at 234-235° C. Nitrous acid converts it into malic acid, [[Hooc Choh Ch 2 Cooh]].
Nitrous oxide (laughing gas) was at one time believed to act simply by cutting off the supply of oxygen to the tissues, but it also has a specific effect in producing paralysis of certain parts of the central nervous system, and hence its value as an anaesthetic; when given in small amounts mixed with air it produces a condition of exhilaration.
- This group contains amyl nitrite, ethyl nitrite, methyl nitrite, nitroglycerin, sodium and potassium nitrites, erythrol-tetranitrate, and many other compounds containing nitrous or nitric acid.
The latter becomes reduced to nitrous in the body, and thereby exercises its characteristic effects.
(Ethyl benzoate may be employed instead of benzoyl glycollic acid for this reaction.) This compound gave a nitroso compound with nitrous acid, which changed spontaneously into benzoylazoimide by loss of water: C 6 H 5 CO NH.
An improved method of preparation was found in the use of hippuric acid, which reacts with hydrazine hydrate to form hippuryl hydrazine, C 6 H 5 [[Conh Ch 2 Conh Nh]] 2, and this substance is converted by nitrous acid into diazo-hippuramide, C 6 H 5 [[Conh Ch 2 Co Nh N 2.0h]], which is hydrolysed by the action of caustic alkalis with the production of salts of hydrazoic acid.
Wislicenus (Berichte, 1892, 25, p. 2084) has prepared the sodium salt by passing nitrous oxide over sodamide at high temperatures.
amino acid arginine, which is the precursor for the formation of nitrous oxide in the tissue circulation.
Nitrous Oxide as an anesthetic Nitrous oxide found a more scientific use as an anesthetic in clinical dentistry and medicine in the early 1840s.
Formula 4 Feet contains the amino acid arginine, which is the precursor for the formation of nitrous oxide in the tissue circulation.
destruction of ozone by nitrous oxides, CFCs and other chlorine compounds.
exothermic oxidation, which can result in the formation of toxic nitrous gases (NOx ).
diffusion hypoxia Nitrous oxide is forty times more soluble in blood than nitrogen.
Mode of Action Nitrous oxide suppresses spinal impulses and may supress supraspinal pathways.
liquefyom temperature, nitrous oxide is a gas, but it is easily liquefied and stored under pressure.
nitrate reductase and emissions of nitrous oxide from soils.
nitrous oxide reaches the brain.
nitrous oxide emissions are included in nutrient balances.
nitrous acid is a weak acid, the position of equilibrium lies well the right.
nitrous oxide injection which gave a similar percentage increase in power.
nitrous gas hissed out of the vent tube.
using nitrous in a car can be particularly risky.
After using a slipstream, press nitrous quickly to go at least 180 mph.
You can do this as long as you have nitrous.
nitrous oxide from fertilizers and industrial pollution and forms acid rain.
We have learned that intensively managed pasture produces far more nitrous oxide than was suspected.
uses nitrous oxide is predominately used as a background anesthetic due to its weaker anesthetic properties.
At private parties, oxygen tanks are rarely supplied, and people have died of asphyxiation by breathing straight nitrous oxide through face masks.
Methotrexate should be used with caution in patients taking drugs known to have antifolate potential including nitrous oxide and trimethoprim.
nitrous oxide emitted from vehicles is a growing menace.
With the exception of adult patients receiving nitrous oxide / oxygen inhalation sedation, an escort is mandatory for conscious sedation.
These chargers contain liquid nitrous oxide under great pressure.
nitrous oxide in oxygen (50/50% ).
The revised IPCC Guidelines document  was used to give a range of emission factors for nitrous oxide.
phenylamine with nitrous acid in the warm.
photolysis of nitrous acid.
After using a slipstream, press Nitrous quickly to go at least 180 mph.
Nitrous Oxide is also a sedative so it can make you feel very woozy and dizzy.
(r 810), are reproduced here, in which gases are represented as composed of atoms. Knowing that the gas which he called "nitrous gas" was composed of oxygen and nitrogen, and believing it to be the simplest compound of these two elements, he naturally represented its atom as formed of an atom of oxygen and an atom of nitrogen in juxtaposition.
nitric oxide (nitrous gas).
6), melts at 180-181Ã‚°C. The simple oxypyrimidines are obtained by the action of nitrous acid on the amino derivatives, or by heating these latter with concentrated hydrochloric acid to 180Ã‚° C. They show both basic and phenolic properties and are indifferent to the action of reducing agents.
Thus from ethyl alcohol there can be prepared compounds, termed esters, or ethereal salts, exactly comparable in structure with corresponding salts of, say, potassium; by the action of the phosphorus haloids, the hydroxyl group is replaced by a halogen atom with the formation of derivatives of the type R Cl(Br,I); nitric acid forms nitrates, R O NO 2; nitrous acid, nitrites, R O NO; sulphuric acid gives normal sulphates R 2 SO 4, or acid sulphates, R SO 4 H.
It may be obtained by the oxidation of saligenin and of salicylic aldehyde; by the distillation of copper benzoate; by the decomposition of anthranilic acid with nitrous acid; by fusion of ortho-chlor or ortho-brom benzoic acid with potash; by heating orthocyanphenol with alcoholic potash; by heating a mixture of phenol, carbon tetrachloride and alcoholic potash to 100Ã‚° C. (F.
It is also prepared by heating ammonium nitrite (or a mixture of sodium nitrite and ammonium chloride): NH 4 NO 2 =2H20+N21 by heating a mixture of ammonium nitrate and chloride (the chlorine which is simultaneously produced being absorbed by milk of lime or by a solution of sodium hydroxide): 4NH4N03+2NH4C1=5N2 +C1 2 +12H 2 O; by heating ammonium dichromate (or a mixture of ammonium chloride and potassium dichromate): (NH4)2Cr207 = Cr203+4H20+ N2; by passing chlorine into a concentrated solution of ammonia (which should be present in considerable excess): 8NH3+3C12=6NH4C1-F-N2; by the action of hypochlorites or hypobromites on ammonia: 3NaOBr-+2NH 3 =3NaBr+3H 2 OH-N 2; and by the action of manganese dioxide on ammonium nitrate at 180-20oÃ‚° C. It is also formed by the reduction of nitric and nitrous oxides with hydrogen in the presence of platinized asbestos at a red heat (G.
This method does not give a pure gas, varying amounts of nitrous oxide and nitrogen being present (see Nitric Acid).
It is decomposed by water, giving at oÃ‚° C. a mixture of nitric and nitrous acids: 2N02+H20=HN03+HN02.
C (: NOH)NO 2, may be prepared by the action of nitrous acid on the primary nitroparaffins; by the action of hydroxylamine on the dibromnitroparaffins; and by the action of nitrogen peroxide on the a-isonitroso fatty acids (G.
Busch, Ber., 1892, 25, p. 445), or in small quantity by the action of nitrous acid on ortho-aminobenzoylphenylhydrazines (A.
With nitrous acid, the primary amines yield alcohols, the secondary amines yield nitrosamines and the tertiary amines do not react: RÃ¯¿½NH 2 +0NOH= RÃ¯¿½OH+N2+H20; R2NH+ [[Onoh= R 2 NÃ¯¿½No H]] 2 0.
It is an alkaline liquid, which when anhydrous boils at 116.5Ã‚° C. Nitrous acid converts it into ethylene oxide.
When warmed with a solution of nitrous acid, they are converted into phenols; if, however, nitrous acid be added to an ice-cold solution of a primary amine in excess of mineral acid, a diazonium salt is formed (see Az o Compounds and DIAzO Compounds), or in absence of excess of acid, a diazoamine is produced.
It may be prepared by heating racemic acid (see TARTARIC Acid) with fuming hydriodic acid; by heating fumaric acid (q.v.) with water at 150-200Ã‚° C.; by the action of nitrous acid on inactive aspartic acid; and by the action of moist silver oxide on monobromsuccinic acid.
Two are known, namely 4-nitroso-a-naphthol or 13; a-naphthoquinone-oxime, formed by the action of nitrous acid on a-naphthol or of hydroxylamine hydrochloride on a-naphthoquinone (H.
These compounds may be divided into two classes, namely, the true diazo compounds, characterized by the grouping -N=N-, and the diazonium compounds, characterized by the grouping N: N < The diazonium compounds were first discovered by P. Griess (Ann., 1858,, 06, pp. 123 et seq.), and may be prepared by the action of nitrous fumes on a well-cooled solution of a salt of a primary amine, C 6 H 5 NH 2 HNO 3 HNO 2 = C 6 H 5 N 2 .NO 3 2H20, or, as is more usually the case (since the diazonium salts themselves are generally used only in aqueous solution) by the addition of a well-cooled solution of potassium or sodium nitrite to a well-cooled dilute acid solution of the primary amine.
00 2 C 2 H 5, which is formed on passing nitrous fumes into an ethereal solution of methyl urethane).
Ethyl nitrate, C2H5.0N02, is a colourless liquid which boils at 86.3Ã‚° C. It is prepared by the action of nitric acid on ethyl alcohol (some urea being added to the nitric acid, in order to destroy any nitrous acid that might be produced in secondary reactions and which, if not removed, would cause explosive decomposition of the ethyl nitrate).
nitrous acid, and other reagents rape oil gives also characteristic colorations; but these are modified according to the degree of purity of the oil itself.
It is customary to use oxygen in combination with chloroform, or nitrous oxide in order to produce insensibility to pain (see Anaesthetics).
Resazurin, C t2 H 7 N0 4, obtained by the action of nitrous acid on resorcin (P. Weselsky and R.
Nitric acid oxidizes it to all the fatty acids from acetic to capric. Nitrous acid gives the isomeric elaidic acid, C $ H 17 CH: CH (CH 2] 7 CO 2 H, which is crystalline and melts at 51Ã‚°.
The acid may also be synthesized by the decomposition of alanine (a-aminopropionic acid) by nitrous acid (K.
Chiozza, Ann., 1852, 83, p. 118) or with ferrous sulphate and baryta, and kynurine (-y-oxyquinoline), which is obtained by the action of nitrous acid on y-aminoquinoline (A.
rend., 1892, 114, p. 1429) obtained it by acting with nitrous oxide on metallic iron at 200Ã‚°, and Tissandier by heating the metal to 900 in carbon dioxide; Donau (Monats., 1904, 25, p. 181), on the other hand, obtained a magnetic and crystalline-ferroso-ferric oxide at 1200Ã‚°.
Similarly phosphorous and hypophosphorous acids give phosphoric acid and phosphene, whilst nitrous acid gives nitric acid and nitric oxide: 4H3P03=3H3P04+PH3; 2H 3 PO 2 =H 3 PO 4 +PH 3 i 3HN02= HNO 3 +2NO--H20.
It crystallizes in prisms, containing one molecule of water of crystallization, the anhydrous form melting at 234-235Ã‚° C. Nitrous acid converts it into malic acid, [[Hooc Choh Ch 2 Cooh]].
The acid can also be obtained by the action of nitrous acid on hydrazine sulphate; by the oxidation of hydrazine by hydrogen peroxide and sulphuric acid (A.
Global warming is believed to be caused by excessive greenhouse gases in the earth's atmosphere such as carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide.
Nitrous oxide is a gas produced by the burning of organic matter, during the production of nitric acid and nylon, and through the use of fertilizer.
Rainforests and oceans also naturally produce Nitrous oxide.
Considering that agriculture contribute almost 60 percent of nitrous oxide in the world, you may find it comforting to support farming practices which are more environmentally friendly.
Get 100% completion in career mode to unlock the prototype mods for all cars in career mode and Extreme Nitrous Series in Arcade mode.
Complete all of the series in Arcade Mode (except for the Extreme Nitrous Series) to unlock Gold, Silver, and Bronze Prototype Challenge Series.
Nitrous run is a fun mode where you boost around the track passing as many gates as you can.
In the Nitrous Run races, if you timer is running out and you haven't used all of your nitrous, push the button to release it, giving you lots of speed.
of nitrous oxide, 67.7 ccs.
They are formed by the action of nitrous fumes on ammoniacal solutions of cobaltous salts, or purpureo-salts, or by the mutual reaction of chlorpurpureosalts and alkaline nitrites.
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