Nitrogenous Sentence Examples
In 1897 Buchner submitted yeast to great pressure, and isolated a nitrogenous substance, enzymic in character, which he termed "zymase."
Thus, then, alike for maintenance, for increase, and for the exercise of force, the exigencies of the system are characterized more by the demand for the digestible nonnitrogenous or more specially respiratory and fat-forming constituents than by that for the nitrogenous or more specially flesh-forming ones.
Similarly soils with less than i% of nitrogen are likely to be benefited by applications of nitrogenous manures.
Thus Nepenthes secures a supply of nitrogenous food from the animal world in a manner somewhat similar to that adopted by the British sundew, butterwort, and other insectivorous plants.
Of mineral constituents, whether used alone or in mixture with nitrogenous manures, phosphates are much more effective than mixtures of salts of potash, soda and magnesia.Advertisement
But the average produce over forty years of continuous growth of barley was, in all cases where nitrogenous and mineral manures (containing phosphates) were used together, much higher than the average produce of the crop grown in ordinary rotation in the United Kingdom, and very much higher than the average in most other countries when so grown.
Accordingly it is more susceptible to exhaustion of surface soil as to its nitrogenous, and especially as to its mineral supplies; and in the common practice of agriculture it is found to be more benefited by direct mineral manures, especially phosphatic manures, than is wheat when sown under equal soil conditions.
The exhaustion of the soil induced by both barley and wheat is, however, characteristically that of available nitrogen; and when, under the ordinary conditions of manuring and cropping, artificial manure is still required, nitrogenous manures are, as a rule, necessary for both crops, and, for the spring-sown barley, superphosphate also.
Both the quantity and the quality of the produce, and consequently its feeding value, must depend greatly upon the selection of the best description of roots to be grown, and on the character and the amount of the manures, and especially on the amount of nitrogenous manure employed.
The fact that the growth of a leguminous crop, such as red clover, leaves the soil in a higher condition for the subsequent growth of a grain crop - that, indeed, the growth of such a leguminous crop is to a great extent equivalent to the application of a nitrogenous manure for the cereal crop - was in effect known ages ago.Advertisement
The cereal crops (wheat, barley, oats, rye, maize); the cruciferous crops (turnips, cabbage, kale, rape, mustard); the solanaceous crops (potatoes); the chenopodiaceous crops (mangels, sugar-beets), and other non-leguminous crops have, so far as is known, no such power, and are therefore more or less benefited by the direct application of nitrogenous manures.
Of nitrogen, the cereal crops take up and retain much less than any of the crops alternated with them, notwithstanding the circumstance that the cereals are very characteristically benefited by nitrogenous manures.
As to the source of the nitrogen of the root-crops-the so-called " restorative crops "-these are as dependent as any crop that is grown on available nitrogen within the soil, which is generally supplied by the direct appli cation of nitrogenous manures, natural or artificial.
In the feeding experiments which have been carried on at Rothamsted it has been shown that the amount consumed both for a given live weight of animal within a given time, and for the production of a given amount of increase, is, as current food-stuffs go, measurable more by the amounts they contain of digestible and available non-nitrogenous constituents than by the amounts of the digestible and available nitrogenous constituents they supply.
Of the nitrogenous compounds in food, on the other hand, only a small proportion of the whole consumed is finally stored up in the increase of the animal - in other words, a very large amount of nitrogen passes through the body beyond that which is finally retained in the increase, and so remains for manure.Advertisement
Hence it is that the amount of food consumed to produce a given amount of increase in live weight, as well as that required for the sustentation of a given live weight for a given time, should - provided the food be not abnormally deficient in nitrogenous substance - be characteristically dependent on its supplies of digestible and available non-nitrogenous constituents.
It has further been shown that, in the exercise of force by animals, there is a greatly increased expenditure of the non-nitrogenous constituents of food, but little, if any, of the nitrogenous.
Hence, as current fattening food-stuffs go - assuming, of course, that they are not abnormally low in the nitrogenous constituents - they are, as foods, more valuable in proportion to their richness in digestible and available nonnitrogenous than to that of their nitrogenous constituents.
Since these compounds are essential to plant life, it becomes necessary to replace the amount abstracted from the soil, and hence a demand for nitrogenous manures was created.
Water and carbonic acid are synthesized, under the action of sunlight, to form sugar, starch or some other carboh y drate and this is then combined with simple nitrogenous salts to form proteid.Advertisement
In the same address he called attention to the conditions of the world's food supply, urging that with the low yield at present realized per acre the supply of wheat would within a comparatively short time cease to be equal to the demand caused by increasing population, and that since nitrogenous manures are essential for an increase in the yield, the hope of averting starvation, as regards those races for whom wheat is a staple food, depended on the ability of the chemist to find an artificial method for fixing the nitrogen of the air.
They have appeared independently in connexion with a change in the excretion of nitrogenous waste in Arachnids, Crustacea, and the other classes of Arthropoda when aerial, as opposed to aquatic, respiration has been established - and they have been formed in some cases from the mesenteron, in other cases from the proctodaeum.
Further, it is pointed out by Korschelt and Heider that the hinder portion of the gut frequently acts in Arthropoda as an organ of nitrogenous excretion in the absence of any special excretory tubules, and that the production of such caeca from its surface in separate lines of descent does not involve any elaborate or unlikely process of growth.
An important group of soil organisms are now known which have the power of using the free nitrogen of the atmosphere for the formation of the complex nitrogenous compounds of which their bodies are largely composed.
By their continued action the soil becomes enriched with nitrogenous material which eventually through the nitrification process becomes available to ordinary green crops.Advertisement
This is due to the nitrogenous root residues left in the land.
Later the nitrogen-content of the nodule decreases, most of the organisms, which are largely composed of proteid material, becoming digested and transformed into soluble nitrogenous compounds which are conducted to the developing roots and seeds.
These nitrates generally occur as efflorescences caused by the oxidation of nitrogenous matter in the presence of the alkalies and alkaline earths.
The actual formation of this salt is not quite clear; but it is certainly conditioned by the simultaneous contact of decaying nitrogenous matter, alkalies, air and moisture.
The most obvious distinction is that the animal cell-wall is either absent or composed of a nitrogenous material, whereas the plant cell-wall is composed of a carbohydrate material - cellulose.
The rich colour of the grass is due to the fertilizing quality of the decaying fungi, which are peculiarly rich in nitrogenous substances.
Ammonia is carried back to the soil by means of rain, and there plays an important part in providing nitrogenous matter which is afterwards assimilated by vegetable life.
Owing, however, to its poverty in that form of nitrogenous compound called gluten, so abundant in wheat, barley-flour cannot be baked into vesiculated bread; still it is a highlynutritious substance, the salts it contains having a high proportion of phosphoric acid.
In this way the plant is supplied with nitrogenous food from the animal kingdom.
Calcium nitrate, Ca(N0,)2.4H20, is a highly deliquescent salt, crystallizing in monoclinic prisms, and occurring in various natural waters, as an efflorescence in limestone caverns, and in the neighbourhood of decaying nitrogenous organic matter.
Ammonia is found in small quantities as the carbonate in the atmosphere, being produced from the putrefaction of nitrogenous animal and vegetable matter; ammonium salts are also found in small quantities in rain-water, whilst ammonium chloride (sal-ammoniac) and ammonium sulphate are found in volcanic districts; and crystals of ammonium bicarbonate have been found in Patagonian guano.
The commercial salt is known as salvolatile or salt of hartshorn and was formerly obtained by the dry distillation of nitrogenous organic matter such as hair, horn, decomposed urine, &c., but is now obtained by heating a mixture of sal-ammoniac, or ammonium sulphate and chalk, to redness in iron retorts, the vapours being condensed in leaden receivers.
The casein, which forms the principal constituent of cheese, and a certain proportion of albumen which is present, form the nitrogenous, while the complex saline substances and water are the mineral constituents.
When heated with nitrogenous substances, in the presence of carbonated or caustic alkali, it forms cyanides.
The older processes for the commercial preparation of this salt, which were based on the ignition of nitrogenous substances with an alkaline carbonate and carbon, have almost all been abandoned, since it is more profitable to prepare the salt from the byproducts obtained in the manufacture of illuminating gas.
They contain, in loo parts without husks, nitrogenous substances 22.7, fat 3.76, starch 63.18, mineral matters 2.6 parts, with water (Forbes Watson, quoted in Parkes's Hygiene).
On cutting across a grain of rice and examining it under the microscope, first the flattened and dried cells of the husk are seen, and then one or two layers of cells elongated in a direction parallel to the length of the seed, which contain the gluten or nitrogenous matter.
Rice is not so valuable as a food as some other cereals, inasmuch as the proportion of nitrogenous matter (gluten) is less.
Rice, therefore, is chiefly a farinaceous food, and requires to be combined with fatty and nitrogenous substances, such as milk or meat gravy, to satisfy the requirements of the system.
It is formed when a stream of electric sparks is passed through moist air, and in the oxidation ',of nitrogenous matter in the presence of water.
The enclosed alga is protected by the threads (hyphae) of the fungus, and supplied with water and salts and, possibly, organic nitrogenous substances; in its turn the alga by means of its green or blue-green colouring matter and the sun's energy manufactures carbohydrates which are used in part by the fungus.
The most commonly used nitrogenous manures are nitrate of soda, nitrate of potash and sulphate of ammonia, the prices of which are constantly fluctuating.
Klebs has shown that the development of zoosporangia or of oogonia and pollinodia respectively in Saprolegnia is dependent on the external conditions; so long as a continued stream of suitable food-material is ensured the mycelium grows on without forming reproductive organs, but directly the supplies of nitrogenous and carbonaceous food fall below a certain degree of concentration sporangia are developed.
Like these they require water, small but indispensable quantities of salts of potassium, magnesium, sulphur and phosphorus, and supplies of carbonaceous and nitrogenous materials in different stages of complexity in the different cases.
The water taken up by the root from the soil contains nitrogenous and mineral salts which combine with the first product of photo-synthesis - a carbohydrate - to form more complicated nitrogen-containing food substances of a proteid nature; these are then distributed by other elements of the vascular bundles (the phloem) through the leaf to the stem and so throughout the plant to wherever growth or development is going on.
Although rich in nitrogenous matter and fat, it does not make good bread.
This, like the excretion of the sundew and other insectivorous plants, contains a digestive ferment (or enzyme) which renders the nitrogenous substances of the body of the insect soluble, and capable of absorption by the leaf.
In health most of the nitrogenous waste in the body is eliminated as urea, but in gout uric acid is either formed in too great quantity or too little is eliminated, so that it tends to be deposited as urate of soda in the joints and other tissues.
It is usual to reduce the quantity of proteid food to a minimum, in order to lessen the amount of nitrogenous waste to be excreted by the kidneys.
In some analyses, however, the starch is put as low as 13.30, and the nitrogenous matter as 0.92 (Dehbrain, Cours de chimie agricole, p. 1 59).
Boussingault gives 25.2% of starch and 3% of nitrogenous matter.
Warington states that the proportion of nitrogenous to non-nitrogenous matter in the digestible part of potatoes is as i to io 6.
Mintz and others had proved that nitrification was promoted by some organism, when Winogradsky hit on the happy idea of isolating the organism by using gelatinous silica, and so avoiding the difficulties which Warington had shown to exist with the organism in presence of organic nitrogen, owing to its refusal to nitrify on gelatine or other nitrogenous media.
These plants will not only grow on poor sandy soil without any addition of nitrogenous manure, but they actually enrich the soil on which they are grown.
But if a little water in which arable soil had been shaken up was added to the sand, then the leguminous plants flourished in the absence of nitrates and showed an increase in nitrogenous material.
If these results are confirmed and the treatment can be worked commercially, the importance to agriculture of the discovery cannot be overestimated; each plant will provide, like the bean and vetch, its own nitrogenous manure, and larger crops will be produced at a decreased cost.
They agree in the extraordinary habit of adding to the supplies of nitrogenous material afforded them in common with other plants by the soil and atmosphere, by the capture and consumption of insects and other small animals.
It is remarkable that all the insectivorous plants agree in inhabiting damp heaths, bogs, marshes and similar situations where water is abundant, but where they are not brought into contact with the plenteous supply of inorganic nitrogenous food as are the roots of terrestrial plants.
These tubes are shown to excrete nitrogenous waste products similar to uric acid.
Such renal caecal tubes seem to be readily evolved from either metenteron or proctodaeum when the conditions of the out-wash of nitrogenous waste-products are changed by the transference from aquatic to terrestrial life.
The outermost layer of the endosperm consists of square cells larger and more regular in form than those on each side; these contain aleuron grains - small particles of gluten or nitrogenous matter.
It has also been observed that too heavy nitrogenous manuring stimulates and prolongs the growing period of the wheat; flowering is retarded, and thus there is a greater opportunity for infection to take place.
If pollen is scarce, a substitute in the form of either pea-meal or wheaten flour must be supplied to the bees, as brood-rearing cannot make headway without the nitrogenous element indispensable in the food on which the young are reared.
But the cultivation of tobacco is confined almost exclusively to the valleys of the Connecticut and Housatonic rivers, and these lands are constantly and expensively treated with nitrogenous fertilizers; the grades raised are the broad-leaf and the Habana seed-leaf wrappers, which, excepting the Florida growth from Sumatra seed, are the nearest domestic approach to the imported Sumatra.
It therefore increases all the secretions, especially those of the skin and kidneys, while it also stimulates the general metabolism of the body and the excretion of nitrogenous products.
Components of cooked meat that have been suggested to cause this include heterocyclic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nitrogenous residues and iron.
The introduction of improved pasture which relies on nitrogenous fertilizer with the elimination of white clover is one major loss of a nectar source.
Peruvian guano was a potent nitrogenous fertilizer and likely to be an abundant source of toxin-producing bacteria.
Compound lipids contain phosphoric acid, sugars, nitrogenous bases or proteins, and include the phospholipids, glycolipids and lipoproteins.
Its natural habit is to grow in rings, and the grassy fairy-rings so frequent amongst the short grass of downs and pastures in the spring are generally caused by the nitrogenous manure applied to the soil in the previous autumn by the decay of a circle of these fungi.
The function of nitrogenous excretion was not therefore a necessary part of the view - though it may be pointed out that there are grounds for believing that the gonad ducts are to some extent also organs of excretion (see below).
To the former belong the ordinary leguminous crops - the clovers, beans, peas, vetches or tares, sainfoin, lucerne, for example - which obtain their nitrogen from the air, and are independent of the application of nitrogenous manures, whilst in their roots they accumulate a store of nitrogen which will ultimately become available for future crops of other kinds.
The still more highly nitrogenous leguminous crops, although not characteristically benefited by nitrogenous manures, nevertheless contribute much more nitrogen to the total produce of the rotation than any of the other crops comprised in it.
For this reason proposals have been made to plant in the place of weeds low-growing leguminous plants, the growth of which will not only prevent impoverishment and loss of soil during the rains and conserve moisture in the heat, but will also have the effect of enriching the soil in nitrogenous constituents through the power leguminous plants possess of absorbing nitrogen from the air through nodules on their roots.
The steps in the breaking down of the highly complex nitrogenous proteid compounds contained in the humus of the soil, or applied to the latter by the farmer in the form of dung and organic refuse generally, are many and varied; most frequently the insoluble proteids are changed by various kinds of putrefactive bacteria into soluble proteids (peptones, &c.), these into simpler amido-bodies, and these again sooner or later into compounds of ammonia.
Ideal nitrogenous additions include plant clippings, fruit and vegetable scraps (uncooked), eggshells and coffee grounds.
Be sure to add nitrogenous materials as discussed above.
The first class include such changes as the alcoholic fermentation of sugar solutions, the acetic acid fermentation of alcohol, the lactic acid fermentation of milk sugar, and the putrefaction of animal and vegetable nitrogenous matter.
These vessels are the nitrogenous excretory organs.
They laid great stress on the nitrogenous nature of protoplasm, and noted that it preceded the formation of the cell-membrane.
That the fixation of the gas is carried out by the fungal organism either in the soil or in the plant, and the nitrogenous substance so produced is absorbed by the organism, which is in turn consumed by the green plant.
Mineral manures alone give very little increase, nitrogenous manures alone considerably more than mineral manures alone, but the mixture of the two considerably more than either separately.
In one case, indeed, the average produce by mixed minerals and nitrogenous manure was more than that by the annual application of farmyard manure; and in seven out of the ten cases in which such mixtures were used the average yield per acre was from over two to over eight bushels more than the average yield of the United Kingdom (assuming this to be about twenty-eight bushels of 60 lb per bushel) under ordinary rotation.
Experiments upon the growth of barley for fifty years in succession on rather heavy ordinary arable soil resulted in showing that the produce by mineral manures alone is larger than that without manure; that nitrogenous manures alone give more produce than mineral manures alone; and that mixtures of mineral and nitrogenous manure give much more than either used alone - generally twice, or more than twice, as much as mineral manures alone.
The chief importance of nitrogenous compounds depends upon their assimilation by living plants, which, in their development, absorb these compounds from the soil, wherein they are formed mainly by the action of nitrifying bacteria.
Mineral nitrogenous compounds (nitrates, nitrites and ammonia) are much more rare.
It is obtained by the dry distillation of nitrogenous vegetable and animal products; by the reduction of nitrous acid and nitrites with nascent hydrogen; and also by the decomposition of ammonium salts by alkaline hydroxides or by slaked lime, the salt most generally used being the chloride (sal-ammoniac, q.v.) thus 2NH 4 C1+Ca(OH) 2 =CaC1 2 +2H 2 O+2NH 3.