Nitrogen sentence example

nitrogen
  • The nitrogen is absorbed by the plant in some form of combination from the soil.

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  • Up to very recently the original absorption and subsequent treatment of the carbon dioxide and the compounds of nitrogen has been called by the same term.

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  • For gases such as oxygen and nitrogen dissolved in water the solubility as thus defined is independent of the pressure, or the mass of gas dissolved is proportional to the pressure.

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  • Similarly, if we know by experiment the composition of water and of ammonia, we can predict the probable composition of the oxides of nitrogen.

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  • The analysis of air was conducted by determining the amount of oxygen present and assuming the remainder to be nitrogen.

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  • It may also be prepared by heating ammonium oxalate; by passing induction sparks between carbon points in an atmosphere of nitrogen.

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  • The nitrogen of the atmosphere is not called into requisition, except by a few plants and under special conditions, as will be explained later.

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  • It abolished the conception of life s an entity above and beyond the common properties of matter, and led to the conviction that the marvellous and exceptional qualities of that which we call " living " matter are nothing more nor less than an exceptionally complicated development of those chemical and physical properties which we recognize in a gradually ascending scale of evolution in the carbon compounds, containing nitrogen as well as oxygen, sulphur and hydrogen as constituent atoms of their enormous molecules.

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  • Guncottons are examined for degree of nitration by the nitrometer, in which apparatus they are decomposed by sulphuric acid in contact with mercury, and all the nitrogen is evolved as nitric oxide, NO, which is measured and the weight of its contained nitrogen calculated.

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  • Ordinary guncottons seldom contain more than 13% of nitrogen, and in most cases the amount does not exceed 12.5%.

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  • Calcium cyanamide has assumed importance in agriculture since the discovery of its economic production in the electric furnace, wherein calcium carbide takes up nitrogen from the atmosphere to form the cyanamide with the simultaneous liberation of carbon.

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  • The cornmercial product (which is known in Germany as "Kalkstickstof") contains from 14 to 22% of nitrogen, which is liberated as ammonia when the substance is treated with water; to this decomposition it owes its agricultural value.

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  • All other metals, including palladium, are dissolved as nitrates, the oxidizing part of the reagent being generally reduced to oxides of nitrogen.

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  • Leguminous crops take some of the nitrogen which they require from the air, but most plants obtain it from the nitrates present in the soil.

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  • In the ordinary chemical analyses of the soil determinations are made of the nitrogen and various carbonates present as well as of the amount of phosphoric acid, potash, soda, magnesia and other components soluble in strong hydrochloric acid.

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  • Similarly soils with less than i% of nitrogen are likely to be benefited by applications of nitrogenous manures.

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  • An important group of soil organisms are now known which have the power of using the free nitrogen of the atmosphere for the formation of the complex nitrogenous compounds of which their bodies are largely composed.

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  • This power of " fixing nitrogen," as it is termed, is apparently not possessed by higher green plants.

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  • The bacterium, Clostridium pasteurianum, common in most soils, is able to utilize free nitrogen under anaerobic conditions, and an organism known as Azotobacter chroococcum and some others closely allied to it, have similar powers which they can exercise under aerobic conditions.

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  • When wheat, barley, turnips and similar plants are grown, the soil upon which they are cultivated becomes depleted of its nitrogen; yet after a crop of clover or other leguminous plants the soil is found to be richer in nitrogen than it was before the crop was grown.

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  • For a time after entry they multiply, obtaining the nitrogen necessary for their nutrition and growth from the free nitrogen of the air, the carbohydrate required being supplied by the pea or clover plant in whose tissues they make a home.

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  • The nodules increase in size, and analysis shows that they are exceedingly rich in nitrogen up to the time of flowering of the host plant.

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  • The more or less dormant nitrogen and other constituents of the humus are made immediately available to the succeeding crop, but the capital of the soil is rapidly reduced, and unless the loss is replaced by the addition of more manures the land may become sterile.

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  • The chief disadvantage is the loss of nitrogen which it entails, this element being given off into the air in a free gaseous state.

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  • By far the most satisfactory crops as green manures are those of the leguminous class, since they add to the land considerable amounts of the valuable fertilizing constituent, nitrogen, which is obtained from the atmosphere.

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  • On the light, poor sands of Saxony Herr Schultz, of Lupitz, made use of serradella, yellow lupins and vetches as green manures for enriching the land in humus and nitrogen, and found the addition of potash salts and phosphates very profitable for the subsequent growth of potatoes and wheat.

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  • The patient inhales the fumes, which contain a considerable proportion of nitrogen oxides.

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  • Wall-saltpetre or lime saltpetre, calcium nitrate, Ca(N03)2, is found as an efflorescence on the walls of stables; it is now manufactured in large quantities by fixing atmospheric nitrogen, i.e.

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  • Rejecting the old notion that plants derive their nourishment from humus, he taught that they get carbon and nitrogen from the carbon dioxide and ammonia present in the atmosphere, these compounds being returned by them to the atmosphere by the processes of putrefaction and fermentation - which latter he regarded as essentially chemical in nature - while their potash, soda, lime, sulphur, phosphorus, &c., come from the soil.

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  • The electric furnace has several advantages as compared with some of the ordinary types of furnace, arising from the fact that the heat is generated from within the mass of material operated upon, and (unlike the blastfurnace, which presents the same advantage) without a large volume of gaseous products of combustion and atmospheric nitrogen being passed through it.

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  • The isolation of metallic titanium is very difficult since it readily combines with nitrogen (thus resembling boron and magnesium) and carbon.

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  • Its most curious property is the readiness with which it unites with nitrogen.

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  • TiN 2 is a dark blue powder obtained when the oxide is ignited in an atmosphere of ammonia; while TiN is obtained as a bronze yellow mass as hard as the diamond by heating the oxide in an atmosphere of nitrogen in the electric furnace.

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  • If the nitrogen atom in the quaternary ammonium salts be in combination with four different groups, then the molecule is asymmetrical, and the salt can be resolved into optically active enantiamorphous isomerides.

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  • In general, gases dissolve in it more readily than in water; loo volumes of alcohol dissolve 7 volumes of hydrogen, 25 volumes of oxygen and 16 volumes of nitrogen.

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  • Graham showed that gold is capable of occluding by volume 0.48% of hydrogen, 0.20% of nitrogen, 0.29% of carbon monoxide, and 0.16% of carbon dioxide.

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  • Sodium aurosulphide, NaAuS 4H 2 O, is prepared by fusing gold with sodium sulphide and sulphur, the melt being extracted with water, filtered in an atmosphere of nitrogen, and evaporated in a vacuum over sulphuric acid.

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  • Lord Rayleigh has made many investigations of the absolute densities of gases, one of which, namely on atmospheric and artificial nitrogen, undertaken in conjunction with Sir William Ramsay, culminated in the discovery of argon.

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  • At a red heat it absorbs large volumes of hydrogen and nitrogen, the last traces of which can only be removed by fusion in the electric furnace.

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  • The water of the ocean, like any other liquid, absorbs a certain amount of the gases with which it is in contact, and thus sea-water contains dissolved oxygen, nitrogen and carbonic acid absorbed from the atmosphere.

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  • One portion is used for determining the oxygen and nitrogen, the other for the carbonic acid.

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  • The oxygen is then absorbed by some appropriate means, and the volume of the nitrogen measured directly, that of the oxygen being given by difference.

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  • Fox, of the Central Laboratory of the International Council at Christiania, has investigated the relation of the atmospheric gases to sea-water by very exact experimental methods and arrived at the following expressions for the absorption of oxygen and nitrogen by sea-water of different degrees of concentration.

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  • They all contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen, forming the carbonaceous or combustible portion, and some quantity of mineral matter, which remains after combustion as a residue or " ash."

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  • When coal is heated to redness out of contact with the air, the more volatile constituents, water, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen are in great part expelled, a portion of the carbon being also volatilized in the form of hydro carbons and carbonic oxide,-the greater part, however, remaining behind, together with all the mineral matter or ash, in the form of coke, or, as it is also called, " fixed carbon."

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  • They consist almost entirely of marsh gas, with only a small quantity of carbonic acid, usually under 1%, and from i to 4% of nitrogen.

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  • Although at the present time a marvellous improvement has taken place all round in the quality of the carbide produced, the acetylene nearly always contains minute traces of hydrogen, ammonia, sulphuretted hydrogen, phosphuretted hydrogen, silicon hydride, nitrogen and oxygen, and sometimes minute traces of carbon monoxide and dioxide.

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  • The formation of nitrides and cyanamides by actions of this kind and their easy conversion into ammonia is a useful method for fixing the nitrogen of the atmosphere and rendering it available for manurial purposes.

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  • Dr P. Wolff has found that when this is used on the large scale there is a risk of the ammonia present in the acetylene forming traces of chloride of nitrogen in the purifying-boxes, and as this is a compound which detonates with considerable local force, it occasionally gives rise to explosions in the purifying apparatus.

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  • It becomes less when the "oxyhydrogen" is mixed with excess of one or the other of the two reacting gases, or an inert gas such as nitrogen, because in any such case the same amount of heat spreads over a larger quantity of matter.

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  • The study of calcination and combustion during the 17th and 18th centuries culminated in the discovery that air consists chiefly of a mixture of two gases, oxygen and nitrogen.

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  • The constancy of composition shown by repeated analyses of atmospheric air led to the view that it was a chemical compound of nitrogen and oxygen; but there was no experimental confirmation of this idea, and all observations tended to the view that it is simply a mechanical mixture.

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  • Thus, the gases are not present in simple multiples of their combining weights; atmospheric air results when oxygen and nitrogen are mixed in the prescribed ratio, the mixing being unattended by any manifestation of energy, such as is invariably associated with a chemical action; the gases may be mechanically separated by atmolysis, i.e.

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  • In addition to nitrogen and oxygen, there are a number of other gases and vapours generally present in the atmosphere.

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  • Nitric acid and lower nitrogen oxides are present, being formed by electrical discharges, and by the oxidation of atmospheric ammonia by ozone.

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  • It consists, that is to say, in a range of bright lines, the agreement of which with the negative pole bands of nitrogen, together with details of interest connected with its mode of production, was ascertained by a continuance of the research.

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  • Nitrogen must, however, be applied with caution as it makes the barley rich in albumen, and highly albuminous barley keeps badly and easily loses its germinating capacity.

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  • It combines directly with most elements, including nitrogen; this can be taken advantage of in forming almost a perfect vacuum, the oxygen combining to form the oxide, CaO, and the nitrogen to form the nitride, Ca 3 N 2.

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  • Ammonia can be synthesized by submitting a mixture of nitrogen and hydrogen to the action of the silent electric discharge, the combination, however, being very imperfect.

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  • Chlorine takes fire when passed into ammonia, nitrogen and hydrochloric acid being formed, and unless the ammonia be present in excess, the highly explosive nitrogen chloride NC1 3 is also produced.

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  • With iodine it reacts to form nitrogen iodide.

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  • It forms colourless crystals which are soluble in water and decompose on heating, with the formation of nitrogen.

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  • For sodium nitrite see Nitrogen; for sodium nitrate see Saltpetre; for the cyanide see Prussic Acid; and for the borate see Borax.

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  • For the nitrite, see Nitrogen, for the nitrate see Saltpetre and for the cyanide see Prussic Acid; for other salts see the articles wherein the corresponding acid receives treatment.

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  • Various processes involving the use of atmospheric nitrogen have been devised, but in most cases they do not yield good results.

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  • This reaction shows that the alkyl or aryl group is linked to the nitrogen atom.

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  • Such a reaction can only take place if the addition of the alkyl group takes place on the nitrogen atom of the isonitrile, from which it follows that the nitrogen atom must be trivalent and consequently the carbon atom divalent.

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  • On the other hand, when there is but little electro-chemical difference between the radical of the cyanide and that of the reacting compound then the nitrogen atom is the more unsaturated element and.

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  • Shutt have proved that soils from the NorthWest Provinces contain an average of 18,000 lb of nitrogen, 15,580 lb of potash and 6,700 lb of phosphoric acid per acre, these important elements of plant food being therefore present in much greater abundance than they are in ordinary cultivated European soils of good quality.

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  • Gaseous ammonia passed over the oxide reduces it to the sesquioxide with formation of nitrogen and water.

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  • Hydrochloric acid converts it into chloraniline, nitrogen being eliminated; whilst boiling sulphuric acid converts it into aminophenol.

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  • But a mixture of nitrogen and oxygen containing only little nitrogen will show the nitrogen lines narrow and similarly narrow oxygen lines may be obtained if the quantity of oxygen is reduced.

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  • The soil of the Territory is almost wholly a decomposition of lava, and in general differs much from the soils of the United States, particularly in the large amount of nitrogen (often more than 1.25% in cane and coffee soil, and occasionally 2.2%) and iron, and in the high degree of acidity.

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  • Beyond variable quantities of moisture and traces of carbonic acid, hydrogen, ammonia, &c., the only constituents recognized were nitrogen and oxygen.

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  • Observations undertaken mainly in the interest of Prout's law, and extending over many years, had been conducted to determine afresh the densities of the principal gases - hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen.

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  • Under the influence of the heat the atmospheric oxygen unites with the hydrogen of the ammonia, and when the excess of the latter is removed with sulphuric acid, the gas properly desiccated should be pure nitrogen, derived in part from the ammonia, but principally from the air.

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  • Subsequently when oxygen was substituted for air in the first method, so that all (instead of about one-seventh part) of the nitrogen was derived from ammonia, the difference rose to 2%.

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  • Whatever were the means employed to rid air of accompanying oxygen, a uniform value of the density was arrived at, and this value was z% greater than that appertaining to nitrogen extracted from compounds such as nitrous oxide, ammonia and ammonium nitrite.

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  • The question which now pressed was as to the character of the evidence for the universally accepted view that the so-called nitrogen of the atmosphere was all of one kind, that the nitrogen of the air was the same as the nitrogen of nitre.

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  • I then, in order to decompound as much as I could of the phlogisticated air [nitrogen] which remained in the tube, added some dephlogisticated air to it and continued the spark until no further diminution took place.

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  • Yet there was nothing inconsistent with any previously ascertained fact in the asserted presence of i o ho of a non-oxidizable gas about half as heavy again as nitrogen.

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  • The isolation of the new substance by removal of nitrogen from air was effected by two distinct methods.

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  • The gradual elimination of the= nitrogen is tested at a moment's notice with a miniature spectroscope.

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  • When with a fairly wide slit the yellow line is no longer visible, the residual nitrogen may be considered to have fallen below 2 or 3%.

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  • When the yellow line of nitrogen has disappeared, and no further contraction seems to be in progress, the oxygen maybe removed by cautious introduction of hydrogen.

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  • In one experiment, specially undertaken for the sake of measurement, the total air employed was 9250 c.c., and the oxygen consumed, manipulated with the aid of partially deaerated water, amounted to 10,820 c.c. The oxygen contained in the air would be 1942 c.c.; so that the quantities of atmospheric nitrogen and of total oxygen which enter into combination would be 7308 c.c. and 12,762 c.c. respectively.

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  • The argon ultimately found was 75 o c.c., or a little more than I% of the atmospheric nitrogen used.

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  • In the earlier stages of the inquiry, when it was important to meet the doubts which had been expressed as to the presence of the new gas in the atmosphere, blank experiments were executed in which air was replaced by nitrogen from ammonium nitrite.

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  • The other method by which nitrogen may be absorbed on a considerable scale is by the aid of magnesium.

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  • At this temperature the nitrogen combines with the magnesium, and thus the argon is concentrated.

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  • If by pre-heating the blast we add to the sum of the heat available; or if by drying it we subtract from the work to be done by that heat the quantity needed for decomposing the atmospheric moisture; or if by removing part of its nitrogen we lessen the mass over which the heat developed has to be spread - if by any of these means we raise the temperature developed by the combustion of the coke, it is clear that we increase the proportion of the total heat which is available for this critical work in exactly the way in which we should increase the proportion of the water of a stream, initially too in.

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  • The oxygen of the blast having been thus taken up by the molten metal, its nitrogen issues from the mouth of the converter as a pale spark-bearing cone.

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  • This in turn is in part because of the greater care which can be used in making these small lots, but probably in chief part because the crucible process excludes the atmospheric nitrogen, which injures the metal, and because it gives a good opportunity for the suspended slag and iron oxide to rise to the surface.

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  • Blagden (Ber.,1900,33,p.2544), who consider that three simultaneous reactions occur, namely, the formation of labile double salts which decompose in such a fashion that the radical attached to the copper atom wanders to the aromatic nucleus; a catalytic action, in which nitrogen is eliminated and the acid radical attaches itself to the aromatic nucleus; and finally, the formation of azo compounds.

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  • Concentrated acids convert them into the isomeric nitro-amines, the - NO 2 group going into the nucleus in the orthoor paraposition to the amine nitrogen; this appears to indicate that the compounds are nitramines.

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  • For these reasons, one must assume the existence of pentavalent nitrogen in the diazonium salts, in order to account for their basic properties.

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  • Hantzsch, Ber., This assumption also shows the relationship of the diazonium hydroxides to other quaternary ammonium compounds, for most of the quaternary ammonium hydroxides (except such as have the nitrogen atom attached to four saturated hydrocarbon radicals) are unstable, and readily pass over into compounds in which the hydroxyl group is no longer attached to the amine nitrogen; thus the syn-diazo hydroxides are to be regarded as pseudo-diazonium derivatives.

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  • Hantzsch explains the characteristic reactions of the diazonium compounds ky the assumption that an addition compound is first formed, which breaks down with the elimination of the hydride of the acid radical, and the formation of an unstable syn-diazo compound, which, in its turn, decomposes with evolution of nitrogen (Ber., 18 97, 30, p. 2 54 8; 1898, 31, p. 2053).

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  • Concentrated hydrochloric acid converts it into chlorbenzene, aniline and nitrogen.

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  • Concentrated hydrochloric acid decomposes it with formation of C6H 6 N OH HO'N'H chloranilines and elimination of nitrogen, whilst on boiling with sulphuric acid it is converted into aminophenols.

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  • It forms an addition product with acrylic ester, which on heating loses nitrogen and leaves trimethylene dicarboxylic ester.

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  • When Wohler, in 1825, analysed his cyanic acid, and Liebig his quite different fulminic acid in 1824, the composition of both compounds proved to be absolutely the same, containing each in round numbers 28% of carbon, 33% of nitrogen, 37% of oxygen and 2% of hydrogen.

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  • These phenomena were quite in accordance with the atomic conception of matter, since a compound containing the same number of atoms of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen as another in the same weight might differ in internal structure by different arrangements of those atoms. Even in the time of Berzelius the newly introduced conception proved to include two different groups of facts.

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  • The silt and mud brought down by these rivers is rich in clay and organic matter, and sometimes when dry contains as much as I% of nitrogen.

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  • Should it be thought that the traces of the more valuable sorts of plant food (such as compounds of nitrogen, phosphates, and potash salts) existing in ordinary brook or river water can never bring an appreciable amount of manurial matter to the soil, or exert an appreciable effect upon the vegetation, yet the quantity of water used during the season must be taken into account.

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  • Out of a total of 146 auroral lines, with wave-lengths longer than 3684 tenth-metres, Westman identifies 82 with oxygen or nitrogen lines at the negative pole in vacuum discharges.

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  • The interval considered by Westman contains at least 300 oxygen and nitrogen lines, so that approximate coincidence with a number of auroral lines was almost inevitable, and an appreciable number of the coincidences may be accidental.

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  • With reference to the assimilation of nitrogen, it would seem that algae, like other green plants, can best use it when it is presented to them in the form of a nitrate.

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  • In the case of Scenedesmus acutus it is said that the alga is unable to take up nitrogen in the form of a nitrate or ammoniacal salt, and requires some such substance as an amide or a peptone.

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  • On the other hand, it has been held by Bernhard Frank and other observers that atmo spheric nitrogen is fixed by the agency of Green Algae in the soil.

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  • Dry chlorine gas passed into melted urea decomposes it with formation of cyanuric acid and ammonium chloride, nitrogen and ammonia being simultaneously liberated.

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  • Alkaline hypobromites or hypochlorites or nitrous acid decompose urea into carbon dioxide and nitrogen.

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  • Acid potassium permanganate oxidizes it to carbon dioxide and nitrogen.

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  • Then, perceiving that in combustion and the calcination of metals only a portion of a given volume of common air was used up, he concluded that Priestley's new air, air eminemment pur, was what was absorbed by burning phosphorus, &c., "non-vital air," azote, or nitrogen remaining behind.

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  • The tichloride GaC1 3 is similarly formed when the metal is heated in a rapid stream of chlorine, and may be purified by distillation in an atmosphere of nitrogen.

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  • When heated in a current of hydrogen it is transformed into the colourless disulphide, whilst if the heating be carried out in a current of nitrogen it yields the trisulphide, Rb 2 S 3 H 2 0.

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  • Ammonia does not react with tungsten or the dioxide, but with trioxide at a red heat a substance of the formula W 5 H 6 N 3 0 5 is obtained, which is insoluble in acids and alkalis and on ignition decomposes, evolving nitrogen, hydrogen and ammonia.

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  • In 1811 he discovered chloride of nitrogen; during his experiments serious explosions occurred twice, and he lost one eye, besides sustaining severe injuries to his hand.

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  • He also investigated the oxygen compounds of phosphorus and nitrogen, and was ' The names of the musical instruments in those verses of the Book of Daniel have formed the basis of a controversy as to the authenticity of the book.

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  • In another experiment he fired, by the electric spark, a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen (dephlogisticated air), and found that the resulting water contained nitric acid, which he argued must be due to the nitrogen present as an impurity in the oxygen ("phlogisticated air with which it [the dephlogisticated air] is debased").

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  • In the 1785 paper he proved the correctness of this supposition by showing that when electric sparks are passed through common air there is a shrinkage of volume owing to the nitrogen uniting with the oxygen to form nitric acid.

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  • Further, remarking that little was known of the phlogisticated part of our atmosphere, and thinking it might fairly be doubted "whether there are not in reality many different substances confounded together by us under the name of phlogisticated air," he made an experiment to determine whether the whole of a given portion of nitrogen (phlogisticated air) of the atmosphere could be reduced to nitric acid.

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  • The first products of this reaction are copper nitrate and nitric oxide, but, as the concentration of the copper nitrate increases, nitrous oxide and, eventually, free nitrogen are liberated.

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  • A maroon-coloured powder, of composition CuN02, is formed when pure dry nitrogen dioxide is passed over finelydivided copper at 25 0 -30 0.

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  • The monoxide is formed when the metal burns in air, but is usually prepared by the ignition of the nitrate, oxygen and oxides of nitrogen being liberated.

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  • Barium nitride, Ba 3 N 2, is obtained as a brownish mass by passing nitrogen over heated barium amalgam.

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  • The researches of Gayon and Dupetit, Giltay and Aberson and others have shown, moreover, that bacteria exist which carry such reduction still further, so that ammonia or even free nitrogen may escape.

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  • Thirdly, and most significantly, a variable temperature liquid nitrogen cryostat has been successfully commissioned.

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  • The gas contains a certain amount of hydrogen and oxides of carbon, also traces of nitrogen.

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  • We frequently find the expression used, the assimilation of carbon dioxide, or of nitrogen.

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  • If experimental plants are grown in ster1lized soil, these swellings do not appear, and the plant can then use no atmospheric nitrogen.

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  • Neither of the above rules can be applied to carbon compounds containing nitrogen.

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  • Using average prices paid for nitrogen, phosphoric acid and potash when bought in large quantities and in good forms, these ingredients, in a ton of cotton seed, amount to $9.00 worth of fertilizing material.

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  • Even prior to the discovery of petroleum in commercial quantities, a number of chemists had made determinations of the chemical composition of several different varieties, and these investigations, supplemented by those of a later date, show that petroleum consists of about 84% by weight of carbon with 12% of hydrogen, and varying proportions of sulphur, nitrogen and oxygen.

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  • Natural gas is found to consist mainly of the lower paraffins, with varying quantities of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen, in some cases also sulphuretted hydrogen and possibly ammonia.

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  • Cavendish, who had isolated the nitrogen of the atmosphere, had failed to decide conclusively what had really happened to the air which disappeared during combustion.

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  • Chemical literature was full of the phlogistic modes of expression - oxygen was '" phlogisticated air," nitrogen " dephlogisticated air," &c. - and this tended to retard its promotion.

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  • For example, one volume of oxygen combined with two of hydrogen to form two volumes of steam, three volumes of hydrogen combined with one of nitrogen to give two volumes of ammonia, one volume of hydrogen combined with one of chlorine to give two volumes of hydrochloric acid.

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  • Straight lines and semicircles were utilized for the non-metallic elements, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur!

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  • As an example of the complexity of this system we may note the five oxides of nitrogen, which were symbolized as the first three representing the gaseous oxides, and the last two the liquid oxides.

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  • Frankland had recognized the analogies existing between the chemical properties of nitrogen, phosphorus, arsenic and antimony, noting that they act as trior penta-valent.

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  • Again, in nitrous oxide we have a compound of 8 parts by weight of oxygen and 14 of nitrogen; in nitric oxide a compound of 16 or 8 X 2 parts of oxygen and 1 4 of nitrogen; in nitrous anhydride a compound of 24 or 8 X 3 parts of oxygen and 14 of nitrogen; in nitric peroxide a compound of 3 2 or 8 X 4 parts of oxygen and 14 of nitrogen; and lastly, in nitric anhydride a compound of 4 o or 8 X 5 parts of oxygen and 14 of nitrogen.

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  • For example take the oxides of nitrogen, N 2 0, NO, N 2 0 3, NO 2, N 2 0 5; these are known respectively as nitrous oxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen trioxide, nitrogen peroxide and nitrogen pentoxide.

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  • One other instance may be given; the equation 2NH3=N2+3H2 represents the decomposition of ammonia gas into nitrogen and hydrogen gases by the electric spark, and it not only conveys the information that a certain relative weight of ammonia, consisting of certain relative weights of hydrogen and nitrogen, is broken up into certain relative weights of hydrogen and nitrogen, but also that the nitrogen will be contained in half the space which contained the ammonia, and that the volume of the hydrogen will be one and a half times as great as that of the original ammonia, so that in the decomposition of ammonia the volume becomes doubled.

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  • Theoretical speculations were revived by Lavoisier, who, having explained the nature of combustion and determined methods for analysing compounds, concluded that vegetable substances ordinarily contained carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, while animal substances generally contained, in addition to these elements, nitrogen, and sometimes phosphorus and sulphur.

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  • By transformations of the carbonyl group, and at the same time of the hydroxyl group, many interesting types of nitrogen compounds may be correlated.

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  • The elements which go to form heterocyclic rings, in addition to carbon, are oxygen, sulphur, selenium and nitrogen.

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  • Similarly a CH group may be replaced by a nitrogen atom with the production of compounds of similar stability; thus benzene gives pyridine, naphthalene gives quinoline and isoquinoline; anthracene gives acridine and a and 3 anthrapyridines.

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  • Similarly, two or more methine groups may be replaced by the same number of nitrogen atoms with the formation of rings of considerable stability.

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  • Thiophene also gives rise to triazsulphole, three nitrogen atoms being introduced.

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  • Six-membered ring systems can be referred back, in a manner similar to the above, to pyrone, penthiophene and pyridine, the substances containing a ring of five carbon atoms, and an oxygen, sulphur and nitrogen atom respectively.

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  • Nitrogen oxides, recognized by their odour and brown-red colour, result from the decomposition of nitrates.

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  • The elements which play important parts in organic compounds are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, chlorine, bromine, iodine, sulphur, phosphorus and oxygen.

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  • Nitrogen may be detected by the evolution of ammonia when the substance is heated with soda-lime.

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  • A blue coloration indicates nitrogen, and is due to the formation of potassium (or sodium) cyanide during the fusion, and subsequent interaction with the iron salts.

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  • The space a must allow for the inclusion of a copper spiral if the substance contains nitrogen, and a silver spiral if halogens be present, for otherwise nitrogen oxides and the halogens may be condensed in the absorption apparatus; b contains copper oxide; c is a space for the insertion of a porcelain or platinum boat containing a weighed quantity of the substance; d is a copper spiral.

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  • Nitrogen is estimated by (I) Dumas' method, which consists in heating the substance with copper oxide and measuring the volume Nitrogen.

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  • The magnesite (a) serves for the generation of carbon dioxide which clears the tube of air before the compound (mixed with fine copper oxide (b)) is burned, and afterwards sweeps the liberated nitrogen into the receiving vessel (e), which contains a strong potash solution; c is coarse copper oxide; and d a reduced copper gauze spiral, heated in order to decompose any nitrogen oxides.

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  • This method, as originally proposed, is not in common use, but has been superseded by Kjeldahl's method, since the nitrogen generally comes out too low.

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  • Oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen and carbon monoxide have the value 1.4; these gases have diatomic molecules, a fact capable of demonstration by other means.

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  • The combination of nitrogen with carbon may result in the formation of nitriles, cyanides, or primary, secondary or tertiary amines.

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  • Thomsen deduced that a single bond between a carbon and a nitrogen gramme-atom corresponds to a thermal effect of 2.77 calories, a double bond to 5.44, and a treble bond to 8.31.

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  • These involve pentavalent nitrogen.

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  • We may therefore regard the nitrogen atoms as occupying the centres of a cubic space lattice composed of iodine atoms, between which the hydrogen atoms are distributed on the tetrahedron face normals.

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  • Free nitrogen is also found in some natural waters and has been recognized in certain nebulae.

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  • In the combined state nitrogen is fairly widely distributed, being found in nitre, Chile saltpetre, ammonium salts and in various animal and vegetable tissues and liquids.

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  • Nitrogen may be obtained from the atmosphere by the removal of the oxygen with which it is there mixed.

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  • This was met in a very large measure by deposits of natural nitre and the products of artificial nitrieres, whilst additional supplies are available in the ammoniacal liquors of the gas-manufacturer, &c. The possible failure of the nitre deposits led to attempts to convert atmospheric nitrogen into manures by processes permitting economic success.

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  • The combination of nitrogen with oxygen was first effected by Cavendish in 1785, who employed a spark discharge.

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  • The first product of the reaction is nitric oxide, which on cooling with the residual gases produces nitrogen peroxide.

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  • The conversion of nitrogen into ammonia by electricity has received much attention, but the commercial aspect appears to have been first worked out by de Hemptinne in 1900, who used both the spark and silent discharge on mixtures of hydrogen and nitrogen, and found that the pressure and temperature must be kept low and the spark gap narrow.

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  • In 1862 Fleck passed a mixture of steam, nitrogen and carbon monoxide over red-hot lime, whilst in 1904 Woltereck induced combination by passing steam and air over red-hot iron oxide (peat is used in practice).

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  • The fixation of nitrogen as a nitride has not been attended with commercial success.

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  • Mehner patented heating the oxides of silicon, boron or magnesium with coal or coke in an electric furnace, and then passing in nitrogen, which forms, with the metal liberated by the action of the carbon, a readily decomposable nitride.

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  • Nitrogen is a colourless, tasteless and odourless gas, which is only very slightly soluble in water.

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  • Lord Rayleigh in 1894 found that the density of atmospheric nitrogen was about 2% higher than that of chemically prepared nitrogen, a discovery which led to the isolation of the rare gases of the atmosphere.

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  • For the so-called nitrogen iodide see Ammonia.

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  • It combines with oxygen to form nitrogen peroxide.

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  • He then tried the direct combination of nitric oxide with liquid nitrogen peroxide.

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  • A dark blue liquid is produced, and the first portions of gas boiling off from the mixture correspond fairly closely in composition with nitrogen trioxide.

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  • Nitrogen peroxide, NO 2 or N204, may be obtained by mixing oxygen with nitric oxide and passing the red gas so obtained through a freezing mixture.

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  • Nitrogen peroxide is also prepared by heating lead nitrate and passing the products of decomposition through a tube surrounded by a freezing mixture, when the gas liquefies.

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  • It combines directly with lithium, calcium and magnesium when heated, whilst nitrides of the rare earth metals are also produced when their oxides are mixed with magnesium and heated in a current of nitrogen (C. Matignon, Comptes rendus, 1900, 131, p. 837).

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  • Nitrogen combines with hydrogen to form ammonia, NH 3, hydrazine, N 2 H 4, and azoimide, N 3 H (qq.v.); the other known hydrides, N 4 H 4 and N5H5, are salts of azoimide, viz.

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  • Nitrogen peroxide is the most stable oxide of nitrogen.

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  • It is also prepared by the action of phosphorus pentachloride on potassium nitrite or on nitrogen peroxide.

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  • P For sulphonic acids containing nitrogen see Ammonia.

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  • Numerous determinations of the atomic weight of nitrogen have been made by different observers, the values obtained varying somewhat according to the methods used.

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  • These methods have been purely chemical (either gravimetric or volumetric), physical (determinations of the density of nitrogen, nitric oxide, &c.) or physicochemical.

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  • The source of the carbon of organic tissues is carbonic acid; that of the nitrogen in the proteids is the nitrates, nitrites and salts of ammonia dissolved in sea-water; the material of the shells or other skeletons is the silica, phosphate and calcium of the salts of sea-water (and, in rare cases, the salts of strontium).

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  • There is more inorganic nitrogen in the sea near the land than in mid-ocean and there is more at the sea bottom than near the surface; finally, there is more in the later winter than at any other season.

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  • First of all we consider inorganically combined nitrogen (as nitrates and nitrites chiefly), since upon this depends all the life of the ocean.

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  • If this is admitted the poverty of tropical sea-water in mineral nitrogen compounds is explained by the higher temperature, which accelerates the activity of denitrifying bacteria.

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  • Nitrogen is always being synthesized from the atmosphere (by plants, and by electrical discharges which combine nitrogen and oxygen), and this combined nitrogen is either utilized by land organisms or is washed down into the sea in the water of the rivers.

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  • In the end much inorganic nitrogen salts must be added to the sea both in the above way and as the result of the putrefaction of the dead substance of terrestrial animals and plants.

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  • A considerable degree of denitrification must, therefore, take place in the ocean, for the concentration of combined nitrogen is always excessively small.

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  • It is decomposed by heat into oxide, nitrogen peroxide and oxygen; and is used for the manufacture of fusees and other deflagrating compounds, and also for preparing mordants in the dyeing and calico-printing industries.

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  • When slowly heated in a vacuum vessel until ignition takes place, some nitrogen dioxide, N02, is also produced.

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  • Under very great pressures carbon monoxide, steam and nitrogen are the main products, but nitric oxide never quite disappears.

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  • Strong sulphuric acid in contact with it liberates first nitric acid and later oxides of nitrogen, leaving a charred residue or a brown solution according to the quantity of acid.

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  • If guncotton be correctly represented by the formula C 6 H 7 0 2 (NO 3) 3, it should contain a little more than 14% of nitrogen.

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  • Generally speaking, the lower the nitrogen content of a guncotton, as found by the nitrometer, the higher the percentage of matters soluble in a mixture of ether-alcohol.

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  • The relative stability is then judged by the amount of nitrogen gas collected in a certain time.

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  • Shaken with mercury and sulphuric acid, nitroglycerin yields its nitrogen as nitric oxide; the measurement of the volume of this gas is a convenient mode of estimating nitroglycerin.

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  • It appears that with soils which are not rich in humus or not deficient in lime, calcium cyanamide is almost as good, nitrogen for nitrogen, as ammonium sulphate or sodium nitrate; but it is of doubtful value with peaty soils or soils containing little lime, nor is it usefully available as a top-dressing or for storing.

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  • It decomposes ammonia at a red heat, liberating hydrogen and yielding a compound containing silicon and nitrogen.

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  • It has been found by experiment that plants need for their nutritive process and their growth, certain chemical elements, namely, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium and iron.

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  • With the exception of the carbon and a small proportion of the oxygen and nitrogen, which may be partially derived from the air, these elements are taken from the soil by crops.

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  • It has been found by experiment that the nitrogen needed by practically all farm crops except leguminous ones is best supplied in the form of a nitrate; the rapid effect of nitrate of soda when used' as a top dressing to wheat or other plants is well known to farmers..

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  • It has long been known that when organic materials such as the dung and urine of animals, or even the bodies of animals and plants, are applied to the soil, the nitrogen within them becomes oxidized, and ultimately appears in the form of nitrate of lime, potash or some other base.

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  • The nitrogen in decaying roots, in the dead stems. and leaves of plants, and in humus generally is sooner or later changed into a nitrate, the change being effected by bacteria.

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  • These organisms reduce nitrates to nitrites and finally to ammonia and gaseous free nitrogen which escapes into the atmosphere.

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  • The copious snowfall protects vegetation, supplies moisture, and contributes nitrogen to the soil.

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  • Fuming nitric acid consists of a solution of nitrogen peroxide in concentrated nitric acid and is prepared by distilling dry sodium nitrate with concentrated sulphuric acid.

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  • All of these particular cases contain a very electronegative element with an active lone pair of electrons - either oxygen or nitrogen.

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  • In the bends, the air embolism is a bubble of nitrogen.

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  • Applying one third of the nitrogen after crop emergence has given good results in recent trials and is especially beneficial in wet years.

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  • Nitrogen oxides are therefore a contributory factor in the production of acid rain.

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  • Nitrogen fixation genes can also be added, thus reducing need for artificial fertilizers.

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  • Without nitrogen fertilizers you or your children could starve.

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  • In 1909 Fritz Haber found a way of extracting nitrogen, the source of nitrate fertilizers.

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  • These early events have been proposed to be the primary cause of the decline of the nitrogen fixation process under water deficits.

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  • It does contain five strains of microbes, one of which is a nitrogen fixer.

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  • A paper describing an experimental and modeling study of low pressure sulfur and nitrogen doped premixed methane flames has been published.

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  • Glass domestic vacuum flasks must not be used for liquid nitrogen.

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  • Feed with a low nitrogen feed throughout the Spring and Summer to promote flowering.

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  • Supplementing with glutamine spares free glutamine in muscle tissue, counteracts the fall in muscle protein synthesis, and improves nitrogen balance.

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  • What this means is, the very rigors of weight training leak nitrogen carrying glutamine from muscle tissue.

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  • A variety of digestive processes can remove the available nitrogen compounds from the smallest gnat to a full grown rat.

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  • Burning also releases soot, nitrogen oxides and non-methane hydrocarbons among other harmful compounds.

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  • In this case it is the radius of the hydrogen-bonding hydrogen-bonding hydrogens which is reduced, rather than the radius of the central nitrogen itself.

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  • I monitored the supply of mineral nitrogen during the growing season, using field incubations in experimental plots.

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  • The soil inoculant is the bacteria that legume roots incorporate to make their own nitrogen.

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  • Urea is the main form in which nitrogen is excreted in mammals UV radiation invisible rays that are part of the electromagnetic spectrum.

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  • The wavelengths included are hydrogen alpha, hydrogen beta, doubly ionized oxygen and singly ionized nitrogen.

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  • Most garden soils contain plenty of nutrients, apart from nitrogen which is easily leached out of the soil.

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  • Hippocrepis comosa is a nitrogen-fixing legume and prefers soils that are deficient in nitrogen.

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  • It was not an overturned lorry, but a lorry carrying nitrogen peroxide that caught fire.

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  • Don't use vegetable fertilizers, which have too much nitrogen and encourage too lush growth and few flowers.

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  • It provides the micronutrients for plant growth, but is lacking in the macro nutrient potassium and only supplies a limited amount of nitrogen.

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  • Fresh samples of tumor and normal colonic mucosa were taken at the time of surgery and snap frozen in liquid nitrogen.

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  • I try to avoid nitrogen narcosis whenever I can, especially since I began using a closed-circuit rebreather.

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  • The speed of the descent and the lean trimix left the diver experiencing rather unpleasant nitrogen narcosis.

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  • Denitrification filters convert nitrate to nitrogen gas, the bacteria in such filters are anaerobic.

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  • This allows the diver to incrementally return to the surface, allowing the excess dissolved nitrogen to escape from the body.

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  • The enzyme absorbs nitrogen which in turn has lowered the air pressure.

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  • We started using liquid nitrogen at the Fat Duck five or six years ago.

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  • It then went through biological treatment, which reduced the biological oxygen demand and ammoniacal nitrogen.

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  • They gather inorganic nitrogen from the soil and convert it into protein as a means of storing it.

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  • The Haber process is the fixation of the atmospheric nitrogen.

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  • Premium mixes must contain soluble nitrogen and be able to continue providing enough soluble nitrogen for at least one month of good plant growth.

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  • Now click on the backbone nitrogen of the tryptophan.

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  • The content of soil mineral nitrogen in November was reduced by growing catch crops during the autumn.

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  • Nitric oxide (NO) the main constituent of these emissions, reacts to form nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ).

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  • Air Pollution The principal pollutants from road transport include nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide and particulates.

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  • In Tameside the review and assessment identified nitrogen dioxide and particulates as the two pollutants unlikely to meet the air quality objectives.

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  • Nitrogen dioxide Monitoring data shows that current nitrogen dioxide concentrations are currently within the National Air Quality Strategy Objective concentrations for nitrogen dioxide Monitoring data shows that current nitrogen dioxide concentrations are currently within the National Air Quality Strategy Objective concentrations for nitrogen dioxide.

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  • Other properties include nitrogen fixation, plant growth and disease resistance.

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  • The opening chapter summarizes the case, including a much appreciated explanation of how biological nitrogen fixation actually works, at a simple level.

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  • Also important for symbiotic nitrogen fixation is a specialized set of cytochromes required for respiration in the low oxygen concentration found in legume nodules.

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  • Emissions dangerous to health include nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, lead and particulates.

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  • State that nitrogen and oxygen from the air react inside a car engine to form nitrogen oxides (these are poisonous gasses ).

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  • Busses emit 68 times more nitrogen oxides and 37 times more particulates than an equivalent car.

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  • It also absorbs oxygen to reduce the amount of harmful nitrogen oxides released.

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  • The nitrogen can also transform into nitrites, which can combine with the proteins in food to form nitrosamines, which are carcinogenic.

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  • Alder roots have nitrogen fixing nodules on their roots.

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  • It provides the micronutrients for plant growth, but is lacking in the macro nutrients for plant growth, but is lacking in the macro nutrient potassium and only supplies a limited amount of nitrogen.

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  • A nitrogen molecule is thus a good approximation to a harmonic oscillator.

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  • This involves looking at catalytic dissociation of ammonia to hydrogen and nitrogen and also the selective catalytic oxidation of ammonia to nitrogen and water.

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  • Main Sources Whenever anything is burnt in air, nitrogen oxides are formed.

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  • The diver breathes pure oxygen through a mask, which improves exhalation of nitrogen.

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  • Plants use the sunâs energy to fix carbon by photosynthesis and dissolved phosphorus and nitrogen to help build proteins.

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  • But during growth crops need as much potash as nitrogen - some need more.

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  • In the present case index I will refer to our particular cationic nitrogen in our particular lysine residue in our particular protein Target molecule.

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  • Ammoniacal nitrogen may increase blossom-end rot as excess ammonium ions reduce calcium uptake.

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  • Nitrogen rates will vary with sward composition, with perennial rye swards more hungry than traditional bents and fescues.

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  • The limits take into consideration nitrogen saturation of lipid tissues.

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  • Characterizing the catalyst using BET nitrogen sorption, carbon monoxide or hydrogen pulse chemisorption, and FTIR analysis.

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  • The presence of carbon dioxide tends to raise the lower limit since it has a higher specific heat than nitrogen.

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  • The gases normally present in the gastrointestinal tract are oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen, methane, and hydrogen sulfide.

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  • Wonder if anyone's tried replicating the thing using ceramic superconductors and then cooling the thing off with liquid nitrogen to see what happens.

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  • The legume symbiont, Sinorhizobium meliloti, is tremendously important for fixing nitrogen from the air into plant roots and the soil.

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  • The report focuses on nitrogen trichloride as being the cause of the irritant to the lungs.

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  • Erebus is the main point source for NO 2 (and very likely other reactive nitrogen oxides) in the antarctic troposphere.

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  • Excess non-protein nitrogen in the form of dietary urea reduced embryo quality.

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  • Hermetically sealed, each instrument is fully nitrogen waterproof to a depth of 3m and is guaranteed for 30 years against manufacturing defects.

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  • The table here given contains some of Dalton's diagrams of atoms. They are not all considered to be correct at the present time; for example, we now think that the ultimate particle of water is made up of two atoms of hydrogen and one of oxygen, and that that of ammonia contains three atoms of hydrogen to one of nitrogen.

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  • Experiment shows that, in water and ammonia, we have, respectively, 8 parts of oxygen and 4.67 parts of nitrogen in union with one part of hydrogen; we can therefore infer that the oxides of nitrogen will all have the composition of 8m parts of oxygen to 4.67n parts of nitrogen.

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  • Similarly, Dalton's diagram for ammonia, together with the fact that ammonia contains 4.67 parts of nitrogen to one of hydrogen, at once leads to the conclusion that the atomic weight of nitrogen is 4.67.

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  • The importance of the symbiosis can only be understood by considering the relationship in which plants stand with regard to the free nitrogen of the air.

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  • The power of fixing atmospheric nitrogen by the higher plants seems to be confined to this solitary group, though it has been stated by various observers with more or less emphasis that it is shared by others.

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  • This peculiar relationship suggests at once a symbiosis, the Fungus gaining its nutriment mainly or entirely from the green plant, while the latter in some way or other is able to utilize the free nitrogen of;he air.

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  • Incidentally there have been extensive sampling and analysing of soils, investigations into rainfall and the composition of drainage waters, inquiries into the amount of water transpired by plants, and experiments on the assimilation of free nitrogen.

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  • It was in the year 1886 that Hellriegel and Wilfarth first published in Germany the results of investigations in which they demonstrated that, through the agency of micro-organisms dwelling in nodular outgrowths on the roots of ordinary leguminous plants, the latter are enabled to assimilate the free nitrogen of the air.

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  • To the former belong the ordinary leguminous crops - the clovers, beans, peas, vetches or tares, sainfoin, lucerne, for example - which obtain their nitrogen from the air, and are independent of the application of nitrogenous manures, whilst in their roots they accumulate a store of nitrogen which will ultimately become available for future crops of other kinds.

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  • But it gave some impetus to the practice of green manuring with leguminous crops, which are equally capable with such a crop as mustard of enriching the soil in humus, whilst in addition they bring into the soil from the atmosphere a quantity of nitrogen available for the use of subsequent crops of any kind.

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  • It now is - whether the free nitrogen of the atmosphere is brought into combination under the influence of micro-organisms, or other low forms, either within the soil or in symbiosis with a higher plant, thus serving indirectly as a source of nitrogen to plants of a higher order.

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  • The results have shown that, when a soil growing leguminous plants is infected with appropriate organisms, there is a development of the so-called leguminous nodules on the roots of the plants, and, coincidently, increased growth and gain of nitrogen."

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  • When a full supply of both mineral constituents and nitrogen is at command, these root-crops assimilate a very large amount of Table Xi.-The Weight and Average Composition of Ordinary Crops, in lb.

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  • The still more highly nitrogenous leguminous crops, although not characteristically benefited by nitrogenous manures, nevertheless contribute much more nitrogen to the total produce of the rotation than any of the other crops comprised in it.

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  • Thus, the letter H always stands for 1 atom or part by weight of hydrogen, the letter N for 1 atom or 14 parts of nitrogen, and the symbol Cl for 1 atom or 35'5 parts of chlorine.'

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  • But not only is the combining power or valency (atomicity) of the elements different, it is also observed that one element may combine with another in several proportions, or that its valency may vary; for example, phosphorus forms two chlorides represented by the formulae PC1 3 and PC1 51 nitrogen the series of oxides represented by the formulae N 2 0, NO, (N203), N 2 O 4, N205, molybdenum forms the chlorides MoC1 2, MoC1 3, MoC1 4, MoC1 5, MoCls(?), and tungsten the chlorides WC1 2, WCl 4, WC1 5, WC16.

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  • Thus, it must be supposed that in nitric oxide, NO, an odd number of affinities are disengaged, since a single atom of dyad oxygen is united with a single atom of nitrogen, which in all its compounds with other elements acts either as a triad or pentad.

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  • The oxide NO 2 must be regarded as another instance of a compound in which an odd number of affinities of one of the contained elements are disengaged, since it contains two atoms of dyad oxygen united with a single atom of triad or pentad nitrogen.

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  • Lord Rayleigh in 1894 found that the density of atmospheric nitrogen was about 2% higher than that of chemically prepared nitrogen, a discovery which led to the isolation of the rare gases of the atmosphere (see Argon).

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  • This method does not give a pure gas, varying amounts of nitrous oxide and nitrogen being present (see Nitric Acid).

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  • Two antagonistic processes proceed simultaneously, the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen and the reverse change, and either process is accelerated by an increase and retarded by a decrease in temperature.

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  • For this reason proposals have been made to plant in the place of weeds low-growing leguminous plants, the growth of which will not only prevent impoverishment and loss of soil during the rains and conserve moisture in the heat, but will also have the effect of enriching the soil in nitrogenous constituents through the power leguminous plants possess of absorbing nitrogen from the air through nodules on their roots.

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  • In 1849 he discovered anhydrous nitric acid (nitrogen pentoxide), a substance interesting as the first obtained of the so-called " anhydrides " of the monobasic acids.

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  • Piloty, Ber., 1902, 35, p. 3 0 93); and by the action of nitrogen peroxide on ethereal solutions of ketoximes (R.

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  • Its chemical composition - containing, as it invariably does, one or more forms of a complex compound of carbon, hydrogen, pro- oxygen and nitrogen, the so-called protein or albumin The perties of (which has never yet been obtained except as a pro living duct of living bodies), united with a large proportion matter.

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  • They are crystalline solids, usually of a yellow colour, which do not unite with acids; they are readily converted into amino-azo compounds (see above) and are decomposed by the concentrated halogen acids, yielding haloid benzenes, nitrogen and an amine.

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  • It combines directly with nitrogen, when heated in the gas, to form the nitride Mg 3 N 2 (see Argon).

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  • With reference to the assimilation of nitrogen, it would seem that algae, like other green plants,, can best use it when it is presented to them in the form of a nitrate.

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  • Laurent and others were right, and that Clostridium pasteurianum, for instance, if protected from access of free oxygen by an envelope of aerobic bacteria or fungi, and provided with the carbohydrates and minerals necessary for its growth, fixes nitrogen in proportion to the amount of sugar consumed.

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  • No sharp line can be drawn between pathogenic and nonpathogenic Schizomycetes, and some of the most marked steps in the progress of our modern knowledge of these pasteurianum, which is anaerobic, and can fix nitrogen only if protected from oxygen by aerobic species.

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  • The enormous extension of surface also facilitates the absorption of energy from the environment, and, to take one case only, it is impossible to doubt that some source of radiant energy must be at the disposal of those prototrophic forms which decompose carbonates and assimilate carbonic acid in the dark and oxidize nitrogen in dry rocky regions where no organic materials are at their disposal, even could they utilize them.

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  • Until recently the only agent practically used for this purpose was furnished by the oxides of nitrogen; more recently other oxygen carriers, acting by" contact processes,"have also come into use (see below).

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  • The list included hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen; but with improved methods these gases have been liquefied and even solidified, thus rendering the term meaningless (see Liquid Gases).

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  • The gases so formed vary in proportion with the temperature of the generator and .the amount of steam, but generally contain 32 to 38% of combustible gas, the remainder being the residual nitrogen of the air and carbon dioxide.

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  • Annex 3 Glucose signaling The phosphoprotein Ure2p is a central repressor of genes involved in nitrogen metabolism.

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  • Rhizobium bacteria in the nodules fix atmospheric nitrogen and make it available to the legume plant.

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  • However, when Ginkgo is commercially grown, a soil rich in humus and nitrogen is preferable.

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  • What this means is, the very rigors of weight training " leak " nitrogen carrying glutamine from muscle tissue.

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  • High nitrogen results in sappy growth beloved of aphids.

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  • The cyanobacteria and algae that make up the crusts can fix atmospheric nitrogen and sequester carbon dioxide directly from the atmosphere.

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  • During hydrogen production, sorbent materials are used to remove gases such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and nitrogen.

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  • These residues were large enough to supply the needs of the following spring barley without the need for any additional nitrogen.

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  • We will focus on several key elements including sulfur, nitrogen, halogens, phosphorus and iron.

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  • Wonder if anyone 's tried replicating the thing using ceramic superconductors and then cooling the thing off with liquid nitrogen to see what happens.

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  • Erebus is the main point source for NO 2 (and very likely other reactive nitrogen oxides) in the Antarctic troposphere.

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  • Human activities are seriously unbalancing the global nitrogen cycle.

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  • Research has shown that the highest rate of nitrogen retention is achieved with 100% whey protein.

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  • Some elements only exist in nature in pairs of atoms, including hydrogen, nitrogen, and iodine.

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