It is also formed by the action of concentrated sulphuric acid on sodium nitrite in the presence of mercury.
This acid gives with silver nitrite the corresponding nitromalonic acid, which readily yielded the third nitromethane, CHaHb(N02),Hd, also identical with the first.
It may be prepared by the addition of potassium nitrite to an acetic acid solution of cobalt chloride.
This salt may be used for the separation of cobalt and nickel, since the latter metal does not form a similar double nitrite, but it is necessary that the alkaline earth metals should be absent, for in their presence nickel forms complex nitrites containing the alkaline earth metal and the alkali metal.
This acid with silver nitrite gave nitroacetic acid, which readily gave the second nitromethane, CH a (NO 2) b H c H d, identical with the first nitromethane.
News, 23, p. 206) by reducing a solution of potassium nitrite with sodium amalgam, and subsequent precipitation as silver salt.
Sodium nitrite, the most commonly used salt of the acid, is generally obtained by heating the nitrate with metallic lead; by heating sodium nitrate with sulphur and sodium hydroxide, the product then being fractionally crystallized;(Read, Holliday & Sons): 3NaNO 3 +S+2NaOH = Na2S04+3NaN02+H20; by oxidizing atmospheric nitrogen in an electric arc, keeping the gases above 300° C., until absorption in alkaline hydroxide solution is effected (German Pat.
Ammonium nitrate and nitrite, for instance, intensify the action of a water on lead.
Aiphatic Nitro Compounds.-The nitroparaffins may be obtained by the action of the alkyl iodides on silver nitrite (V.
Phenylnitromethane, C 6 H 5 CH 2 NO 2, isomeric with the nitrotoluenes, is prepared by the action of benzyl chloride on silver nitrite.
The pseudo-nitrols, RR':C(NO)(NO 2), may be obtained by the action of nitrous acid on the secondary nitroparaffins; by the action of silver nitrite on such bromnitrosoparaffins as contain the bromine and the nitroso group united to the same carbon atom (0.
Strong or weak solutions of these substances also decompose it, producing some alkali nitrate and nitrite, the cellulose molecule being only partially restored, some quantity undergoing oxidation.
Ammonium hydroxide has no appreciable action at ordinary temperatures, but strong solutions of sodium or potassium hydroxides start a decomposition, with rise of temperature, in which some nitrate and always some nitrite is produced.
Alcoholic solutions of the alkalis also produce much nitrite along with some formate and acetate.
Although a nitrate, its pharmacological actions resemble those of nitrites such as amyl nitrite, taken internally.
The explanation is that in an alkaline medium at body heat nitroglycerin yields a nitrite, probably as a preliminary stage of resolution.
Nitroglycerin shaken up with warm very dilute alkaline solutions, as sodium carbonate, for a few minutes only, always yields sufficient nitrite to give the diazoreaction; and, as stated, strong alkaline solutions always produce some nitrite as one of the decomposition products.
At a red heat it evolves oxygen with the formation of potassium nitrite, which, in turn, decomposes at a higher temperature.
sodium nitrite, ethyl nitrite, amyl nitrite) cause relaxation of involuntary muscular fibre and therefore relieve the asthmatic attacks, which depend upon spasm of the involuntary muscles in the bronchial tubes.
Saltpetre may be made to act as a nitrite by dissolving it in water in the strength of about fifty grains to the ounce, soaking blotting-paper in the solution and letting the paper dry.
The salt fuses at 316°; at higher temperatures it loses oxygen (more readily than the corresponding potassium salt) with the formation of nitrite which, at very high temperatures, is reduced ultimately to a mixture of peroxide, Na202, and oxide, Na 2 0.
Caesium nitrate, CsNO 3, is obtained by dissolving the carbonate in nitric acid, and crystallizes in glittering prisms, which melt readily, and on heating evolve oxygen and leave a residue of caesium nitrite.
Potassium osmiate, K 2 0sO 4 2H 2 0, formed when an alkaline solution of the tetroxide is decomposed by alcohol, or by potassium nitrite, crystallizes in red octahedra.
Ammonium nitrite, NH 4 NO 2, is formed by oxidizing ammonia with ozone or hydrogen peroxide; by precipitating barium or lead nitrites with ammonium sulphate, or silver nitrite with ammonium chloride.
Compounds are known which may be looked upon as derived from ammonia by the replacement of its hydrogen by the sulpho-group (HS0 3); thus potassium ammon-trisulphonate,N(SO 3 K) 3.2H20,is obtained as a crystalline precipitate on the addition of excess of potassium sulphite to a solution of potassium nitrite, KN02+3K2S03+2H20=N(S03K) 3 +4KHO.
442); it may also be prepared by heating the nitrate or nitrite with metallic sodium, free nitrogen being eliminated (German patent, 142467, 1902).
For sodium nitrite see Nitrogen; for sodium nitrate see Saltpetre; for the cyanide see Prussic Acid; and for the borate see Borax.
For the nitrite, see Nitrogen, for the nitrate see Saltpetre and for the cyanide see Prussic Acid; for other salts see the articles wherein the corresponding acid receives treatment.
The potassium salt may be prepared by adding potassium cyanide to ferrous sulphate solution, the brown precipitate so formed being then heated with potassium nitrite: 5 KNC + 2 FeSO 4 = 2 K 2 SO 4 + KFe2(NC)5, 2 KFe 2 (NC) 5 + 2 KNO 2 = 2 FeO + 2 K2Fe(NC)5 NO.
Bamberger (Ber., 1898, 31, p. 455) has shown that the nitro-alkyl derivatives behave as though they possess the constitution of hydrazones, for on heating with dilute alkalies they split more or less readily into an alkaline nitrite and an acid hydrazide: C 6 H 5 NH N: C(N02)CH3+NaOH=NaN02+C6H5NH NH CO CH3.
Whatever were the means employed to rid air of accompanying oxygen, a uniform value of the density was arrived at, and this value was z% greater than that appertaining to nitrogen extracted from compounds such as nitrous oxide, ammonia and ammonium nitrite.
In the earlier stages of the inquiry, when it was important to meet the doubts which had been expressed as to the presence of the new gas in the atmosphere, blank experiments were executed in which air was replaced by nitrogen from ammonium nitrite.
Nitrite of amyl inhalations are useful in the early stages when the respiratory muscles are freely movable.
With nitrous acid (obtained from amyl nitrite and gaseous hydrochloric acid, the ketone being dissolved in acetic acid) they form isonitroso-ketones, R CO CH:NOH (L.
Pechmann, Ber., 1887, 20, p. 31 12; 1889, 22, p. 2115), CH 3 CO C :(N OH) CH 3 ->CH3 CO C :([[Nhso 3) Ch 3 ->Ch 3 Co - Co Ch]] 3; or by the action of isoamyl nitrite on the isonitrosoketones (0.
In this process the amine salt is dissolved in absolute alcohol and diazotized by the addition of amyl nitrite; a crystalline precipitate of the diazonium salt is formed on standing, or on the addition of a small quantity of ether.
The first aliphatic diazo compound to be isolated was diazoacetic ester, CH N2 CO 2 C 2 H 5 i which is prepared by the action of potassium nitrite on the ethyl ester of glycocoll hydrochloride,HCl NH2 CH2 C02C2H 5 -1-KNO 2 =CHN 2 CO 2 C 2 H 5+ KCI+2H 2 O.
Ethyl nitrite, C2H5.
Freund, Ber., 1895, 28, p. 94 6; 1896, 29, p. 2501), crystallizes in long needles, which melt at 181-183° C. The addition of sodium nitrite to an aqueous solution of its hydrochloride converts it into amido-triaz / N N sulphol S< 1.
Numerous methods have been devised for the separation of nickel and cobalt, the more important of which are: -the cobaltinitrite method by which the cobalt is precipitated in the presence of acetic acid by means of potassium nitrite (the alkaline earth metals must not be present); the cyanide method (J.
Rubidium nitrate, RbNO 3, obtained by the action of nitric acid on the carbonate, crystallizes in needles or prisms and when strongly heated is transformed into a mixture of nitrite and oxide.
It decomposes when heated to 900; with water it gives nitric oxide and cupric nitrate and nitrite.
As an example may be taken the use of nitrite of amyl in angina pectoris.
Nitrite of amyl has the power of dilating the arteries; it has consequently been employed with much success in lowering the blood pressure and removing the pain in angina pectoris.
For on the one hand knowledge of the fact that nitrite of amyl lessens blood pressure has led to the successful employment of other nitrites and bodies having a similar action, and on the other the knowledge that increased blood pressure tends to cause anginal pain leads to the prohibition of any strain, any food, any exposure to cold, and also of any medicines which would unduly raise the blood pressure.
Now we can see the reason for their administration, because the nitrous ether, consisting chiefly of ethyl nitrite, dilates the superficial vessels and thus allows greater escape of heat from the surface; while acetate of ammonia, by acting as a diaphoretic and stimulating the secretion of sweat, increases the loss of heat by evaporation.
When the latter have oxidized ammonia to nitrite, however, the former step in and oxidize it still further to nitric acid.
With sodium nitrite it forms a water-soluble blue dye, which is turned red by acids, and is used as an indicator, under the name of lacmoid (M.
It crystallizes from benzene in prisms, which melt at 97° C. Sodium nitrite in the presence of excess of acid converts it into the corresponding hydroxylic compound flavenol.
Cyclo-heptanol, C,H 13 0H, is formed by the reduction of suberone, and by the action of silver nitrite on the hydrochloride of cyclo- hexanamine (N.
Derivatives of the type R 2 N OH result in the action of the Grignard reagent on amyl nitrite.
The alcohol is first acted upon with phosphorus and iodine, and the resulting alkyl iodide is treated with silver nitrite, which gives the corresponding nitroalkyl.
The nitro-alkyl is then treated with potassium nitrite dissolved in concentrated potash, and sulphuric acid is added.
NH 2 NH2 Diorthodiaminodiphenyl, -, isobtained bythe reduction of the corresponding nitro compound (obtained by the action of ethyl nitrite at o° C. on metadinitrobenzidine hydrochloride).
- This group contains amyl nitrite, ethyl nitrite, methyl nitrite, nitroglycerin, sodium and potassium nitrites, erythrol-tetranitrate, and many other compounds containing nitrous or nitric acid.
The ' special ' biochemical adaptations used by bacteria that oxidize ammonia or nitrite.
amyl nitrite are inhaled through the nose or mouth.
butyl nitrite) come in small bottles with screw or plug tops.
Eggs, miscellaneous cereals and meat products contained the highest nitrite concentrations.
Patients with a positive leukocyte esterase or nitrite test were excluded until the urinary tract infection was treated.
Well, your doctor has nitrite and leucocyte esterase dipstick tests for night, weekend or emergency use.
A benchtop model was constructed reproducing the nitrite chemistry occurring within the lumen of the upper gastrointestinal tract where saliva encounters acidic gastric juice.
inhalant nitrite exposure alters mouse hepatic angiogenic gene expression.
Note: By the late 1970's, nitrite inhalants were a $ 50 million dollar business.
isobutyl nitrite reacted with hydrogen peroxide to form peroxynitrite.
miscellaneous cereals and meat products contained the highest nitrite concentrations.
Other bacteria in a mature aquarium convert the nitrite to nitrate.
The ammonia produced by the fish is acted upon in mature water by the bacteria, which converts it to another compound called nitrite.
Antimicrobial effect of acidified nitrite on gut pathogens: importance of dietary nitrate in host defense.
nitrite into nitrate) can also take place in this zone.
The first stage in nitrification is ammonia being converted to less toxic nitrite (NO 2 -) by Nitrosomonas sp.
nitrite inhalants were a $ 50 million dollar business.
nitrite reductase diversity under the L. perenne and fallow treatments.
nitrite ion is toxic to plants.
nitrite concentrations were low, being detected in only 9 of the 20 food groups in the TDS.
nitrite levels is to dilute the build-up of toxins by carrying out partial water changes.
nitrite test kits can be bought fairly cheaply and testing should be done from day one.
The vapors from the amyl nitrite are inhaled through the nose or mouth.
In the absence of cells, isobutyl nitrite reacted with hydrogen peroxide to form peroxynitrite.
However, as street drugs, the alkyl nitrites (usually butyl nitrite) come in small bottles with screw or plug tops.
One of the most commonly used agents in the modern process is sodium nitrite.
The sodium or potassium nitrite solution is also cooled in the ice.
Background Nitrate and nitrite in food Most foods contain nitrate and nitrite in food Most foods contain nitrate and nitrite.
Hydroxyl radicals were produced by the photolysis of methyl nitrite in the presence of NO.
Initial results suggest a shift in nitrite reductase diversity under the L. perenne and fallow treatments.
It is now known that the action takes place in two stages; the ammonium salt is first oxidized to the nitrite stage and subsequently to the nitrate.
This readily gave with silver nitrite a nitromethane in which we may suppose the nitro-group to replace the a hydrogen atom, i.e.
It is also prepared by heating ammonium nitrite (or a mixture of sodium nitrite and ammonium chloride): NH 4 NO 2 =2H20+N21 by heating a mixture of ammonium nitrate and chloride (the chlorine which is simultaneously produced being absorbed by milk of lime or by a solution of sodium hydroxide): 4NH4N03+2NH4C1=5N2 +C1 2 +12H 2 O; by heating ammonium dichromate (or a mixture of ammonium chloride and potassium dichromate): (NH4)2Cr207 = Cr203+4H20+ N2; by passing chlorine into a concentrated solution of ammonia (which should be present in considerable excess): 8NH3+3C12=6NH4C1-F-N2; by the action of hypochlorites or hypobromites on ammonia: 3NaOBr-+2NH 3 =3NaBr+3H 2 OH-N 2; and by the action of manganese dioxide on ammonium nitrate at 180-20oÃ‚° C. It is also formed by the reduction of nitric and nitrous oxides with hydrogen in the presence of platinized asbestos at a red heat (G.
Nitric acid (up to 50%) is formed in the first tower, and weaker acids in the successive ones; the last tower contains milk of lime which combines with the gases to form calcium nitrite and nitrate (this product, being unsuitable as a manure, is decomposed with the acid, and the evolved gases sent back).
Sodium nitrite, the most commonly used salt of the acid, is generally obtained by heating the nitrate with metallic lead; by heating sodium nitrate with sulphur and sodium hydroxide, the product then being fractionally crystallized;(Read, Holliday & Sons): 3NaNO 3 +S+2NaOH = Na2S04+3NaN02+H20; by oxidizing atmospheric nitrogen in an electric arc, keeping the gases above 300Ã‚° C., until absorption in alkaline hydroxide solution is effected (German Pat.
The nitrogen-bacteria that concern us here are of two main categories: (I) those that assimilate elementary nitrogen from its solution in sea-water, building it up into combination with carbohydrate as proteid; and (2) those that break down nitrate into nitrite, nitrite into ammonia and ammonia into elementary nitrogen.
Nitroparaffins may also be obtained by the action of sodium nitrite on the a-halogen fatty acids, the a-nitro fatty acids first formed readily eliminating carbon dioxide (H.
Sandmeyer, Ber., 1887, 20, p. 1494) by the action of copper powder on the double salt formed by the addition of potassium mercuric nitrite to diazonium nitrites; and by the oxidation of primary aromatic amines (E.
The further oxidation of the nitrite to a nitrate is effected by bacteria belonging to the genus Nitrobacter.
The salt fuses at 316Ã‚°; at higher temperatures it loses oxygen (more readily than the corresponding potassium salt) with the formation of nitrite which, at very high temperatures, is reduced ultimately to a mixture of peroxide, Na202, and oxide, Na 2 0.
(3-Nitronaphthalene is prepared by acting with ethyl nitrite on an alcoholic solution of 2-nitro-a-naphthylamine in the presence of sulphuric acid (E.
These compounds may be divided into two classes, namely, the true diazo compounds, characterized by the grouping -N=N-, and the diazonium compounds, characterized by the grouping N: N < The diazonium compounds were first discovered by P. Griess (Ann., 1858,, 06, pp. 123 et seq.), and may be prepared by the action of nitrous fumes on a well-cooled solution of a salt of a primary amine, C 6 H 5 NH 2 HNO 3 HNO 2 = C 6 H 5 N 2 .NO 3 2H20, or, as is more usually the case (since the diazonium salts themselves are generally used only in aqueous solution) by the addition of a well-cooled solution of potassium or sodium nitrite to a well-cooled dilute acid solution of the primary amine.
Amyl nitrite, C5H1, ONO, boils at 96Ã‚° C. and is used in the preparation of the anhydrous diazonium salts (E.
Freund, Ber., 1895, 28, p. 94 6; 1896, 29, p. 2501), crystallizes in long needles, which melt at 181-183Ã‚° C. The addition of sodium nitrite to an aqueous solution of its hydrochloride converts it into amido-triaz / N N sulphol S< 1.
Bamberger, Ber., 1893.26, p. 49 6); by the oxidation of nitrosobenzene (below) with atmospheric oxygen; or by the decomposition of benzene diazonium nitrate mercury nitrite, Hg(NO 2) 2.2C 6 H 5 N 2 NO 3, with copper powder (A.
It crystallizes from benzene in prisms, which melt at 97Ã‚° C. Sodium nitrite in the presence of excess of acid converts it into the corresponding hydroxylic compound flavenol.
NH 2 NH2 Diorthodiaminodiphenyl, -, isobtained bythe reduction of the corresponding nitro compound (obtained by the action of ethyl nitrite at oÃ‚° C. on metadinitrobenzidine hydrochloride).
Nitrite: Nitrite poisoning should be considered along with iron toxicity, since nitrite produces its toxic effect by reacting with the iron atom in hemoglobin.
Methemoglobin can accumulate in the blood as a result of nitrite poisoning.
Infants are especially susceptible to poisoning by nitrite.
It is rapidly converted to nitrite by the bacteria that live in the mouth as well as in the intestines and then absorbed into the bloodstream.
The amount of nitrite supplied by a typical diet is much lower, about 0.1 mg nitrite per day.
Poisoning by nitrite (or nitrate after its conversion to nitrite) results in the inability of hemoglobin to carry oxygen throughout the body.
Treatment of nitrite or nitrate toxicity involves inhalation of 100 percent oxygen for several hours.
It is also prepared by the action of phosphorus pentachloride on potassium nitrite or on nitrogen peroxide.
It is readily decomposed by water and alkaline hydroxides, yielding a mixture of nitrite and chloride.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.