This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience. Learn more

nitriles

nitriles Sentence Examples

  • Hofmann, Ber., 188 2, 1 5, p. 977), by the partial hydrolysis of the nitriles, by the action of ammonia or ammonium carbonate on acid chlorides or anhydrides, or by heating the.

    0
    0
  • When distilled with phosphoric anhydride they yield nitriles.

    0
    0
  • The secondary and tertiary amides of the types (RCO) 2 NH and (RCO) 3 N may be prepared by heating the primary amides or the nitriles with acids or acid anhydrides to 200° C. Thiamides of the type R.

    0
    0
  • by the addition of sulphuretted hydrogen to the nitriles, or by the action of phosphorus pentasulphide on the acid-amides.

    0
    0
  • Thus in the normal fatty alcohols, acids, esters, nitriles and ketones, the increment per CH 2 is 19°-21°; in the aldehydes it is 26°-27°.

    0
    0
  • The same difference attends the introduction of the methyl group into many classes of compounds, for example, the paraffins, olefines, acetylenes, aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and esters, while a slightly lower value (157.1) is found in the case of the halogen compounds, nitriles, amines, acids, ethers, sulphides and nitro compounds.

    0
    0
  • The combination of nitrogen with carbon may result in the formation of nitriles, cyanides, or primary, secondary or tertiary amines.

    0
    0
  • The aldoximes are converted by the action of dehydrating agents into nitriles: RCH: NOH-->R C: N+H 2 0.

    0
    0
  • The syn-aldoximes or treatment with acetyl chloride readily lose water and yield nitriles; the anti-aldoximes as a rule are acetylated and do not yield nitriles.

    0
    0
  • Wallach (Ann., 1900, 312, p. 171) has shown that the saturated cyclic ketones yield oximes which by an application of the Beckmann reaction are converted into isoximes, and these latter on hydrolysis with dilute mineral acids are transformed into acyclic amino-acids; thus from cyclohexanone, e-amidocaproic acid (e-leucine) may be obtained: CH2" C NOH C CH 2 CH 2 7: ?12?CH2 CH2 NH /CH2 CH2 C02H CH2', An ingenious application of the fact that oximes easily lose the elements of water and form nitriles was used by A.

    0
    0
  • Pinner, Ber., 1892, 25, p. 1624): / NH N C?CsH 5 2C61 - 15 C +(CH 3 C0) 2 0 -> C6H5 C N; NH 2 N :C?CH3 or by the condensation of aromatic nitriles with acid chlorides in the presence of aluminium chloride (Eitner and Krafft, Ber., 1892, 25, p. 2263).

    0
    0
  • the salts of the metals, the organic salts (or esters) being termed nitriles.

    0
    0
  • An important nucleus-synthetic reaction is the saponification of nitriles, which may be obtained by the interaction of potassium cyanide with a halogen substitution derivative or a sulphonic acid.

    0
    0
  • CO�NH2, which by further dehydration yield nitriles, R�CN.

    0
    0
  • They may be prepared by converting nitriles into amidoximes by the action of hydroxylamine, the amidoximes so formed being then acylated by acid chlorides or anhydrides.

    0
    0
  • It combines with aldehydes and ketones to form the nitriles of oxy-acids, for example, CH 3 CHO+HCN=CH 3 CH(OH)(CN).

    0
    0
  • Organic Cyanides or Nitriles.

    0
    0
  • - Hydrocyanic acid forms two series of derivatives by the exchange of its hydrogen atom for alkyl or aryl groups; namely the nitriles, of type R CN, and the isonitriles, of type R NC. The latter compounds may be considered as derivatives of the as yet unknown isohydrocyanic acid HNC.

    0
    0
  • They boil at temperatures somewhat lower than those of the corresponding nitriles; and are stable towards alkalis, but in the presence of mineral acids they readily hydrolyse, forming primary amines and formic acid: RNC+2H 2 O = RNH2+H2C02.

    0
    0
  • At 200° C. the isonitriles are converted into nitriles.

    0
    0
  • - Considerable discussion has taken place as to the structure of the metallic cyanides, since potassium cyanide and silver cyanide react with alkyl iodides to form nitriles and isonitriles respectively, thus apparently pointing to the fact that these two compounds possess the formulae KCN and AgNC. The metallic cyanides are analogous to the alkyl isocyanides, since they form soluble double silver salts, and the fact that ethyl ferrocyanide on distillation yields ethyl isocyanide also points to their isocyanide structure.

    0
    0
  • This explanation also accounts for the formation of nitriles by the diazo reaction, thus: C 6 H 5 N 2 C1+CuNC-)CuN :C Cl N 2 C 6 H 5 ->CuCl-{ N :C N2 C6H5C6H5CN-{- N2.

    0
    0
  • Its nitrile (prussic acid) has an acid character, a property not possessed by the nitriles of the other members of the series; and, by the abstraction of the elements of water from the acid,.

    0
    0
  • They combine with hydrocyanic acid to form nitriles, which on hydrolysis furnish hydroxyacids, (CH3)2C0 -> (CH 3) 2 C OH CN - (CH3)2 C OH C02H; with phenylhydrazine they yield hydrazones; with hydrazine they yield in addition ketazines RR' C:N N:C RR' (T.

    0
    0
  • In the case of iodine, the substitution is effected by adding a warm solution of potassium iodide to the diazonium solution, no copper or cuprous salt being necessary; whilst for the production of nitriles a solution of potassium cuprous cyanide is used.

    0
    0
  • Bernthsen); by the action of ammonium chloride or hydrochlorides of amines on nitriles; by condensing amines and amides in presence of phosphorus trichloride; by the action of hydrochloric acid on acid-amides (0.

    0
    0
  • On dry distillation they yield nitriles and ammonia.

    0
    0
  • 1889, 22, p. 2220), or by the action of alkali on the compounds formed by the interaction of ethylene chlorhydrin on nitriles.

    0
    0
  • It also acts in an opposite manner in certain cases, adding the elements of water to compounds; thus, nitriles are converted into acid-amides, and various acetylene derivatives may be caused to yield ketonic derivatives.

    0
    0
  • However, NaBH 4 isn't a strong enough reducing agent to reduce nitriles.

    0
    0
  • Indeed, the role of simple nitriles as cycloaddition reagents has only been reported this year [22] .

    0
    0
  • 1848, 65, p. 269) by heating the nitriles of acids with metallic sodium or with sodium ethylate between 130 0 C. and C.

    0
    0
  • Hofmann, Ber., 188 2, 1 5, p. 977), by the partial hydrolysis of the nitriles, by the action of ammonia or ammonium carbonate on acid chlorides or anhydrides, or by heating the.

    0
    0
  • When distilled with phosphoric anhydride they yield nitriles.

    0
    0
  • The secondary and tertiary amides of the types (RCO) 2 NH and (RCO) 3 N may be prepared by heating the primary amides or the nitriles with acids or acid anhydrides to 200° C. Thiamides of the type R.

    0
    0
  • by the addition of sulphuretted hydrogen to the nitriles, or by the action of phosphorus pentasulphide on the acid-amides.

    0
    0
  • Thus in the normal fatty alcohols, acids, esters, nitriles and ketones, the increment per CH 2 is 19°-21°; in the aldehydes it is 26°-27°.

    0
    0
  • The same difference attends the introduction of the methyl group into many classes of compounds, for example, the paraffins, olefines, acetylenes, aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and esters, while a slightly lower value (157.1) is found in the case of the halogen compounds, nitriles, amines, acids, ethers, sulphides and nitro compounds.

    0
    0
  • The combination of nitrogen with carbon may result in the formation of nitriles, cyanides, or primary, secondary or tertiary amines.

    0
    0
  • The aldoximes are converted by the action of dehydrating agents into nitriles: RCH: NOH-->R C: N+H 2 0.

    0
    0
  • The syn-aldoximes or treatment with acetyl chloride readily lose water and yield nitriles; the anti-aldoximes as a rule are acetylated and do not yield nitriles.

    0
    0
  • Wallach (Ann., 1900, 312, p. 171) has shown that the saturated cyclic ketones yield oximes which by an application of the Beckmann reaction are converted into isoximes, and these latter on hydrolysis with dilute mineral acids are transformed into acyclic amino-acids; thus from cyclohexanone, e-amidocaproic acid (e-leucine) may be obtained: CH2" C NOH C CH 2 CH 2 7: ?12?CH2 CH2 NH /CH2 CH2 C02H CH2', An ingenious application of the fact that oximes easily lose the elements of water and form nitriles was used by A.

    0
    0
  • Pinner, Ber., 1892, 25, p. 1624): / NH N C?CsH 5 2C61 - 15 C +(CH 3 C0) 2 0 -> C6H5 C N; NH 2 N :C?CH3 or by the condensation of aromatic nitriles with acid chlorides in the presence of aluminium chloride (Eitner and Krafft, Ber., 1892, 25, p. 2263).

    0
    0
  • Hofmann); by the reduction of nitriles with alcohol and sodium (A.

    0
    0
  • the salts of the metals, the organic salts (or esters) being termed nitriles.

    0
    0
  • An important nucleus-synthetic reaction is the saponification of nitriles, which may be obtained by the interaction of potassium cyanide with a halogen substitution derivative or a sulphonic acid.

    0
    0
  • CO�NH2, which by further dehydration yield nitriles, R�CN.

    0
    0
  • They may be prepared by converting nitriles into amidoximes by the action of hydroxylamine, the amidoximes so formed being then acylated by acid chlorides or anhydrides.

    0
    0
  • It combines with aldehydes and ketones to form the nitriles of oxy-acids, for example, CH 3 CHO+HCN=CH 3 CH(OH)(CN).

    0
    0
  • Organic Cyanides or Nitriles.

    0
    0
  • - Hydrocyanic acid forms two series of derivatives by the exchange of its hydrogen atom for alkyl or aryl groups; namely the nitriles, of type R CN, and the isonitriles, of type R NC. The latter compounds may be considered as derivatives of the as yet unknown isohydrocyanic acid HNC.

    0
    0
  • In addition to these methods, the nitriles of the aromatic series may be prepared by distilling the aromatic acids with potassium sulphocyanide: C 6 H 5 CO 2 H -{- [[Kcns = Hcns -}- C6h5c02k, C 6 H 5 Co 2 H -}- Hcns = C 6 H 5 Cn]] -fH 2 S + C02; from the primary aromatic amines by converting them into diazonium salts, which are then decomposed by boiling with potassium cyanide and copper sulphate; by fusing the potassium salts of the sulphonic acids with potassium cyanide; by leading cyanogen gas into a boiling hydrocarbon in the presence of aluminium chloride (A.

    0
    0
  • They boil at temperatures somewhat lower than those of the corresponding nitriles; and are stable towards alkalis, but in the presence of mineral acids they readily hydrolyse, forming primary amines and formic acid: RNC+2H 2 O = RNH2+H2C02.

    0
    0
  • At 200° C. the isonitriles are converted into nitriles.

    0
    0
  • - Considerable discussion has taken place as to the structure of the metallic cyanides, since potassium cyanide and silver cyanide react with alkyl iodides to form nitriles and isonitriles respectively, thus apparently pointing to the fact that these two compounds possess the formulae KCN and AgNC. The metallic cyanides are analogous to the alkyl isocyanides, since they form soluble double silver salts, and the fact that ethyl ferrocyanide on distillation yields ethyl isocyanide also points to their isocyanide structure.

    0
    0
  • Wade (loc. cit.) explains the formation of nitriles from potassium cyanide, and of isonitriles from silver cyanide by the assumption that unstable addition products are formed, the nature of which depends on the relative state of unsaturation of the carbon and nitrogen atoms under the varying conditions: KNC--KN :C(:C 2 H 5 I) --SKI +C2H5CN, AgNC->AgN(:C2H51)C---AgI-f-C2H5NC; that is, when the metal is highly electro-positive the carbon atom is the more unsaturated, the addition takes place on the carbon atom, and nitriles are produced.

    0
    0
  • This explanation also accounts for the formation of nitriles by the diazo reaction, thus: C 6 H 5 N 2 C1+CuNC-)CuN :C Cl N 2 C 6 H 5 ->CuCl-{ N :C N2 C6H5C6H5CN-{- N2.

    0
    0
  • Its nitrile (prussic acid) has an acid character, a property not possessed by the nitriles of the other members of the series; and, by the abstraction of the elements of water from the acid,.

    0
    0
  • Nitriles yield ketones (the nitrogen being eliminated as ammonia), the best yields being given by the aromatic nitriles (E.

    0
    0
  • They may also be prepared by the decomposition of ketone chlorides with water; by the oxidation of the tertiary hydroxyacids; by the hydrolysis of the ketonic acids or their esters with dilute alkalis or baryta water (see Aceto-Acetic Ester); by the hydrolysis of alkyl derivatives of acetone dicarboxylic acid, HO 2 C CH 2 CO CHR CO 2 H; and by the action of the Grignard reagent on nitriles (E.

    0
    0
  • They combine with hydrocyanic acid to form nitriles, which on hydrolysis furnish hydroxyacids, (CH3)2C0 -> (CH 3) 2 C OH CN - (CH3)2 C OH C02H; with phenylhydrazine they yield hydrazones; with hydrazine they yield in addition ketazines RR' C:N N:C RR' (T.

    0
    0
  • In the case of iodine, the substitution is effected by adding a warm solution of potassium iodide to the diazonium solution, no copper or cuprous salt being necessary; whilst for the production of nitriles a solution of potassium cuprous cyanide is used.

    0
    0
  • ] Hydrogen peroxide behaves very frequently as a powerful oxidizing agent; thus lead sulphide is converted into lead sulphate in presence of a dilute aqueous solution of the peroxide, the hydroxides of the alkaline earth metals are converted into peroxides of the type MO 2.8H 2 0, titanium dioxide is converted into the trioxide, iodine is liberated from potassium iodide, and nitriles (in alkaline solution) are converted into acid-amides (B.

    0
    0
  • Bernthsen); by the action of ammonium chloride or hydrochlorides of amines on nitriles; by condensing amines and amides in presence of phosphorus trichloride; by the action of hydrochloric acid on acid-amides (0.

    0
    0
  • On dry distillation they yield nitriles and ammonia.

    0
    0
  • 1887, 20, p. 2576; 1888, 21, p. 2195) NH HO C R'N CR' R C, OH + Br CH - ' R C O CH ' by the action of concentrated sulphuric acid on nitriles and benzoin (F.

    0
    0
  • 1889, 22, p. 2220), or by the action of alkali on the compounds formed by the interaction of ethylene chlorhydrin on nitriles.

    0
    0
  • It also acts in an opposite manner in certain cases, adding the elements of water to compounds; thus, nitriles are converted into acid-amides, and various acetylene derivatives may be caused to yield ketonic derivatives.

    0
    0
Browse other sentences examples →