How to use Nitrates in a sentence
Long ago the view that this gas might be the source of the combined nitrogen found in different forms within the plant, was critically examined, particularly by Boussingault, and later by Lawes and Gilbert and by Pugh, and it was ascertained to be erroneous, the plants only taking nitrogen into their substance when it is presented to their roots in the form of nitrates of various metals, or compounds of ammonia.
While they are quite capable of taking up nitrates from the soil where and so long as these are present, they can grow and thrive in soil which contains no combined nitrogen at all, deriving their supplies of this element in these cases from the air.
The process resulting in the formation of nitrates in the soil is spoken of as nitrification.
These nitrates generally occur as efflorescences caused by the oxidation of nitrogenous matter in the presence of the alkalies and alkaline earths.
The salts of all the metals of this group usually crystallize well, the chlorides and nitrates dissolve readily in water, whilst the carbonates, phosphates and sulphates are either very sparingly soluble or are insoluble in water.Advertisement
This result is partly due to their period of accumulation and growth extending even months after the period of collection by the ripening cereals has terminated, and at the season when nitrification within the soil is most active, and the accumulation of nitrates in it is the greatest.
Oxygen, recognized by its power of igniting a glowing splinter, results from the decomposition of oxides of the noble metals, peroxides, chlorates, nitrates and other highly oxygenized salts.
Nitrogen oxides, recognized by their odour and brown-red colour, result from the decomposition of nitrates.
It converts many metallic oxides into mixtures of nitrates and nitrites, and attacks many metals, forming nitrates and being itself reduced to nitric oxide.
Its salts may be obtained in some cases by heating the corresponding nitrates, but the method does not give good results.Advertisement
The source of the carbon of organic tissues is carbonic acid; that of the nitrogen in the proteids is the nitrates, nitrites and salts of ammonia dissolved in sea-water; the material of the shells or other skeletons is the silica, phosphate and calcium of the salts of sea-water (and, in rare cases, the salts of strontium).
Mineral nitrogenous compounds (nitrates, nitrites and ammonia) are much more rare.
First of all we consider inorganically combined nitrogen (as nitrates and nitrites chiefly), since upon this depends all the life of the ocean.
The dead bodies of organisms fall down from the surface and are slowly resolved into products of putrefaction, which gradually pass into the mineral forms, nitrates, carbonic acid and ash.
Its principal imports are coffee (of which it is the greatest continental market), tea, sugar, spices, rice, wine (especially from Bordeaux), lard (from Chicago), cereals, sago, dried fruits, herrings, wax (from Morocco and Mozambique), tobacco, hemp, cotton (which of late years shows a large increase), wool, skins, leather, oils, dyewoods, indigo, nitrates, phosphates and coal.Advertisement
In one process the purified ore is disintegrated with hot nitric acid to produce nitrates, which are then converted into sulphates by evaporation with sulphuric acid.
At the time these products were thought to be related to the nitrated starch obtained a little previously by Henri Braconnot and called xyloidin; they are only related in so far as they are nitrates.
The nitrates are also very insoluble substances, all the so-called solvents merely converting them into jelly.
The products of the action of nitric acid on cellulose are not nitro compounds in the sense that picric acid is, but are nitrates or nitric esters.
On its thoroughness depends the removal of small quantities of products other than the nitrates, for instance, some sulphates and products from impurities contained in the original cellulose.Advertisement
They are sometimes spoken of as "lower" or "soluble" cottons or nitrates.
These soluble matters are usually considered as "lower" nitrates.
The nitrate of this base (known as nitron) is so insoluble that nitrates may be gravimetrically estimated with its help. These bases combine with the alkyl iodides to yield quaternary ammonium salts.
The materials are generally used in the form either of oxides (lead, zinc, silica, &c.) or of salts readily decomposed by heat, such as the nitrates or carbonates.
All other metals, including palladium, are dissolved as nitrates, the oxidizing part of the reagent being generally reduced to oxides of nitrogen.Advertisement
Leguminous crops take some of the nitrogen which they require from the air, but most plants obtain it from the nitrates present in the soil.
The sulphur exists in the soil chiefly in the form of sulphates of magnesium, calcium and other metals; the phosphorus mainly as phosphates of calcium, magnesium and iron; the potash, soda and other bases as silicates and nitrates; calcium and magnesium carbonates are also common constituents of many soils.
The compounds of ammonia thus formed from the complex substances by many varied kinds of micro-organisms are ultimately oxidized into nitrates.
Nitrates are very soluble in water and are therefore liable to be washed out of the soil by heavy rain.
They are, however, very readily absorbed by growing plants, so that in summer, when nitrification is most active, the nitrates produced are usually made use of by crops before loss by drainage takes place.Advertisement
There is also another possible source of loss of nitrates through the activity of denitrifying bacteria.
These organisms reduce nitrates to nitrites and finally to ammonia and gaseous free nitrogen which escapes into the atmosphere.
They can, however, only carry on their work extensively under anaerobic conditions, as in waterlogged soils or in those which are badly tilled, so that there is but little loss of nitrates through their agency.
Ordinary Saltpetre or Potassium Nitrate, KN03, occurs, mingled with other nitrates, on the surface and in the superficial layers of the soil in many countries, especially in certain parts of India, Persia, Arabia and Spain.
Within these limits are to be found most of the minerals known - gold, silver, quicksilver, copper, lead, zinc, iron, manganese, wolfram, bismuth, thorium, vanadium; mica, coal, &c. On or near the coast are coal, salt, sulphur, borax, nitrates and petroleum.Advertisement
In 1876 interest payments on account of this debt were suspended and in1879-1882the war with Chile deprived Peru of her principal sources of income - the guano deposits and the Tarapaca nitrates.
The metal is soluble in solutions of chlorine, bromine, thiosulphates and cyanides; and also in solutions which generate chlorine, such as mixtures of hydrochloric acid with nitric acid, chromic acid, antimonious acid, peroxides and nitrates, and of nitric acid with a chloride.
The freezing of the soil in winter, which at first sight seems a drawback, retains the soluble nitrates which might otherwise be drained out.
The acid is found to exist to a slight extent in the free condition in some waters, but chiefly occurs in combination with various metals, as nitrates, principally as nitre or saltpetre, KN03, and Chile saltpetre, NaNO 3.
It may be purified by redistillation over barium and silver nitrates, followed by treatment of the distillate with a stream of ozonized air.Advertisement
The salts of nitric acid, known as nitrates, are mostly readily soluble in water and crystallize well.
Nitric acid finds extensive application in the manufacture of sulphuric acid, certain coal-tar colouring matters, explosives, and in the production of various nitrates.
Both are remarkable for the quantity of nitrates and phosphates they contain.
Bamberger (Ber., 18 94, 27, p. 9 1 4) obtained the diazoic acids, R NH NO 2, substances which he had previously prepared by similarly oxidizing the diazonium salts, by dehydrating the nitrates of primary amines with acetic anhydride, and by the action of nitric anhydride on the primary amines.
Hydrogen is a very powerful reducing agent; the gas occluded by palladium being very active in this respect, readily reducing ferric salts to ferrous salts, nitrates to nitrites and ammonia, chlorates to chlorides, &c.Advertisement
For if, as is commonly the case, the water employed be drainage-water from cultivated lands, it is sure to contain a considerable quantity of nitrates, which, not being subject to retention by the soil, would otherwise escape.
Nitrates and phosphates are also found in various parts of the desert and are used as manures.
Other instances of the isomorphism of thallous with potassium salts are the nitrates, phosphates, hydrazoates, sulphates, chromates, selenates, and the analogously constituted double salts, and also the oxalates, racemates and picrates.
Nitrates of cerium have been described, as have also phosphates, carbonates and a carbide.
Australia and Argentina need it for wool and wheat, Chili and Brazil for nitrates and coffee, Asiatic countries for rice, and the world as a whole for its increased output of produce.Advertisement
The first export of nitrates was in 1830, and in 1884 it reached an aggregate of 550,000 tons, and in 1905 of 1,603,140 tons.
But in many regions the soil is deficient in phosphates and nitrates, and large irrigation works can be profitable only in districts where the soil is exceptionally fertile.
This treaty was never ratified, and four years later General Hilarion Daza, who had succeeded Dr Frias as president in 1876, demanded as the price of Bolivia's consent that a tax of 10 cents per quintal should be paid on all nitrates exported from the country, further declaring that, unless this levy was paid, nitrates in the hands of the exporters would be seized by the Bolivian government.
The nitrates, chlorides, sugars and fats, as also the metals lead, bismuth and antimony, have a specific cohesion nearly equal to that of mercury.
In addition to the bacterial actions which result in the oxidization of ammonia to nitrous acid, and of the latter to nitric acid, the reversal of such processes is also brought about by numerous bacteria in the soil, rivers, &c. Warington showed some time ago that many species are able to reduce nitrates to nitrites, and such reduction is now known to occur very widely in nature.
Fresh manure abounds in de-nitrifying bacteria, and these organisms not only reduce the nitrates to nitrites, even setting free nitrogen and ammonia, but their effect extends to the undoing of the work of what nitrifying bacteria may be present also, with great loss.
The ammonia may be oxidized to nitrites and nitrates, and then pass into the higher plants and be worked up into proteids, and so be handed on to animals, eventually to be broken down by bacterial action again to ammonia; or the nitrates may be degraded to nitrites and even to free nitrogen or ammonia, which escapes.
Both kinds of plants required the addition of nitrates to the soil.
But if a little water in which arable soil had been shaken up was added to the sand, then the leguminous plants flourished in the absence of nitrates and showed an increase in nitrogenous material.
It dissolves in dilute cold nitric acid with the formation of ferrous and ammonium nitrates, no gases being liberated; when heated or with stronger acid ferric nitrate is formed with evolution of nitrogen oxides.
Nitrides, Nitrates, Several nitrides are known.
Ferric nitrate, Fe(NO3) 3, is obtained by dissolving iron in nitric acid (the cold dilute acid leads to the formation of ferrous and ammonium nitrates) and crystallizing, when cubes of Fe(NO3)3.6H20 or monoclinic crystals of Fe(N03)3.9H20 are obtained.
But Reinsch's test cannot be used satisfactorily for a quantitative determination, nor can it be used in the presence of chlorates or nitrates.
Unwanted effects of nitrates include dilation of cranial vessels causing headaches, which can limit the dose used.
High levels of phosphates and/or nitrates can cause algae blooms (including blue green algae, some of which are toxic ).
Minerals formed in this way include gypsum, rock salt, and various nitrates and borates.
It transforms in the air to form gaseous nitric acid and toxic organic nitrates.
The alkyl nitrates are a reservoir species for NO x (=NO 2 + NO ).
The effect of inorganic salts, including nitrates, was agreed to be worth further study.
The relative abundance of nitrates and nitrites at the bottom of deep oceans as compared with the surface can be explained in the same way, for at the bottom the temperature is about zero Centigrade and the activities of the denitrifying bacteria are practically suspended.
Internal strife at first prevented the development of her resources, and then when the export of guano and nitrates supplied her treasury with an abundance of funds the money was squandered on extravagant enterprises and in corrupt practices.
Theophylline, nitrates, and calcium-channel blockers may reduce lower oesophageal sphincter pressure.
Observations of phytoplankton blooms without the addition of iron supplements show underutilized resources of carbon dioxide and nitrates, supporting Martin 's Iron Hypothesis.
When naturally-occurring chemicals like nitrates and phosphorus contaminate water, the organisms don't have the right balance of nutrients to survive.
Pollution tests often include tests for naturally occurring chemicals like nitrates and phosphorus, as well as heavy metals like lead and mercury.
These franks are uncured and made without nitrates from all organic ingredients.
Although modern hot dogs are as regulated as any other meat, they do contain high amounts of nitrates and sodium as well as whatever chemical residues are included in the non-organic ingredients.
Nitrates in medications and foods can also trigger GERD.
Aside from the phosphates mentioned above, nitrates are also a favorite food source of algae.
Many plant foods contain both nitrates and phosphates.
These nitrates are potential carcinogens.
Unfortunately, in the standard American diet, high protein foods are often accompanied by high levels of sodium, nitrates and cholesterol.