are included sulphur and ammonium nitrate; monotropy is exhibited by aragonite and calcite.
10, p. 290); the operation is easier if the lime be mixed with sodium carbonate, or a mixture of sodium carbonate and potassium nitrate be used.
It was found advantageous not to work for acid but for a basic calcium nitrate (normal calcium nitrate being very deliquescent); for this purpose the acid is treated with the requisite amount of milk of lime.
1 The metals of the alkaline-earths were somewhat neglected; we find Georg Agricola considering gypsum (calcium sulphate) as a compound of lime, while calcium nitrate and chloride became known at about the beginning of the 17th century.
Boyle recognized many reagents which gave precipitates with certain solutions: he detected sulphuric and hydrochloric acids by the white precipitates formed with calcium chloride and silver nitrate respectively; ammonia by the white cloud formed with the vapours of nitric or hydrochloric acids; and copper by the deep blue solution formed by a solution of ammonia.
It dissolves in strong nitric acid with the formation of the nitrate and sulphate, and also in hot concentrated hydrochloric acid.
Ann., 1826, 8, p. 23), by converting lead molybdate into lead nitrate, obtained the value 95.
Nitrate of soda, Peruvian guano and superphosphate of lime in the form of bones dissolved by sulphuric acid were now added to the list of manures, and the practice of analysing soils became more general.
By treating blue ultramarine with silver nitrate solution, "silverultramarine" is obtained as a yellow powder.
In the first group, we have to notice the titration of a cyanide with silver nitrate, when a milkiness shows how far the reaction has gone; the titration of iron with permanganate, when the faint pink colour shows that all the iron is oxidized.
The halogens may be estimated by ignition with quicklime, or by heating with nitric acid and silver nitrate in a sealed tube.
Ammonium nitrate and nitrite, for instance, intensify the action of a water on lead.
Priestley, who obtained it by reducing nitrogen peroxide with iron, may be prepared by heating ammonium nitrate at 170-260° C., or by reducing a mixture of nitric and sulphuric acid with zinc. It is a colourless gas, which is practically odourless, but possesses a sweetish taste.
In a purer condition it may be obtained by the action of sulphuric acid on a mixture of potassium nitrate and ferrous sulphate, or of hydrochloric acid on a mixture of potassium nitrate and ferric chloride.
They act as reducing agents, silver nitrate in the presence of ammonia being rapidly reduced to the condition of metallic silver.
Uranyl nitrate, U02(N03)2.6H20, is the most important uranium salt.
von Liebig (1823), who heated a mixture of alcohol, nitric acid and mercuric nitrate; the salt is largely manufactured by processes closely resembling the last.
It forms a characteristic explosive silver salt on the addition of ammoniacal silver nitrate to its aqueous solution, and an amorphous precipitate which explodes on warming with ammoniacal cuprous chloride.
Certain substances are insoluble in all these reagents, and other methods, such as the fusion with sodium carbonate and potassium nitrate, and subsequent treatment with an acid, must be employed.
Phosphorus is obtained as a soluble phosphate (which can be examined in the usual way) by lixiviating the product obtained when the substance is ignited with potassium nitrate and carbonate.
Glucoseoxime on warming with acetic anhydride is simultaneously acetylated and dehydrated, yielding an acetylated gluconitrile, which when warmed with ammoniacal silver nitrate loses hydrocyanic acid and is transformed into an acetyl pentose.
Nitrogen peroxide is also prepared by heating lead nitrate and passing the products of decomposition through a tube surrounded by a freezing mixture, when the gas liquefies.
Phys., 1850 , 28, p. 241) by the action of dry chlorine on silver nitrate: 4AgN03+2C12=4AgC1+2N205 +02.
Sodium nitrite, the most commonly used salt of the acid, is generally obtained by heating the nitrate with metallic lead; by heating sodium nitrate with sulphur and sodium hydroxide, the product then being fractionally crystallized;(Read, Holliday & Sons): 3NaNO 3 +S+2NaOH = Na2S04+3NaN02+H20; by oxidizing atmospheric nitrogen in an electric arc, keeping the gases above 300° C., until absorption in alkaline hydroxide solution is effected (German Pat.
3.61 Ammonium nitrate 3'58 Electrolytes with three Ions.
The tests for a salt, potassium nitrate, for example, are the tests not for KNO 3, but for its ions K and NO 3, and in cases of double decomposition it is always these ions that are exchanged for those of other substances.
If we take as an example a concentration cell in which silver plates are placed in solutions of silver nitrate, one of which is ten times as strong as the other, this equation gives E = o 060 X Io 8 C.G.S.
Thus silver, at one end of the cell in contact with many silver ions of the silver nitrate solution, at the other end is in contact with a liquid in which the concentration of those ions is very small indeed.
Dilute nitric acid readily dissolves the metal, with formation of nitrate Pb(N03)2.
The corresponding hydrate, Pb(OH)2, is obtained as a white crystalline precipitate by adding ammonia to a solution of lead nitrate or acetate.
Lead nitrate, Pb(N03)2, is obtained by dissolving the metal or oxide in aqueous nitric acid; it forms white crystals, difficultly soluble in cold water, readily in hot water and almost insoluble in strong nitric acid.
The normal ortho-phosphate, Pb3(P04)2, is a white precipitate obtained by adding sodium phosphate to lead acetate; the acid phosphate, PbHPO 4, is produced by precipitating a boiling solution of lead nitrate with phosphoric acid; the pyrophosphate and meta-phosphate are similar white precipitates.
Besides wool, leading imports are jute, cotton, flax, timber, petroleum, coal, pitch, wine, cereals, oil-seeds and oil-cake, nitrate of soda and other chemical products, and metals.
O, is obtained by heating uranyl nitrate to 250° as a yellow solid, insoluble in water, but soluble in acids with the formation of uranyl salts.
It is a yellow amorphous powder which is soluble in dilute alkalis, the solution on acidification giving an hydroxide, C1 4 Mo 3 (OH) 2, which is soluble in nitric acid, and does not give a reaction with silver nitrate.
With iodine compounds, iodic acid is likely to be formed, and hence the solution must be reduced with sulphurous acid before precipitation with silver nitrate.
Tetramorphism is exhibited by ammonium nitrate.
3.71 Sodium nitrate.
Let us consider the arrangement - silver I silver chloride with potassium chloride solution I potassium nitrate solution I silver nitrate solution I silver.
Heating or exposure to sunlight reduces it to the red oxide; it fires when ground with sulphur, and oxidizes ammonia to nitric acid, with the simultaneous formation of ammonium nitrate.
Uranyl nitrate is used in photography, and also in analytical chemistry as a precipitant for phosphoric acid (as uranyl ammonium phosphate, U02 NH4 P04).
Solutions of uranyl salts (nitrate, &c.) behave to reagents as follows: sulphuretted hydrogen produces green uranous salt with precipitation of sulphur; sulphide of ammonium in neutral solutions gives a black precipitate of UO 2 S, which settles slowly and, while being washed in the filter, breaks up partially into hydrated UO 2 an sulphur; ammonia gives a yellow precipitate of uranate of ammonia, characteristically soluble in hot carbonate of ammonia solution; prussiate of potash gives a brown precipitate which in appearance is not unlike the precipitate produced by the same reagent in cupric salts.
to the level of the great desert plain of Tarapaca, celebrated for its rich deposits of nitrate of soda.
It exports iodine and immense quantities of nitrate of soda obtained from the desert region of the province.
A large number of vessels are engaged in the nitrate trade, and Iquique ranks as one of the two leading ports of Chile in the aggregate value of its foreign commerce.
Iquique was an insignificant Peruvian fishing settlement until 1830 when the export of nitrate began.
GUNCOTTON, an explosive substance produced by the action of strong nitric acid on cellulose at the ordinary temperature; chemically it is a nitrate of cellulose, or a mixture of nitrates, according to some authorities.
Strong or weak solutions of these substances also decompose it, producing some alkali nitrate and nitrite, the cellulose molecule being only partially restored, some quantity undergoing oxidation.
The nitrate of this base (known as nitron) is so insoluble that nitrates may be gravimetrically estimated with its help. These bases combine with the alkyl iodides to yield quaternary ammonium salts.
If silver nitrate salts be administered for a long period as a medication, the skin that is exposed to light becomes of a bluish-grey colour, which is extremely persistent.
Ammonium hydroxide has no appreciable action at ordinary temperatures, but strong solutions of sodium or potassium hydroxides start a decomposition, with rise of temperature, in which some nitrate and always some nitrite is produced.
Although a nitrate, its pharmacological actions resemble those of nitrites such as amyl nitrite, taken internally.
It appears that with soils which are not rich in humus or not deficient in lime, calcium cyanamide is almost as good, nitrogen for nitrogen, as ammonium sulphate or sodium nitrate; but it is of doubtful value with peaty soils or soils containing little lime, nor is it usefully available as a top-dressing or for storing.
The materials employed are sand, sulphate of soda, nitrate of soda, calcspar and in some works carbonate of barium.
It decomposes solutions of silver nitrate and copper sulphate.
Iron, zinc, cadmium, also tin under certain conditions, reduce the dilute acid, partially at least, to nitrous oxide, N 2 0, or ammonium nitrate, NH4N03.
Wohl forms the oxime and converts it into an acetylated nitrile by means of acetic anhydride and sodium acetate; ammoniacal silver nitrate solution removes hydrocyanic acid and the resulting acetate is hydrolysed by acting with ammonia to form an amide, which is finally decomposed with sulphuric acid.
At the present day, thanks to the careful study of many years, the improvements of cultivation, the careful selection of seed and suitable manuring, especially with nitrate of soda, the average beet worked up contains 7% of fibre and 93% of juice, and yields in Germany 12.79% and in France 11.6% of its weight in sugar.
It has been found by experiment that the nitrogen needed by practically all farm crops except leguminous ones is best supplied in the form of a nitrate; the rapid effect of nitrate of soda when used' as a top dressing to wheat or other plants is well known to farmers..
It has long been known that when organic materials such as the dung and urine of animals, or even the bodies of animals and plants, are applied to the soil, the nitrogen within them becomes oxidized, and ultimately appears in the form of nitrate of lime, potash or some other base.
The nitrogen in decaying roots, in the dead stems. and leaves of plants, and in humus generally is sooner or later changed into a nitrate, the change being effected by bacteria.
sal, salt, petra, a rock), the commercial name given to three naturally occurring nitrates, distinguished as (1) ordinary saltpetre, nitre, or potassium nitrate, (2) Chile saltpetre, cubic nitre, or sodium nitrate, (3) wall-saltpetre or calcium nitrate.
Ordinary Saltpetre or Potassium Nitrate, KN03, occurs, mingled with other nitrates, on the surface and in the superficial layers of the soil in many countries, especially in certain parts of India, Persia, Arabia and Spain.
This is generally effected by adding the calculated amount of potassium chloride (of which immense quantities are obtained as a by-product in the Stassfurt salt industry) dissolved in hot water to a saturated boiling solution of sodium nitrate; the common salt, which separates on boiling down the solution, is removed from the hot solution, and on cooling the potassium nitrate crystallizes out and is separated and dried.
Potassium nitrate was used at one time in many different diseased conditions, but it is now never administered internally, as its extremely depressant action upon the heart is not compensated for by any useful properties which are not possessed by many other drugs.
Chile saltpetre, cubic nitre or sodium nitrate, NaNO,, occurs under the same conditions as ordinary saltpetre in deposits covering immense areas in South America, which are known locally as caliche or terra salitrosa, and abound especially in the provinces of Tarapaca and Antofagasta in Chile.
The nitrate fields are confined to a narrow strip of country, averaging 21 m.
The nitrate forms beds, varying in thickness from 6 in.
It contains from 48 to 75% of sodium nitrate and from 20 to 40% of common salt, which are associated with various minor saline components, including sodium iodate and more or less insoluble mineral, and also some organic matter, e.g.
guano, which suggests the idea that the nitrate was formed by the nitrification of this kind of excremental matter.
The caliche is worked up in loco for crude nitrate by extracting the salts with hot water, allowing the suspended earth to settle, and then transferring the clarified liquor, first to a cistern where it deposits part of its sodium chloride at a high temperature, and then to another where, on cooling, it yields a crop of crystals of purified nitrate.
Chemically pure sodium nitrate can be obtained by repeated recrystallization of Chile saltpetre or by synthesis.
For references to memoirs descriptive of the Chilian nitrate deposits, see G.
Wall-saltpetre or lime saltpetre, calcium nitrate, Ca(N03)2, is found as an efflorescence on the walls of stables; it is now manufactured in large quantities by fixing atmospheric nitrogen, i.e.
Cold dilute nitric acid dissolves zinc as nitrate, with evolution of nitrous oxide.
By heating the nitrate it is obtained as hemimorphous pyramids belonging to the hexagonal system; and by heating the chloride in a current of steam as hexagonal prisms. It is insoluble in water; it dissolves readily in all aqueous acids, with formation of salts.
A green pigment known as Rinmann's green is prepared by mixing I oo parts of zinc vitriol with 2.5 parts of cobalt nitrate and heating the mixture to redness, to produce a compound of the two oxides.
The precipitate, when heated, passes into oxide, which is yellow in the heat and white after cooling; and, if it be moistened with cobalt nitrate solution and re-heated, it exhibits a green colour after cooling.
With the vast sum raised front guano and nitrate deposits President Balta commenced the execution of public works, principally railroads on a gigantic scale.
The true object of Chile was the conquest of the rich Peruvian province of Tarapaca, the appropriation of its valuable guano and nitrate deposits, and the spoliation of the rest of the Peruvian coast.
The monoxide or strontia, Sr(); is formed by strongly heating the nitrate, or commercially by heating the sulphide or carbonate in superheated steam (at about 500-600° C.).
Strontium nitrate, Sr(N03)2, is obtained by dissolving the carbonate in dilute nitric acid.
It is an amorphous solid, insoluble in water, but its solubility is increased in the presence of ammonium nitrate.
The nitrate and borax deposits are extensive and productive, and common salt is a natural product of large areas in the elevated desert regions of the Andes.
The exports include copper and silver and their ores, nitrate of soda, borax, guano and other minerals in small quantities.
silver nitrate or permanganate of potash.
Vigorous cauterization with nitrate of silver, driving the stick into the widened wound, is also good, and it is a remedy which one can carry in the pocket.
When a solution of silver nitrate is poured on to metallic mercury, the mercury replaces the silver in the solution, forming nitrate of mercury, and the silver is precipitated; it does not, however, appear as pure metallic silver, but in the form of crystalline needles of an alloy of silver and mercury.
Aurous oxide, Au 2 0, is obtained by cautiously adding potash to a solution of aurous bromide, or by boiling mixed solutions of auric chloride and mercurous nitrate.
The acid, auricyanic acid, 2HAu (CN) 4.3H20, is obtained by treating the silver salt (obtained by precipitating the potassium salt with silver nitrate) with hydrochloric acid; it forms tabular crystals, readily soluble in water, alcohol and ether.
One process depends upon the fact that, with a suitable current density, if a very dilute solution of silver nitrate be electrolysed between an auriferous silver anode and a silver cathode, the silver of the anode is dissolved out and deposited at the cathode, the gold remaining at the anode.
The basic nitrate is the salt generally prepared, and, in general outline, the process consists in dissolving the metal in nitric acid, adding water to the solution, boiling the precipitated basic nitrate with an alkali to remove the arsenic and lead, dissolving the residue in nitric acid, and reprecipitating as basic nitrate with water.
Hampe prepared chemically pure bismuth by fusing the metal with sodium carbonate and sulphur, dissolving the bismuth sulphide so formed in nitric acid, precipitating the bismuth as the basic nitrate, redissolving this salt in nitric acid, and then precipitating with ammonia.
This compound occurs in nature as bismuth ochre, and may be prepared artificially by oxidizing the metal at a red heat, or by heating the carbonate, nitrate or hydrate.
The basic carbonate, 2(B10) 2 CO 3 4H 2 O, obtained as a white precipitate when an alkaline carbonate is added to a solution of bismuth nitrate, is employed in medicine.
The normal nitrate, Bi(N03)3.5H20, is obtained in large transparent asymmetric prisms by evaporating a solution of the metal in nitric acid.
The action of water on this solution produces a crystalline precipitate of basic nitrate, probably Bi(OH)2N03, though it varies with the amount of water employed.
A hydrated disulphide, B12S2.2H20, is obtained by passing sulphuretted hydrogen into a solution of bismuth nitrate and stannous chloride.
Other methods are to place the metal and mercury together in dilute acid, to add mercury to the solution of a metallic salt, to place a metal in a solution of mercuric nitrate, or to electrolyse a metallic salt using mercury as the negative electrode.
Silver-thallium nitrate, TIAg(N03)2, introduced by Retgers, melts at 75° to form a clear liquid of density 4.8; it may be diluted with water.
They are mostly distinguished by special trade names, and are mainly of two classes - those containing ammonium nitrate and nitrobenzene or nitronaphthalene, and those containing nitroglycerin and nitrocellulose, which are essentially weak dynamites.
Caesium nitrate, CsNO 3, is obtained by dissolving the carbonate in nitric acid, and crystallizes in glittering prisms, which melt readily, and on heating evolve oxygen and leave a residue of caesium nitrite.
Acetylene is readily soluble in water, which at normal temperature and pressure takes up a little more than its own volume of the gas, and yields a solution giving a purple-red precipitate with ammoniacal cuprous chloride and a white precipitate with silver nitrate, these precipitates consisting of acetylides of the metals.
The sulphate, Sm 2 (SO 4) 3.81120, is obtained by the action of sulphuric acid on the nitrate.
The residue so obtained is then powdered and ignited with barium nitrate, which converts the iridium into its oxide and the osmium into barium osmiate.
As an alternative the osmiridium is fused with zinc, the regulus treated with hydrochloric acid, and then heated with barium nitrate and barium peroxide.
All soluble orthophosphates give with silver nitrate a characteristic yellow precipitate of silver phosphate, Ag 3 PO 4, soluble in ammonia and in nitric acid.
Other precipitants of phosphoric acid or its salts in solution are: ammonium molybdate in nitric acid, which gives on heating a canary-yellow precipitate of ammonium phosphomolybdate, 12[M00 3] (NH 4) 3 PO 4, insoluble in acids but readily soluble in ammonia; magnesium chloride, ammonium chloride and ammonia, which give on standing in a warm place a white crystalline precipitate of magnesium ammonium phosphate, Mg(NH 4)PO 4.6H 2 0, which is soluble in acids but highly insoluble in ammonia solutions, and on heating to redness gives magnesium pyrophosphate, Mg 2 P 2 0 7; uranic nitrate and ferric chloride, which give a yellowish-white precipitate, soluble in hydrochloric acid and ammonia, but insoluble in acetic acid; mercurous nitrate which gives a white precipitate, soluble in nitric acid, and bismuth nitrate which gives a white precipitate, insoluble in nitric acid.
After neutralization, it gives a white precipitate with silver nitrate.
of nitrate of soda when the plant is showing.
In this meter the electrolyte is a solution of mercurous nitrate which is completely enclosed in a glass tube of a particular form, having a mercury anode and a platinum or carbon cathode.
Calcium nitrate, Ca(N0,)2.4H20, is a highly deliquescent salt, crystallizing in monoclinic prisms, and occurring in various natural waters, as an efflorescence in limestone caverns, and in the neighbourhood of decaying nitrogenous organic matter.
The anhydrous nitrate, obtained by heating the crystallized salt, is very phosphorescent, and constitutes "Baldwin's phosphorus."
A basic nitrate, Ca(NO 3)2 Ca(OH) 2.3H 2 0, is obtained by dissolving calcium hydroxide in a solution of the normal nitrate.
One of the most characteristic properties of ammonia is its power of combining directly with acids to form salts; thus with hydrochloric acid it forms ammonium chloride (sal-ammoniac); with nitric acid, ammonium nitrate, &c. It is to be noted that H.
Ammonium nitrate, NH 4 NO 3, is prepared by neutralizing nitric acid with ammonia, or ammonium carbonate, or by double decomposition between potassium nitrate and ammonium sulphate.
Berthelot in 1883 showed that if ammonium nitrate be rapidly heated the following reaction takes place with explosive violence:-2NH 4 NO 3 = 4H20+2N2+ 02.
Hydrated sulphates occur at several localities in the province of Madrid and in other provinces of Spain, and at Miihlingen in Aargau, and copious deposits of glauberite, the double sulphate of sodium and calcium, are met with in the salt-mines of Villarrubia in Spain, at Stassfurt, and in the province of Tarapaca, Chile, &c. A native nitrate of soda is obtained in great abundance in the district of Atacama and the province of Tarapaca, and is imported into Europe in enormous quantities as cubic nitre for the preparation of saltpetre.
Heated in a current of carbon dioxide sodamide yields caustic soda and cyanamide, and with nitrous oxide it gives sodium azoimide; it deflagrates with lead or silver nitrate and explodes with potassium chlorate.
442); it may also be prepared by heating the nitrate or nitrite with metallic sodium, free nitrogen being eliminated (German patent, 142467, 1902).
Acids yield a sodium salt and free oxygen or hydrogen peroxide; with carbon dioxide it gives sodium carbonate and free oxygen; carbon monoxide gives the carbonate; whilst nitrous and nitric oxides give the nitrate.
For sodium nitrite see Nitrogen; for sodium nitrate see Saltpetre; for the cyanide see Prussic Acid; and for the borate see Borax.
After the platinum wires have been sealed through the glass, a little aqua regia is placed in the cell legs until bubbles of gas arise from the platinum, when it is thrown out and replaced by a solution of mercurous nitrate.
For the nitrite, see Nitrogen, for the nitrate see Saltpetre and for the cyanide see Prussic Acid; for other salts see the articles wherein the corresponding acid receives treatment.
Potassium nitrate is chiefly used to make nitre paper, which on burning emits fumes useful in the treatment of the asthmatic paroxysm.
Chemie, 1885, 6, 477) into two components (known respectively as neodymium and praseodymium) by repeated fractional crystallization of the double nitrate of ammonium and didymium in nitric acid.
The peroxide, Pr 4 O 7, forms a dark brown powder, and is obtained by ignition of the oxalate or nitrate.
Stas recommends solution of the iodine in potassium iodide and subsequent precipitation by the addition of a large excess of water, the precipitate being washed, distilled in steam, and dried in vacuo over solid calcium nitrate, and then over solid caustic baryta.
The soluble iodides, on the addition of silver nitrate to their nitric acid solution, give a yellow precipitate of silver iodide, which is insoluble in ammonia solution.
Silver cyanide, AgNC, is formed as a white precipitate by adding potassium cyanide to silver nitrate solution; or better, by adding silver nitrate to potassium silver cyanide, KAg(NC) 2, this double cyanide being obtained by the addition of one molecular proportion of potassium cyanide to one molecular proportion of silver nitrate, the white precipitate so formed being then dissolved by adding a second equivalent of potassium cyanide.
With silver nitrate it gives an orange red precipitate of silver ferricyanide, Ag 3 Fe(NC)s.
The solution is evaporated, separated from potassium nitrate, the free acid neutralized with soda, and the solution concentrated.
Silver nitrate gives a white precipitate with cyanides, soluble in excess of potassium cyanide.
The amount of hydrocyanic acid in a solution may be determined by adding excess of caustic potash and a small quantity of an alkaline chloride, and running into the dilute solution standard silver nitrate until a faint permanent turbidity (of silver chloride) is produced, that is, until the reaction, 2KNC+AgNO 3 = KAg(NC) 2 - -KNO 3, is completed.
Normal chromates on the addition of silver nitrate give a red precipitate of silver chromate, easily soluble in ammonia, and with barium chloride a yellow precipitate of barium chromate, insoluble in acetic acid.
The violet form gives a purple solution, and all its chlorine is precipitated by silver nitrate, the aqueous solution containing four ions, probably Cr(OH 2) 6 and three chlorine ions.
The green salt appears to dissociate in aqueous solution into two ions, namely CrC1 2 (OH 2) 4 and one chlorine ion, since practically only one-third of the chlorine is precipitated by silver nitrate solution at o° C. Two of the six water molecules are easily removed in a desiccator, and the salt formed, CrC13.4H20, resembles the original salt in properties, only one-third of the chlorine being precipitated by silver nitrate.
The nitrate, Cr(NO 3) 3.9H 2 0, crystallizes in purple prisms and results on dissolving the hydroxide in nitric acid, its solution turns green on boiling.
Technically it is prepared from toluene, by converting it into benzyl chloride, which is then heated with lead nitrate: C 6 H 5 CH 2 C1 +Pb (N03)2 = 2NO 2 +PbC1.
Magnesium Nitrate, Mg(NO 3) 2.6H 2 O, is a colourless, deliquescent, crystalline solid obtained by dissolving magnesium or its carbonate in nitric acid, and concentrating the solution.
Like the other provinces of this region, Antofagasta produces for export copper, silver, silver ores, lead, nitrate of soda, borax and salt.
Lacombe in 1904 obtained the pure salts by fractional crystallization of the nitric acid solution with magnesium nitrate in the presence of bismuth nitrate.
Should now try non-decomposing bodies, as solid nitre, nitrate of silver, borax, glass, &c., whilst solid, to see if any internal state induced, which by decomposition is destroyed, i.e.
For experimental purposes it is usually obtained by distilling potassium or sodium nitrate with concentrated sulphuric acid.
Fuming nitric acid consists of a solution of nitrogen peroxide in concentrated nitric acid and is prepared by distilling dry sodium nitrate with concentrated sulphuric acid.
It attacks most metals readily, usually with production of a nitrate or hydrated oxide of the metal and one or other of the oxides of nitrogen, or occasionally with the production of ammonium salts; magnesium, however, liberates hydrogen from the very dilute acid.
They may be recognized by the fact that on the addition of a solution of ferrous sulphate, followed by that of concentrated sulphuric acid (the mixture being kept quite cold), the ferrous sulphate solution becomes of a deep brown colour, owing to the reducing action of the ferrous sulphate on the nitric acid which is liberated by the action of the sulphuric acid on the nitrate.
As an alternative method the nitrate may be warmed with some fragments of copper and sulphuric acid which has been diluted with its own volume of water, when characteristic brown vapours will be seen.
The nitrate, Al(N03)3, is obtained as deliquescent crystals (with 81120) by evaporating a solution of the hydroxide in nitric acid.
The most commonly used nitrogenous manures are nitrate of soda, nitrate of potash and sulphate of ammonia, the prices of which are constantly fluctuating.
Potash and soda are also valuable inorganic manures in the form of carbonates, sulphates, silicates and phosphates, but the most valuable is the nitrate of potash.
The /-diketones form characteristic copper salts, and in alcoholic solution they combine with semicarbazide to form products which on boiling with ammoniacal silver nitrate solution give pyrazoles (T.
Benzene diazonium nitrate, C 6 H 5 N(NO 3): N, crystallizes in long silky needles.
The sulphate and chloride are similar, but they are not quite so unstable as the nitrate.
Replacement of - NH 2 by - NO 2 :-A well - cooled concentrated solution of potassium mercuric nitrate is added to a cooled solution of benzene diazonium nitrate, when the crystalline salt 2C6H5N2 N03, Hg(N02)2 is precipitated.
Determinations of the electrical conductivity of the diazonium chloride and nitrate also show that the diazonium radical is strictly comparable with other quaternary ammonium ions.
Hydrogen may also be obtained by the action of zinc on ammonium salts (the nitrate excepted) (Lorin, Comptes rendus, 1865, 60, p. 745) and by heating the alkali formates or oxalates with caustic potash or soda, Na2C204+2NaOH = H 2 +2Na 2 CO 3.
Sodium and potassium carbonates are valuable for fluxing off silica; mixed with potassium nitrate sodium carbonate forms a valuable oxidizing fusion mixture; "black flux" is a reducing flux composed of finely divided carbon and potassium carbonate, and formed by deflagrating a mixture of argol with 4 to 2 its weight of nitre.
The study of polymorphism has been especially pursued by Otto Lehmann, who proved that it is an almost general property; the variety of forms which a given substance may show is often great, ammonium nitrate, for instance, showing at least four of them before melting.
Ethyl nitrate, C2H5.0N02, is a colourless liquid which boils at 86.3° C. It is prepared by the action of nitric acid on ethyl alcohol (some urea being added to the nitric acid, in order to destroy any nitrous acid that might be produced in secondary reactions and which, if not removed, would cause explosive decomposition of the ethyl nitrate).
When heated with ammonia it yields ethylamine nitrate, and when reduced with tin and hydrochloric acid it forms hydroxylamine (W.
Lanthanum oxide, La203, is a white powder obtained by burning the metal in oxygen, or by ignition of the carbonate, nitrate or sulphate.
Lanthanum nitrate, La(N03)3 6H 2 0, is obtained by dissolving the oxide in nitric acid.
The nitrate Be(NO,)2.3H20 is prepared by adding barium nitrate to ber y llium sulphate solution; it crystallizes with difficulty and is very deliquescent.
The common practice was to place a small piece of nitrate of silver into the eye, which was then kept tightly bandaged till the sight was destroyed.
With reference to the assimilation of nitrogen, it would seem that algae, like other green plants, can best use it when it is presented to them in the form of a nitrate.
In the case of Scenedesmus acutus it is said that the alga is unable to take up nitrogen in the form of a nitrate or ammoniacal salt, and requires some such substance as an amide or a peptone.
Thallous nitrate, T1NO 31 is obtained as white, rhombic prisms by crystallizing a solution of the metal, oxide, carbonate, &c., in nitric acid.
The chlorine is not completely precipitated by silver nitrate in nitric acid solution, the ionization apparently not proceeding to all the chlorine atoms. Thallic iodide, T11 3, is interesting on account of its isomorphism with rubidium and caesium tri-iodides, a resemblance which suggests the formula T11 (12) for the salt, in which the metal is obviously monovalent.
Thallic sulphate, T1 2 (SO 4) 3.7H 2 O, and thallic nitrate, Tl(NO 3) 3.8H 2 0, are obtained as colourless crystals on the evaporation of a solution of the oxide in the corresponding acid.
Urea may be recognized by its crystalline oxalate and nitrate, which are produced on adding oxalic and nitric acids to concentrated solutions of the base; by the white precipitate formed on adding mercuric nitrate to the neutral aqueous solutions of urea; and by the so-called "biuret" reaction.
Liebig (Ann., 18 53, 8 5, p. 289) precipitates dilute solutions of urea with a dilute standard solution of mercuric nitrate, using alkaline carbonate as indicator.
Nitrourea, H 2 N CO NH NO 2, prepared by adding urea nitrate to wellcooled concentrated sulphuric acid (J.
With silver nitrate and caustic soda it yields a silver salt, Ag2C 2 H 3 N 3 0 2.
Oxygen may be prepared by heating mercuric oxide; by strongly heating manganese dioxide and many other peroxides; by heating the oxides of precious metals; and by heating many oxy-acids and oxy-salts to high temperatures, for example, nitric acid, sulphuric acid, nitre, lead nitrate, zinc sulphate, potassium chlorate, &c. Potassium chlorate is generally used and the reaction is accelerated and carried out at a lower temperature by previously mixing the salt with about one-third of its weight of manganese dioxide, which acts as a catalytic agent.
The more important are as follows: by decomposing strongly heated sulphuric acid in the presence of a contact substance; by heating an intimate mixture of one part of sodium nitrate with two parts of zinc oxide (T.
In the hydrated condition it is a dark brown powder which readily loses water at above too° C., it dissolves in hot nitric acid, giving manganous nitrate and manganese dioxide: 2MnO(OH) + 2HNO 3 = Mn(NO 3) 2 + MnO 2 + 2H 2 0.
Manganous Nitrate, Mn(NO 3) 2.6H 2 0, obtained by dissolving the carbonate in nitric acid and concentrating the solution, crystallizes from nitric acid solutions in long colourless needles, which melt at 25.8° C. and boil at 129.5° C. with some decomposition.
Manganese salts can be detected by the amethyst colour they impart to a borax-bead when heated in the Bunsen flame, and by the green mass formed when they are fused with a mixture of sodium carbonate and potassium nitrate.
On oxidation with potassium permanganate, it gives azodicarbondiamidine nitrate, NH 2 (HN) C N: N C:(NH) NH 2 2HNO 3, which, when reduced by sulphuretted hydrogen, is converted into the corresponding hydrazodicarbondiamidine, NH 2 (HN):C NH NH C:(NH) NH 2.
By the action of nitrous acid on a nitric acid solution of amidoguanidine, diazoguanidine nitrate, NH 2 (HN): C NH N 2 NO 3, is obtained.
Cerium dioxide, Ce02, is produced when cerium carbonate, nitrate, sulphate or oxalate is heated in air.
Before the mass has reached that point the sulphides still present have been destroyed, either by the addition of solid nitrate of soda or by blowing air through the red-hot melt.
This is filtered, washed, and then fused with caustic soda, when the sulpho-group is replaced by a hydroxyl group, and a second hydroxyl group is simultaneously formed; in order to render the formation of this second group easier, a little potassium chlorate or sodium nitrate is added to the reaction mixture.
Gallium oxide Ga203 is obtained when the nitrate is heated, or by solution of the metal in nitric acid and ignition of the nitrate.
It exists in two crystalline forms. Nitric acid passed into its chloroform solution gives phenyl diazonium nitrate.
Thorium nitrate, Th(NO 3) 4.12H 2 O, forms white deliquescent tables very soluble in water.
A number of salts of thorium have been prepared for therapeutic use, including the hydroxide, nitrate, salicylate, oleate and lactate.
Inhalations of thorium emanations produced from thorium nitrate through a wash-bottle inhaler are said to have a bactericidal action in diseases of the lungs.
The monoxide, NiO, occurs naturally as bunsenite, and is obtained artificially when nickel hydroxide, carbonate, nitrate or sulphate is heated.
Nickel sesquioxide, N1203, is formed when the nitrate is decomposed by heat at the lowest possible temperature, by a similar decomposition of the chlorate, or by fusing the chloride with potassium chlorate.
The nitrate, Ni(NO 3) 2.6H 2 O, is obtained by dissolving the metal in dilute nitric acid and concentrating the solution between 40° and 50° C. It crystallizes in green prisms which deliquesce rapidly on exposure to moist air.
Rubidium nitrate, RbNO 3, obtained by the action of nitric acid on the carbonate, crystallizes in needles or prisms and when strongly heated is transformed into a mixture of nitrite and oxide.
Enormous quantities of borax, already exploited, and of nitrate of soda, are known to be present in the surrounding country, the former as almost pure borate of lime in Tertiary lake sediments.
It belongs to the desert region of the Pacific coast, and is valuable because of its deposits of nitrate of soda and some undeveloped mineral resources.
On boiling gelatinous silica with ammonium polytungstate and evaporating with the occasional addition of ammonia, ammonium silicodecitungstate is obtained as short rhombic prisms. On adding silver nitrate and decomposing the precipitated silver salt with hydrochloric acid, a solution is obtained which on evaporation in a vacuum gives the free acid as a glassy mass.
Silicotungstic acid is obtained as quadratic pyramids from its mercurous salt which is prepared from mercurous nitrate and the salt formed on boiling gelatinous silicic acid with a polytungstate of an alkali metal.
Chlorides can be estimated quantitatively by conversion into silver chloride, or if in the form of alkaline chlorides (in the absence of other metals, and of any free acids) by titration with standard silver nitrate solution, using potassium chromate as an indicator.
The first products of this reaction are copper nitrate and nitric oxide, but, as the concentration of the copper nitrate increases, nitrous oxide and, eventually, free nitrogen are liberated.
Josef Perino's process, which consists in heating the ore with iron nitrate to 50 0 -150° C., is said to possess several advantages, but it has not been applied commercially.
Cupric oxide, CuO, occurs in nature as the mineral melaconite (q.v.), and can be obtained as a hygroscopic black powder by the gentle ignition of copper nitrate, carbonate or hydroxide; also by heating the hydroxide.
It decomposes when heated to 900; with water it gives nitric oxide and cupric nitrate and nitrite.
Cupric nitrate, Cu(NO 3) 2, is obtained by dissolving the metal or oxide in nitric acid.
The mineral gerhardtite is the basic nitrate Cu2(OH)3N03.
The principal exports are gold, silver, copper (bars, regulus and ores), cobalt and its ores, lead and its ores, vanadium ores, manganese, coal, nitrate of soda, borate of lime, iodine, sulphur, wheat and guano.
Nitrate of soda forms from 70 to 75% of the exports, and the royalty received from it is the principal source of national revenue, yielding about £4,000,000 per annum.
These mines gave employment to 4 6, 59 2 labourers, of whom 24,445 were employed by the nitrate companies, 13,710 in various metalliferous mines, 6437 in coal mines, and 2000 in other mines.
Among the non-metallic minerals are nitrate of soda, borate of lime, coal, salt and sulphur, together with various products derived from these minerals, such as iodine, sulphuric acid, &c. Guano is classed among the mineral products and still figures as an export, though the richest Chilean deposits were exhausted long before the war with Peru.
Of non-metallic products nitrate of soda is by far the most important.
The nitrate fields, which lie between 50 and 100 m.
The latter figure is apparently about the production agreed upon between the Chilean government and the nitrate companies to prevent overproduction and a resulting decline in price.
Borate of lime also furnishes another important export, though a less valuable one than nitrate of soda.
The revenues from the captured Peruvian nitrate fields then became an important part of the national income, which ten years later (1902) reached an aggregate of 138,507,178 pesos (of 18d.), of which 105,072,832 pesos were in gold.
In 1906 the receipts from all sources were estimated at 149,100,000 pesos, of which 62,200,000 pesos gold were credited to the tax on nitrate, 39,800,000 pesos gold to import duties, and 23,500,000 pesos currency to railway receipts.
To ensure an income that would meet its foreign engagements, the government collected the nitrate and iodine taxes and import duties in gold.
The national revenue isderived chiefly from the nitrate taxes, customs duties, alcohol tax, and from railway, postal and telegraph receipts.
The ordinary and extraordinary receipts and expenditures for the five years 1899-1903, in gold and currency, in pesos of 18d., were as follows: - For 1906 the expenditures were fixed at 149,000,000 pesos, and the revenues were estimated to produce 149,100,000 pesos, which included 62,200,000 pesos gold from nitrate taxes, 39,800,000 pesos gold and 200,000 pesos paper from import duties, 23,500,000 pesos paper from the state railways, 2,500,000 pesos paper from postal and telegraph receipts, and 15,000,000 pesos gold from loans.
Nitrate of soda is estimated in Chilean quintals (101.41 lb) in the field, and metric quintals (220.46 lb) at the port of shipment.
The completion of the Trans-Andean railway between Valparaiso and Buenos Aires was bound to be of immense commercial and industrial value; and eventually the making of a longitudinal railway route uniting the nitrate province of the north with Santiago, and Santiago with Puerto Montt in the distant south, opened up further important prospects.
The monoxide is formed when the metal burns in air, but is usually prepared by the ignition of the nitrate, oxygen and oxides of nitrogen being liberated.
Barium nitrate, Ba(N03)2, is prepared by dissolving either the carbonate or sulphide in dilute nitric acid, or by mixing hot saturated solutions of barium chloride and sodium nitrate.
For this purpose solutions of sulphate of copper or of nitrate of silver may be gently introduced into the bowel in quantities of a quart at a time.
The daily use of potash, and especially nitrate of potash, tends to reduce the tension and increase the patient's safety, but if pushed too far may sometimes render him very weak and depressed.
Gypsum, bone-dust, superphosphate of lime and nitrate of soda may also be used, and wood ashes are advantageous if the soil contains much vegetable matter; but the best results are usually obtained when farmyard manure is supplemented by artificials, not by using artificials alone.
When passed into silver nitrate solution it gives a black precipitate of silver antimonide, SbAg 3.
In 1870, in further consideration of the sum of $10,000, Bolivia granted to an Anglo-Chilean company the right of working certain nitrate deposits north of the 24th parallel.
The existence of the secret treaty, well known to the Chilean government, rendered the intervention of Peru more than questionable, and the law passed by the latter in 1875, which practically created a monopoly of the Tarapaca nitrate beds to the serious prejudice of Chilean enterprise, offered no guarantee of her good faith.
It had long been known that under certain conditions large quantities of nitrate (saltpetre) are formed on exposed heaps of manure, &c., and it was supposed that direct oxidation of the ammonia, facilitated by the presence of porous bodies, brought this to pass.
denitrificans of Burri and Stutzer can reduce nitrates, but if acting together they so completely undo the structure of sodium nitrate that the nitrogen passes off in the free state.
The most modern and the most generally accepted method is volumetric, and is based on the reaction between zinc chloride and potassium ferrocyanide, by which insoluble zinc ferrocyanide and soluble potassium chloride are formed; the presence of the slightest excess of potassium ferrocyanide is shown by a brownish tint being imparted by the solution to a drop of uranium nitrate.
The ore (0 5 gramme) is digested with a mixture of potassium nitrate and nitric acid.
Without filtering, the standard solution is added from a burette, and from time to time a drop of the solution is removed on the glass stirring-rod and added to a drop or two of a strong solution of uranium nitrate, previously placed on a white porcelain plate.
The residue in the filter is ignited and fused with a little sodium carbonate and nitrate, or with sodium peroxide.
The alchemists named it Luna or Diana, and denoted it by the crescent moon; the first name has survived in lunar caustic, silver nitrate.
It is readily soluble in dilute nitric acid, nitric oxide and silver nitrate being formed; it also dissolves in hot, strong sulphuric acid, sulphur dioxide being evolved.
thick, and thin rolled silver cathodes, were suspended in a %, slightly acid, solution of silver nitrate contained in tarred wooden tanks.
Acidified copper nitrate solution is run into this cell, copper is deposited, and the more or less spent solution then passes through the linen partition, and, taking up metal from the anodes by electrolytic solution, is run out of the trough through a series of vessels filled with copper by which the silver is precipitated by simple exchange; after acidification the resulting silver-free copper solution is returned to the cathode cell for the deposition of the copper, the solution being employed again and again until too impure for use.
Slightly cupriferous silver is made into dry nitrate and the latter fused to.
reduce any platinum nitrate that may be present to metal.
Silver peroxide, AgO, appears under certain conditions as minute octahedra when a solution of silver nitrate is electrolysed, or as an amorphous crust in the electrolysis of dilute sulphuric acid between silver electrodes.
The compound obtained from silver nitrate always contains nitrogen; it appears to have the constant composition Ag7N011, and has been named silver peroxynitrate.
Silver nitrate, AgNO 3, one of the most important silver salts, is obtained by dissolving the metal in moderately dilute nitric acid; on evaporation it separates in the anhydrous form as colourless triclinic plates.
It forms with silver nitrate the yellowish green solid, Ag 2 S AgNO 3, and with silver sulphate the orange-red powder, Ag 2 S Ag 2 SO 4 Silver sulphate, Ag 2 SO 4, is obtained as white crystals, sparingly soluble in water, by dissolving the metal in strong sulphuric acid, sulphur dioxide being evolved, or by adding strong sulphuric acid to a solution of the nitrate.
From the nitrate are made (a) argenti nitras indurata, toughened caustic, containing 19 parts of silver nitrate and one of potassium nitrate fused together into cylindrical rods; (b) Argenti nitras mitigatus, mitigated caustic, in which 1 part of silver nitrate and 2 parts of potassium nitrate are fused together into rods or cones.
Externally the nitrate has a caustic action, destroying the superficial tissues and separating the part acted on as a slough.
In granular lids and various forms of ophthalmia solutions of silver nitrate (2 grs.
The effects of the nitrate being both astringent and stimulating as well as bactericidal, solutions of it are used to paint indolent ulcers.
Salts of silver are most useful as an injection in subacute and chronic gonorrhoea, either the nitrate (I to 5% solution) being employed, or protargol, which is a proteid compound containing 8% of silver nitrate, is used in 1% solution; they also benefit in leucorrhoea.
Internally the nitrate has been used in the treatment of gastric ulcer, in ulcerative conditions of the intestine and in chronic dysentery.
Nitrate of silver is eliminated from the system very slowly and the objection to its employment continuously as a drug is that it is deposited in the tissues causing argyria, chronic silver poisoning, of which the most prominent symptom is dark slate-blue colour of the lips, cheeks, gums and later of the skin.
Taken in large doses nitrate of silver is a powerful poison, causing violent abdominal pain, vomiting and diarrhoea with the development of gastro-enteritis.
Such substances are silver nitrate (lunar caustic), the caustic alkalis (potassium and sodium hydrates), zinc chloride, an acid solution of mercuric nitrate, and pure carbolic acid.
Wehler (Ann., 1859, 109, p. 375) heats the well-washed chamber residues with potassium nitrate and carbonate in order to obtain an alkaline selenate, which is then boiled with hydrochloric acid, yielding selenious acid, from which the element is obtained as above; whilst H.
Its solubility in water is lessened by sodium or magnesium sulphate, but is increased by potassium nitrate, ammonium chloride, and most acids.
Lithium oxide, Li 2 O, is obtained by burning the metal in oxygen, or by ignition of the nitrate.
Stas from the analysis of the chloride, and also by conversion of the chloride into the nitrate, the value obtained being 7.03 (0 =16).
Silver nitrate in the presence of nitric acid gives with bromides a pale yellow precipitate of silver bromide, AgBr, which is sparingly soluble in ammonia.
For their quantitative determination they are precipitated in nitric acid solution by means of silver nitrate, and the silver bromide well washed, dried and weighed.
Hypophosphoric acid, H 4 P20 6 or H2P03, discovered by Salzer in 1877 among the oxidation products of phosphorus by moist air, may be prepared by oxidizing phosphorus in an aqueous solution of copper nitrate, or by oxidizing sticks of phosphorus under water, neutralizing with sodium carbonate, forming the lead salt and decomposing this with sulphuretted hydrogen (J.
With silver nitrate it gives a white precipitate, Ag4P206.
Asbestos is mined near Prieska, in which neighbourhood there are also nitrate beds.
The supply of the nitric acid required to make up this loss is obtained in England by "potting" that is, by decomposing solid nitrate of soda by sulphuric acid in a flue between the pyrites burners and the chambers.
It dissolves in dilute cold nitric acid with the formation of ferrous and ammonium nitrates, no gases being liberated; when heated or with stronger acid ferric nitrate is formed with evolution of nitrogen oxides.
Black scales, which dissolve in water to form a red solution, are obtained by adding a trace of hydrochloric acid to a solution of basic ferric nitrate which has been heated to 100° for three days.
Ferrous nitrate, Fe(NO3)2.6H2O, is a very unstable salt, and is obtained by mixing solutions of ferrous sulphate and barium nitrate, filtering, and crystallizing in a vacuum over sulphuric acid.
Ferric nitrate, Fe(NO3) 3, is obtained by dissolving iron in nitric acid (the cold dilute acid leads to the formation of ferrous and ammonium nitrates) and crystallizing, when cubes of Fe(NO3)3.6H20 or monoclinic crystals of Fe(N03)3.9H20 are obtained.
Liquor ferri pernitratus, solution of ferric nitrate (strength, 3.3% of iron).
C. Lossen by the reduction of ethyl nitrate with tin and hydrochloric acid.
Divers obtains it by mixing cold saturated solutions containing one molecular proportion of sodium nitrate, and two molecular proportions of acid sodium sulphite, and then adding a saturated solution of potassium chloride to the mixture.
Latterly, free irrigation of the bowel with astringents, such as silver nitrate, tannalbin, &c., has been attended with success in those cases which have been able to tolerate the injections.
The extract of henbane is rich in nitrate of potassium and other inorganic salts.
Frequently the leaves powdered together with equal quantities of the powdered leaves of the Cannabis Indica and lobelia mixed with potassium nitrate are burned in an open dish.
Urbain (Comptes rendus, 1905, 140, p. 583) separates the metal by crystallizing the double nitrate of nickel and gadolinium.
(b) Fleitmann's test and Marsh's test depend on the fact that arsenic and its compounds, when present in a solution in which hydrogen is being generated, are converted into arseniuretted hydrogen, which can be readily detected either by its action on silver nitrate solution or by its decomposition on heating.
A piece of bibulous paper, moistened with silver nitrate, is held over the mouth of the tube, and if arsenic be present, a grey or black deposit is seen on the paper, due to the silver nitrate being reduced by the arseniuretted hydrogen.
A neutral solution of an arsenite gives a yellow precipitate of silver arsenite, Ag3AsO3, with silver nitrate solution, and a yellowish-green precipitate (Scheele's green) of cupric hydrogen arsenite, CuHAsO3, with copper sulphate solution.
The salts of arsenic acid, termed arsenates, are isomorphous with the phosphates, and in general character and reactions resemble the phosphates very closely; thus both series of salts give similar precipitates with "magnesia mixture" and with ammonium molybdate solution, but they can be distinguished by their behaviour with silver nitrate solution, arsenates giving a reddish-brown precipitate,whilst phosphates give a yellow precipitate.
In England hunters and carriage horses are generally fed on natural hay, in Scotland on Timothy, largely imported from Canada, or ryegrass hay that has not been grown with nitrate of soda.
- The alkaline chromates are usually obtained by fusion of a chromium compound with an alkaline carbonate and an oxidizing agent, such for example as potassium nitrate or chlorate.
Silver chromate, Ag2Cr04, is a dark red amorphous powder obtained when silver nitrate is precipitated by an alkaline chromate.
Sodium nitrate, potassium nitrate, potassium chloride, ammonium chloride, the alkaline iodides and bromides, also belong partly to this group, although most of them have also specific actions.
silver nitrate and nitric acid.
Gum arabic is not precipitated from solution by alum, stannous chloride, sulphate or nitrate of copper, or neutral lead acetate; with basic lead acetate it forms a white jelly, with ferric chloride it yields a stiff clear gelatinoid mass, and its solutions are also precipitated by borax.
The bacterial and nitrate concentrations are quite abnormal in almost all the coastal stretches of Bardez taluka.
Bibliographic Information The facile hydrolysis of chlorine nitrate in aqueous sulfate aerosols.
Thus, toxic ammonia is converted to non-toxic nitrate.
ammonium nitrate, an easy to buy fertilizer, the same material used in the Bali bombings.
Diffusion rates vary between nutrients (nitrate ammonium phosphate ).
The leaflet offers some practical help and guidance for sites, such as quarries, that use ammonium nitrate for blasting.
The reaction required heating ammonium nitrate and was quite simple in nature.
ammonium nitrate fertilizer between November 11 2003 and March 31.
bromide of potassium with that of nitrate of silver.
cellulose nitrate dissolved in organic solvents.
cellulose nitrate film stock should be isolated and advice on storage sought from the Fire Brigade.
cellulose nitrate stock.
Sodium Nitrate is used as a red food coloring and also as a preservative.
nitrate concentrations were highest in green vegetables and potatoes.
deposition of nitrate and ammonium, and denitrification are specified in the model.
dilute nitric acid followed by aqueous silver nitrate solution.
discoloration of the skin was like the effects of nitrate of silver.
In 1909 Fritz Haber found a way of extracting nitrogen, the source of nitrate fertilizers.
flocculate the titanium dioxide suspensions slightly more strongly than nitrate.
gallium nitrate, is less common.
glyceryl tri nitrate tablet or spray under the tongue.
The " permanent hardness " given by sulfate, chloride or nitrate salts cannot be removed by boiling.
Nickel II nitrate hexahydrate, in my very humble opinion, is not one of the stars of the crystal universe.
hydrogen ions or with the nitrate ions.
The copper might react with the hydrogen ions or with the nitrate ions.
leaching of nitrate ).
Nitrate concentrations were therefore higher in the winter months compared with greenhouse lettuces grown during the summer.
A further series of experiments are in progress to calculate our numbers of nitrate negatives.
nitrate dissolved in organic solvents.
Denitrification filters convert nitrate to nitrogen gas, the bacteria in such filters are anaerobic.
These device relies bacteria living on balls of Sulfur to remove nitrate from the water.
Chemical synthesis of nitric oxide in the stomach from dietary nitrate in humans.
The Victorians used to enjoy creating silver under the microscope from silver nitrate in solution.
nitrate reductase and emissions of nitrous oxide from soils.
nitrate concentrations in plants.
nitrate fertilizers could be encouraging gullet cancer.
Inside was half a ton of ammonium nitrate, an easy to buy fertilizer, the same material used in the Bali bombings.
Generally coming in small glass bottles, amyl nitrate is normally snorted out of the open bottle.
This is usually cellulose nitrate dissolved in organic solvents.
For some (like potassium nitrate ), the increase is quite fast.
Rotting container A badly corroded container of radioactive uranyl nitrate was found by a European Union inspector during an investigation of Dounreay in March.
nitrate in lettuce and spinach as part of a European Commission Regulation.
nitrate of silver, 200 grains; distilled water, 3 ounces.
nitric oxide in the stomach from dietary nitrate in humans.
nitric acid followed by aqueous silver nitrate solution.
Other bacteria in a mature aquarium convert the nitrite to nitrate.
Antimicrobial effect of acidified nitrite on gut pathogens: importance of dietary nitrate in host defense.
nitrite into nitrate) can also take place in this zone.
Background Nitrate and nitrite in food Most foods contain nitrate and nitrite in food Most foods contain nitrate and nitrite.
Spray apples against Bitter Bit with calcium nitrate Use a suitable insecticide to control the most troublesome pests.
plutonium nitrate, will double from 1994.
If this contained potassium iodide, after coating it could be sensitized with silver nitrate.
potassium nitrate solution.
Light, alternating temperatures, chilling, nitrate and seed scarification can all help to promote germination.
shipments of liquid plutonium nitrate by sea from Dounreay to Sellafield will double from next year, site operators AEA Technology has confirmed.
silver nitrate solution.
styptic pencils containing silver nitrate from the chemist to keep in your emergency box.
This test too, as a regulation, could be easily subverted by the addition of a nitrate compound.
The chloride ion concentration was determined by potentiometric titration with a silver nitrate solution.
imitation tortoiseshell is likely to be cellulose nitrate (which smells of camphor ).
Fine-scale transient upwelling (from eddies, fronts and planetary waves) provides the dominant supply of nitrate.
uranyl nitrate was found by a European Union inspector during an investigation of Dounreay in March.
Iran has acknowledged the production of uranium metal, uranyl nitrate, ammonium uranyl carbonate, UO2 pellets and uranium wastes.
In this process the osmiridium is fused with zinc and the excess of zinc evaporated; the residue is then ignited with barium nitrate, extracted with water and boiled with nitric acid.
Cobalt nitrate, Co(NO 3) 2.6H 2 0, is obtained in dark-red monoclinic tables by the slow evaporation of a solution of the metal, its hydroxide or carbonate, in nitric acid.
By the addition of excess of ammonia to its aqueous solution, in the complete absence of air, a blue precipitate of a basic nitrate of the composition 6C00 N 2 0 6 5H 2 O is obtained.
The diammine salts are prepared by the action of alkaline nitrites on cobaltous salts in the presence of much ammonium chloride or nitrate; they are yellow or brown crystalline solids, not very soluble in cold water.
The above series of salts show striking differences in their behaviour towards reagents; thus, aqueous solutions of the luteo chlorides are strongly ionized, as is shown by their high electric conductivity; and all their chlorine is precipitated on the addition of silver nitrate solution.
The purpureo chloride has only two-thirds of its chlorine precipitated on the addition of silver nitrate, and the electric conductivity is much less than that of the luteo chloride; again in the praseosalts only one-third of the chlorine is precipitated by silver nitrate, the conductivity again falling; while in the triammine salts all ionization has disappeared.
It is now known that the action takes place in two stages; the ammonium salt is first oxidized to the nitrite stage and subsequently to the nitrate.
Cadmium oxide, CdO, is a brown powder of specific gravity 6.5, which can be prepared by heating the metal in air or in oxygen; or by ignition of the nitrate or carbonate; by heating the metal to a white heat in a current of oxygen it is obtained as a dark red crystalline sublimate.
but it is found that even when more than sixty times the amount of potassium thiocyanate required by this equation is added, a portion of the ferric nitrate still remains unconverted, doubtless owing to the occurrence of the reverse change Fe (CNS) 3 +3KNOs =Fe(N03) 3+3KCNS.
(() An infusible white residue may be obtained,which may denote barium, strontium, calcium, magnesium, aluminium or zinc. The first three give characteristic flame colorations (see below); the last three, when moistened with cobalt nitrate and re-ignited, give coloured masses; aluminium (or silica) gives a brilliant blue; zinc gives a green; whilst magnesium phosphates or arsenate (and to a less degree the phosphates of the alkaline earths) give a violet mass.
It is also prepared by heating ammonium nitrite (or a mixture of sodium nitrite and ammonium chloride): NH 4 NO 2 =2H20+N21 by heating a mixture of ammonium nitrate and chloride (the chlorine which is simultaneously produced being absorbed by milk of lime or by a solution of sodium hydroxide): 4NH4N03+2NH4C1=5N2 +C1 2 +12H 2 O; by heating ammonium dichromate (or a mixture of ammonium chloride and potassium dichromate): (NH4)2Cr207 = Cr203+4H20+ N2; by passing chlorine into a concentrated solution of ammonia (which should be present in considerable excess): 8NH3+3C12=6NH4C1-F-N2; by the action of hypochlorites or hypobromites on ammonia: 3NaOBr-+2NH 3 =3NaBr+3H 2 OH-N 2; and by the action of manganese dioxide on ammonium nitrate at 180-20oÃ‚° C. It is also formed by the reduction of nitric and nitrous oxides with hydrogen in the presence of platinized asbestos at a red heat (G.
Nitric acid (up to 50%) is formed in the first tower, and weaker acids in the successive ones; the last tower contains milk of lime which combines with the gases to form calcium nitrite and nitrate (this product, being unsuitable as a manure, is decomposed with the acid, and the evolved gases sent back).
Priestley, who obtained it by reducing nitrogen peroxide with iron, may be prepared by heating ammonium nitrate at 170-260Ã‚° C., or by reducing a mixture of nitric and sulphuric acid with zinc. It is a colourless gas, which is practically odourless, but possesses a sweetish taste.
Sodium nitrite, the most commonly used salt of the acid, is generally obtained by heating the nitrate with metallic lead; by heating sodium nitrate with sulphur and sodium hydroxide, the product then being fractionally crystallized;(Read, Holliday & Sons): 3NaNO 3 +S+2NaOH = Na2S04+3NaN02+H20; by oxidizing atmospheric nitrogen in an electric arc, keeping the gases above 300Ã‚° C., until absorption in alkaline hydroxide solution is effected (German Pat.
The nitrogen-bacteria that concern us here are of two main categories: (I) those that assimilate elementary nitrogen from its solution in sea-water, building it up into combination with carbohydrate as proteid; and (2) those that break down nitrate into nitrite, nitrite into ammonia and ammonia into elementary nitrogen.
O, is obtained by heating uranyl nitrate to 250Ã‚° as a yellow solid, insoluble in water, but soluble in acids with the formation of uranyl salts.
The further oxidation of the nitrite to a nitrate is effected by bacteria belonging to the genus Nitrobacter.
Since potassium nitrate is generally more serviceable than the sodium salt, whose deliquescent properties inhibit its use for gunpowder manufacture, the latter salt, of which immense natural deposits occur (see below (2) Chile saltpetre), is converted into ordinary saltpetre in immense quantities.
They were developed commercially during the administration (1845-1851) of President Ramon Castilla, at the same time that the nitrate deposits of Tarapaca became a commercial asset of the republic. The large revenues derived from these sources undoubtedly became a cause ofweakness and demoralization and eventually resulted in bankruptcy and the loss of Tarapaca.
The monoxide or strontia, Sr(); is formed by strongly heating the nitrate, or commercially by heating the sulphide or carbonate in superheated steam (at about 500-600Ã‚° C.).
Silver-thallium nitrate, TIAg(N03)2, introduced by Retgers, melts at 75Ã‚° to form a clear liquid of density 4.8; it may be diluted with water.
It forms oxides of composition Nd203 and Nd 2 O 5, the latter being obtained by ignition of the nitrate (B.
The green salt appears to dissociate in aqueous solution into two ions, namely CrC1 2 (OH 2) 4 and one chlorine ion, since practically only one-third of the chlorine is precipitated by silver nitrate solution at oÃ‚° C. Two of the six water molecules are easily removed in a desiccator, and the salt formed, CrC13.4H20, resembles the original salt in properties, only one-third of the chlorine being precipitated by silver nitrate.
Ethyl nitrate, C2H5.0N02, is a colourless liquid which boils at 86.3Ã‚° C. It is prepared by the action of nitric acid on ethyl alcohol (some urea being added to the nitric acid, in order to destroy any nitrous acid that might be produced in secondary reactions and which, if not removed, would cause explosive decomposition of the ethyl nitrate).
With reference to the assimilation of nitrogen, it would seem that algae, like other green plants,, can best use it when it is presented to them in the form of a nitrate.
In the hydrated condition it is a dark brown powder which readily loses water at above tooÃ‚° C., it dissolves in hot nitric acid, giving manganous nitrate and manganese dioxide: 2MnO(OH) + 2HNO 3 = Mn(NO 3) 2 + MnO 2 + 2H 2 0.
Manganese dioxide, or pyrolusite (q.v.), Mn02, the most important oxide, may be prepared by heating crystallized manganous nitrate until red fumes are given off, decanting the clear liquid, and heating to 150 0 to 160Ã‚° C. for 40 to 60 hours (A.
Manganous Nitrate, Mn(NO 3) 2.6H 2 0, obtained by dissolving the carbonate in nitric acid and concentrating the solution, crystallizes from nitric acid solutions in long colourless needles, which melt at 25.8Ã‚° C. and boil at 129.5Ã‚° C. with some decomposition.
Bamberger, Ber., 1893.26, p. 49 6); by the oxidation of nitrosobenzene (below) with atmospheric oxygen; or by the decomposition of benzene diazonium nitrate mercury nitrite, Hg(NO 2) 2.2C 6 H 5 N 2 NO 3, with copper powder (A.
The nitrate, Ni(NO 3) 2.6H 2 O, is obtained by dissolving the metal in dilute nitric acid and concentrating the solution between 40Ã‚° and 50Ã‚° C. It crystallizes in green prisms which deliquesce rapidly on exposure to moist air.
Hydrochloric acid and its metallic salts can be recognized by the formation of insoluble silver chloride, on adding silver nitrate to their nitric acid solution, and also by the formation of chromium oxychloride (see above).
The conversion into sulphate is generally effected by the oxidizing processes of weathering, calcination, heating with iron nitrate or ferric sulphate.
Josef Perino's process, which consists in heating the ore with iron nitrate to 50 0 -150Ã‚° C., is said to possess several advantages, but it has not been applied commercially.