They destroyed Nineveh in alliance with the Babylonians, and half a century later Cyrus took Babylon and founded the great dynasty of the Achaemenidae.
It remained the capital long after the Assyrians had become the dominant power in western Asia, but was finally supplanted by Calah (Nimrud), Nineveh (Nebi Yunus and Kuyunjik), and Dur-Sargina (Khorsabad), some 60 m.
of Nineveh, and one of the capitals of Assyria.
Layard, Nineveh and Babylon (1853); W.
Opposite Mosul are the ruins of ancient Nineveh, the last capital of Assyria, and 20 m.
struck the Tigris some four marches above the site of Nineveh.
During this period he made a second excursion to Babylon, and in 1820 undertook an extensive tour to Kurdistan - from Bagdad north to Sulimania, eastward to Sinna, then west to Nineveh, and thence down the Tigris to Bagdad.
The narrative of this journey, which contained the first accurate knowledge (from scientific observation) regarding the topography and geography of the region, was published by his widow under the title, Narrative of a Residence in Koordistan and on the site of Ancient Nineveh, F&'c. (London, 1836).
With the date palm it is believed to have furnished the rafters for the buildings of Nineveh.
Just as we have in Assyria an Ishtar of Arbela and an Ishtar of Nineveh (treated in Assur-bani-pal's (Rassam) cylinder 2 like two distinct deities), as we have local Madonnas in Roman Catholic countries, so must it have been with the cults of Yahweh in the regal period carried on in the numerous high places, Bethel, Shechem, Shiloh (till its destruction in the days of Eli) and Jerusalem.
Assyria, being essentially a military power, disappeared with the destruction of Nineveh, but Babylon continued to exercise an influence on culture and religion for many centuries after the Persian conquest.
Though the Gilgamesh Epic is known to us chiefly from the fragments found in the royal collection of tablets made by Assur-bani-pal, the king of Assyria (668-626 B.C.) 'for his palace at Nineveh, internal evidence points to the high antiquity of at least some portions of it, and the discovery of a fragment of the epic in the older form of the Babylonian script, which can be dated as 2000 B.C., confirms this view.
This circumstance might, if it stood alone, be explained by placing Joel with Zephaniah in the brief interval between the decline of the empire of Nineveh and the advance of the Babylonians.
Sennacherib speaks of one at Tarbisu to the north of Nineveh, but it is significant that although Nebuchadrezzar II.
In the prologue to the law-code of the great Babylonian monarch Khammurabi (c. 22 50 B.C.), the cities of Nineveh and Assur are both mentioned as coming under that king's beneficent influence.
Layard, Discoveries in the Ruins of Nineveh and Babylon (1853); G.
The "marbles" of Nineveh furnish frequent examples of the offering of incense to the sun-god and his consort (2 Kings ' See Lane, Mod.
Early Assyrian glass is represented in the British Museum by a vase of transparent greenish glass found in the north-west palace of Nineveh.
Many of the specimens discovered by Layard at Nineveh have all the appearance of being Roman, and were no doubt derived from the Roman colony, Niniva Claudiopolis, which occupied the same site.
With the exception of Assur, the original capital, the chief cities of the country, Nineveh, Calah and Arbela, were all on the left bank of the Tigris.
farther north (see Nineveh).
Layard at Nineveh opened up a new world, coinciding as they did with the successful decipherment of the cuneiform system of writing.
After the death of George Smith at Aleppo in 1876, an expedition was sent by the British Museum (1877-1879), under the conduct of Hormuzd Rassam, to continue his work at Nineveh and its neighbourhood.
Several copies of these lists from the library of Nineveh are in existence, the earliest of which goes back to 911 B.C., while the latest comes down to the middle of the reign of Assur-bani-pal.
its name to the later Nina or Nineveh - was rebuilt, and canals and reservoirs were excavated.
Sculpti;:ED Relief Of The Reign Of Assur-Bani-Pal; Mythological Beings In Conflict, Portion Of Sculptured Paving Slab From A Doorway In Assur-Bani-Pal'S Palace At Kuyunjik (Nineveh).
He was commanding the army in a campaign against Ararat at the time of the murder; forty-two days later the murderers fled from Nineveh and took refuge at the court of Ararat.
Calah was burned thou h the stron walls g YP, g g of Nineveh protected the relics of the Assyrian army which had taken refuge behind them; and when the raiders had passed on to other fields of booty, a new palace was erected among the ruins of the neighbouring city.
He was still reigning in Babylonia in his seventh year, as a contract dated in that year has been discovered at Erech, and an inscription of his, in which he speaks of restoring the ruined temples and their priests, couples Merodach of Babylon with Assur of Nineveh.
Nineveh was captured and destroyed by the Scythian army, along with those cities of northern Babylonia which had sided with Babylonia, and the Assyrian empire was at an end.
Under the second Assyrian empire, when Nineveh had become a great centre of trade, Aramaic - the language of commerce and diplomacy - was added to the number of subjects which the educated class was required to learn.
1090 Destruction of Nineveh.
The forms of Assyrian pottery, however, are graceful; the porcelain, like the glass discovered in the palaces of Nineveh, was derived from Egyptian originals.
Layard, Nineveh and Babylon (1853); E.
Layard in the palace of Assur-bani-pal at Kuyunjik (Nineveh), as long ago as 1851 and noticed then as in a " doubtful character," were compared by Hayes Ward and found to be of the Hamathite class.
Nineveh; sealings, see above.
Peiser (based on conjectures as to the names on the Nineveh sealings), C. R.
SIR AUSTEN HENRY LAYARD (1817-1894), British author and diplomatist, the excavator of Nineveh, was born in Paris on the 5th of March 1817.
Layard remained in the neighbourhood of Mosul, carrying on excavations at Kuyunjik and Nimrud, and investigating the condition of various tribes, until 1847; and, returning to England in 1848, published Nineveh and its Remains: with an Account of a Visit to the Chaldaean Christians of Kurdistan, and the Yezidis, or Devil-worshippers; and an Inquiry into the Manners and Arts of the Ancient Assyrians (2 vols.,1848-1849).
To illustrate the antiquities described in this work he published a large folio volume of Illustrations of the Monuments of Nineveh (1849).
His record of this expedition, Discoveries in the Ruins of Nineveh and Babylon, which was illustrated by another folio volume, called A Second Series of the Monuments of Nineveh, was published in 1853.
Apart from the archaeological value of his work in identifying Kuyunjik as the site of Nineveh, and in providing a great mass of materials for scholars to work upon, these two books of Layard's are among the bestwritten books of travel in the language.
In 627 Heraclius defeated the Persian army at Nineveh and advanced towards Ctesiphon.
band of emigrants from Bagdad and Nineveh, and possibly the name "Christians of St Thomas" arose from confusion between this man and the apostle.
The khakan, enticed by the promise of an imperial princess, furnished Heraclius with 40,000 men for his Persian war, who shared in the victory over Chosroes at Nineveh.
NINUS, in Greek mythology, the eponymous founder of Nineveh, and thus the city itself personified.
Another Ninus is described by some authorities as the last king of Nineveh, successor of Sardanapalus.
Early in the 'forties the Frenchman Botta, quickly followed by Sir Henry Layard, began making excavations on the site of ancient Nineveh, the name and fame of which were a tradition having scarcely more than mythical status.
It chanced that there existed on the polished surface of a cliff at Behistun in western Persia a tri-lingual inscription which, according to Diodorus, had been made by Queen Semiramis of Nineveh, but which, as is now known, was really the work of King Darius.
One of the languages of this inscription was Persian; another, as it now appeared, was Assyrian, the language of the newly discovered books from the libraries of Nineveh.
Meanwhile, the material found by Botta and Layard, and other successors, in the ruins of Nineveh, has been constantly augmented through the efforts of companies of other investigators, and not merely Assyrian, but much earlier Babylonian and Chaldaean texts in the greatest profusion have been brought to the various museums of Europe and America.
The answer to that question must come, if it come at all, from what we now speak of as prehistoric archaeology; the monuments from Memphis and Nippur and Nineveh, covering a mere ten thousand years or so, are the records of recent history.
The records of kings whose names hitherto were known to us only through Bible references have been found in the ruins of Nineveh and Babylon, and personages hitherto but shadowy now step forth as clearly into the light of history as an Alexander or a Caesar.
The story of the books now spoken of as the "Creation" and "Deluge" tablets of the Assyrians, in the British Museum, which were discovered in the ruins of Nineveh by Layard and by George Smith, has been familiar to every one for a good many years.
It is the basis of the famous Canon of kings, also called Mathematical Canon, preserved to us in the works of Ptolemy, which, before the astonishing discoveries at Nineveh, was the sole authentic monument of Assyrian and Babylonian history known to us.
21 f., deals with the destruction of the Kenite state by Assyria; also of uncertain date, Assyria being, according to some, the ancient realm of Nineveh, according to others the Seleucid kingdom of Syria, which was also called Assyria.
Mosul probably occupies the site of a southern suburb of ancient Nineveh but it is very doubtful whether the older name of Mespila can be traced in the modern Al-Mausil (Arab., "the place of connexion"); it is, however, certain that a town with the Arabic name Al-Mausil stood here at the time of the Moslem conquest (636 A.D.).
In the early part of Tebet 727 B.C. he died, after having built two palaces, one at Nineveh, the other at Calah.
Ages before Assur-bani-pal reigned at Nineveh the eighth month (Marchesvan) was known as " the month of the star of the Scorpion," the tenth (Tebet) belonged to the " star of the Goat," the twelfth (Adar) to the " star of the Fish of Ea."
It shared the fate of Nineveh, was captured and destroyed by the Medes and Babylonians toward the close of the 7th century, and from that time has remained a ruin.
While the ruins of Calah were remarkably rich in monumental material, enamelled bricks, bronze and ivory objects and the like, they yielded few of the inscribed clay tablets found in such great numbers at Nineveh and various Babylonian sites.
Not a few of the astrological and omen tablets in the Kuyunjik collection of the British Museum, however, although found at Nineveh, were executed, according to their own testimony, at Calah for the rab-dup-sarre or principal librarian during the reigns of Sargon and Sennacherib (716-684 B.C.).
From this it would appear that there was at that time at Calah a library or a collection of archives which was later removed to Nineveh.
In the prestige of antiquity and religious renown, Calah was inferior to the older capital, Assur, while in population and general importance it was much inferior to the neighbouring Nineveh.
There is no proper ground for regarding it, as some Biblical scholars of a former generation did, through a false interpretation of the book of Jonah, as a part or suburb of Nineveh.
Layard, Nineveh and its Remains (London, 1849) George Smith, Assyrian Discoveries (London, 1883); Hormuzd Rassam, Ashur and the Land of Nimrod (London and New York, 18 97).
In the following year the old king found it needful to hand over the command of his armies to the Tartan (commander-in-chief), and six years later Nineveh and other cities revolted against him under his rebel son Assur-danin-pal.
The dates of the other Minor Prophets (in some cases approximate) are: Micah, c. 725 - c. 680 B.C. (some passages perhaps later); Zephaniah, c. 625; Nahum, shortly before the destruction of Nineveh by the Manda in 607; Habakkuk (on the rise and destiny of the Chaldaean empire) 605-600; Obadiah, after the destruction of Jerusalem by the Chaldaeans in 586; Haggai, 520; Zechariah, i.
In its prime it ranked beside Nineveh and Babylon in its colossal proportions - its four walls, each 16 m.
3) that Nineveh stood on the Euphrates; the Arabic geographer Yaqut places a Nineveh on the lower Euphrates near Babylon, and this may be a colony from the great Nineveh, or possibly the Nina.
The name Nina, was borne also by the goddess Ishtar, whose worship was the special cult of Nineveh, and Ninua may well be a hypocoristicon of Nina,.
The ideogram for Nineveh, as also for the Lagash city, 3?
Nineveh was situated at the N.W.
by r5 m., and contains the ruins of Nineveh at Kuyunjik and Nebi Yunus, of Dar Sargon at Khorsabad to the N.E.
The floods caused by the Husur were frequent and destructive, on one occasion sweeping away the palace terrace at Nineveh and exposing the tombs of the kings, on another isolating Khorsabad.
A great series of dams was therefore constructed (mapped and described in " Topography of Nineveh," J.R.A.S.
318 ff.) which controlled the floods and filled the ditches and moats of Nineveh.
As Esarhaddon entered Nineveh, on his triumphal return from Sidon, through Rebit-Ninua, it is probable that this name covered the western suburbs.
The walled city formed a sort of Acropolis, and it is difficult to say exactly how far the name of Nineveh should be extended.
Few traces of private houses have been found within the walls, but as deeds of sale speak of houses in Nineveh, which were bounded on three sides by other houses, there must have been continuous streets within the area denoted by that name.
Great emphasis has been laid on the agreement of a tetrapolis, formed by Nineveh, Khorsabad, Calah and Keramlis, with the dimensions given by Diodorus and with the phrase " an exceeding great city of three days' journey ."
Admitting that this whole area was thickly inhabited and might be regarded by those at a distance as one city, and that the district may well have had a common name, which could hardly be Assur, there is yet no native evidence that Nineveh extended so far.
Each had its own saknu, and the governor of Nineveh stands below the governors of Assur and Calah in official lists.
The history of Nineveh is, of course, bound up with that of Assyria in general.
The mention of Gudea's building a temple for Ishtar in Nina (2800 B.C.) may refer to the Lagash city and an inscription of Dungi, king of Ur (2700 B.C.), said to have been found at Nineveh, might have been carried there by some antiquary king.
We reach firm ground with the statement of Khammurabi (2285 B.C.) that he" made the waters of Ishtar to be glorious in Nineveh in E-MES-MES," the temple of Ishtar there (Code IV.
As he had just spoken of " returning the gracious protecting god to Assur," and spells the name Ni-nu-a, there can be no doubt that Nineveh is meant.
p. 131), c. 1300 B.C., records his restoration of the temple of Ishtar of Nineveh, which had been built by SamsiHadad (Shamshi-Adad) and restored once before by Assuruballit.
Dushratta, king of Mitanni, about 1400 B.C., in the Tell el-Amarna letters offers to send to the king of Egypt an image of Ishtar of Nineveh; from which it has been inferred that Nineveh was then under foreign rule.
The same letters mention Shaushbi as goddess of Nineveh.
A statue of a female nude figure found at Nineveh bears an inscription showing it to have been in the palace of Assur-bel-kala (1080 B.C.), who is therefore supposed to have resided in Nineveh.
restored a temple of Ishtar, probably in Nineveh.
Assur-narsin-apli (885 B.C.) restored the temple E-MAS-MAS of Ishtar at Nineveh, but removed his residence to Calah.
set out on several of his expeditions from Nineveh, but in the latter part of his reign resided at Calah, and when rebellion broke out under his son Assur-daninapli Nineveh sided with the rebel prince.
Sennacherib records that several of his royal ancestors had been buried in Nineveh and they presumably had resided there.
At the commencement of his reign Sennacherib found Nineveh a poor place.
Nineveh was badly supplied with water for drinking; the inhabitants had to " turn their eyes to heaven for the rain," but Sennacherib conducted water by eighteen canals from the hills into the Husur and distributed its waters round the moats and into store tanks, or ponds, within the city.
Sennacherib made Nineveh his court residence and, after his destruction of Babylon and the influx of the enormous booty brought back from his conquests, it must have been the most magnificent and wealthiest city of the East.
Esarhaddon began to rebuild Babylon and so departed from his father's purpose to make Nineveh the metropolis of the empire, but he did not altogether neglect the city.
He rebuilt the temple of Assur at Nineveh, and a palace for himself now covered by the Nebi-Yunus mound and so inefficiently explored.
Very little trace is left of the fortunes of Nineveh during the reigns of the sons of Assur-bani-pal.
It may be of interest to record the names of the governors of Nineveh: Nergal-mudammik.
The name of Nineveh (Syriac Ninwe; Arabic Ninawa, Nunawa) continued, even in the middle ages, to be applied to a site opposite Mosul on the east bank of the Tigris, where huge mounds and the traces of an ancient city wall bore witness of former greatness.
- The architecture of these palaces is exhaustively treated in Ferguson's Palaces of Nineveh and Persepolis Restored, and in Perrot and Chipiez, Art in Chaldea and Assyria.
In the twelfth year of his reign Nebuchadrezzar, who is described as king of Assyria,having his capital in Nineveh, makes war against Arphaxad, king of Media, and overcomes him in his seventeenth year.
4 These new elements may have been more organically attached to the Assyrian state as such than the older inhabitants, to whom the affairs of state at Nineveh would be of little interest.
Hence even the fall of Nineveh (607 B.
e.), apart from what such cities in Mesopotamia as held by its last kings suffered through the invasion, first perhaps of Nabopolassar, who in 609 B.C. claims to be lord of Shubaru, and then of the Medes, would be a matter of comparative indifference; tribute paid to Babylon was just as hard to find as if it were going to Nineveh.
Layard, Nineveh and Babylon (1849-1851), pp. 230-242; at Tell Khalaf: M.
Further, we know that in the 8th century B.C., there were observatories in most of the large cities in the valley of the Euphrates, and that professional astronomers regularly took observations of the heavens, copies of which were sent to the king of Assyria; and from a cuneiform inscription found in the palace of Sennacherib at Nineveh, the text of which is given by George Smith,5 we learn that at that time the epochs of eclipses of both sun and moon were predicted as possible - probably by means of the cycle of 223 lunations or Chaldaean Saros - and that observations were made accordingly.
Even after the rise of Nineveh as the capital of the kingdom and the seat of the civil power, Assur continued to be the religious centre of the country, where the king was called on to reside when performing his priestly functions.
In the following January Sir Edwin Arnold, the editor of the Daily Telegraph, arranged with Smith that he should go to Nineveh at the expense of that journal, and carry out excavations with a view to finding the missing fragments of the Deluge story.
In 1874 Smith again left England for Nineveh, this time at the expense of the Museum, and continued his excavations at Kouyunjik.
We next hear that correspondence with Tirhaka was intercepted, and that Necho, together with Pekrflr of Psapt (at the entrance to the Wadi Tumilat) and the Assyrian governor of Pelusium, was taken to Nineveh in chains to answer the charge of treason.
The fall of Nineveh and the division of the spoil gave to Nabopolasser, king of Babylon, the inheritance of the Assyrians in the west, and he at once despatched his son Nebuchadrezzar to fight Necho.
21 f.) as that of a nephew of Tobit and an official at the court of Esarhaddon at Nineveh.
The immense vivaria or theriotropheia, in which various wild animals, such as boars, stags and roe-deer, were kept in a state of semidomestication, were developments which arose at a comparatively late period; as also were the venationes in the circus, although these are mentioned as having been known as early as 186 B.C. The bald and meagre poem of Grattius Faliscus on hunting (Cynegetica) is modelled upon Xenophon's prose work; a still extant fragment (315 lines) of a similar poem with the same title, of much later date, by Nemesianus, seems to have at one See Layard (Nineveh, ii.
103 ff.) that he renewed the war against the Assyrians, in which his father Phraortes had perished, but was, while he besieged Nineveh, attacked by a great Scythian army under Madyas, son of Protothyes, which had come from the northern shores of the Black Sea in pursuit of the Cimmerians.
After the destruction of the Scythians Cyaxares regained the supremacy, renewed his attack on Assyria, and in 606 B.C. destroyed Nineveh and the other capitals of the empire (Herod.
On the removal of the seat of residence of the Assyrian kings to Calah (c. 1300 B.C.), and then in the 8th century to Nineveh, the centre of the Assur cult was likewise transferred, though the sanctity of the old seat at Assur continued to be recognized.
At Nineveh, which remained the capital till the fall of the Assyrian empire in 606 B.C., Assur had as his rival Ishtar, who was the real patron deity of the place, but a reconciliation was brought about by making Ishtar the consort of the chief god.
Herodotus, Athenaeus and other Greek and Roman writers have recorded the enormous number of colossal statues and other works of art for which Babylon and Nineveh were so famed.
Classical: Layard, Nineveh and Babylon (1853); Pliny, Natural History, bk.
gave the Assyrians trouble; and when in 689 B.C. Sennacherib, whose patience had been exhausted by the difficulties encountered in maintaining peace in the south, actually besieged and destroyed the city of Babylon, he removed the statue of Marduk to Nineveh as a symbol that the god's rule had come to an end.
composed for the temples of Babylonia were transferred to Assur,, Calah, Harran, Arbela and Nineveh in the north; and the myths and legends also wandered to Assyria, where, to be sure,.
We thus obtain four periods in the development of the Babylonian-Assyrian religion: (i) the oldest period from_ C. 3500 B.C. to the time of Khammurabi (c. 2250 B.C.); (2) the post-Khammurabic period in Babylonia; (3) the Assyrian period (c. 2000 B.C.) to the destruction of Nineveh in 606 B.C.; (4) the neo-Babylonian period beginning with Nabopolassar (625-604 B.C.), the first independent ruler under whom Babylonia inaugurates a new though short-lived era of power and prosperity, which ends with Cyrus's conquest of Babylon and Babylonia in 539 B.C., though since the religion proceeds on its undisturbed course for several centuries after the end of the political independence, we might legitimately carry this period to the Greek conquest of the Euphrates valley (331 B.C.), when new influences began to make themselves felt which gradually led to the extinction of the old cults.
It is significant that in the royal collection of cuneiform literature made by King Assur-bani-pal of Assyria (668-626 B.C.) and deposited in his palace at Nineveh, the omen collections connected with the astral theology of Babylonia and Assyria form the largest class.
C. Thompson, The Reports of the Magicians and Astrologers of Nineveh and Babylon (London, 1900); A.
Layard, Nineveh and Babylon (1853); John P. Peters, Nippur (1897); H.
It was by the collection and reproduction of such documents, preserved in the ancient religious centres, that Assurbani-pal was enabled to form his unique library of tablets at Nineveh.
pp. 29 and 37) and Syncellus (p. 39 6) have preserved, give the name Astyages to the Median king who reigned in the time of the fall of Nineveh (606 B.C.), and became father-in-law of Nebuchadrezzar.
He built palaces at Assur and Nineveh, restored "the worldtemple" at Assur, and founded the city of Calah.
2) that the Ninevites may repent, so, instead of going to Nineveh, he proceeds to Joppa, and takes his passage in a ship bound for Tarshish.
After delivering his message to Nineveh he makes himself a booth outside the walls and waits in vain for the destruction of the city (probably iv.
15, where we read "of the destruction of Nineveh, which Nebuchadnezzar and Ahasuerus took captive."
As a matter of fact, however, Cyaxares and Nabopolassar were the conquerors of Nineveh, and the latter was the father of Nebuchadrezzar.
Hezekiah was imprisoned "like a bird in a cage" 4 - to quote Sennacherib, and the Urbi (Arabian?} troops in Jerusalem laid down their arms. Thirty talents of gold, eight hundred of silver, precious stones, couches and seats of ivory - "all kinds of valuable treasure", - the ladies of the court, male and female attendants (perhaps "singers") were carried away to Nineveh.
Among a great series of engraved silver bowls,' found mostly in Cyprus, but also as far off as Nineveh, Olympia, Caere and Praeneste, some examples show almost unmixed imitation of Egyptian scenes and devices; in others, Assyrian types are introduced among the Egyptian in senseless confusion; in others, both traditions are merged in a mixed art, which betrays a return to naturalism and a new sense of style, like that of the Idaean bronzes in Crete.° From its intermediate position between the art of Phoenicia and its western colonies (so far as this is known) and the earliest Hellenic art in the Aegean, this style has been called Graeco-Phoenician.
At that time twenty-eight Median town-lords paid tribute to Nineveh; two years later, (713 B.C.) no fewer than forty-six.
In the latter Nineveh is destroyed by the Mede Arbaces and the Babylonian Belesys about 880 B.C., a period when thi Assyrians were just beginning to lay the foundations of their power.
Deioce~ founds the monarchy; his son Phraortes begins the work o~ conquest; and his son Cyaxares is first overwhelmed by th Scythians, then captures Nineveh, and raises Media ~to a greal power.
Shortly afterwards Necho, the satrap of Sais, and two others were detected intriguing with Tirhakah; Necho and one of his companions were sent in chains to Nineveh, but were there pardoned and restored to their ' As essentially a national god, he is almost identical in character with the early Yahweh of Israel.
A war with Teumman of Elam had resulted in the overthrow of the Elamite army; the head of Teumman was sent to Nineveh, and another king, Umman-igas, appointed by the Assyrians.
The Lydian king, finding that Nineveh was helpless to assist him, turned instead to Egypt and furnished the mercenaries with whose help Psammetichus drove the Assyrians out of the country and suppressed his brother satraps.
The great library of Nineveh was to a considerable extent his creation, and scribes were kept constantly employed in it copying the older tablets of Babylonia, though unfortunately their patron's tastes inclined rather to omens and astrology than to subjects of more modern interest.
of ancient Nineveh, on the left bank of the little river Kosar.
The objects excavated by Place, together with the objects found by Fresnel's expedition in Babylonia and a part of the results of Rawlinson's excavations at Nineveh, were unfortunately lost in the Tigris, on transport from Bagdad to Basra.
Egypt was of interest only as it came into Israelite history, Babylon and Nineveh were to illustrate the judgments of Yahweh, Tyre and Sidon to reflect the glory of Solomon.
There is not only no room in history for this Median king of the Book of Daniel, but it is also highly likely that the interpolation of "Darius the Mede" was caused by a confusion of history, due both to the destruction of the Assyrian capital Nineveh by the Medes, sixty-eight years before the capture of Babylon by Cyrus, and also to the fame of the later king, Darius Hystaspis, a view which was advanced as early in the history of biblical criticism as the days of the Benedictine monk, Marianus Scotus.
Its foundation is mythically ascribed to Kaiomurs, the Persian Romulus; and it is at least certain that, at a very early date, it was the rival of Ecbatana, Nineveh and Babylon.
to the invasion of the Scythians (perhaps c. 626), and (d) with the anticipated downfall of Assyria and Nineveh (ii.
16), and a more detailed prophecy upon Assyria and Nineveh.
4; and if the impending fall of Nineveh (ii.
He travelled through Asia and visited Nineveh, Babylon and India, imbibing the oriental mysticism of magi, Brahmans and gymnosophists.
io) the ruined wall of Nineveh was still 150 ft.
Of the two temples, that at Sippara was the more famous, but temples to Shamash were erected in all large centres - as Babylon, Ur, Nippur and Nineveh.
The name is derived from that of Assur-danin-pal, the rebel son of Shalmaneser II., whose reign ended with the fall of Nineveh in 823 B.C. (or perhaps from that of Assur-dan III., the last king but one of the older Assyrian dynasty); his character is that ascribed to Assur-bani-pal.
He was the most effeminate and corrupt of a line of effeminate princes; hence Arbaces, satrap of Media, rebelled and, with the help of Belesys, the Babylonian priest, besieged Nineveh.
C. Thompson, Reports of the Magicians and Astrologers of Nineveh and Babylon (2 vols., London, 1900); F.
The Assyrian inscriptions have shown that the Assyrians had never crossed the Halys, much less known the name of Lydia, before the age of Assur-bani-pal, and consequently the theory which brought the Heraclids from Nineveh must be given up. But the Hittites, another Oriental people, deeply imbued with the elements of Babylonian culture, had overrun Asia Minor and established themselves on the shores of the Aegean before the reign of the Egyptian king Rameses II.
The Cimmerian hordes returned, Gyges was slain in battle (652 B.C.), and Ardys his son and successor returned to his allegiance to Nineveh.
Tigranes founded a new capital, Tigranocerta, in northern Mesopotamia, which he modelled on Nineveh and Babylon, and peopled with Greek and other captives.
zur Orientalistischen Litteratur-Zeitung) finds contemporary evidence of Israelites settled in the neighbourhood of Edessa in the second half of the 7th century B.C. At the fall of Nineveh many towns in Mesopotamia suffered severely at the hands of the Medes.
Jerusalem was saved eventually by a plague, which decimated the Assyrian army and obliged Sennacherib to return to Nineveh.
On the 'loth of Tebet 681 B.C. he was murdered by his two sons, who fled to Armenia after holding Nineveh for forty-two days.
Sennacherib was vainglorious and a bad administrator; he built the palace of Kuyunjik at Nineveh, 1500 ft.
decipher the cuneiform inscriptions of Nineveh, Assyria.
It was near Nineveh that Darius was waiting with the immense host which a supreme effort could muster from all parts of the empire.
The fragments of it which have been recovered from Assur-bani-pal's library at Nineveh and later Babylonian copies show that it was studied, divided into chapters entitled Ninu ilu sirum from its opening words, and recopied for fifteen hundred years or more.
13) during which Hezekiah endeavoured to make terms with him: the campaign is commemorated by bas-reliefs found in Nineveh, now in the British Museum (see G.
Nothing is known of him, unless the very late prophetical writing with the account of his visit to Nineveh rests upon some old tradition, which, however, can scarcely be recovered (see Jonah).
Shortly afterwards Nineveh fell, and with it the empire which had dominated the fortunes of Palestine for over two centuries (see § to).
In February (674 B.C.) the Assyrians entered upon their invasion of Egypt (see also Egypt: History), and in Nisan (or March) 670 B.C. an expedition on an unusually large scale set out from Nineveh.
This edifice, the design of the architect Poelaert, is in the style of Karnak and Nineveh, but surmounted with a dome, and impresses by its grandiose proportions (see Architecture, Plate XI.
Nineveh, according to Herodotus, was besieged by Cyaxares and the Medes but saved by Madyes and the Scythians some twenty or more years before the Medes in alliance with Nabopolassar, king of Babylon, finally took it, c. 606 B.C. Much conjecture has been lavished upon the varying accounts which have reached us of the capture, but it seems probable that a heavy flood or the besiegers burst the great dam and while thus emptying the moats launched a flood against the west wall on the inside and thus breached the defences.
A very complete summary of the traditions will be found in Lincke, " Assyrien and Nineveh," in Geschichte and Sage der Mittelmeervolker nach 607-606.
It began with Ninus, the founder of Nineveh, and ended at about the same point as Livy (A.D.
The prophet Jonah is summoned to go to Nineveh, a great and wicked city (cf.
Among a great series of engraved silver bowls,' found mostly in Cyprus, but also as far off as Nineveh, Olympia, Caere and Praeneste, some examples show almost unmixed imitation of Egyptian scenes and devices; in others, Assyrian types are introduced among the Egyptian in senseless confusion; in others, both traditions are merged in a mixed art, which betrays a return to naturalism and a new sense of style, like that of the Idaean bronzes in Crete.Ã‚° From its intermediate position between the art of Phoenicia and its western colonies (so far as this is known) and the earliest Hellenic art in the Aegean, this style has been called Graeco-Phoenician.
Once more the Assyrian army made its way up the Nile, Thebes was plundered, and its temples destroyed, two obelisks being carried to Nineveh as trophies (see Nahum iii.
Layard, Nineveh and Babylon (1853); C. P. Tiele, De Hoofdtempel van Babel (1886); A.
He thereupon returned to Nineveh and on the 8th of Sivan formally ascended the throne.
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