Its capital, also called Ghana, was west of the Niger, and is generally placed some zoo m.
In 1905 Liberia proposed to France that the boundary line should follow the river Moa from the British frontier of Sierra Leone up stream to near the source of the Moa (or Makona), and that from this point the boundary should run eastwards along the line of water-parting between the system of the Niger on the north and that of the coast rivers (Moa, Lofa, St Paul's) on the south, until the 8th degree of N.
The fresh-water fish seem in their affinities to be nearly allied to those of the Niger and the Nile.
Unfortunately they contain practically nothing that is not of Christian origin.4 On the death of Aurelius Hatra aided Niger against Septimius Severus in 194; Osroene rose against Rome, and Nisibis was besieged and other Roman places taken; but Septimius Severus appeared in person (195), and from Nisibis as headquarters subdued the whole country, of which he made Nisibis metropolis, raising it to the rank of a colony, the Sinjar district, where Arabs from Yemen had settled, being incorporated.
of the Niger, on both banks of a marigot, and are about 40 m.
Southern or Lower Guinea comprises the coasts of Gabun and Loango (known also as French Congo) and the Portuguese possessions on the south-west coast, and Northern or Upper Guinea stretches from the river Casamance to and inclusive of the Niger delta, Cameroon occupying a middle position.
From the 7th to the 12th century it was a powerful empire, its dominions extending, apparently, from the Atlantic to the Niger bend.
At that period geographers regarded the Senegal as the termination of the Niger, a theory held until Mungo Park's demonstration of the eastward course of that stream.
At the time that "the scramble for Africa" began, the narrow strip of coast over which the king of Togo ruled was the sole district between the Gambia and the Niger to which Great Britain, France or some other civilized power had not a claim.
Gray, a British officer who attempted to solve the Niger problem, visited Bondu in 1818 it had been removed to Bulibani, a small town, with about 3000 population, surrounded by a strong clay wall.
The bay formed by the configuration of the land between Cape St Paul and the Nun mouth of the Niger is known as the Bight of Benin, the name being that of the once powerful native state whose territory formerly extended over the whole district.
of the sea on the north-eastern escarpment of the Futa Jallon highlands, the massif where also rise the head-streams of the Senegal and some of the Niger tributaries, besides the Rio Grande and many other rivers flowing direct to the Gulf of Guinea.
The eastern headwaters of the Senegal thus drain a large area adjacent to the upper Niger.
Joalland, reached the lake from the middle Niger, continuing his journey round the north end to Kanem.
by the French colony of Upper Senegal and Niger, E.
In the north are the large native towns of Yendi and Sansane Mangu, both on caravan routes between Ashanti and the Niger countries.
Limnocnida tanganyicae was discovered first in Lake Tanganyika, but has since been discovered also in Lake Victoria and in the river Niger.
Five years later he accepted an offer from the government to command an expedition into the interior of Africa, the plan being to cross from the Gambia to the Niger and descend the latter river to the sea.
His work, however, had established the fact that the Niger was not identical with the Congo.
While the British were at work in the direction of the Niger, the Portuguese were not unmindful of their old exploring fame.
There is the interesting white-necked guineafowl, Agelastes (which is found on the Gold Coast and elsewhere west of the lower Niger); there is one peculiar species of eagle owl (Bubo lettii) and a very handsome sparrow-hawk (Accipiter bitttikoferi); a few sun-birds, warblers and shrikes are peculiar to the region.
These differences have given rise to a supposed multiplicity of species, expressed by the names C. lycaon (Central Europe), C. laniger and C. niger (Tibet), the C. occidentalis, C. nubilus, C. mexicanus, &c., of North America, and the great blackish-brown Alaskan C. pambasileus, the largest of them all.
niger), go after the aphids that frequent the shoots of plants.
BENUE, a river of West Africa, the largest and most important affluent of the Niger, which it joins after a course of over 800 m.
Through the Tuburi marshes there is a water connexion between the Benue (Niger) and Shari (Lake Chad) systems.
The chief object of the author, who had been naturalist to the Niger Expedition, and curator to the Museum of the Zoological Society of London, was to figure the animals contained in its gardens or described in its Proceedings, which until the year 1848 were not illustrated.
Thus Claudius Clavus Swartha (Niger), who was at Rome in 1424, compiled a map of the world, extending westward as far as Greenland.
It is close to the site of the ancient Aquinum, a municipium in the time of Cicero, and made a colony by the Triumviri, the birthplace of Juvenal and of the emperor Pescennius Niger.
LOKOJA, a town of Nigeria, at the junction of the Niger and Benue rivers, founded in 1860 by the British consul, W.
Baikie, and subsequently the military centre of the Royal Niger Company.
He directed the negotiations which led to the establishment of a French protectorate in Tunis (1881), prepared the treaty of the 17th of December 1885 for the occupation of Madagascar; directed the exploration of the Congo and of the Niger region; and above all he organized the conquest of Indo-China.
In Ifli, the central portion, formerly existed the town of Sagilmasa, founded by Miknasa Berbers in 757 B.C. It was on the direct caravan route from the Niger to Tangier, and attained a considerable degree of prosperity.
Amongst the best known of the furrows of the continental shelf are the Cape Breton Deep, in the Bay of Biscay, the Hudson Furrow, southward of New York, the so-called Congo Canon, the Swatch of No Ground off the Ganges delta, the Bottomless Pit off the Niger delta, and numerous similar furrows on the west coast of North America and outside the fjords of Norway, Iceland and the west of Scotland, as well as in the.
During his reign unimportant wars were successfully carried on by his generals Clodius Albinus, Pescennius Niger and Ulpius Marcellus.
Wollaston, From Ruwenzori to the Congo (2908); Seymour Vandeleur, Campaigning on the Upper Nile and Niger (1898).
by the colony of Upper Senegal and Niger, E.
The rivers named all drain to the Gulf of Guinea; the rivers in the extreme north of the colony belong to the Niger system, being affluents of the Bani or Mahel Balevel branch of that river.
The best known are Koroko, Kong and Bona, entrepots for the trade of the middle Niger, and Bontuku, on the caravan route to Sokoto and the meeting-place of the merchants from Kong and Timbuktu engaged in the kola-nut trade with Ashanti and the Gold Coast.
Between 1887 and 1889 Captain Binger (an officer of marine infantry, and subsequently director of the African department at the colonial ministry) traversed the whole region between the coast and the Niger, visited Bontuku and the Kong country, and signed protectorate treaties with the chiefs.
The northern boundary was fixed in 1899 on the division of the middle Niger territories (up to that date officially called the French Sudan) among the other French West African colonies.
Of books of travel see Du Niger au Golfe de Guinee par Kong (Paris, 1892) by L.
Here were Hausas from the Niger and the Gold Coast, coloured men from the West India regiments, zaptiehs from Cyprus, Chinamen from Hong Kong, and Dyaks - now civilized into military police - from British North Borneo.
In time he became a teacher at Furah Bay, and afterwards an energetic missionary on the Niger.
In 18J7 he commenced the third expedition up the Niger, and after labouring with varied success, returned to England and was consecrated, on St Peter's Day 1864, first bishop of the Niger territories.
Before long a commencement was made of the missions to the delta of the Niger, and between 1866 and 1884 congregations of Christians were formed at Bonny, Brass and New Calabar, but the progress made was slow and subject to many impediments.
It was known to Ptolemy and the Arabian geographers, and was at one time supposed to be a mouth of the Nile, and, later (18th century), a branch of the Niger.
Not a few Christian prophets a y e known to us by name: as Agabus, Judas, and Silas in Jerusalem; Barnabas, Simon Niger, &c., in Antioch; in Asia Minor, the daughters of Philip, Quadratus, Ammia, Polycarp, Melito, Montanus, Maximilla and Priscilla; in Rome, Hermas; among the followers of Basilides, Barkabbas and Barkoph; in the community of Apelles, Philumene, &c. Lucian tells us that the impostor Peregrinus Proteus, in the time of Antoninus Pius, figured as a prophet in the Christian churches of Syria.
Another fresh-water form is Limnocnida tanganyicae, discovered first in lake Tanganyika, and now known to occur also in the Victoria Nyanza and in the Niger.
niger are really indigenous members of this group or modified descendants of European tame pigs is doubtful; although the general character of the Papuan fauna supports the idea that they are introduced.
It was not till the early part of the 18th century that the Efik, owing to civil war with their kindred and the Ibibio, migrated from the neighbourhood of the Niger to the shores of the river Calabar, and established themselves at Ikoritungko or Creek Town, a spot 4 m.
From that date until 1906 Calabar was the headquarters of the European administration in the Niger delta.
The town received the privileges of an Italian colony from Severus, for taking his part against Antioch in the struggle with Niger.
The Niger delta was for long known as the Oil rivers.
- Missions:: Senegambia, Gambia, Sierra Leone, Lower Niger, Gaboon, French Congo, Lower Congo, Mayotte, Nossibe and Comoro Islands.
niger or Christmas Rose, the finest variety of which is called maximus, has white showy saucer-shaped flowers; H.
The most probable tradition represents the Ashanti as deriving their origin from bands of fugitives, who in the 16th or 17th century were driven before the Moslem tribes migrating southward from the countries on the Niger and Senegal.
It is the meeting-place of traders from the Niger countries and from the coast.
As far as the trade goes through British territory southward, the figures are included in those of the Gold Coast; but Ashanti does also a considerable trade with its French and German neighbours, and northwards with the Niger countries.
beyond the point reached by former explorers, the little steamer "Pleiad" returned and reached the mouth of the Niger, after a voyage of 118 days, without the loss of a single man.
After two years spent in exploring the Niger, the navigating vessel was wrecked in passing through some of the rapids of the river, and Baikie was unable longer to keep his party together.
to the River Niger in 1841, London, 1848).
In less than five years he had opened up the navigation of the Niger, made roads, and established a market to which the native produce was brought for sale and barter.
Dakar thus came into direct communication with the countries of Upper Senegal and the middle Niger.
The name Camaroes was 0 first given by the Portuguese discoverers of the 15th and 16th centuries to a large bay or estuary, lying south-east of a great mountain close to the sea, met with after passing the Niger delta.
Here they give rise to a number of small rivers, which collect in the rift and form the Benue, the great eastern affluent of the Niger.
Including the headwaters of the Benue the colony has four distinct river-systems, one connecting with the Niger, another with the Congo, and a third with Lake Chad, the fourth being the rivers which run direct to the sea.
The Niger and Shari systems communicate, with, at high water, but one obstruction to navigation.
The protectorate belongs to the Postal Union, and is connected by cable with the British telegraph station at Bonny in the Niger delta.
The most powerful of the invading tribes was the Lamtuna ("veiled men") from the upper Niger, whose best-known representatives now are the Tuareg.
His preaching was for long rejected by the Lamtunas, so on the advice of his patron Yahya, who accompanied him, he retired to an island in the Niger, where he founded a ribat or Moslem monastery, from which as a centre his influence spread.
NIGERIA, a British protectorate in West Africa occupying the lower basin of the Niger and the country between that river and Lake Chad, including the Fula empire (i.e.
by French possessions (Dahomey, Upper Senegal and Niger colony, and Chad territory), S.E.
The Niger (q.v.), which enters the protectorate at its N.W.
Into the huge delta of the Niger several other rivers (the " Oil Rivers ") empty themselves; the chief being, on the west, the Benin, and on the east the Brass.
East of the Niger delta is that formed by the Imo or Opobo, Bonny and other streams, and still farther east is the Calabar estuary, mainly formed by the Cross river.
West of the Niger delta are several independent streams discharging into lagoons, which here line the coast.
The Niger at its confluence with the Benue is not more than 250 ft.
The valleys of the Niger and Benue, especially the latter, are very much lower, the town of Yola on the Benue, some 400 m.
Tributaries of the Niger traverse the western portion of the country, the most noteworthy being the Gulbin Kebbi or Sokoto river and the Kaduna, which flows through a valley not more than 500 ft.
The water parting between the Chad and Niger systems runs N.W.
The great rise of the Niger within the protectorate takes place in August and September and there is a second rise about the beginning of the year.
From the edge of the coast belt to near the confluence of the Benue and Niger they are overlain by unfossiliferous sandstones, lying undisturbed and possibly of the age of the sandstones of the Congo basin.
Besides the people of Benin, the coast tribes include the Jekri, living on the lower part of the Benin river and akin to the Yoruba, the Ijos, living in the delta east of the main mouth of the Niger, and the Ibos, occupying a wide tract of country just above the delta and extending for loo m.
east from the Niger to the Cross river.
Of these the Munshi, who inhabit the district nearest the junction of the Benue with the Niger, were long noted for their intractability and hostility to strangers, whom they attacked with poisoned arrows.
South of the Benue, near the Niger confluence, dwell the savage and warlike Okpotos, Bassas and other tribes.
These places are east of the Nun or main mouth of the Niger, where, on the western bank, is Akassa.
Further west at the Forcados mouth of the Niger is a town of the same name, which is the principal port of entry for the river.
On the Niger at the head of the delta are Asaba (west bank) and Onitsha (east bank); Iddah (Ida), in the palm-oil zone; Lokoja on the west bank opposite the confluence with the Benue, and the headquarters of the protectorate's military force; Baro, on the east bank, 70 m.
Apart from the sea and river ports and the towns in Yorubaland, the chief centres of population are in the open plains east of the Niger.
Of these cities the most important is Kano, the great emporium of trade for the central Sudan, where Tuareg and Arab from the north meet merchants from the Niger, Lake Chad and the far southern regions.
of Kano is Sokoto, on a tributary of the Niger of the same name.
of Egga on the Niger; and Yola (q.v.) on the Benue near the German frontier.
From the Forcados mouth of the Niger steamers can ascend the main stream as far as Jebba, a distance of 530 m.
Steamers can also ascend the Benue to Yola, 480 m., above the confluence of that river with the Niger at Lokoja.
The Kaduna from its confluence with the Niger can be ascended by steamer 50 m.
railway from Baro on the Niger via Bida and Zaria to Kano - a distance of about 400 m.
The kola nut, chewed by almost every native of the country, is brought from west of the Niger, traders from Ashanti, Accra and Yorubaland frequenting the markets of Jegga.
The Benin influence does not seem to have reached east of the Forcados mouth of the Niger.
By the end of the 18th century British enterprise had almost entirely displaced that of other nations on the Niger coast.
After the abolition of the slave-trade in the 19th century palm oil formed the staple article of commerce, and the various streams which drain the Niger coast near the mouth of the great river became known as the " Oil Rivers."
Mungo Park traced the Niger from Segu to Bussa, where he lost his life in 1805.
Macgregor Laird first organized in 1832 the navigation of the river Niger from its mouth to a point above the Benue confluence.
In 1880 the influence of the international " scramble for Africa " made itself felt by the establishment under the recognized protection of the French government of two French firms which opened upwards of thirty trading stations on the Lower Niger.
Nearly at the same time a young Englishman, George Goldie-Taubman, afterwards better known as Sir George Goldie (q.v.), having some private interests on the Niger, conceived the idea of amalgamating all local British interests and creating a British province on the Niger.
At the Berlin Conference held in1884-1885the British representative was able to state that Great Britain alone possessed trading interests on the Lower Niger, and in June 1885 a British protectorate was notified over the coast lands known as the Oil Rivers.
In the following year, 1886, the United African Company received a royal charter under the title of the Royal Niger Company.
The territories which were placed by the charter under the control of the company were those immediately bordering the Lower Niger in its course from the confluence at Lokoja to the sea.
To secure British political influence, and to preserve a possible field for future development, the Niger Company had negotiated treaties with some of the most important of these rulers, and the nominal extension of the company's territories was carried over the whole sphere of influence thus secured.
Thus, mainly by the action of the Royal Niger Company, a territory of vast extent, into which the chartered company itself was not able to carry either administrative or trading operations, was secured for Great Britain.
In these circumstances it was judged advisable to place the territories of the Royal Niger Company, to which the general name of Nigeria had been given, under the direct control of the crown.
The southern portion of the territories was amalgamated with the Niger Coast Protectorate, the whole district taking the name of the Protectorate of Southern Nigeria, while the northern portion, extending from a line drawn slightly above 7° N.
to the frontier of the French possessions on the north and including the confluence of the Niger and the Benue at Lokoja, was proclaimed a protectorate under the name of Northern Nigeria.
While the development of the Royal Niger Company's territories was proceeding in the manner described, the regions under direct British control were also being opened up and law and order introduced.
In 1893, when the title Oil Rivers Protectorate was changed to that of Niger Coast Protectorate, a regular administration was established (subject to the Foreign Office in London) under Sir Claude Macdonald, who was succeeded as commissioner and consul-general in 1896 by Sir Ralph Moor (1860-1909).
In 1900, as stated, the southern portion of the Niger Company's territories was added to the protectorate, the change in administration being effected without difficulty of any kind.
The man selected for the post of first high commissioner was Colonel - afterwards better known as Sir Frederick - Lugard, who had conducted one of the Royal Niger company's most successful expeditions into the western portion of the interior and had already been employed by the British government to raise and organize the West African Frontier Force.
These two potentates raided for slaves to the borders of the rivers and openly threatened the British position on the Niger.
The rulers of other neighbouring provinces offered their allegiance, and by the end of the year 1901 nine provinces, Illorin, Kabba, Middle Niger, Lower Benue, Upper Benue, Nupe, Kontagora, Borgu and Zaria had accepted the British occupation.
These territories, with the exception of Zaria, were all in the more or less immediate neighbourhood of the valleys of the Niger and the Benue, and Zaria bordered upon the Kaduna.
Seventeen legislative proclamations were enacted in the first year dealing with the immediate necessities of the position, and providing for the establishment of a supreme and provincial court of justice, for the legalization of native courts of justice, and dealing with questions of slavery, importation of liquor and firearms, land titles, &c. In the autumn of 1901 the emir of Yola, the extreme eastern corner of the territories bordering upon the Benue, was, in consequence of the aggressions upon a trading station established by the Niger Company, dealt with in the same manner as the emirs of Nupe and Kontagora, and a new emir was appointed under British rule.
Similarly the sole title to minerals (subject to the share of profits assigned to the Niger Company by the deed of transfer) was vested in the government, and the terms upon which licences to prospect or mine could be acquired, together with full regulations regarding mining, were enacted by law.
Illorin, Nupe and Kabba have been formed into one province called the Niger province, and also placed under the charge of a first-class resident, and it is intended to continue this process so as to make finally eight first-class provinces of the whole territory.
In August of that year the British government, on administrative, strategic and commercial grounds, came to a decision to build a railway which should place the important cities of Zaria and Kano in direct communication with the perennially navigable waters of the Lower Niger.
At the same time the decision was taken to continue the Lagos railway till it effected a junction with the Kano line near Zungeru, the Niger being bridged at Jebba.
See also Lady Lugard, A Tropical Dependency (London, 1905); Boyd Alexander, From the Niger to the Nile (London, 1907); C. Larymore, A Resident's Wife in Nigeria (London, 1908); the annual Reports on Southern and Northern Nigeria issued by the Colonial Office; E.
Vandeleur, Campaigning on the Upper Nile and Niger (London, 1898), with introduction by Sir George Goldie; Major A.
Leonard, The Lower Niger and its Tribes (London, 1906); C. Partridge, The Cross River Natives (London, 1905); E.
After the downfall of the house of the Antonines, Pescennius Niger, who commanded the forces in Egypt, was proclaimed emperor on the death of Pertinax (AD.
of the AngloFrench convention of June 14th, 1898, which dealt with the British and French spheres of influence in the region of the Niger, France was excluded from the basin of the Nile, and a line marking the respective spheres of influence of the two countries was drawn on the map from the northern frontier of the Congo Free State to the southern frontier of the Turkisb province of Tripoli.
of the Niger convention of the previous year.
Farther east they rule, subject to the control of the French, Segu and Massena, countries on both banks of the upper Niger, to the south-west of Timbuktu.
The districts within the great bend of the Niger have a large Fula population.
Originally herdsmen in the western and central Sudan, they extended their sway east of the Niger, under the leadership of Othman Dan Fodio, during the early years of the 19th century, and having subdued the Hausa states, founded the empire of Sokoto with the vassal emirates of Kano, Gando, Nupe, Adamawa, &c.
551, 1907) calls attention to the exodus "of thousands of Fulani of all sorts, but mostly Mellawa, from the French Middle Niger," and states that the majority of the emigrants are settling in the Nile valley.
He learned the letters from the transcription of a few verses in the Star of the Messiah of Petrus Niger, and, with a subsequent hint or two from Reuchlin, who also lent him the grammar of Moses Kimhi, made his way through the Bible for himself with the help of Jerome's Latin.
The name Moor is however still applied to the populations speaking Arabic who inhabit the country extending from Morocco to the Senegal, and to the Niger as far east as Timbuktu, i.e.
Pterostichus niger with the a, a, clump and string of eggs.
SABLE ANTELOPE, the English name for a large and handsome South African antelope (Hippotragus niger), exhibiting the rare feature of 'blackness or dark colour in both sexes.
East and south of Futa Jallon the country slopes to the basin of the upper Niger, the greater part of which is included in French Guinea.
The southern frontier is formed by the escarpments which separate the Niger basin from those of the coast rivers of Liberia.
Besides the Niger, Gambia and Senegal, all separately noticed, a large number of streams running direct to the Atlantic rise in Futa Jallon.
There is much rain in the Futa Jallon highlands, but the Niger basin is somewhat drier.
The baobab and the karite (shea butter tree) are found only in the Niger districts.
The elephant is rare save in the Niger regions.
Freshwater oysters, which attain a large size, are also found in the rivers, particularly in the Niger.
It is the starting-point of a railway to the Niger (see below).
Cotton is cultivated in the Niger basin.
The railway from Konakry to the Niger at Kurussa, by the route chosen a distance of 342 m., was begun in 1900, and from 1902 has been built directly by the colony.
From Kurussa the Niger is navigable at high water all the way to Bamako in Upper Senegal, whence there is communication by rail and river with St Louis and Timbuktu.
In 1899 the limits of the colony were extended, on the dismemberment of the French Sudan, to include the upper Niger districts.
of Biskra on the caravan route to the Niger countries, and a starting point for the exploration of the southern part of the Sahara.
The latinized form of the Greek word was corrupted into nigromantia, connecting the word with niger, black, and so was applied to the "black art," "black magic," in the sense of witchcraft, sorcery.
Where the reptile is venerated or feared it is usually inviolable, and among the Brassmen of the Niger the dangerous and destructive cobra was especially protected by an article in the diplomatic treaty of 1856 for the Bight of Biafra (Maclennan, 524).
An extremely rich dynasty in the Upper Niger was supposed to owe its wealth to a serpent in a well which received yearly a maiden attired as a bride; the cessation of the practice brought drought and sickness (Hartland iii.
In 1352 the restless man started for Central Africa, passing by the oases of the Sahara (where the houses were built of rock-salt, as Herodotus tells, and roofed with camel skins) to Timbuktu and Gogo on the Niger, a river which he calls the Nile, believing it to flow down into Egypt, an opinion maintained by some up to the date of Lander's discovery.
of Jebba, a port on the Niger, being connected with both places by railway.
The most ancient of these, it is now agreed, is the fragmentary copy of the Iliad, on vellum, in the Ambrosian Library of Milan, which consists of cuttings of the coloured drawings with which the volume was adorned in illustration of the various scenes of the In 1897 Illorin was occupied by the forces of the Royal Niger Company, and the emir placed himself "entirely under the protection and power of the company."
nigellum, diminutive of niger, " black"; Late Gr.
The spirit-land of the Ibo on the Lower Niger had its rivers, forests or hills, its towns and roads, as upon earth: 1 the spirits of the Mordvinian mythology, created by Chkai, not only resembled men, they even possessed the faculty of reproduction by multiplication.
8 So the Baals 1 Leonard, The Lower Niger and its Tribes (3906), p. 186.
8 Leonard, The Lower Niger and its Tribes, P. 354 9 Cf.
Finally, Petrus Niger (Peder Svart), bishop of Vesteras (d.
of Muraji on the Niger, is the capital of the province of Nupe.
In 1897 there was a two-days' fight outside the walls of Bida between the forces of the emir of Nupe and those of the Royal Niger Company, ending in the defeat of the Fula army (mostly cavalry).
On the north-east border by the Niger sources are mountains exceeding 5000 ft.
The sources of the Taia, and those of the Great Bum, are near to those of the Niger, the watershed between the coast streams and the Niger basin here forming the frontier.
and flows for some distance parallel to the infant Niger, but in the opposite direction.
The town is the meeting-place of many trade routes, including some to the middle Niger.
The development of commerce with the rich regions north and east of the protectorate has been hindered by the diversion of trade to the French port of Konakry, which in 1910 was placed in railway communication with the upper Niger.
Moreover, the main trade road from Konakry to the middle Niger skirts the N.E.
Falaba which had been visited in 1869 by Winwood Reade on his journey to the Niger - came definitely under British protection, but Timbo, which is in Futa Jallon, was allowed to become French territory through the supineness of the home government.
Trotter, The Niger Sources (London, 1898); Major J.
Gaius Pescennius Niger >>
Valuable indications of tin have been found to the north of the Kibyen plateau, and have attracted the attention of the Niger Company.
This region is watered by the Benue, the chief affluent of the Niger, and its tributary the Faro.
In 1907 the oasis and surrounding district was created a circle of the Military Territory of the Niger (see Sahara).
The largest, attaining an enormous bulk and a length of 20 ft., is the C. niger, the jacare-assu or large caiman of the Amazons.
The lives, which (with few exceptions) are arranged in chronological order, are distributed as follows: - To Spartianus: the biographies of Hadrian, Aelius Verus, Didius Julianus, Septimius Severus, Pescennius Niger, Caracallus, Geta (?); to Vulcacius Gallicanus: Avidius Cassius; to Capitolinus: Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, Verus, Pertinax, Clodius Albinus, the two Maximins, the three Gordians, Maximus and Balbinus, Opilius Macrinus (?); to Lampridius: Commodus, Diadumenus, Elagabalus, Alexander Severus; to Pollio: the two Valerians, the Gallieni, the so-called Thirty Tyrants or Usurpers, Claudius (his lives of Philip, Decius, and Gallus being lost); to Vopiscus: Aurelian, Tacitus, Florian, Probus, the four tyrants (Firmus, Saturninus, Proculus, Bonosus), Carus, Numerian, Carinus.
BENIN, the name of a country, city and river of British West Africa, west of the main channel of the Niger, forming part of the protectorate of Southern Nigeria.
The name was formerly applied to the coast from the Volta, in o° 40' E., to the Rio del Rey, in 8° 40' E., and included the Slave Coast, the whole delta of the Niger and a small portion of the country to the eastward.
by the territory of the Jakri and other tribes of the Niger delta, E.
by the Niger river, and N.
Benin river (known also as the Jakri outlet), though linked to the Niger system by a network of creeks, is an independent stream.
It is formed by the junction of two rivers, the Ethiope and the Jamieson, which rise (north of 6° N.) on the western side of the hills which slope east to the Niger river.
From the south or left bank of the Benin the Forcados mouth of the Niger can be reached by the Nana creek.
Wari (formerly known also as Owari, Oywhere, &c.) is a much-frequented port on a branch of the Niger of the same name reached from the Forcados mouth, and is 55 m.
BASSA, a province of the British protectorate of Northern Nigeria, occupying the angle made by the meeting of the Benue river with the Niger.
by the Niger, S.
The western portion of the province, occupied by friendly and peaceful tribes upon the Niger, has been organized for administration on the same system as the rest of the protectorate.
In consequence of the natural wealth of the province, there are trading establishments of the Niger Company and of Messrs Holt on the Niger and Benue, and colonies of native traders have penetrated the country from the north.
niger, which frequents both coasts of the northern Pacific, has, it is true, yellow legs, but towards the extremity of South America its place is taken by H.
Schwarzes Bilsenkraut, Hiihnertod, Saubohne and Zigeuner-Korn or "gipsies' corn"), the common name of the plant Hyoscyamus niger, a member of the natural order Solanaceae, indigenous to Britain, found wild in waste places, on rubbish about villages and old castles, and cultivated for medicinal use in various counties in the south and east of England.
to the River Niger (London, 1829).
West of this is the basin of the Niger, the third river of Africa, which, though flowing to the Atlantic, has its principal source in the far west, and reverses the direction of flow exhibited by the Nile and Congo.
Here, amidst great linguistic confusion, may be distinguished the tribes of Yoruba speech in the Niger delta and the east portion of the Slave Coast; those of Ewe speech, in the western portion of the latter; and those of Ga and Tshi speech, on the Gold Coast.
The country consists of an elevated plain traversed by rivers draining north or east to the Niger.
The water-parting between the Niger basin and the coast streams of Dahomey and Lagos runs north-east and south-west near the western frontier.
In about le N., below the town of Bussa, rapids block the course of the Niger, navigable up to that point from the sea.
The Royal Niger Company, which had already concluded a treaty of protection with the king of Bussa, sent out Captain (afterwards Sir) F.
Disregarding the British treaties, French officers concluded others with various chiefs, invaded Bussa and established themselves at various points on the Niger.
A conflict was, however, averted, and by the convention of June 1898 the western part of Borgu was declared French and the eastern British, the French withdrawing from all places on the lower Niger.
Cart-roads have been constructed between the town of Kiama and the Niger.
Elephants are still to be found in the fifty-mile strip of forest land which stretches between the Niger and the interior of the province.
There are also extensive areas of fine land suitable for cotton, with the waterway of the Niger close at hand.
NIGER, a great river of West Africa, inferior only to the Congo and Nile among the rivers of the continent, and the only river in Africa which, by means of its tributary the Benue, affords a waterway uninterrupted by rapids, and available for shallow-draught steamers, to the far interior.
The source of the Niger lies in 9° 5' N.
The area of the Niger basin, excluding the arid regions with a slope towards the stream, has been calculated by Dr. A.
By the last name the Niger was known in its lower reaches before its identity with the upper river was established.
The stream considered the chief source of the Niger is called the Tembi.
The birthplace of the Niger is in a deep ravine 2800 ft.
Taking at this point a decided trend northward, the Niger, roo m.
From this point the navigable portion of the Niger begins.
After Sansandig is passed the banks of The the stream become low and the Niger is split up into a number of channels.
The banks of the Niger below Mopti become swampy and treeless, and the first of a series of lakes (Debo) is reached.
Below Timbuktu for a considerable distance the Niger receives no tributaries; from the north none until the region of the Sahara is passed.
below Timbuktu, the navigable reach of the middle Niger, in all 1057 m., ends.
After the desert region is past the Niger receives the waters of the river Sokoto, a considerable stream flowing from the northeast.
wide, shut in between two large reefs, a good half of the waters of the Niger flings itself over with a tremendous roar" (Hourst).
Below the mouth of the Kaduna, on the right bank of the Niger, is Baro, the starting-point of a railway to Kano.
the Niger is joined by its great tributary the Benue.
At their confluence the Niger is about three-quarters of a mile broad and the Benue rather more than a mile.
On the western bank of the Niger at this point is situated Lokoja, an important commercial centre.
Here may be said to begin the great delta of the Niger, which, extending along the coast for about 120 m., and 140 or 150 m.
The river breaks up into an intricate network of channels, dividing and subdividing, and intercrossing not only with each other but with the branches of other streams, so that it is exceedingly difficult to say where the Niger delta ends and another river system begins.
The Rio Nun is a direct continuation of the line of the undivided river, and is thus the main mouth of the Niger.
East of the Nun the estuaries known as the Brass, Sombrero, New Calabar, Bonny, Opobo (or Imo), &c. (with the exception, perhaps, of the first-named), seem to derive most of their water from independent streams such as the Orashi, rising in about 6° N., which is, however, linked with the Niger by the Onita Creek in 52° N.
The other western mouths of the Niger have as a rule shallow and difficult bars.
The Benue is by far the most important of the affluents of the Niger.
It flows onwards to the Niger with comparatively unobstructed current, its valleys marked for the most part by ranges of hills and its banks diversified with forests, villages and cultivated tracts.
As the Niger and the Benue have different gathering grounds, they are not in flood at the same time.
The upper Niger rises in June as the result of the tropical rains, and decreases in December, its breadth at Turella expanding from between 2000 and 2500 ft.
The middle Niger, however, reaches its maximum near Timbuktu only in January; in February and March it sinks slowly above the narrows of Tosaye, and more rapidly below them, the level being kept up by supplies from backwaters and lakes; and by April there is a decrease of about 5 ft.
A slight rise in January, known as the yangbe, is occasioned by water from the upper Niger.
The geological changes which have taken place in the Niger basin are imperfectly known.
Chudeau, summing up the evidence available in 1909, set forth the hypothesis that the existing upper Niger and the existing lower Niger were distinct streams. According to this theory the upper Niger, somewhat above where Timbuktu now stands, went north and north-west and emptied into the Juf, which in the beginning of the quaternary age was a salt-water lake, the remnant of an arm of the sea which in the tertiary age covered the northern Sudan and southern Sahara as far east as Bilma.
When the upper Niger had this direction, the Wadi Taffassassent, now a dried-up river of the central Sahara, which rose in the Ahaggar mountains, is believed to have formed the upper course of the existing lower Niger.
While the upper and lower parts of the Niger have all the appearance of ancient streams, the middle Niger is the result of a "recent" capture; "it has no past, it scarcely has a present" (see R.
The great river flowing eastward reached by the Nasamonians as reported by Herodotus can be no other than the Niger.
of the same nature with the Nile, separating Africa and Ethiopia, and forming the boundary of Gaetulia; and it is not improbable that this is the modern Niger.
In Ptolemy, too, appears along with Gir (possibly the Shari) a certain Nigir (NL'yap) as one of the largest rivers of the interior; but so vague is his description that it is impossible definitely to identify it with the Niger.'
From Idrisi's description it would appear that he regarded the Shari, Lake Chad, the Benue, Niger and Senegal as one great river which emptied into the Atlantic. 2 That the Niger flowed west and reached the ocean was also stated by Leo Africanus.
The Senegal being proved an independent river and the eastward flow of the Niger assumed, the theory that it ran into the Nile was revived, and almost to the very year in which the course of the river was actually demonstrated geographers and travellers, such as J.
The highest scientific authority of the day, Major James Rennell, believed, however, that the Niger ended, by evaporation, in the country of "Wangara" - a region located by him, through a misreading of Idrisi, far too much 1 Sir Rufane Donkin in a curious and learned work, A Dissertation on.
the Niger (1829), made the Niger join the Gir, which last stream he calls the Nile of Bornu.
The upper waters of the Bakoy branch of the Senegal and those of the navigable Niger are less than 40 m.
apart; the Niger communicates directly through the Benue, Lake Tuburi and the Logone with the Shari; the easternmost affluents of the Shari and the most western tributaries of the Bahr el Ghazel affluent of the Nile are within 20 m.
long prevented geographers from thinking of a possible southern bend to the Niger.
of the Niger does not appear to have been suspected before the beginning of the 19th century.
Park landed at the Gambia, and struck the Niger near Segu (a town some distance above Sansandig) on the 10th of July 1796, where he beheld it "glittering in the morning sun as broad as the Thames at Westminster and flowing slowly to.
In 1805 Park returned to Africa for the purpose of descending the Niger to its.
He started as, before from the Gambia, reached the Niger, sailed down the river past Timbuktu, and on the eve of the successful accomplishment of his undertaking lost his life during an attack on his boat by the natives at Bussa (Nov.
Park held to the opinion that the Niger and Congo were one river, though in 1802 C. G.
Reichard, a German geographer, had suggested that the Rio Nun was the mouth of the Niger.
On Clapperton's death Richard Lander and his brother John led in 1830 an expedition which went overland from Badagry to the Niger.
Oldfield (as members of its first expedition) ascended the Niger to Rabba, and the Benue as far as Dagbo (80 m.).
Flegel ascended the Niger to Gomba opposite the confluence of the Sokoto river with the main stream, and about 70 m.
Indeed the additions to the knowledge of the Niger during the last two decades of the 19th century were largely the work of French officers engaged in the extension of French influence throughout the western Sudan.
From 1880 onwards Colonel (afterward General) Gallieni took a leading part in the operations on the upper river, where in 1883 a small gunboat, the Niger, was launched for the protection of the newly established French posts.
In 1885 a voyage was made by Captain Delanneau In 1816 James McQueen correctly divined that there was a great west-flowing tributary (the Benue) to the Niger, and that after its confluence the river ran south to the Atlantic. See his View of Northern Central Africa (1821) and Geographical Survey of Africa (1840).
In1894-1895attention was directed to the middle and lower Niger, to which several expeditions started from the coast of Guinea.
A still more important expedition was that of Lieutenant Hourst, who, starting from Timbuktu in January 1896, navigated the Niger from that point to its mouth, executing a careful survey of the river and the various obstructions to navigation.
The delta of the Niger has been partially surveyed since it became British territory by various ship captains, officials of the Royal Niger Company and others, including Sir Harry Johnston, sometime British consul for the Oil Rivers.
In addition to the main stream, the Niger basin was made known by exploration during the last quarter of the 19th century and the early years of the loth.
Krause (north from the Gold Coast, 1886-1887) and the French Captain Binger (Senegal to Ivory Coast, 1887-1889) first defined its southern limits by revealing the unexpected northward extension of the basins of the Guinea coast streams, especially the Volta and Komoe, a fact which explained the absence of important tributaries within the Niger bend.
Boyd-Alexander, who himself crossed Africa from the Niger to the Nile.
Save for the porterage round the Lata Fall the whole journey from the mouth of the Niger to Lake Chad was made by water.
From 1904 onwards the French undertook works on the Niger between Bamako - whence there is railway communication with the Senegal - and Ansongo with a view to deepening the channel and removing obstructions to navigation.
A geographical appendix by Major James Rennell summarizes the information then available about the Niger.
Gallieni, Mission d'exploration du Haut Niger .
Hourst, Sur le Niger et au pays des Touaregs (Paris, 1898), English translation, French Enterprise in Africa.
Exploration of the Niger (London, 1898).
Trotter, The Niger Sources .
Johnston, "The Niger Delta," Proc. R.G.S.
Lugard, "An Expedition to Borgu on the Niger," Geo.
Lenfant, Le Niger; voie ouverte a notre empire africain (Paris, 1903), chiefly a demonstration that the Bussa rapids are not an absolute bar to navigation.
The foregoing books deal almost entirely with the Niger.
Mockler Ferryman, Up the Niger; Narrative of Major Claude Macdonald's Mission to the Niger and Benue Rivers ...
Paris for 1895 and 1896; C. Maistre, A travers l'Afrique central du Congo au Niger (Paris, 18 95); E.
The British Blue Books, Correspondence relating to Railway Construction in Nigeria (1905) and Further Correspondence, &c. (1909), contain information about the navigability of the lower Niger and of the Kaduna.
The best maps are those published by the French and British War Offices; an Atlas du tours du Niger de Tombouctou aux rapides de Boussa in 50 sheets on the scale of I: 50,000, by Lieut.
The Sudan contains the basin of the Senegal and parts of three other hydrographic systems, namely: the Niger, draining southwards to the Atlantic; the central depression of Lake Chad; and the Nile, flowing northwards to the Mediterranean.
The various states are politically divisible into four groups: (1) those west of the Niger; (2) those between the Niger and Lake Chad; (3) those between Lake Chad and the basin of the Nile; (4) those in the upper Nile valley.
The greater part of what was the French Sudan is now known as rthe Upper Senegal and Niger Colony (see Senegal, French West Africa, &C.).
See also Boyd Alexander, From the Niger to the Nile (2 vols., London, 1907); Karl Kumm, From Haussaland to Egypt (London, 1910).
The sultan of Sokoto throughout the 19th century exercised an overlordship over the Hausa states extending east from the Niger to Bornu and southward to the Benue and Adamawa.
Running through it in a south-westerly direction is the Gublin Kebbi or Sokoto river, which joins the Niger in 112° N.
Between the Niger and the kingdom of Bornu (q.v.) the country was inhabited by various black tribes, of whom the Hausa occupied the plains.
In Barth's time American merchants were established on the Niger, bartering goods in exchange for slaves.
At Sokoto the sultanship continued in the hands of Fodio's descendants, and the reigning sultan concluded in 1885 a treaty with the Royal Niger Company (then called the National African Company) which gave to the company certain rights of sovereignty throughout his dominions.
In the course of the years 1900, 1901, 1902, British authority was established in the states bordering to on the Niger and the Benue and in Bornu.
The northern states declined to fulfil the conditions of the treaties negotiated with the Niger Company or to submit to the abolition of the slave trade, and in 1902 Sokoto and Kano openly defied the British power.
- Vertical section of the flower of Black Hellebore (Helleborus niger).
- This group-name has been given to a large number of substances which have an action similar to that of the foxglove leaves, including the active principles of strophanthus, squill, Urechites suberecta, Convallaria majalis, Nerium Oleander, Helleborus niger, Antiaris toxicaria (the upas tree), and several others.
Mammals are few in species, but remarkable, especially Macacus niger, an ape found nowhere else but in Bachian; Anoa depressicornis, a small ox-like quadruped which inhabits the mountainous districts; and the babirusa or pig-deer of the Malays.
aspergillus Niger  Useful for studies of the influence of magnesium on growth and the development of spore color.
Niger, for example, is the poorest country in the world.
They were sent in 1830 to explore the lower reaches of the River Niger, and later mounted two more expeditions to the Niger.
July 2000 Niger seed continues to attract goldfinches which started visiting for the first time this summer.
Dock Today in the Garden We have four goldfinches at the niger seed feeder this morning.
Although the country is totally landlocked, it contains three important rivers the Niger, the Senegal and the Bani.
limelight as a member of the Niger Expedition, and the publication of his very impressive journal.
locust plague has left 2.5m people in Niger struggling to survive acute food shortages.
MMD Tahoua has myriad of experiences to offer to the other MMD projects in Niger.
gender parity is greater than in Niger's public schools, where girls comprise less than 43 per cent of enrolments.
DEC Niger crisis appeal The combination of drought and a locust plague has left 2.5m people in Niger struggling to survive acute food shortages.
Both male and female siskins still on my niger feeder at Birchanger.
ungulate populations in Park W, Niger.
Is he, too, buying yellowcake from Niger?
versant of the hills which here form a narrow divide between the basin of the Senegal and that of the upper Niger.
Its principal affluent, the Baule (Red river), and its headstreams rise farther east on the northern slopes of the hills which above Bamako shut in the Niger.
From that town a railway connects with the navigable waters of the upper Niger at Bamako (see Senegal: Country, I.).
Lenfant, also a French officer, succeeded in reaching the lake (which he circumnavigated) via the Benue, proving the existence of water communication between the Shari and the Niger.
Tilho in La Geographie (March 1906); Boyd Alexander, From the Niger to the Nile, vol.
The " long slopes " of the continents on both sides are directed towards the Atlantic, which accordingly receives the waters of a large proportion of the great rivers of the world, including the St Lawrence, the Mississippi, the Orinoco, the Amazon, the rivers of the La Plata, the Congo, the Niger, the Loire, the Rhine, the Elbe and the great rivers of the Mediterranean and the Baltic. Sir J.
Mungo Park, then an assistant surgeon of an Indiaman, volunteered his services, which were accepted by the association, and in 1795 he succeeded in reaching the town of Segu on the Niger, but was prevented from continuing his journey to Timbuktu.
from the mouth of the Niger, and is of considerable commercial importance (see Nigeria and Kabba).
During the civil wars it espoused the party of Pescennius Niger; and though skilfully defended by the engineer Periscus, it was besieged and taken (A.D.
6.--Seed -vessel (pyxidium) of Henbane (Hyoscyamus niger) opening by circumscissile dehiscence.
The second group, which is mainly African, but also represented in Syria, is that of the Hippotraginae, typified by the sable antelope (Hip potragus niger) and roan antelope (H.
Missions:: Nile Delta, Benin, Ivory Coast, Gold Coast, Dahomey, Upper Niger.
What Ulfilas was to the Gothic tribes, what Columba and his disciples were to the early Celtic missions, what Augustine or Aidan was to the British Isles, what Boniface was to the churches of Germany and Anskar to those of Denmark and Sweden, that, on the discovery of a new world of missionary enterprise, was Xavier to India, Hans Egede to Greenland, Eliot to the Red Indians, Martyn to the church of Cawnpore, Marsden to the Maoris, Carey, Heber, Wilson, Duff and Edwin Lewis to India, Morrison, Gilmour, Legge, Hill, Griffith John to China, Gray, Livingstone, Mackenzie, Moffat, Hannington, Mackay to Africa, Broughton to Australia, Patteson to Melanesia, Crowther to the Niger Territory, Chalmers to New Guinea, Brown to Fiji.
He early attracted the notice of Sir Roderick Murchison, through whom he was appointed surgeon and naturalist to the Niger expedition sent out in 1854 by Macgregor Laird with government support.
Landing from a small boat, with one or two native followers, at the confluence of the Niger and Benue, he chose Lokoja as the base of his future operations, it being the site of the model farm established by the expedition sent by the British government in 1841, and abandoned within a twelvemonth on the death of most of the white settlers (see Capt.
He had done much to establish British influence on the Niger, but after his death the British government abolished the consulate (1866), and it was through private enterprise that some twenty years later the district where Baikie had worked so successfully was finally secured for Great Britain (see Nigeria).
BLACK APE, a sooty, black, short-tailed, and long-faced representative of the macaques, inhabiting the island of Celebes, and generally regarded as forming a genus by itself, under the name of Cynopithecus niger, but sometimes relegated to the rank of a subgenus of Macacus.
The most westerly of these streams, the Ogun, enters the Lagos lagoon, which is connected by navigable waterways with the Niger (see Lagos).
Nearly at the same time a young Englishman, George Goldie-Taubman, afterwards better known as Sir George Goldie (q.v.), having some private interests on the Niger, conceived the idea of amalgamating all local British interests and creating ' a British province on the Niger.
The southern portion of the territories was amalgamated with the Niger Coast Protectorate, the whole district taking the name of the Protectorate of Southern Nigeria, while the northern portion, extending from a line drawn slightly above 7Ã‚° N.
The principal towns are Konakry the capital, Boke, on the Rio Nunez, Dubreka, on the coast, a little north of Konakry, Benty, on the Melakori, Timbo and Labe, the chief towns of Futa Jallon, Heremakono and Kindia, on the main road to the Niger, Kurussa and Siguiri, on a navigable stretch of that river, and Bissandugu, formerly Samory's capital, an important military station east of the Niger.
The name was formerly applied to the coast from the Volta, in oÃ‚° 40' E., to the Rio del Rey, in 8Ã‚° 40' E., and included the Slave Coast, the whole delta of the Niger and a small portion of the country to the eastward.
It is formed by the junction of two rivers, the Ethiope and the Jamieson, which rise (north of 6Ã‚° N.) on the western side of the hills which slope east to the Niger river.
Leaving the forest zone and entering the more open country there are, on the north from the Niger to the Nile, a number of Negroids strongly tinged with Libyan blood and professing the Mahommedan religion.
The source of the Niger lies in 9Ã‚° 5' N.
East of the Nun the estuaries known as the Brass, Sombrero, New Calabar, Bonny, Opobo (or Imo), &c. (with the exception, perhaps, of the first-named), seem to derive most of their water from independent streams such as the Orashi, rising in about 6Ã‚° N., which is, however, linked with the Niger by the Onita Creek in 52Ã‚° N.
To Rennell the Benue was an eastflowing continuation of the Niger.'
Talbot, "Survey Work by the Alexander Gosling Expedition: Northern Nigeria 1904-1905," idem (February 1906); Boyd Alexander, From the Niger to the Nile, vol.
The first group includes the native states of Bondu, Futa Jallon, Masina, Mossi and all the tribes within the great bend of the Niger.
Running through it in a south-westerly direction is the Gublin Kebbi or Sokoto river, which joins the Niger in 112Ã‚° N.
This may be attributed in no small degree to the personality of the men who have had the supreme direction at home and abroad, and who have, by their social position and personal qualities, acquired the confidence of the public. With the exception of the Royal Niger Company, it would be incorrect to say that they have been financially successful, but in the domain of government generally it may be said that they have added vast territories to the British empire (in Africa about 1,70o,000 sq.
Both male and female Siskins still on my niger feeder at Birchanger.
In Niger the trachoma control program printed fabric that people made into clothes.
A survey of the vegetation and ungulate populations in Park W, Niger.
There are several hardy kinds:-A. hispanicus, A. longifolius, A. mollis, A. m. latifolius (A. lusitanicus), A. niger, and A. spinosissimus.
They appear in succession from October until April, beginning with the Christmas Rose (H. niger), and ending with the handsome crimson kinds.
H. niger is a well-known kind, scarcely needing description.
H. altifolius, though sometimes considered a variety of H. niger, is a distinct kind, and much larger than H. niger.
Another characteristic is that the leaf and flower-stems are beautifully mottled with purple and green, while in H. niger they are of a pale green.
However, if you're a tourist or a world traveler extraordinaire, you can simply throw the bag over your shoulder and spend the rest of the day explaining that you "picked up this little number while summering in Niger".
After a journey into Spain he set out once more for Central Africa in 1352, and reached Timbuktu and the Niger, returning to Fez in 1353.
The association first employed John Ledyard (who had previously made an extraordinary journey into Siberia) to cross Africa from east to west on the parallel of the Niger, and William Lucas to cross the Sahara to Fezzan.
One of the chief problems the association wished to solve was that of the exist ence and course of the river Niger, which was believed by some authorities to be identical with the Congo.
In Southern Nigeria the association has met with only slight success; in Northern Nigeria, a working arrangement was entered into with the Niger Company, and a small ginning establishment was set to work in February 1906.
The unfortunate Niger expedition of 1841 was directed to similar ends; and it has been more and more felt by all who were interested in the subject that here lies the radical solution of the great problem.
10) states that it likewise grew in Syria; and, according to Pliny, it was also a native plant of the Niger and Euphrates.
Is it the source of the Nile, or the Niger, or the Mississippi, or a Northwest Passage around this continent, that we would find?
After losing most of his companions he himself and the rest perished in a rapid on the Niger at Busa, having been attacked from the shore by order of a chief who thought he had not received suitable presents.
The largest of the Amazon species are the jacare-assu (Caiman niger), jacare (C. fissipes) and jacaretinga (C, sclerops).
The derivation of the name is uncertain, but is probably taken from Ghinea, Ginnie, Genni or Jenne, a town and kingdom in the basin of the Niger, famed for the enterprise of its merchants and dating from the 8th century A.D.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.