This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience. Learn more

nickel

nickel

nickel Sentence Examples

  • Small amounts of nickel and cobalt are often present.

    276
    77
  • Mag., 1898, 46, 261) have investigated the effects of hydrostatic pressure upon magnetization, using the same pieces of iron and nickel as were employed in their experiments upon magnetic change of volume.

    81
    4
  • At one point, Tiger Woods got a dime for every box of Wheaties cereal with his photo on it, while the farmer was paid only a nickel for the wheat in that same box—and the farmer still made a profit.

    47
    4
  • Taylor Jones showed in 1897 that only a small proportion of the contraction exhibited by a nickel wire when magnetized could be accounted for on Kirchhoff's theory from the observed effects of pulling stress upon magnetization; and in a more extended series of observations Nagaoka and Honda found wide quantitative divergences between the results of experiment and calculation, though in nearly all cases there was agreement as to quality.

    44
    3
  • Tomlinson found a critical point in the " temporary magnetization " of nickel (Proc. Phys.

    35
    2
  • The influence of traction in diminishing the susceptibility of nickel was first noticed by Kelvin (W.

    23
    1
  • Even under so " moderate " a load as 33 kilogrammes per square mm., the induced magnetization of a hard-drawn nickel wire in a field of 60 fell from 386 to 72 units, while the residual was reduced from about 280 to io.

    19
    2
  • It contains, however, more nickel and also phosphorus.

    17
    5
  • He jabbed his thumb toward the wall behind him, where she made out the slender nickel doorknob in the space between two shelves of ancient books.

    10
    2
  • I swear on my old lady's head we never touched a nickel of it—never even opened the damn suitcases.

    8
    2
  • This salt may be used for the separation of cobalt and nickel, since the latter metal does not form a similar double nitrite, but it is necessary that the alkaline earth metals should be absent, for in their presence nickel forms complex nitrites containing the alkaline earth metal and the alkali metal.

    8
    2
  • The interspace is filled with a very small quantity of nickel and silver filings, about 95 per cent.

    8
    2
  • Of the impurities, most of the copper, nickel and copper, considerable arsenic, some antimony and small amounts of silver are removed by liquation.

    8
    5
  • Of the impurities, most of the copper, nickel and copper, considerable arsenic, some antimony and small amounts of silver are removed by liquation.

    8
    5
  • rend., 1904 seq.) by fractional crystallization of the nickel double nitrates, the ethyl sulphates, and the bismuth double nitrates of the terbium earths.

    7
    2
  • A thoroughly well annealed ring of soft iron indeed showed no extension at all, beginning to contract, like nickel, under the smallest magnetizing forces.

    4
    4
  • Normal values of K were given by nitrogen peroxide, N204, sulphur chloride, S 2 C1 21 silicon tetrachloride, SiC1 4, phosphorus chloride, PC1 3, phosphoryl chloride, POC1 31 nickel carbonyl, Ni(CO) 4, carbon disulphide, benzene, pyridine, ether, methyl propyl ketone; association characterized many hydroxylic compounds: for ethyl alcohol the factor of association was 2.74-2.43, for n-propyl alcohol 2.86-2.72, acetic acid 3.62 -2.77, acetone 1 .

    4
    8
  • Nickel, so abundant in the island of New Caledonia, has up to the present been found in none of the Australian states except Queensland and Tasmania.

    3
    2
  • During the first stage, when the magnetizing force is small, the magnetization (or the induction) increases rather slowly with increasing force; this is well shown by the nickel curve in the diagram, but the effect would be no less conspicuous in the iron curve if the abscissae were plotted to a larger scale.

    3
    3
  • The effects of tension upon the behaviour of a nickel wire are of a less simple character.

    3
    3
  • Yet notwithstanding this enormous effect in iron, the action of a current upon nickel and cobalt turned out to be almost inappreciable.

    3
    3
  • nickel and 5 per cent.

    3
    6
  • Since, for example, stretching diminishes 'the magnetization of nickel, it follows from theory that the length of a nickel rod should be diminished by magnetization and conversely.

    2
    1
  • To the filtrate from the aluminium, iron and chromium precipitate, ammonia and ammonium sulphide are added; the precipitate may contain nickel, cobalt, zinc and manganese sulphides.

    2
    2
  • The next group may contain black nickel and cobalt sulphides, flesh-coloured manganese sulphide, and white zinc sulphide.

    2
    2
  • Practically the metals iron, nickel and cobalt, and some of their alloys and compounds constitute a class by themselves and are called ferromagnetic substances.

    2
    2
  • Shimizu 3 indicate that Steinmetz's formula holds for nickel and annealed cobalt up to B =3000, for cast cobalt and tungsten steel up to B =8000, and for Swedish iron up to B =18,000, the range being in all cases extended at the temperature of liquid air.

    2
    2
  • Under increasing magnetizing forces, greatly exceeding those comprised within the limits of the diagram, the magAetization does practically reach a limit, the maximum value being attained with a magnetizing force of less than 2000 for wrought iron and nickel, and less than 4000 for cast iron and cobalt.

    2
    2
  • The behaviour of nickel in weak fields has been observed by Ewing (Phil.

    2
    2
  • Honda subjected tubes of iron, steel and nickel to the simultaneous action of circular and longitudinal fields, and observed the changes of length when one of the fields was varied while the other remained constant at different successive values from zero upwards.

    2
    2
  • Ewing has also examined the effects produced by longitudinal compression upon the susceptibility and retentiveness of nickel, and found, as was to be expected, that both were greatly increased by pressure.

    2
    2
  • Practically the metals iron, nickel and cobalt, and some of their alloys and compounds constitute a class by themselves and are called ferromagnetic substances.

    2
    2
  • The resulting compound, nickel carbonyl, which was described to the Chemical Society in 1890, is both formed and decomposed within a very moderate range of temperature, and on this fact he based a successful process for the extraction of nickel from its ores.

    2
    3
  • Bidwell's results for iron and nickel were confirmed, and it was further shown that the elongation of nickel-steel was very greatly diminished by tension; when 2 Joule believed that the volume was unchanged.

    2
    3
  • Bidwell's results for iron and nickel were confirmed, and it was further shown that the elongation of nickel-steel was very greatly diminished by tension; when 2 Joule believed that the volume was unchanged.

    2
    3
  • Nickel (0.75% iron) .

    2
    4
  • Nickel and Annealed Cobalt.

    2
    5
  • Nickel and Annealed Cobalt.

    2
    5
  • Brandt in 1742, and nickel by A.

    2
    6
  • Iron ore, lignite, copper, mercury, molybdenite, nickel, platinum and other minerals have been found, but the quantity of each is too small, or the quality too poor, for them to be of commercial value.

    1
    1
  • He found, however, that chromic acid, which he had represented as Cr06, neutralized a base containing 3 the 3 The following symbols were also used by Bergman: W, V, " + ", which represented zinc, manganese, cobalt, bismuth, nickel, arsenic, platinum, water, alcohol, phlogiston.

    1
    1
  • If the bead is coloured we may have present: cobalt, blue to violet; copper, green, blue on cooling; in the reducing flame, red when cold; chromium, green, unaltered in the reducing flame; iron, brownish-red, light-yellow or colourless on cooling; in the reducing flame, red while hot, yellow on cooling, greenish when cold; nickel, reddish to brownish-red, yellow to reddish-yellow or colourless on cooling, unaltered in the reducing flame; bismuth, yellowish-brown, light-yellow or colourless on cooling; in the reducing flame, almost colourless, blackish-grey when cold; silver, light yellowish to opal, somewhat opaque when cold; whitish-grey in the reducing flame; manganese, amethyst red, colourless in the reducing flame.

    1
    1
  • The last two are dissolved out by cold, very dilute hydrochloric acid, and the residue is tested for nickel and cobalt.

    1
    1
  • Trans., 1900, p. 233) investigated nickel and cobalt over a wide range of temperature (from -182.5° to loo°); his results are: It is evident that the atomic heats of these intimately associated elements approach nearer and nearer as we descend in temperature, approximating to the value 4.

    1
    1
  • For example, episomorphs of white potash alum and violet chrome alum, of white magnesium sulphate and green nickel sulphate, and of many other pairs of salts, have been obtained.

    1
    1
  • Nickel and cobalt are also strongly magnetic, and in 1903 the interesting discovery was made by F.

    1
    1
  • While therefore the initial susceptibility of nickel is less than that of iron and steel, the range of magnetic force within which it is approximately constant is about one hundred times greater.

    1
    1
  • Barrett in 1882 that a nickel bar contracts when magnetized, nothing of importance was added by Joule's results for nearly forty years.

    1
    1
  • Experiments were afterwards made with rods of iron, nickel, and cobalt, the external field being carried up to the high value of 1500 units.

    1
    1
  • Nickel exhibited retraction from the very beginning (as observed by Barrett), its greatest change of length considerably exceeding that undergone by iron; in a field of Boo the original length was diminished by as much as 1/40,000 part, but stronger forces failed to produce any further effect.

    1
    1
  • For steel which has been made redhot, suddenly cooled, and then let down to a yellow temper, the critical value of the magnetizing force is smaller than for steel which is either softer or harder; it is indeed so small that the metal contracts like nickel even under weak magnetizing forces, without undergoing any preliminary extension that can be detected.

    1
    1
  • sample containing 25% of nickel no appreciable change was detected; others containing larger percentages, and tested in fields up to 2000, all exhibited elongation, which tended to an asymptotic value as the field was increased.

    1
    1
  • For soft iron, tungsten-steel and nickel little difference appeared to result from lowering the temperature down to - 186° C. (the temperature of liquid air); at sufficiently high temperatures, 600 to 1000° or more, it was remarked that the changes of length in iron, steel and cobalt tended in every case to become proportional to the magnetic force, the curves being nearly straight lines entirely above the axis.

    1
    1
  • Nagaoka and Honda, who employed a fluid dilatometer, found that the volume of several specimens of iron, steel and nickel was always slightly increased, no diminution being indicated in low fields; cobalt, on the other hand, was diminished in volume, and the amount of the change, though still very small, was greater than that shown by the other metals.

    1
    1
  • Various nickel-steels all expanded under magnetization, the increase being generally considerable and proportional to the field; in the case of an alloy containing 29% of nickel the change was nearly 40 times greater than in soft iron.

    1
    1
  • Knott, who made an exhaustive series of experiments upon various metals in the form of tubes, concluded that in iron there was always a slight increase of volume, and in nickel and cobalt a slight decrease.

    1
    1
  • For steel which has been made redhot, suddenly cooled, and then let down to a yellow temper, the critical value of the magnetizing force is smaller than for steel which is either softer or harder; it is indeed so small that the metal contracts like nickel even under weak magnetizing forces, without undergoing any preliminary extension that can be detected.

    1
    1
  • Mag., 1890, 2 9, 2 53, 2 93) on the magnetization of iron, - nickel, and i cobalt under forces ranging from about 100 to 12 50 units.

    1
    2
  • Mag., 1890, 2 9, 2 53, 2 93) on the magnetization of iron, - nickel, and i cobalt under forces ranging from about 100 to 12 50 units.

    1
    2
  • Why would all that junk be abandoned in the first place if it was worth a plugged nickel?

    0
    0
  • Later, while attempting to utilize the gas for the production of electricity by means of a Grove gas battery, he noticed that the carbon monoxide contained in it combined with nickel.

    0
    0
  • Currency.The lira (plural lire) of 100 centesimi (centimes) is equal in value to the French franc. The total coinage (exclusive of Eritrean currency) from the 1st of January 1862 to the end of 1907 was 1,104,667,116 lire (exclusive of recoinage), divided as follows: gold, 427,516,970 lire; silver, 570,097,025 lire; nickel, 23,417,000 lire; bronze, 83,636,121 lire.

    0
    0
  • Cobalt is deposited by a method analogous to that used for its sistermetal nickel.

    0
    0
  • It has been shown by Kennelly (Electrician, 1892, 28, 666) that Steinmetz's formula gives approximately correct results in the case Of nickel.

    0
    0
  • 17, contains examples of ascending induction curves characteristic of wrought iron, cast iron, cobalt and nickel.

    0
    0
  • There were reasons for believing that no Villari reversal would be found in nickel.

    0
    0
  • In the iron cylinder and ovoid, which expanded when magnetized, compression caused a diminution of magnetization; in the nickel rod, which contracted when magnetized, pressure was attended by an increase of magnetization.

    0
    0
  • Now nickel contracts instead of lengthening when it is magnetized, and an experiment by Knott showed, as he expected, that caeteris paribus a nickel wire twists in a sense opposite to that in which iron twists.

    0
    0
  • The Wiedemann effect being positive for iron is negative for nickel.

    0
    0
  • 4 Nagaoka' has described the remarkable influence of combined torsion and 'tension upon the magnetic susceptibility of nickel, and has made the extraordinary observation that, under certain conditions of stress, the magnetization of a nickel wire may have a direction opposite to that of the magnetizing force.

    0
    0
  • .+] steel and nickel when heated up to high temperatures were those of J.

    0
    0
  • The critical temperature for the specimen of nickel examined (which contained nearly 5 of impurities) was 310° C. F.

    0
    0
  • Morris's results for iron, and gives some additional observations for steel, nickel and cobalt.

    0
    0
  • For nearly pure nickel the corresponding temperature-difference was about 100°.

    0
    0
  • As thus defined the critical temperatures for iron, nickel and cobalt were 1 Journ.

    0
    0
  • They found that the permeability of Swedish iron, tungsten-steel and nickel, when the metals were cooled to - 186°, was diminished in weak fields but increased in strong ones, the field in which the effect of cooling changed its sign being 115 for iron and steel and 580 for nickel.

    0
    0
  • The hysteresis-loss in Swedish iron was decreased for inductions below about 9000 and increased for higher inductions; in tungsten-steel, nickel and cobalt the hysteresis-loss was always increased by cooling.

    0
    0
  • became definite and cyclic. When the permanent magnetic condition had been thus established, it was found that in the case of all the metals, except the two alloys containing large percentages of nickel, the magnetic moment was temporarily increased by cooling to - 186°.

    0
    0
  • Alloys of Nickel and Iron.

    0
    0
  • An alloy containing about 3 parts of iron and I of nickel - both strongly magnetic metals - is under ordinary conditions practically non-magnetizable (1 1=1'4 for any value of H).

    0
    0
  • Alloys containing different proportions of nickel were found to exhibit the phenomenon, but the two critical temperatures were less widely separated.

    0
    0
  • ] Honda and Shimizu (loc. cit.) have determined the two critical temperatures for eleven nickel-steel ovoids, containing from 24.04 to 70.32% of nickel, under a magnetizing force of 400, and illustrated by an interesting series of curves, the gradual transformation of the magnetic properties as the percentage of nickel was decreased.

    0
    0
  • They found that the hysteresis-loss, which at ordinary temperatures is very small, was increased in liquid air, the increase for the alloys containing less than 30% of nickel being enormous.

    0
    0
  • The permeability of the alloys containing from 1 to 4.7% of nickel, though less than that of good soft iron for magnetizing forces up to about 20 or 30, was greater for higher forces, the induction reached in a field of 240 being nearly 21,700.

    0
    0
  • The induction for considerable forces was found to be greater in a steel containing 73% of nickel than in one with only 33%, though the permeability of pure nickel is much less than that of iron.

    0
    0
  • 5 More than fifty different specimens were tested, most of which contained a known proportion of manganese, nickel, tungsten, aluminium, chromium, copper or silicon; in some samples two of the substances named were present.

    0
    0
  • When nickel was added to the iron in increasing quantities the coercive force increased until the proportion of nickel reached 20%; then it diminished, and when the proportion of nickel was 32% the coercive force had fallen to the exceedingly low value of 0.5.

    0
    0
  • Certain non-magnetizable alloys of nickel, chromium-nickel and chromium-manganese were rendered magnetizable by annealing.

    0
    0
  • Now iron, nickel and cobalt all lose their magnetic quality when heated above certain critical temperatures which vary greatly for the three metals, and it was suspected by Faraday 3 as early as 1845 that manganese might really be a ferromagnetic metal having a critical temperature much below the ordinary temperature of the air.

    0
    0
  • 4 But it has been shown that the critical temperatures of iron and nickel may be changed by the addition of certain other substances.

    0
    0
  • The hysteretic exponent is therefore much higher than in the case of iron, nickel and cobalt, for which its value is approximately I.6.

    0
    0
  • Soc., 1903, 71, 30), experimenting with wires of iron, steel and nickel, showed that in weak fields the change of resistance was proportional to a function a12-+b14-{-cl', where a, b and c are constants for each specimen.

    0
    0
  • Mag., 1902, 4, 43 o) found that for nickel the curves showing changes of resistance in relation to magnetizing force were strikingly similar in form to those showing changes of length.

    0
    0
  • Nickel was believed by Thomson to behave oppositely to iron, becoming negative when magnetized; but though his conclusion was accepted for nearly fifty years, it has recently been shown to be an erroneous one, based, no doubt, upon the result of an experiment with an impure specimen.

    0
    0
  • Nickel when magnetized is always positive to the unmagnetized metal.

    0
    0
  • He also experimented with nickel and again found a resemblance to the strain curve.

    0
    0
  • Bidwell," who, adopting special precautions against sources of error by which former work was probably affected, measured the changes of thermo-electric force for iron, steel, nickel and cobalt produced by magnetic fields up to I Soo units.

    0
    0
  • In the case of iron and nickel it was found that, when correction was made for mechanical stress due to magnetization, magnetic change of thermo-electric force was, within the limits of experimental error, proportional to magnetic change of length.

    0
    0
  • Of nickel six P. Drude, Ann.

    0
    0
  • The sign of the thermo-electric effect for nickel, as given by Rhoads, is incorrect.

    0
    0
  • In nickel the maximum change of the elastic constants is remarkably large, .amounting to about 15% for Young's modulus and 7% for rigidity; with increasing fields the elastic constants first decrease and then increase.

    0
    0
  • In nickel-steels containing about 50 and 70% of nickel the maximum increase of the constants is as much as 7 or 8%.

    0
    0
  • when H =2000 is of the order of 1/100 volt for iron, I/IOoo volt for nickel and I/Io,000 for bismuth.

    0
    0
  • Sitz., 1897, 106, II.a, p. 623, and 1898, 107, II.a, p. 5) the atomic susceptibilities k of the metals nickel, chromium, iron, cobalt and manganese in solutions of their salts are as follows: - Fe(i) is iron contained in FeC1 2 and Fe(2) iron contained in Fe2(NOs)s.

    0
    0
  • Mag., 1901, I, 642) has found similar effects in nickel and cobalt.

    0
    0
  • Metallic money is limited to nickel and bronze coins, but in 1906 the government was authorized to purchase bar silver for the coinage of pieces of the denomination of two milreis, one milreis and 500 reis (2-milreis).

    0
    0
  • The mother liquor includes generally more or less of nickel, cobalt, zinc and other heavy metals, which, as Wailer showed, can be removed as insoluble sulphides by the addition of ammonium sulphide; uranium, under the circumstances, is not precipitated by this reagent.

    0
    0
  • In 1908 (July 31) the total debt of Venezuela (according to official returns) consisted of the following items: The currency of Venezuela is on a gold basis, the coinage of silver and nickel is restricted, and the state issues no paper notes.

    0
    0
  • Nickel: 122 and 5 centimos.

    0
    0
  • Silver and nickel are legal tender for 50 and 20 bolivares respectively.

    0
    0
  • On the one hand he worked out the general theory of the magnetic circuit in the dynamo (in conjunction with his brother Edward), and the theory of alternating currents, and conducted a long series of observations on the phenomena attending magnetization in iron, nickel and the curious alloys of the two which can exist both in a magnetic and non-magnetic state at the same temperature.

    0
    0
  • Other metals, such as manganese, copper, nickel, may show their presence by characteristic colours.

    0
    0
  • Nickel with a potash-lead glass gives a violet colour, and a brown colour with a soda-lime glass.

    0
    0
  • Gold, silver, copper, lead, aluminium, cadmium, iron (pure), nickel and cobalt are practically amorphous, the crystals (where they exist) being so closely packed as to produce a virtually homogeneous mass.

    0
    0
  • Practically non-volatile: (copper), iron, nickel, cobalt, aluminium; also lithium, barium, strontium and calcium.

    0
    0
  • - Iron, nickel and cobalt are the only metals which are attracted by the magnet and can become magnets themselves.

    0
    0
  • Of the rest, the following are readily oxidized by steam at a red heat, with formation of hydrogen gas - zinc, iron, cadmium, cobalt, nickel, tin.

    0
    0
  • The same holds for the following group (A): [manganese, zinc, magnesium] iron, aluminium, cobalt, nickel, cadmium.

    0
    0
  • Basins made of pure malleable nickel are free from this drawback; they work as well as platinum, and rather better than silver ones do.

    0
    0
  • The following, though volatile at higher temperatures, are not volatilized at dull redness: KC1, NaCI, LiC1, NiC1 2, CoC1 2, MnC1 2, ZnCl 2, MgCl 2, PbCl 2, AgCI, the chlorides of potassium, sodium, lithium, nickel, cobalt, manganese, zinc, magnesium, lead, silver.

    0
    0
  • The main mineral deposits are the nickel ores, occurring as veins of garnierite, associated with peridotite dikes, in the ancient rocks of the eastern slope of the island.

    0
    0
  • The yearly output of nickel and chrome is considerable, and these minerals, with cobalt, constitute the characteristic wealth of the island.

    0
    0
  • The island imports wines, spirits, tissues, clothing and ironmongery; and exports ores, nickel, cobalt and chrome (which represent over three-quarters of the total exports in value), preserved meats and hides, coffee, copra and other colonial produce.

    0
    0
  • Zinc being more electro-positive even than nickel, all the heavy metals must be removed before its deposition is attempted.

    0
    0
  • It is chemically related to cadmium and mercury, the resemblance to cadmium being especially well marked; one distinction is that zinc is less basigenic. Zinc is capable of isomorphously replacing many of the bivalent metals - magnesium, manganese, iron, nickel, cobalt and cadmium.

    0
    0
  • His contributions to inorganic chemistry were numerous, including investigations on the compounds of antimony, aluminium, silicon, &c., on the separation of nickel and cobalt, and on the analysis of mineral waters, but they are outweighed in importance by his work on organic substances.

    0
    0
  • Thus nickel, which was formerly used in the manufacture of " German silver " as a substitute for silver, is now widely employed in naval construction and in the manufacture of steel armourplate and projectiles.

    0
    0
  • A nickel steel containing 36% of nickel has the property of retaining an almost constant volume when heated or cooled through a considerable range of temperature; it is therefore useful for the construction of pendulums and for measures of length.

    0
    0
  • Another steel containing 45% of nickel has, like platinum, the same coefficient of expansion as glass.

    0
    0
  • Eleven parts of gold and i of nickel yield an alloy resembling brass.

    0
    0
  • Of the rarer bismuth minerals we may notice the following: - the complex sulphides, copper bismuth glance or wittichenite, BiCu 3 S 3, silver bismuth glance, bismuth cobalt pyrites, bismuth nickel pyrites or saynite, needle ore (patrinite or aikinite), BiCuPbS 3, emplectite, CuBiS 2, and kobellite, BiAsPb 3 S 6; the sulphotelluride tetradymite; the selenide guanajuatite, B12Se3, Iv.

    0
    0
  • The crude metal obtained by the preceding processes is generally contaminated by arsenic, sulphur, iron, nickel, cobalt and antimony, and sometimes with silver or gold.

    0
    0
  • Many of the elements such as copper, lead, zinc, nickel, cobalt and manganese have only been found in the substance of sea-weeds and corals.

    0
    0
  • It combines with many metallic sulphates (silver, zinc, cobalt, nickel, &c.) to form double sulphates of the type Cs2S04 RS04.6H20.

    0
    0
  • The best metals for coinage are gold, silver, platinum, copper, tin, nickel, aluminium, zinc, iron, and their alloys; certain alloys of gold, silver, copper and nickel have the best combination of the required qualities.

    0
    0
  • Nickel has been found near Keller in Ferry county, and molybdenum near Davenport, Lincoln (disambiguation)|Lincoln county.

    0
    0
  • The country is divided into four mining districts: Freiberg, where silver and lead are the chief products; Altenberg, where tin is mainly raised; Schneeberg, yielding cobalt, nickel and ironstone; and Johanngeorgenstadt, with ironstone and silver mines.

    0
    0
  • Henri Moissan obtained the metal of 99% purity by electrolysing calcium iodide at a low red heat, using a nickel cathode and a graphite anode; he also showed that a more convenient process consisted in heating the iodide with an excess of sodium, forming an amalgam of the product, and removing the sodium by means of absolute alcohol (which has but little action on calcium), and the mercury by distillation.

    0
    0
  • Zeit., 1906, 30, p. 37) has shown that on passing the monohalogen derivatives of the paraffins through a glass tube containing reduced nickel, copper or cobalt at 250° C., olefines are produced, together with the halogen acids, and recombination is prevented by passing the gases through a solution of potash.

    0
    0
  • The anhydrous chlorides of nickel, cobalt, cadmium, barium, iron and lead act in the same way as catalysts at about 300° C., and the bromides of lead, cadmium, nickel and barium at about 320° C.

    0
    0
  • Ind., May 1884), nickel basins are far better adapted than iron basins for the preliminary concentration of potash ley.

    0
    0
  • The latter begin to oxidize before the ley has come up to the traditional strength of specific gravity 1.333 when cold, while nickel is not attacked so long as the percentage of real KHO is short of 60.

    0
    0
  • For the fusion of the dry hydrate nickel vessels cannot be used; in fact, even silver is perceptibly attacked as soon as all the excess of water is away; absolutely pure KHO can be produced only in gold vessels.

    0
    0
  • For ordinary standards of length Guillaume's alloy (invar) of nickel (35.7%) and steel (64.3%) is used, as it is a metal that can be highly polished, and is capable of receiving fine graduations.

    0
    0
  • The general's supremacy received a shock when the eleventh general congregation appointed Oliva as vicar, with the right of succession and powers that practically superseded those of the general Goswin Nickel, whose infirmities, it is said, did not permit him to govern with the necessary application and vigour; and an attempt was made to depose Tirso Gonzalez, the thirteenth general, whose views on probabilism diverged from those favoured by the rest of the Jesuits.

    0
    0
  • Goswin Nickel (German).

    0
    0
  • The coinage of Mexico, now concentrated at the mint in the capital (all others having been closed) is based (since November 28, 1867) on the decimal system - the peso being divided into 100 centavos - and consists of gold, silver, nickel and bronze coins, whose weight and fineness are determined by the monetary law of 1904.

    0
    0
  • Fractional silver coin is not legal tender above 20 pesos, and bronze and nickel coins not above 1 peso, but the government maintains conversion offices where such coins can be converted into silver pesos without loss.

    0
    0
  • a Nickel: times is very imperfect, but not altogether wanting.

    0
    0
  • Prospect, at the base of which there is a vein of pyrrhotite, with small quantities of nickel and copper.

    0
    0
  • The nickel coins include the real (nominal value 6d.), half-real and quarter-real.

    0
    0
  • Antimony, bismuth, selenium, tellurium, chromic iron ore, tin, nickel, cobalt, vanadium, titanium, molybdenum, uranium and tantalum are produced in the United States in small amounts, but such production in several cases has amounted to only slight discoveries, and in general they are of little importance in the market.

    0
    0
  • The Keewatin and Huronian, consisting of greenstones, schists and more or less metamorphosed sedimentary rocks, are of special interest for their ore deposits, which include most of the important metals, particularly iron, nickel, copper and silver.

    0
    0
  • Summing up the economic features of the Cordilleran belt, it includes many of the best coal-mines and the most extensive deposits of gold, copper, lead and zinc of the Dominion, while in silver, nickel and iron Ontario takes the lead.

    0
    0
  • Sudbury, in Ontario, is the centre of the nickel production of the world, the mines being chiefly in American hands, and the product exported to the United States.

    0
    0
  • The discovery of large deposits of nickel at Sudbury; of extremely rich gold mines on the head-waters of the Yukon, in a region previously considered well-nigh worthless for human habitation; of extensive areas of gold, copper and silver ores in the mountain regions of British Columbia; of immense coal deposits in the Crow's Nest Pass of the same province and on the prairies; of veins of silver and cobalt of extraordinary richness in northern Ontario - all deeply affected the industrial condition of the country and illustrated the vastness of its undeveloped resources.

    0
    0
  • Epsom salts crystallizes in the orthorhombic system, being isomorphous with the corresponding zinc and nickel sulphates, and also with magnesium chromate.

    0
    0
  • Many metals, of which copper, silver and nickel are types, can be readily won or purified by the electrolysis of aqueous solutions, and theoretically it may be feasible to treat aluminium in an identical manner.

    0
    0
  • This subject is far from being exhausted, and it is not improbable that the alloy-producing capacity of aluminium may eventually prove its most valuable characteristic. In the meantime, ternary light alloys appear the most satisfactory, and tungsten and copper, or tungsten and nickel, seem to be the best substances to add.

    0
    0
  • Practically, however, it frequently contains other metals, such as copper, cobalt and nickel.

    0
    0
  • The presence of copper, nickel and arsenic is possibly due in many cases to traces of kindred minerals, like chalcopyrite, pentlandite and mispickel.

    0
    0
  • A problem to which he returned repeatedly was that of separating nickel and cobalt from their ores and freeing them from arsenic; and in the course of his long laboratory practice he worked out numerous processes for the preparation of pure chemicals and methods of exact analysis.

    0
    0
  • The important manganese steels of commerce and certain nickel steels are manganiferous and niccoliferous austenite, unmagnetic and hard but ductile.

    0
    0
  • Austenite may contain carbon in any proportion up to about 2.2 It is non-magnetic, and, when preserved in the cold either by quenching or by the presence of manganese, nickel, &c., it has a very remarkable combination of great malleability with very marked hardness, though it is less hard than common carbon steel is when hardened, and probably less hard than martensite.

    0
    0
  • Only in the presence of much manganese, nickel, or their equivalent can the true austenite be preserved in the cold so completely that the steel remains non-magnetic.

    0
    0
  • Just as variations in the carbon-content shift the temperature of the freezing-range and of the various critical points, so do variations in the content of other elements, notably silicon, phosphorus, manganese, chromium, nickel and tungsten.

    0
    0
  • Nickel and manganese lower these critical points, so that with 25% of nickel Ar lies below the common temperature 20° C. With 13% of manganese Ar is very low, and the austenite decomposes so slowly that it is preserved practically intact by sudden cooling.

    0
    0
  • These steels then normally consist of y-iron, modified by the large amount of nickel or manganese with which it is alloyed.

    0
    0
  • They are non-magnetic or very feebly magnetic. But the critical points of such nickel steel though thus depressed, are not destroyed; and if it is cooled in liquid air below its Ar, it passes to the a state and becomes magnetic.

    0
    0
  • r, each with its own set of constitutents, and remember that by different rates of cooling from different temperatures we can retain in the cold metal these different sets of constituents in widely varying proportions; and when we further reflect that not only the proportion of each constituent present but also its state of aggregation can be controlled by thermal treatment, we see how vast a field is here opened, how great a variety of different properties can be induced in any individual piece of steel, how enormous the variety of properties thus attainable in the different varieties collectively, especially since for each percentage of carbon an incalculable number of varieties of steel may be made by alloying it with different proportions of such elements as nickel, chromium, &c. As yet there has been only the roughest survey of certain limited areas in this great field, the further exploration of which will enormously increase the usefulness of this wonderful metal.

    0
    0
  • The chief ones are nickel steel, manganese steel, chrome steel and chrome-tungsten steel.

    0
    0
  • Manganese steel and nickel steel form an important exception to this rule, in being at once very strong and hard and extremely ductile.

    0
    0
  • Nickel steel, which usually contains from 3 to 3.50% of nickel and about 0.25% of carbon, combines very great tensile strength and hardness, and a very high limit of elasticity, with great ductility.

    0
    0
  • For instance, following Krupp's formula, the side and barbette armour of war-vessels is now generally if not universally made of nickel steel containing about 3.25% of nickel, 0.40% of carbon, and 1.50% of chromium, deeply carburized on its impact face.

    0
    0
  • Here the merit of nickel steel is not so much that it resists perforation, as that it does not crack even when deeply penetrated by a projectile.

    0
    0
  • In a direct competitive test the presence of 3.25% of nickel increased nearly sixfold the number of rotations which a steel shaft would endure before breaking.

    0
    0
  • Nickel money is for 5, Io and 20 centimes, and the copper coinage has been withdrawn from circulation.

    0
    0
  • The presence of sulphur, nickel, &c., in the iron appears to favour the production of the diamond.

    0
    0
  • Of other minerals (with the exceptions of coal, iron and salt treated below) nickel and antimony are found in the upper Harz; cobalt in the hilly districts of Hesse and the Saxon Erzgebirge; arsenic in the Riesengebirge; quicksilver in the Sauerland and in the spurs of the Saarbrucken coal hills; graphite in Bavaria; porcelain clay in Saxony and Silesia; amber along the whole Baltic coast; and lime and gypsum in almost all parts.

    0
    0
  • Nickel and nickel wares 400 540 246 298

    0
    0
  • Nickel coins are 10 and 5 pfennige pieces, and there are bronze coins of 2 and I pfennige.

    0
    0
  • The total value of silver coins is not to exceed 10 marks, and that of copper and nickel 21/2 marks per head of the population.

    0
    0
  • While the coinage of silver, nickel and copper is reserved to the state, the coinage of gold pieces can be undertaken by the state for the account of private individuals on payment of a fixed charge.

    0
    0
  • No one can be compelled to accept more than 20 marks in silver or more than i mark in nickel and copper coin; but, on the other hand, the Imperial Bank accepts imperial silver coin in payment to any amount.

    0
    0
  • Associated with the silver minerals are rich ores of cobalt and nickel, combined with arsenic, antimony and sulphur, which would be considered valuable if occurring alone, but are not paid for under present conditions, since they are difficult to separate and refine.

    0
    0
  • Up to the present the most important mineral product of Ontario is nickel, which is mined only in the neighbourhood of Sudbury, where the ores occur in very large deposits, which in 1905 produced 95 0 3 tons, more than half of the world's supply of the metal.

    0
    0
  • With the nickel copper is always found, and copper ores are worked on their own account in a few localities, such as Bruce mines.

    0
    0
  • The nickel mines in the neighbourhood of Sudbury are the largest in the world, outrivalling those of New Caledonia.

    0
    0
  • In the same district, and chiefly in connexion with the nickel mines, large quantities of copper are produced.

    0
    0
  • Timber and wood-pulp are exported (over half of each to Great Britain), with paper, ice and some cobalt and nickel ore.

    0
    0
  • The first step towards putting this act into practice was the issue of one-krone pieces (silver), which circulated as half gulden, and of nickel coins; all the copper coins and other silver coins were recalled, the silver gulden alone being left in circulation.

    0
    0
  • There is a subsidiary coinage (introduced in 1908) consisting of a nickel penny and a nickel tenth of a penny (the last-named was first coined in aluminium, but this metal proved unsuitable and was withdrawn).

    0
    0
  • One, 3/4, 3/4 and ~f piastre pieces are coined in nickel and 1ff and fff piastre pieces in bronze.

    0
    0
  • Egyptian silver money is minted at Birmingham, and nickel and bronze money at Vienna.

    0
    0
  • Besides having a considerable share in the commerce of the port of New York, Bayonne is an important manufacturing centre; among its manufactures are refined petroleum, refined copper and nickel (not from the ore), refined borax, foundry and machine-shop products, tubular boilers, electric launches and electric motors, chemicals (including ammonia and sulphuric and nitric acids), iron and brass products, wire cables and silk goods.

    0
    0
  • The metals, which by combination with oxygen became oxides, were antimony, silver, arsenic, bismuth, cobalt, copper, tin, iron, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, gold, platinum, lead, tungsten and zinc; and the "simple earthy salifiable substances" were lime, baryta, magnesia, alumina and silica.

    0
    0
  • The first of these, casting is chiefly adapted for bronze, or ' Analyses of the iron of prehistoric weapons have brought to light the interesting fact that many of these earliest specimens of iron manufacture contain a considerable percentage of nickel.

    0
    0
  • One of the most valuable characteristics of the iron alloys is their capacity for hardening, which they owe in the main to the presence of certain small percentages of carbon relatively to minute quantities of other elements: as manganese, tungsten, nickel and others of less importance.

    0
    0
  • Many different alloys have been suggested, some including silver, nickel, zinc or arsenic; but that which has practically been found best is an alloy of four equivalents of copper to one of tin, or the following proportions by weight: copper 252, tin 117.8.

    0
    0
  • This axis is a hollow forging of nickel steel, of which the accurately turned pivots rest on bearings attached to cast-iron uprights bolted upon a massive cast-iron base plate.

    0
    0
  • Surrounded By A Nickel Plated Steel Enclosure B, Forming The Bulb Of A Mercury Thermo Regulator, Immersed In A Large Water Bath Maintained At A Constant Temperature.

    0
    0
  • Iron And Nickel, Very Rapidly.

    0
    0
  • Trans., 1900), The Atomic Heats Of Pure Nickel And Cobalt, As Determined From Experiments At The Boiling Points Of 02, And C02, Diminish So Rapidly At Temperatures Below O° C. As To Suggest That They Would Reach The Value 2.42 At The Absolute Zero.

    0
    0
  • NICKEL (symbol Ni, atomic weight 58.68 (0 =16)), a metallic element.

    0
    0
  • It occurs in the uncombined condition and alloyed with iron in meteorites; as sulphide in millerite and nickel blende, as arsenide in niccolite and cloanthite, and frequently in combination with arsenic and antimony in the form of complex sulphides.

    0
    0
  • In recent years it has been found in considerable quantities in New Caledonia in the form of a hydrated silicate of nickel and magnesia approximating to the constitution (NiO, MgO) SiO 2 .

    0
    0
  • Gamier, 1865), and in Canada in the form of nickeliferous pyrrhotines, which consist of sulphides of iron associated with sulphides of nickel and copper, embedded in a matrix of gneiss.

    0
    0
  • At the present time nickel is obtained practically entirely from garnierite and the nickeliferous pyrrhotines.

    0
    0
  • When the former is used it is roasted with calcium sulphate or alkali waste to form a matte which is then blown in a Bessemer converter or heated in a reverberatory furnace with a siliceous flux with the object of forming a rich nickel sulphide.

    0
    0
  • The process adopted for the Canadian ores, which are poor in copper and nickel, consists in a preliminary roasting in heaps and smelting in a blast furnace in order to obtain a matte, which is then further smelted with a siliceous flux for a rich matte.

    0
    0
  • The nickel sulphide so obtained is then roasted to oxide and reduced to metal.

    0
    0
  • 18 95, p. 945) has obtained metallic nickel from the Canadian mattes by first roasting them and then eliminating copper by the action of sulphuric acid, the product so obtained being then exposed to the reducing action of producer gas at about 350° C. The reduced metal is then passed into a "volatilizer" and exposed to the action of carbon monoxide at about 80° C., the nickel carbonyl so formed being received in a chamber heated to 180-200° C., where it decomposes, the nickel being deposited and the carbon monoxide returned to the volatilizer.

    0
    0
  • The metal as obtained by industrial methods rarely contains more than about 99-99.5% of nickel, the chief impurities being copper, iron, cobalt, silicon and carbon.

    0
    0
  • The metal may also be obtained on the small scale by the reduction of the oxide by hydrogen or by carbon,, by ignition of the oxalate or of nickel ammonium oxalate (J.

    0
    0
  • Peligot), by electrolysis of nickel ammonium sulphate (Winkler, Zeit.

    0
    0
  • Nickel occludes hydrogen readily, is attacked by the halogen elements, and oxidizes easily when heated in air.

    0
    0
  • When obtained by reduction processes at as low a temperature as possible the finely divided metal so formed is pyrophoric, and according to P. Schutzenberger (Comptes rendus, 1891,113, p. 177) dry hydrochloric acid gas converts this form into nickel chloride and a volatile compound of composition NiHC1.

    0
    0
  • St Edme (Comptes rendus, 1886, 106, p. 1079) sheet nickel is passive to nitric acid, and the metal remains passive even when heated to redness in a current of hydrogen.

    0
    0
  • On the reduction of organic compounds by hydrogen in, the presence of metallic nickel see P. Sabatier and J.

    0
    0
  • Nickel salts are antiseptic; they arrest fermentation and stop the growth of plants.

    0
    0
  • Nickel carbonyl, however, is extremely poisonous.

    0
    0
  • On the toxic properties of nickel salts see A.

    0
    0
  • Nickel is used for the manufacture of domestic utensils, for crucibles, coinage, plating, and for the preparation of various alloys, such as German silver, nickel steels such as invar (nickel, 35.7%; steel, 64.3%), which has a negligible coefficient of thermal expansion, and constantan (nickel, 45%; copper, 55%), which has a negligible thermal coefficient of its electrical resistance.

    0
    0
  • Nickel Oxides.

    0
    0
  • Several oxides of nickel are known.

    0
    0
  • The monoxide, NiO, occurs naturally as bunsenite, and is obtained artificially when nickel hydroxide, carbonate, nitrate or sulphate is heated.

    0
    0
  • It may also be prepared by the action of nickel on water, by the reduction of the oxide N1203 with hydrogen at about 200° C. (H.

    0
    0
  • Phys., [5], 21, p. 199), or by heating nickel chloride with sodium carbonate and extracting the fused mass with water.

    0
    0
  • The hydroxide, Ni(OH) 2, is obtained in the form of a greenish amorphous powder when nickel salts are precipitated by the caustic alkalis.

    0
    0
  • Nickel sesquioxide, N1203, is formed when the nitrate is decomposed by heat at the lowest possible temperature, by a similar decomposition of the chlorate, or by fusing the chloride with potassium chlorate.

    0
    0
  • An oxide, Ni 3 0 4, has been obtained by heating nickel chloride in a current of moist oxygen at about 400° C. (H.

    0
    0
  • Nickel Salts.-Only one series of salts is known, namely those corresponding to the monoxide.

    0
    0
  • The caustic alkalis added to solutions of nickel salts give a pale green precipitate of the hydroxide, insoluble in excess of the precipitant.

    0
    0
  • Ammonium sulphide precipitates black nickel sulphide, which is somewhat soluble in excess of the precipitate (especially if yellow ammonium sulphide be used), forming a dark-coloured solution.

    0
    0
  • Numerous methods have been devised for the separation of nickel and cobalt, the more important of which are: -the cobaltinitrite method by which the cobalt is precipitated in the presence of acetic acid by means of potassium nitrite (the alkaline earth metals must not be present); the cyanide method (J.

    0
    0
  • Liebig, Ann., 1848, 6 5, p. 2 44; 1853, 87, p.128), in which the two metals are precipitated by excess of potassium cyanide in alkaline solution, bromine being afterwards added and the solution warmed, when the nickel is precipitated.

    0
    0
  • The latter method has been modified by adding potassium cyanide in slight excess to the solution of the mixed salts, heating for some time and then adding mercuric oxide and water, the whole being then warmed on the water bath, when a precipitate of mercuric oxide and nickel hydroxide is obtained 666, 670).

    0
    0
  • Knorre (Ber., 1885, 18, p. 169) separate the metals by adding nitros01 3-naphthol in the presence of 50% acetic acid, a precipitate of cobalti nitroso-13-naphthol, [C 10 H 6 0(NO)] 3 Co, insoluble in hydrochloric acid, being formed, whilst the corresponding nickel compound dissolves in hydrochloric acid.

    0
    0
  • Nickel fluoride, NiF 2, obtained by the action of hydrofluoric acid on nickel chloride, crystallizes in yellowish green prisms which volatilise above m000° C. It is difficultly soluble in water, and combines with the alkaline fluorides to form double salts.

    0
    0
  • Nickel chloride, NiC1 2, is obtained in the anhydrous condition by heating the hydrated salt to 140° C., or by gently heating the finely divided metal in a current of chlorine.

    0
    0
  • Nickel chloride ammonia, NiC1 2.6NH3, is obtained as a white powder when anhydrous nickel chloride is exposed to the action of ammonia gas (H.

    0
    0
  • Ann., 1830, 96, p. 155), or in the form of blue octahedra by evaporating a solution of nickel chloride in aqueous ammonia.

    0
    0
  • Numerous double chlorides of nickel and other metals are known.

    0
    0
  • The bromide and iodide of nickel resemble the chloride and are prepared in a similar fashion.

    0
    0
  • The monosulphide, NiS, is obtained by heating nickel with sulphur, by heating the monoxide with sulphuretted hydrogen to a red heat, and by heating potassium sulphide with nickel chloride to 160-180° C. When prepared by dry methods it is an exceedingly stable, yellowish, somewhat crystalline mass.

    0
    0
  • When prepared by the precipitation of nickel salts with alkaline sulphide in neutral solution it is a greyish black amorphous compound which readily oxidizes in moist air, forming a basic nickel sulphate.

    0
    0
  • Nickel sulphate, NiSO 4, is obtained anhydrous as a yellow powder when any of its hydrates are heated.

    0
    0
  • It loses four molecules of water of crystallization when heated to 100° C. and becomes anhydrous at about 300° C. The hexahydrate is dimorphous, a tetragonal form being obtained by crystallization of a solution of the heptahydrate between 20° and 30° C., and a monoclinic form between 50° and 70° C. Nickel sulphate combines with many metallic sulphates to form double salts, and also forms addition compounds with ammonia aniline and hydroxylamine.

    0
    0
  • Nickel carbonyl, Ni(CO) 4, is obtained as a colourless mobile liquid by passing carbon monoxide over reduced nickel at a temperature of about 60° C. (L.

    0
    0
  • Soc., 1904, p. 203) have made an exhaustive study of its reactions, and find that it is decomposed by the halogens (dissolved in carbon tetrachloride) with liberation of carbon monoxide and formation of a nickel halide.

    0
    0
Browse other sentences examples →