NICEPHORUS emperor 802-811, was a native of Seleucia in Pisidia, who was raised by the empress Irene to the office of logothetes or lord high treasurer.
Nicephorus, who needed large sums to strengthen his military force, set himself with great energy to increase the empire's revenue.
By withholding the tribute which Irene had agreed to pay to Harun al-Rashid, Nicephorus committed himself to a war with the Saracens.
By the death of Harun in 809, Nicephorus was left free to deal with the Bulgarian king, Krum, who was harassing his northern frontiers.
Krum is said to have made a drinkingcup of Nicephorus's skull.
Nicephorus II >>
He was frequently employed in missions to the pope, and in 968 to Constantinople to demand for the younger Otto (afterwards Otto II.) the hand of Theophano, daughter of the emperor Nicephorus Phocas.
A treaty between Charlemagne and Nicephorus (81o) recognized the Venetians as subjects of the Eastern empire, while preserving to them the trading rights on the mainland of Italy which they had acquired under Liutprand.
Nicephorus of Ephesus was appointed in his stead.
1-16; Nicephorus Gregoras iii.
If the stichometry of Nicephorus is right, the existing form of the book is merely fragmentary compared with its original compass.
2500 stichoi) by Nicephorus.
Notwithstanding all the care that has been taken in collecting the fragments of these Acts, only about 900 stichoi out of the 3600 assigned to them in the Stichometry of Nicephorus have as yet been recovered.
9 74, after an abortive attempt by Nicephorus thirteen years earlier.
Early in the 9th century Sergius, greatest of the leaders, profiting by the tolerance of the emperor Nicephorus, began that ministry which, in one of the epistles canonized by the sect, but lost, he describes thus: "I have run from east to west, and from north to south, till my knees were weary, preaching the gospel of Christ."
In the 7th century it was invaded by the Arabs, who held the country until it was reoccupied by Nicephorus II.
On the other hand, it is probably identical with the apocryphal book 'A(3paµ mentioned in the Stichometry of Nicephorus, and the Synopsis Athanasii, together with the Apocalypses of Enoch, &c.
PHILIPPICUS, East Roman emperor, 711-713, was the son of the patrician Nicephorus, and became distinguished as a soldier under Justinian II.
His next move was against the Greeks and Saracens of southern Italy, but seeking to attain his objects by negotiation, sent Liudprand, bishop of Cremona, to the eastern emperor Nicephorus II.
In 1904 he published a "romantic monograph" of the 10th century, Theophano, and in 1906 a verse tragedy, Nicephorus.
In 927 Taranto was entirely destroyed by the Saracens, but rebuilt in 967 by Nicephorus Phocas, to whom is due the construction of the bridge over the channel to the N.W.
The deposition and death of the empress foiled this plan; and after a desultory warfare in Italy between the two empires, negotiations were recommenced which in 810 led to an arrangement between Charles and the eastern emperor, Nicephorus I.
The death of Nicephorus and the accession of Michael I.
It is absent from the so-called Synopsis of Athanasius, the Stichometry of Nicephorus, the List of Sixty Books and other authoritative documents.
In face of another rebellious general, Nicephorus Bryennius, his election was ratified by the aristocracy and clergy.
Leonardt, Kaiser Nicephorus II.
Nicephorus Callistus Xanthopoulos >>
The festival is first mentioned by St Andrew of Crete (c. 650), and, according to the Byzantine historian Nicephorus Callistus (Hist.
In the 14th century Nicephorus Callisti undertook a complete church history which covers in its extant form the first six centuries.
Cedrenus and Nicephorus err in dating Abyssinian Christianity from Justinian, c. 542.
NICEPHORUS BRYENNIUS (1062-1137), Byzantine soldier, statesman and historian, was born at Orestias (Adrianople).
to the dethronement of Nicephorus Botaneiates by Alexius.
PALAEOLOGUS, a Byzantine family name which first appears in history about the middle of the 11th century, when George Palaeologus is mentioned among the prominent supporters of Nicephorus Botaniates, and afterwards as having helped to raise Alexius I.
Having married an accomplished young nobleman, Nicephorus Bryennius, she united with the empress Irene in a vain attempt to prevail upon her father during his last illness to disinherit his son and give the crown to her husband.
Hence it was easy for Suleiman, the son of Kutulmish, 3 the son of Arslan Pigu (Israil), to penetrate as far as the Hellespont, the more so as after the captivity of Romanus two rivals, Nicephorus Bryennius in Asia and Nicephorus' Botaneiates in Europe, disputed the throne with one another.
The works of Du Cange published after his death are: an edition of the Byzantine historian, Nicephorus Gregoras (Paris, 1702); De imperatorum Constantinopolitanorum seu inferioris aevi vel imperii uti vocant numismatibus dissertatio (Rome, 1755); Histoire de l'Nat de la y ule d'Amiens et de ses comtes (Amiens, 1840); and a valuable work Des principautes d'outre-mer, published by E.
There is more than one meaning of Nicephorus discussed in the 1911 Encyclopedia.
Under Michael Parapinaces (1071-1078) and Nicephorus Botaniates (1078-1081) he was also employed, along with his elder brother Isaac, against rebels in Asia Minor, Thrace and in Epirus (1071).
The contemporary historians Cantacuzenus and Nicephorus Gregoras deal very copiously with this subject, taking the Hesychast and Barlaamite sides respectively.
2 Nicephorus Callistus, Hist.
NICEPHORUS CALLISTUS XANTHOPOULOS, of Constantinople, the last of the Greek ecclesiastical historians, flourished 1320-1330.
Some modern scholars are of opinion that Nicephorus appropriated and passed off as his own the work of an unknown author of the 10th century.
Nicephorus was also the author of lists of the emperors and patriarchs of Constantinople, of a poem on the capture of Jerusalem, and of a synopsis of the Scriptures, all in iambics; and of commentaries on liturgical poems.
Nicephorus Patriarcha >>
Strange to say, as Syracuse fell in the reign of Basil the Macedonian, the Saracen occupation was completed in the reign of Nikephoros Phokas (Nicephorus Phocas), the deliverer of Crete.
17), and statements of his excerptors Nicephorus and Theophanes, it can be made out that the work did actually come down to that year, and that consequently it has reached us only in a mutilated condition, at least half a book being wanting (Giildenpenning, Theodoros von Kyrrhos, p. 12 seq., holds that Sozomen himself suppressed the end of his work).
But it seems to have been large at first, for according to Nicephorus it consisted of 1400 stichs.
NICEPHORUS PATRIARCHA (c. 758-829), Byzantine historian and patriarch of Constantinople (806-815).
In 806 he was suddenly raised by the emperor Nicephorus I.
Nicephorus is the author of a valuable compendium (Breviarium historicum) of Byzantine history from 602 to 770, of a meagre Chronologia compendiaria from Adam to the year of his own death.
The new emperor Nicephorus, thinking himself strong enough to refuse the payment of tribute, wrote an insulting letter to Harun, who contented himself with replying: "Thou shalt not hear, but see, my answer."
He entered Asia Minor and took Heraclea, plundering and burning along his whole line of march, till Nicephorus, in alarm, sued for peace.
Scarcely had the caliph returned into winter quarters when Nicephorus broke the treaty.
Notwithstanding the rigour of the season, Harlan retraced his steps, and Nicephorus was compelled to observe his engagements.
But Nicephorus, profiting by serious disturbances in Khorasan, broke the treaty again, and overran the country as far as Anazarba and Kanisat as-sauda ("the black church") on the frontier, where he took many prisoners, who were, however, recovered by the garrison of Mopsuestia.
Nicephorus was now so completely beaten that he was compelled to submit to very harsh conditions.
845), an obscure nobleman who had married Procopia, the daughter of Nicephorus I., and been made master of the palace.
In 1078 two generals, Nicephorus Bryennius and Nicephorus Botaniates, simultaneously revolted.
The island was recovered by the Greek emperors and, though again conquered by the Arabs in the reign of Harun al-Rashid (802), it was finally restored to the Byzantine empire under Nicephorus Phocas.
The great event of his reign was the conquest of Crete by Nicephorus Phocas.
NICEPHORUS GREGORAS (c. 1295-1360), Byzantine historian, man of learning and religious controversialist, was born at Heraclea in Pontus.
Nicephorus Gregoras >>
In 967 it was captured by the Russian prince Sviatoslav, whom the Byzantine emperor Nicephorus Phocas had summoned to his assistance.
According to the traditional account he was flayed alive and then crucified with his head downwards, at Albanopolis in Armenia, or, according to Nicephorus, at Urbanopolis in Cilicia.
At the great ecumenical council held at Constantinople in 381, he was a conspicuous champion of the orthodox faith; according to Nicephorus, indeed, the additions made to the Nicene creed were entirely due to his suggestion, but this statement is of doubtful authority.
After their father's death (963) he and his younger brother Constantine were nominal emperors during the actual reigns of Nicephorus Phocas, their stepfather, and John Tzimisces.
During this time the throne was seriously endangered by the rebellion of an ambitious general who aspired to play the part of Nicephorus Phocas or Tzimisces.
It was known in later times as the palace of the Bucoleon, and was the scene of the assassination of Nicephorus Phocas.
The chief objects of his attack were Barlaam, Gregorius Acindynus and Nicephorus Gregoras.
See the historical works of John Cantacuzene and Nicephorus.
Irene's patriarch Nicephorus was now deposed and one Theodotus, a kinsman of Constantine Copronymus, consecrated in his place on the ist of April 815.
and xiii.; "Acts of the Iconoclast Council of 815," in a treatise of Nicephorus discovered by M.
109; Nicephorus, Chronicon, edit.
95; Nicephorus Patriarch, "Antirrhetici," Patr.
His pupil Nicephorus Gregoras, who delivered his funeral oration, calls him a "living library."
NICEPHORUS (Phocas), emperor 963-969, belonged to a Cappadocian family which had produced several distinguished generals.
Thanks to his popularity with the army, Nicephorus was crowned emperor by the side of Romanus's infant sons, and in spite of the patriarch's opposition married their mother Theophano.
Nicephorus was less successful in his western wars.
Owing to the care which he lavished upon the proper maintenance of the army, Nicephorus was compelled to exercise rigid economy in other departments.
Nicephorus was the author of an extant treatise on military tactics which contains valuable information concerning the art of war in his time.
Nicephorus III >>
But Nicephorus gained over the latter two, and by inducing the rebel army to disperse achieved the submission of Bardanes, who was relegated to a monastery.
It then became a formidable nest of pirates and a great slave mart; it defied all the efforts of the Byzantine sovereigns to recover it till the year 960, when it was reconquered by Nicephorus Phocas.
This event is mentioned by Nicephorus Callistus (H.E.
Nicephorus refused to admit the validity of Otto's title, and the bishop was roughly repulsed; but the succeeding emperor, John Zimisces, was more reasonable, and Theophano, daughter of the emperor Romanus II., was married to the younger Otto in 972.
Nicephorus ultimately quarrelled with Alexius, who used his influence with the army to depose the emperor and banish him to a monastery.
They were marked by persecution of the followers of the Paulician and Bogomilian heresies (one of his last acts was to burn Basilius, a Bogomilian leader, with whom he had engaged in a theological controversy), by renewed struggles with the Turks (1110-1117), by anxieties as to the succession, which his wife Irene wished to alter in favour of her daughter Anne's husband, Nicephorus Bryennius for whose benefit the special title panhypersebastos (i.e.
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