Nicaea Sentence Examples
By this means it was able to defy both the Seljuks and the Ottomans, and to maintain its independence against the emperors of Nicaea and Constantinople.
He was chosen emperor in his forty-third year by the officers of the army at Nicaea in Bithynia in 364, and shortly afterwards named his brother Valens colleague with him in the empire.
The first trace of system is in the limited right of appeal given by the first oecumenical council of Nicaea and its provision that episcopal sentences or those of provincial synods on appeal were to be recognized throughout the world.
Hence the practice, immediately after Nicaea I., of superadding banishment by the emperor to synodical condemnation.
But the secular arm, from the time of Nicaea I., was in the habit of aiding spiritual decrees, as by banishing deposed bishops, and gradually by other ways, even with laymen.Advertisement
Of the Lenten fast or Quadragesima, the first mention is in the fifth canon of the council of Nicaea (325), and from this time it is frequently referred to, but chiefly as a season of preparation for baptism, of absolution of penitents or of retreat and recollection.
A final settlement of the dispute was one among the other reasons which led Constantine to summon the council of Nicaea in 325.
Accordingly, when the crusaders had captured the town at Nicaea, and defeated the Seljukian field-army at Dorylaeum their way lay clear before them through Asia Minor.
Their first operation was the siege of Nicaea, defended by a Seljuk garrison, but eventually captured, with the aid of Alexius, after a month's siege (June 18).
After the capture of Nicaea, the field-army of Kilij Arslan had to be met.Advertisement
The Crusades began with the Seljukian Turk planted at Nicaea; they ended with the Ottoman Turk entrenched by the Danube.
He took Aidos, Nicomedia, Hereke, and, after a siege, Nicaea; Tarakli and Gemlik fell to his arms, and soon the whole of the shore of the Marmora up to Kartal was conquered, and the Byzantines retained on the continent of Asia Minor only Ala Shehr and Biga.
He received his education in Nicaea at a monastery of which he later became the abbot, though not in orders.
Lascaris to the position of patriarch at Nicaea, and four years later, on that emperor's death, became joint guardian of his son John.
He negotiated with Alexis Comnenus at Constantinople, re-established at Nicaea some discipline among the crusaders, caused the siege of Antioch to be raised and died in that city of the plague on the 1st of August 1098.Advertisement
About 320 he was bishop of Beroea, and he was patriarch of Antioch before the council of Nicaea in 325.
But Auxentius died soon afterwards, and his successor, Ambrose, undertook to bring these hitherto abortive efforts to a successful conclusion, and to complete the return of Illyria to the confessions of Nicaea.
He was raised a second time to the consulship by Alexander Severus, in 229; but on the plea of ill health soon afterwards retired to Nicaea, where he died.
He asks the emperor to sanction the repair of the ancient baths at Prusa, the building of an aqueduct at Nicomedia and a theatre at Nicaea, and the covering in of a stream that has become a public nuisance at Amastris.
It was on his initiative that this synod condemned the heresy of adoptianism and the worship of images, which had been restored in 787 by the second council of Nicaea; and at the same time that council was declared to have been superfluous.Advertisement
He revolted in 1078 from Michael VII., and with the connivance of the Turks marched upon Nicaea, where he assumed the purple.
To the influence of the Arian heres y is also due the Catholic addition - "as it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be," the use of which was, according to some authorities, expressly enjoined by the council of Nicaea.
The order is recognized in the canons of the councils of Nicaea (325) and Chalcedon (451), and is frequently mentioned in the writings of Chrysostom (some of whose letters are addressed to deaconesses at Constantinople), Epiphanius, Basil, and indeed most of the more important Fathers of the 4th and 5th centuries.
Under his successors, except during the brief reign of Julian (361-363), when the effort was made to reinstate paganism in its former place of supremacy, the Church received growing support, until, under Theodosius the Great (379-395), orthodox Christianity, which stood upon the platform adopted at Nicaea in 325, was finally established as the sole official religion of the state, and heathen worship was put under the ban.
At the council of Nicaea in 325 the deity of Christ received official sanction and was given formulation in the original Nicene Creed.Advertisement
The Western Church accepted the decisions of Nicaea, Chalcedon and Constantinople, and so the doctrines of the Trinity and of the two natures in Christ were handed down as orthodox dogma in West as well as East.
But this general unity became official, and expressed itself in organization, only with the rise of the conciliar and metropolitan systems. Already before the end of the and century local synods were held in Asia Minor to deal with Montanism, and in the 3rd century provincial synods became common, and by the council of Nicaea (canon 5) it was decreed that they should be held twice every year in every province.
In 325 the first general or ecumenical council, representing theoretically the entire Christian Church, was held at Nicaea.
At the council of Nicaea, and at the ecumenical councils which followed, the idea of an infallible episcopate giving authoritative and permanent utterance to apostolic and therefore divine truth, found clear expression, and has been handed down as a part of the faith of the Catholic Church both East and West.
In canon 6 of the council of Nicaea the jurisdiction of the bishops of Alexandria, Rome and Antioch over a number of provinces is recognized.
At its extremity is situated the small town of Gemlik (anc. Cius) at the mouth of a valley, communicating with the lake of Isnik, on which was situated Nicaea.
The valleys towards the Black Sea abound in fruit trees of all kinds, while the valley of the Sangarius and the plains near Brusa and Isnik (Nicaea) are fertile and well cultivated.
The most important cities were Nicomedia and Nicaea, which disputed with one another the rank of capital.
The first session at Florence and the seventeenth of the union council took place on the 26th of February 1439; there ensued long debates and negotiations on the filioque, in which Markos Eugenikos, archbishop of Ephesus, spoke for the irreconcilables; but the Greeks under the leadership of Bessarion, archbishop of Nicaea, and Isidor, metropolitan of Kiev, at length made a declaration on the filioque (4th of June), to which all save Markos Eugenikos subscribed.
Before the council of Nicaea (325) it was only to be found at Rome and Carthage.
In Order To Terminate Dissensions, Which Produced Both Scandal And Schism In The Church, The Council Of Nicaea, Which Was Held In The Year 325, Ordained That The Celebration Of Easter Should Thenceforth Always Take Place On The Sunday Which Immediately Follows The Full Moon That Happens Upon, Or Next After, The Day Of The Vernal Equinox.
It Is To Be Regretted That The Reverend Fathers Who Formed The Council Of Nicaea Did Not Abandon The Moon Altogether, And Appoint The First Or Second Sunday Of April For The Celebration Of The Easter Festival.
The Cycle, Though Probably Not Invented Before The Time Of The Council Of Nicaea, Is Regarded As Having Commenced Nine Years Before The Era, So That The Year One Was The Tenth Of The Solar Cycle.
The Golden Numbers were introduced into the calendar about the year 530, but disposed as they would have been if they had been inserted at the time of the council of Nicaea.
About The Year 73 O The Venerable Bede Had Already Perceived The Anticipation Of The Equinoxes, And Remarked That These Phenomena Then Took Place About Three Days Earlier Than At The Time Of The Council Of Nicaea.
In Order To Restore The Beginning Of The Year To The Same Place In The Seasons That It Had Occupied At The Time Of The Council Of Nicaea, Gregory Directed The Day Following The Feast Of St Francis, That Is To Say The 5Th Of October, To Be Reckoned The 15Th Of That Month.
During The 1257 Years That Elapsed Between The Council Of Nicaea And The Reformation, The Error Had Accumulated To Four Days, So That The New Moons Which Were Marked In The Calendar As Happening, For Example, On The 5Th Of The Month, Actually Fell On The 1St.
Acknowledged by the Turkish amirs of Asia Minor, he took up his residence in Nicaea, and defeated the first bands of crusaders under Walter the Penniless and others (1096); but, on the arrival of Godfrey of Bouillon and his companions, he was prudent enough to leave his capital in order to attack them as they were besieging Nicaea.
He suffered, however, two defeats in the vicinity, and Nicaea surrendered on the 23rd of June 1097.
Among the first of those whom we know to have attached importance to the placing of relics in churches is Ambrose of Milan (Ep. 22), and the 7th general council of Nicaea (787) forbade the consecration of churches in which relics were not present, under pain of ex communication.
The second and much more serious host of warriors, led by Godfrey of Bouillon, he conducted also into Asia, promising to supply them with provisions in return for an oath of homage, and by their victories recovered for the Empire a number of important cities and islands - Nicaea, Chios, Rhodes, Smyrna, Ephesus, Philadelphia, Sardis, and in fact most of Asia Minor (1097-1099).
This took place at the fist oecumenical council, which was convened in Nicaea in 3 25.
Although defeated at the council of Nicaea, the Arians were by no means subdued.
The Persian Armenians as late as the 6th century had not heard of the faith of Nicaea, and only then received it from the catholicus Babken.
Alexius was relegated to a monastery at Nicaea, where he died on some date unknown.
During his return to Constantinople Jovian was found dead in his bed at Dadastana, halfway between Ancyra and Nicaea.
At an early age he rose to distinction, and ultimately became commander of the French mercenaries in the employment of the emperors of Nicaea.
Afterwards invested with the title of "despot," he was finally proclaimed joint-emperor and crowned alone at Nicaea on the 1st of January 1260.
Already at the Council of Nicaea in 325 the Pauliani were put outside the Church and condemned to be rebaptized.
It is interesting to note that at the synod of Antioch the use of the word consubstantial to denote the relation of God the Father to the divine Son or Logos was condemned, although it afterwards became at the Council of Nicaea the watchword of the orthodox faction.
The Council of Nicaea in 325 upheld the bishops, but Meletius was allowed to remain bishop of Lycopolis though with merely nominal authority.
Antigonus fixed his capital at the old Phrygian town of Celaenae, and the famous cities of Nicaea and Alexandria Troas owed to him their first foundation, each as an Antigonia; they were refounded and renamed by Lysimachus (301-281 B.C.).
He was immediately arrested and hurried to Nicaea in Bithynia.
It sent a bishop to Nicaea in 325.
Nicaea in 787, which witnessed the triumph of his opinions; but, feeling dissatisfied with court life, he retired into a convent.
In the Koh-Daman, north of Kabul, are the sites of several ancient cities, the greatest of which, called Beghram, has furnished coins in scores of thousands, and has been supposed to represent Alexander's Nicaea.
Alexander the Great entered India early in 327 B.C. Crossing the lofty Khawak and Kaoshan passes of the Hindu Kush, he advanced by Alexandria, a city previously founded in the Koh-i-Daman, and Nicaea, another city to the west of Jalalabad, on the road from Kabul to India.
At Taxila (DehriShahan) and Nicaea (Mong) in the northern Punjab, at Alexandria (Uchch) in the southern Punjab, at Patala (Hyderabad) in Sind, and at other points along his route, he established military settlements of Greeks or allies.
In 1067 the Seljuk Turks ravaged Cappadocia and Cilicia; in 1071 they defeated and captured the emperor Romanus Diogenes, and in 1080 they took Nicaea.
One branch of the Seljuks founded the empire of Rum, with its capital first at Nicaea and then at Iconium.
The name of "Jacobites" is first found in a synodal decree of Nicaea A.D.
Unconsciously and to its own ultimate damage the Reformation forged the weapons of progress; but it was itself in no sense, except the institutional and political, the end of that religious history inaugurated before the Council of Nicaea.
For nine years he ruled in Constantinople, and in 1235, with a few troops, he repelled a great siege of the city by Vataces of Nicaea and Azen of Bulgaria.
A similar interpretation has sometimes been claimed for the third canon of that general council of Nicaea to which we 3 1 Cor.
This reputation he owes partly to the vast fertility of his pen - according to the historian Sozomen he was credited with having written altogether 3,000,000 lines - partly to the elegance of his style and a certain measure of poetic inspiration, more perhaps to the strength and consistency of his personal character, and his ardour in defence of the creed formulated at Nicaea.
He became a ward and disciple of the famous Jacob - the same who attended the Council of Nicaea as bishop of Nisibis, and died in 338.
In both these poems, the language of which was so obscure that they required special commentaries, his model appears to have been Parthenius of Nicaea.
But (1) Jacob of Nisibis, who attended the council of Nicaea, died in 338; and (2) our author, being a Persian subject, cannot have lived at Nisibis, which became Persian only by Jovian's treaty of 363.
Antigonus built the city (316 B.C. ?) on an old deserted site, and soon afterwards Lysimachus changed its name from Antigonia to Nicaea, calling it after his wife.
Under the Roman empire Nicaea and Nicomedia disputed the title of metropolis of Bithynia.
Strabo describes the ancient Nicaea as built regularly, in the form of a square, with a gate in the middle of each side.
After Constantinople became the capital of the empire Nicaea grew in importance, and after the conquest of Constantinople by the Crusaders became the temporary seat of the Byzantine emperor; the double line of walls with the Roman gates is still well preserved.
The council of Nicaea recognized three patriarchs - the bishops of Rome, Alexandria and Antioch.
The schismatic churches protest against the additions made to the creeds of Nicaea and Constantinople by succeeding councils.
The Nestorians accept the decisions of the first two councils, and reject the decrees of all the rest as unwarranted alterations of the creed of Nicaea.
The Orthodox Greek Church adopts the doctrinal decisions of the seven oecumenical councils, together with the canons of the Concilium Quinisextum or second Trullan council (692); and they further hold that all these definitions and canons are simply explanations and enforcements of the Nicaeo-Constantinopolitan creed and the decrees of the first council of Nicaea.
At the council of Nicaea in 325 he took a prominent part, occupying a seat at the emperor's right hand, and being appointed to deliver the panegyrical oration in his honour.
Meanwhile at the council of Nicaea he seems to have discovered that the Alexandrians were right in claiming that Arius was carrying his subordinationism so far as to deny all real divinity to Christ.
After the capture of the city he gathered a band of fugitives in Bithynia and established himself in the town of Nicaea, which became the chief rallying-point for his countrymen.
In his contest with the Greek empire and the Lombard princes of Benevento, Adrian remained faithful to the Frankish alliance, and the friendly relations between pope and emperor were not disturbed by the difference which arose between them on the question of the worship of images, to which Charlemagne and the Gallican Church were strongly opposed, while Adrian favoured the views of the Eastern Church, and approved the decree of the council of Nicaea (787), confirming the practice and excommunicating the iconoclasts.
According to Sozomen, his parents were both orthodox Christians, according to the creed sanctioned by the council of Nicaea.
Some little aid was sent from western Europe, but soon Robert was compelled to make peace with his chief foe, John Ducas Vataces, emperor of Nicaea, who was confirmed in all his conquests.
Robert promised to marry Eudoxia, daughter of the late emperor of Nicaea, Theodore Lascaris I., a lady to whom he had been betrothed on a former occasion; however, he soon repudiated this engagement, and married a French lady, already the fiancee of a Burgundian gentleman.
In 1437 he was made archbishop of Nicaea by John VII.
It is certain that Athanasius was young when he took orders, and that he must soon have entered into close relations with his bishop, whom, after the outbreak of the Arian controversy, he accompanied as archdeacon to the council of Nicaea.
In the catchword Homousios, which had been added to the creed at Nicaea, he too recognized the best formula for the expression of the mystery, although in his own writings he made but sparing use of it.
Five months after the return from the council of Nicaea Bishop Alexander died; and on the 8th of February 326 Athanasius, at the age of thirty-three, became his successor.
They are derived in part from the preceding Constitutions, in part from the canons of the councils of Antioch, 34 1, Nicaea, 325, and possibly Laodicaea, 363.
It appears that in several different districts canons made by the local assemblies' were added to those of the council of Nicaea which were everywhere accepted and observed.
The first example seems to be that of the province of Pontus, where after the twenty canons of Nicaea were placed the twentyfive canons of the council of Ancyra (314), and the fifteen of that of Neocaesarea (315-3 20).
With the addition of the twenty-two canons of the ecumenical council of Nicaea (787), this will give us the whole contents of the official collection of the Greek Church; since then it has remained unchanged.
From it we learn that the canons of Nicaea and the other Greek councils, up to that of Chalcedon, were also known in Africa.
Up to the end of the 5th century the only canonical document of non-Roman origin which it officially recognized was the group of canons of Nicaea, under which name were also included those of Sardica.
Abbots were permitted by the second council of Nicaea, A.D.
Thus by the 11th canon of Nicaea certain who had been guilty of apostasy were to be three years among the hearers, seven among the kneelers, and two among the consistentes.
The long and dubious conflicts of opinion concern Church history but left few traces on doctrine; Athanasius never flinched through all the reaction against Nicaea, and his faith ultimately conquered the Catholic Church.
The emperors had now to make terms with these churches, which served to group together all sorts of malcontents, and this was the object of the edict of Milan (313), Triumph by which the Church, at the outset simply a Jewish of Chrisinstitution, was naturalized as Roman; while in 325 tlanity in the Council of Nicaea endowed her with unity.
The first, which is entirely spurious, contains, after the preface and various introductory sections, seventy letters attributed to the popes of the first three centuries, up to the council of Nicaea, i.e.
In the third part the author continues the series of decretals which he had interrupted at the council of Nicaea.
The councils of Nicaea and Constantinople had asserted the full divinity and real humanity of Christ, without, however, defining the manner of their union.
Irene replaced them by a more trustworthy force, and convoked a fresh council of three hundred bishops and monks innumerable in September 787, at Nicaea in the church of St Sophia.
From Nicaea and Chalcedon to Florence and Trent, and to the present day, the Church has excluded from her communion all those who do not profess her own faith,, i.e.
In the 13th century the island stood as a rule under the control of Italian adventurers, who were, however, at times compelled to acknowledge the overlordship of the emperors of Nicaea, and failed to protect it against the depredations of Turkish corsairs.
The secular authorities follow the precedent of Nicaea I.
There were Seljukian garrisons in towns like Nicaea and Antioch, ready to offer an obstinate resistance to the crusaders; and here and there in the country there were Seljukian armies, either cantoned or nomadic. But the inhabitants of the towns were often hostile to the garrisons, and over wide tracts of country there were no forces at all.
It was the metropolis of Bithynia under the Roman empire (see Nicaea), and Diocletian made it the chief city of the East.
After the capture of Nicaea by the Crusaders (1097), Konia became the capital of the Seljuk Sultans of Rum (see Seljuks and Turks).
He was bishop of Myra in the time of the emperor Diocletian, was persecuted, tortured for the faith, and kept in prison until the more tolerant reign of Constantine, and was present at the council of Nicaea.
These metropolitan bishops were common in the East before the end of the 3rd century, and the general existence of the organization was taken for granted by the council of Nicaea (see canons 4, 6, 7).
This latter practice, hotly denounced as idolatry during the iconoclastic controversy (see Iconoclasm), was finally established as orthodox by the second general council of Nicaea (787), which restored the worship of images.
The appeal given by Nicaea I.