How to use New-york in a sentence
Betsy and I live in New York.
It pleased me doubly; to show off my fiancée and escape the rush of August in New York.
Both of us were new to New York City, and had few or no friends.
Betsy and I faced a six hour return trip to New York.
All pertained to the earlier tests Howie and Quinn had undertaken together while Betsy and I were still in New York.Advertisement
He served in the New York legislature (1759-1760), but his political influence was long exerted chiefly through pamphlets and newspaper articles.
The state is divided into two distinct physiographic provinces; the Alleghany Plateau on the west, comprising perhaps two-thirds of the area of the state, and forming a part of the great Appalachian Plateau Province which extends from New York to Alabama; and the Newer Appalachians or Great Valley Region on the east, being a part of the large province of the same name which extends from Canada to Central Alabama.
He perished at sea on board a steamboat which was totally consumed by fire while on a voyage from New York to Boston, on the night of the 13th-14th of January 1840.
This Robert Livingston, founder of the American family, became in 1675 secretary of the important Board of Indian Commissioners; he was a member of the New York Assembly in1711-1715and 1716-1727 and its speaker in 1718-1725, and in 1701 made the proposal that all the English colonies in America should be grouped for administrative purposes "into three distinct governments."
After the suspension of the Reflector in 1753, he edited in the New York Mercury the "Watch Tower" section (1754-1755), which became the recognized organ of the Presbyterian faction.Advertisement
In 1895 he bought the New York Journal and the following year founded the Evening Journal, the morning paper being known after 1902 as the New York American.
In 1 9 05 he was Democratic candidate for mayor of New York on the Municipal Ownership ticket, and four years later on the Independence League ticket; in 1906 he was candidate for governor of New York on the Democratic and Independence League tickets, in every instance being defeated.
Blaine, the bitterest political enemy of Senator Roscoe Conkling the leader of the New York "stalwarts."
In New York State, where the population is largely industrial, the annual deaths per million are only three, but of the agricultural population eleven.
With the help of William Smith (1728-1793), the New York historian, William Livingston prepared a digest of the laws of New York for the period 1691-1756, which was published in two volumes (1752 and 1762).Advertisement
His brother, Peter Van Brugh Livingston (1710-1792), was a prominent merchant and a Whig political leader in New York.
He was one of the founders of the College of New Jersey (now Princeton University), was a member of the New York Council for some years before the War of Independence, a member and president of the First Provincial Congress of New York (1775), and a member of the Second Provincial Congress (1775-1776).
Another brother, Philip Livingston (1716-1778), was also prominent as a leader of the New York Whigs or Patriots.
He was a member of the New York Assembly in 1759-1769, a delegate to the Stamp Act Congress of 1765, a member of the Continental Congress from 1774 until his death and as such a signer of the Declaration of Independence, and in1777-1778was a member of the first state senate.
A modern edition was issued in 1901 from the Grolier Club, New York.Advertisement
It is served by the New York Central & Hudson River, and the Lehigh Valley railways, and by the Cayuga & Seneca Canal.
It is the seat of the New York State Agricultural Experiment Station and of Hobart College (nonsectarian), which was first planned in 1812, was founded in 1822 (the majority of its incorporators being members of the Protestant Episcopal church) as successor to Geneva Academy, received a full charter as Geneva College in 1825, and was renamed Hobart Free College in 1852 and Hobart College in 1860, in honour of Bishop John Henry Hobart.
The expedition started in western New York.
The same year a postal express to Leavenworth, Kansas (ro days, letters 25 cents an ounce) was established; and telegraph connexion with Boston and New York ($9 for ro words) in 1863.
Huguenot churches were formed on Staten Island, New York, in 1665; in New York City in 1683; at Charleston, South Carolina, in 1686; at Boston, Massachusetts, in 1687; at New Rochelle, New York, in 1688; and at other places.Advertisement
In New York City, Francis Doughty preached to Puritan Presbyterians in 1643; in 1650 he was succeeded by Richard Denton (1586-1662).
The synod increased the number of its churches by a large accession from New York and from New Jersey, where there had been large Presbyterian settlements.
During the separation the synod of Philadelphia decreased from twentysix to twenty-two ministers, but the synod of New York grew from twenty to seventy-two ministers, and the New Side reaped all the fruits of the Great Awakening under Whitefield and his successors.
The Anti-Burgher Synod sent Alexander Gellatly and Andrew Arnot in 1752, and two years later they organized the Associate Presbytery of Pennsylvania; they were joined in 1757 by the Scotch Church in New York City, which.
The result was mixed churches in western New York.Advertisement
More or less closely connected with the Northern Church are the theological seminaries at Princeton, Auburn, Pittsburg (formerly Allegheny - the Western Seminary), Cincinnati (Lane), New York (Union) and Chicago (McCormick), already named, and San Francisco Seminary (1871) since 1892 at San Anselmo, Cal., a theological seminary (1891) at Omaha, Nebraska, a German theological seminary (1869) at Bloomfield, New Jersey, the German Presbyterian Theological School of the North-west (1852) at Dubuque, Iowa, and the Presbyterian Theological Seminary of Kentucky, which is under the control and supervision of the northern and southern churches.
In New York state there were 199,923 Presbyterians, of whom 186,278 were members of the Northern Church and 10,115 of the United Presbyterian Church of North America.
Troy is the market for a fertile agricultural region, and the principal jobbing centre for a large district in north-eastern New York and eastern Massachusetts.
In 1819 she wrote A Plan for Improving Female Education, submitted to the governor of New York state; and in 1821 she removed to Troy.
The first puddling works were opened in 1839, and Troy was long the centre of the New York iron and steel industry; in 1865 the second Bessemer steel works in the United States were opened here.Advertisement
See a paper by Madison Grant, entitled "The Rocky Mountain Goat," published in the ninth annual report of the New York Zoological Society (1905).
Marcy in 1833-1839, was a member of the New York Assembly in 1842, in 1844 and in 1845, being speaker in 1845; mayor of Utica in 1843, and in 1852 was elected governor of the state over Washington Hunt (1811-1867), the Whig candidate, who had defeated him in 1850.
In1863-1865he was again governor of New York state.
During the draft riots in July he proclaimed the city and county of New York in a state of insurrection, but in a speech to the rioters adopted a tone of conciliation - a political error which injured his career.
Seymour did not re-enter political life, refusing to be considered for the United States senatorship from New York in 1876.Advertisement
Lines of steamers connect Australia with London and other British ports, with Germany, Belgium, France, Italy, Japan, China, India, San Francisco, Vancouver, New York and Montevideo, several important lines being subsidized by the countries to which they belong, notably Germany, France and Japan.
The extension of the southern boundary line by this decision due westward until it met His Majesty's other governments gave rise, however, to a controversy with New York.
A privy council decree recognizing the claims of New York was issued on the 10th of July 1764, and the settlers were soon afterwards ordered to surrender their patents and repurchase the land from the proper authorities at Albany.
As a result, New York and New Hampshire formed a secret agreement to divide the state between themselves, the mountains to be the line of division.
The difficulties with New Hampshire were adjusted in 1782, the west bank of the Connecticut being accepted as the final boundary, but New York refused to abandon her claims until 1790.Advertisement
The British minister demanded from the national government M`Leod's release, but his case was in the New York courts, over which the national government has no jurisdiction.
He served in the New York Assembly in 1875, and from 1877 to 1881 was again assistant secretary of state.
They were published after his death by his son, William Theobald Wolfe Tone (1791-1828), who was educated by the French government and served with some distinction in the armies of Napoleon, emigrating after Waterloo to America, where he died, in New York City, on the 10th of October 1828.
It is served by the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western railway, and by the Oneonta & Mohawk Valley electric line connecting with the New York Central railway at Herkimer.
In 1886 he was elected mayor of New York City, his nomination having been forced upon the Democratic Party by the strength of the other nominees, Henry George and Theodore Roosevelt; his administration (1887-1888) was thoroughly efficient and creditable, but he broke with Tammany, was not renominated, ran independently for re-election, and was defeated.Advertisement
He died in New York City on the 18th of January 1903.
He was a leader of those who contended for reform in municipal government, was conspicuous for his public spirit, and exerted a great influence for good not only in New York City but in the state and nation.
In New York state there is still a court called the surrogates court, surrogate being the regular name for a deputy ecclesiastical judge.
He was instrumental in saving New York and Vermont from invasion by his brilliant victory of lake Champlain gained, on the nth of September 1814, with a flotilla of 14 vessels carrying 86 guns, over Captain George Downie's 16 vessels and 92 guns.
For this important achievement New York and Vermont granted him estates, whilst Congress gave him a gold medal.
He married Mary Alsop (1769-1819) of New York in 1786 and removed to that city in 1788.
He was elected a member of the New York Assembly in the spring of 1789, and at a special session of the legislature held in July of that year was chosen one of the first representatives of New York in the United States Senate.
Rufus King's son, John Alsop King (1788-1867), was educated at Harrow and in Paris, served in the war of 1812 as a lieutenant of a cavalry company, and was a member of the New York Assembly in1819-1821and of the New York Senate in 1823.
He was a member of the New York Assembly again in 1832 and in 1840, was a Whig representative in Congress in 1849-1851, and in1857-1859was governor of New York State.
Another son, Charles King (1789-1867), was also educated abroad, was captain of a volunteer regiment in the early part of the war of 1812, and served in 1814 in the New York Assembly, and after working for some years as a journalist was president of Columbia College in 1849-1864.
Charles King's son, Rufus King (1814-1876), graduated at the U.S. Military Academy in 1833, served for three years in the engineer corps, and, after resigning from the army, became assistant engineer of the New York & Erie railroad.
He was adjutant-general of New York state in 1839-1843, and became a brigadier-general of volunteers in the Union army in 1861, commanded a division in Virginia in 1862-1863, and, being compelled by ill health to resign from the army, was U.S. minister to the Papal States in 1863-1867.
Ionia was settled in 1833 by immigrants from German Flats, near Herkimer, New York.
The chief manufactures are paper and wire, and from the quarries near the village of Lee is obtained an excellent quality of marble; these quarries furnished the marble for the extension of the Capitol at Washington, for St Patrick's cathedral in New York City and for the Lee High School and the Lee Public Library (1908).
The latter, named the America, was the first to be delivered, reaching New York in January 1829, but one of the others, the Stourbridge Lion, was actually the first practical steam locomotive to run in America, which it did on the 9th of August 1829.
The most recent type of state commission is the so-called Public Utility Commission, of which the best examples are those of New York and Wisconsin, established in 1907.
In New York and four adjacent states, having about as many miles of railway as the United Kingdom, the number in the year ending June 30, 1907, was 1552.
The next development in intra-urban railways was an elevated line in the city of New York.
In the year 1894 an elevated railway was built in Liverpool, and in 1900 a similar railway was constructed in Boston, U.S.A., and the construction of a new one undertaken in New York.
This principle of construction has since been followed in the construction of the Boston subway, of the Chemin de Fer Metropolitain in Paris, and of the New York underground railway.
The contract price of the New York underground railway, exclusive of the incidentals above mentioned, was $35,000,000 for 21 m., of which 16 m.
The winter found him arranging for the publication in England of the selection from his articles and reviews which appeared in 1845, under the title of Critical and Historical Essays, and was issued almost contemporaneously at New York under the title of Biographical and Critical Miscellanies.
Nye (1814-1876) of New York was appointed Territorial governor.
Sherman of New York was nominated for Vice-President.
He returned to America with the rank of colonel, in 1918, and died in New York City, May 29 1919.
Early in 1852 he escaped, and in May reached New York City.
He made a tour of the cities of the United States as a popular lecturer, and then studied law and was admitted to the New York bar in 1855.
In 1861 he was captain of a company (which he had raised) in the 69th regiment of New York volunteers and fought at the first battle of Bull Run; he then organized an Irish brigade, of whose first regiment he was colonel until the 3rd of February 1862, when he was appointed to the command of this organization with the rank of brigadier-general.
In Surinam the Jews were treated as British subjects; in Barbadoes, Jamaica and New York they are found as early as the first half of the 17th century.
Besides, he obtained a controlling interest in the Western Union Telegraph Company, and after 1881 in the elevated railways in New York City, and was intimately connected with many of the largest railway financial operations in the United States for the twenty years following 1868.
He was subsequently a representative in Congress from Ohio in 1877-1881; and from 1882 to 1896 practised law in New York City, where he was long one of the recognized leaders of the bar.
The M`Leod case' in which the state of New York insisted on trying a British subject, with whose trial the Federal government had no power to interfere, while the British govern - ment had declared that it would consider conviction and execu - tion a casus belli; the exercise of the hateful right of search by British vessels on the coast of Africa; the Maine boundary, as to which the action of a state might at any time bring the Federal government into armed collision with Great Britain - all these at once met the new secretary, and he felt that he had no right to abandon his work for party reasons.
Webster's second wife was Caroline Le Roy, daughter of Jacob Le Roy, a New York merchant.
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia on topics related to New York.
In a single season Aberdeenshire suffered nearly 90,000 worth of damage owing to the ravages of the diamond back moth on the root crops; in New York state the codling moth caused a loss of $3,000,000 to apple-growers.
Lintner extend from 1882 to 1898, in yearly parts, under the title of Reports on the Injurious Insects of the State of New York.
The result was that New York ceded its claim to the United States in 1780, Virginia in 1784, Massachusetts in 1785 and Connecticut in 1786.
The Federal Street theatre-the first regular theatrewas established in 1794, the old Puritan feeling having had its natural influence in keeping Boston behind New York and Philadelphia in this respect.
As a musical centre Boston rivals New York.
In 1805 Boston began the export of ice to Jamaica, a trade which was gradually extended to Cuba, to ports of the southern states, and finally to Rio de Janeiro and Calcutta (1833), declining only after the Civil War; it enabled Boston to control the American trade of Calcutta against New York throughout the entire period.
A later king of the same name is commemorated by two inscribed bracelets of gold now in the Metropolitan Museum of New York.
Sackett's Harbor is served by the New York Central & Hudson River railway.
On the 7th of April he embarked with his wife at Gravesend and reached New York on the 4th of June.
A successful settlement was made in 1851-1854 under the auspices of the New York Trust Co.; the Illinois Central railway was opened in 1856; and Cairo was chartered as a city in 1857.
New Haven is served by the main line and five branches of the New York, New Haven & Hartford railway, by three inter-urban electric lines and by two steamship lines connecting with New York.
In 1770 most of the merchants agreed not to import goods from England and transferred their trade with New York City, where Loyalist influence was strong, to Boston and Philadelphia.
In 1815 the Fulton, the first steamboat on Long Island Sound, made its first trip from New York to New Haven.
American cotton, we may remind the reader, is graded into a number of classes, both on the Liverpool and New York Ex changes, and an attempt is made in each market to keep the grades as fixed as possible.
It is served by the New York Central & Hudson River railway, and by passenger and freight steamboat lines on the Hudson river.
The village is the home of many New York business men.
The site was settled early in the 18th century, but the village itself dates from about 1760, when it took its present name from the adjacent creek or "kill," on which a Dutch trader, Jans Peek, of New York City, had established a trading post.
The earliest mention 'of American petroleum occurs in Sir Walter Raleigh's account of the Trinidad pitch-lake in 1595; whilst thirty-seven years later, the account of a visit of a Franciscan, Joseph de la Roche d'Allion, to the oil springs of New York was published in Sagard's Histoire du Canada.
In 1900 Florida ranked fourth in the manufacture of tobacco among the states of the Union, being surpassed by New York, Pennsylvania and Ohio; in 1905 it ranked third (after New York and Pennsylvania).
Several plans were made to invade South Carolina and Georgia, but none matured until 1778, when an expedition was organized which co-operated with British forces from New York in the siege of Savannah, Georgia.
Chicago, the principal port on the lake, is at its south-west extremity, and is remarkable for the volume of its trade, the number of vessels arriving and departing exceeding that of any port in the United States, though the tonnage is less than that of New York.
In both fields he displayed much talent, and by writing his Synopsis of the Indian Tribes within the United States East of the Rocky Mountains and in the British and Russian Possessions in North America (1836), and by founding the American Ethnological Society of New York in 1842, he earned the title of "Father of American Ethnology."
Almost his last public act was a speech, on the 24th of April 1844, in New York City, against the annexation of Texas; and in his eighty-fourth year he confronted a howling New York mob with the same cool, unflinching courage which he had displayed half a century before when he faced the armed frontiersmen of Redstone Old Fort.
He graduated at Williams College in 1825, and settled in New York City, where he studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1828, and rapidly won a high position in his profession.
Becoming convinced that the common law in America, and particularly in New York state, needed radical changes in respect to the unification and simplification of its procedure, he visited Europe in 1836 and thoroughly investigated the courts, procedure and codes of England, France and other countries, and then applied himself to the task of bringing about in the United States a codification of the common law procedure.
He appeared personally before successive legislative committees, and in 1846 published a pamphlet, "The Reorganization of the Judiciary," which had its influence in persuading the New York State Constitutional Convention of that year to report in favour of a codification of the laws.
After 1876, however, he returned to the Democratic party, and from January to March 1877 served out in Congress the unexpired term of Smith Ely, elected mayor of New York City.
He died in New York City on the 13th of April 1894.
In New York at this time the National Republicans, or "Adams men," were a very feeble organization, and shrewd political leaders at once determined to utilize the strong anti-Masonic feeling in creating a new and vigorous party to oppose the rising Jacksonian Democracy.
In the elections of 1828 the new party proved unexpectedly strong, and after this year it practically superseded the National Republican party in New York.
From New York the movement spread into other middle states and into New England, and became especially strong in Pennsylvania and Vermont.
This was the high tide of its prosperity; in New York in 1833 the organization was moribund, and its.
He died in New York on the 6th of May 1873.
Dobbs Ferry is served by the Hudson River division of the New York Central railway.
There are many fine country places, two private schools - the Mackenzie school for boys and the Misses Masters' school for girls - and the children's village (with about thirty cottages) of the New York juvenile asylum.
The village is served by the New York Central & Hudson River railway, by the Buffalo, Lockport & Rochester electric railway, and by the Erie Canal.
It is the eastern terminus of the Pennsylvania, the Lehigh Valley, the West Shore, the Central of New Jersey, the Baltimore & Ohio, the Northern of New Jersey (operated by the Erie), the Erie, the New York, Susquehanna & Western, and the New Jersey & New York (controlled by the Erie) railways, the first three using the Pennsylvania station; and of the little-used Morris canal.
In 1764 a new post route between New York and Philadelphia passed through what is now the city, and direct ferry communication began with New York.
In 1804 Paulus Hook, containing 117 acres and having about 15 inhabitants, passed into the possession of three enterprising New York lawyers, who laid it out as a town and formed an association for its government, which was incorporated as the "associates of the Jersey company."
In 1790 he applied for and received the post of consul at New York.
The New York Museum has further investigated the Middle Kingdom pyramid field at Lisht and its neighbourhood, 53 and Prof. Petrie and Mr. Brunton have found fine XII.
At Thebes, New York has also carried out work at Qurnet Murra`i and Sheikh `Abd el Qurna, as well as at Dra t Abul Neqqa and Deir el Bahri, 55 where the Earl of Carnarvon, assisted by Mr. Howard Carter, has also dug with remarkable success, recovering some of the most beautiful relics of the art of the XII.
The township of Rutland was granted by New Hampshire in 1761 to John Murray of Rutland, Massachusetts, and about the same time it was granted (as Fairfield) by New York.
No settlement was made until 1770, and in 1772 the place was again granted by New York under the name of Socialborough.
Later he removed to New York City to establish a branch of the firm.
In politics an active Republican, he was chairman of the Republican state committee in 1887 and 1888, and contributed much to the success of the Harrison ticket in New York in the latter year.
Thus the distance between New York and Oporto, following the former (great circle sailing), amounts to 3000 m., while following the rhumb, as in Mercator sailing, it would amount to 3120 m.
Hunt in Paris, and is preserved in the Lenox Library, New York.
Notwithstanding certain troubles from claims of the governor of New York and of the duke of York, the colony prospered, and in 1681 the first legislative assembly of the colony, consisting mainly of Quakers, was held.
In October 1768, a Methodist chapel was opened in New York.
Behind the Emporium rose (8) the Great Caesareum, by which stood the two great obelisks, later known as "Cleopatra's Needles," and now removed to New York and London.
His negotiations with Russia proved futile, and after a year's absence he returned to New York.
Of those in the United States of America, the chief, formed by Asa Gray, is the property of Harvard university; there is also a large one at the New York Botanical Garden.
Muhlenberg occupied himself more particularly with the congregation at New Providence (now Trappe), though he was practically overseer of all the Lutheran churches from New York to Maryland.
In 1840 New York and Vermont extended the right of trial by jury to fugitives and provided them with attorneys.
There is direct connexion with New York by steamers, which make the journey in about four days; and there is also connexion with Miami in Florida.
Accordingly, having disposed of Skerryvore, his house at Bournemouth, he sailed from London, with his wife, mother and stepson, for New York on the 17th of August 1887.
After preaching four years in New York and New Hampshire, he became, in April 1773, pastor of the Second church at Franklin (until 1778 a part of Wrentham, Massachusetts), of which he remained in charge until May 1827, when failing health compelled his relinquishment of active ministerial cares.
He practised law in New York and Philadelphia, was chosen mayor of Philadelphia in 1828, and in 1829 was appointed by President Jackson, whom he had twice warmly supported for the presidency, United States attorney for the eastern district of Pennsylvania, a position long held by his father.
In 1821-1822 he edited in New York a short-lived literary magazine, The Idle Man.
That which dries on the incisions in the tree is called " bola " or " burucha," and is said to be highly prized in New York.
In 1812 he entered the state Senate, and he also became a member of the court for the correction of errors, the highest court in New York until 1847.
He was a leading member of the "Albany regency," a group of politicians who for more than a generation controlled the politics of New York and powerfully influenced those of the nation, and which did more than any other agency to make the "spoils system" a recognized procedure in national, state and local affairs.
In the debate on the "tariff of abominations" in 1828 he took no part, but voted for the measure in obedience to instructions from the New York legislature - an action which was cited against him as late as the presidential campaign of 1844.
In 1828 Van Buren was elected governor of New York for the term beginning on the 1st of January 1829, and resigned his seat in the Senate.
He did not oppose Jackson in the matter of removals from office, but was not himself an active "spoilsman," and protested strongly against the appointment of Samuel Swartwout (1783-1856), who was later a defaulter to a large amount as collector of the port of New York.
After a brief tour on the Continent he reached New York on the 5th of July.
In the election of 1860 he voted for the fusion ticket in New York which was opposed to Abraham Lincoln, but he could not approve of President Buchanan's course in dealing with secession, and later supported Lincoln.
Another son, John (1810-1866), graduated at Yale in 1828, was admitted to the bar at Albany in 1830 and was attorney-general of New York in 1845-1846.
It is served by the Lehigh Valley and the New York Central & Hudson River railways, and by inter-urban electric lines.
While at New York he wrote a play, The Ocean Waif, or Channel Outlaw, which was acted, and is forgotten.
Charles O'Conor, a leader of the New York bar, volunteered to act as his counsel.
Mrs. Davis, who exerted a marked influence over her husband, survived him many years, passed the last years of her life in New York City, and died there on the 16th of October 1906.
The best-known portrait, that by Vanderlyn, is in the New York City Hall.
Immediately after the publication of this pamphlet, he paid a visit to the United States, landing in New York on the 7th of June 1835.
An English version of the Essai appeared in New York in 1902.
He was the son of Alfred Conkling (1789-1874), who was a representative in Congress from New York in 1821-1823, a Federal district judge in 1825-1852, and U.S. minister to Mexico in 1852-1853.
In 1863 he resumed the practice of law, and in April 1865 was appointed a special judge advocate by the secretary of war to investigate alleged frauds in the recruiting service in western New York.
Being unsuccessful, Conkling took up the practice of law in New York city, again declining, in 1882, a place on the bench of the Supreme Court, and appeared in a number of important cases.
He died in New York city on the 18th of April 1888.
He became an associate of Jay Gould in the development and sale of railways; and in 1863 removed to New York City, where, besides speculating in railway stocks, he became a money-lender and a dealer in "puts" and "calls" and "privileges," and in 1874 bought a seat in the New York Stock Exchange.
This was reprinted in 1822, and an edition in two volumes was published in New York in 1844.
In 1879 he left Chicago and became pastor of the church of the Messiah in New York city, and in 1903 he became pastor emeritus.
He received practically no schooling, but worked with his father at hat-making in New York city, at brewing in Peekskill, at brick-making in Catskill, and again at brewing in Newburgh.
On coming of age he got employment at Hempstead, Long Island, making machines for shearing cloth; three years afterwards he set up in this business for himself, having bought the sole right to manufacture such machinery in the state of New York.
He died in New York city on the 4th of April 1883.
Under favourable conditions mining may be conducted under the protection of a few yards of solid rock only, as in the submarine work for the removal of reefs in the harbours of San Francisco and New York.
Albany is a terminus of the New York Central & Hudson River, the Delaware & Hudson and the West Shore railways, and is also served by the Boston & Maine railway, by the Erie and Champlain canals (being a terminus of each), by steamboat lines on the Hudson river and by several inter-urban electric railways connecting with neighbouring cities.
Among the finest office buildings are the structures of the Albany City Savings Institution, National Commerical Bank, Union Trust Company, Albany Trust Company, the National Savings Bank, First National Bank, the New York State National Bank (1803, probably the oldest building in the United States used continuously for banking purposes) and the Albany Savings Bank.
The Argus, founded in 1813 by Jesse Buel (1778-1839) and edited from 1824 to 1854 by Edwin Croswell (1797-1871), was long the organ of the coterie of New York politicians known as the "Albany Regency," and was one of the most influential Democratic papers in the United States.
In 1689 Was held here the first inter-colonial convention in America, when delegates from Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth, Connecticut and New York met to treat with representatives of the Five Nations and to plan a system of colonial defence.
On account of the difficulties of the situation he resigned it in 1827, and returned to England via New York in company with Richard Trevithick, whom he, had met in a penniless condition at Cartagena.
It contains a borough of the same name and the villages of Cos Cob, Riverside and Sound Beach, all served by the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railway; the township has steamboat and electric railway connexions with New York City.
The township suffered severely during the War of Independence on account of the frequent quartering of American troops within its borders, the depredations of bands of lawless men after the occupation of New York by the British in 1778 and its invasion by the British in 1779 (February 25) and 1781 (December 5).
He was assistant Hebrew instructor (1832-1833) at Andover, and having been licensed to preach by the Londonderry Presbytery in 1830 was ordained as an evangelist by the Third Presbytery of New York in 1833.
The city is served by the New York, New Haven & Hartford railroad, by interurban electric lines, and by steamboats to New York.
Closely associated with it also, and under the management of the university trustees, is the New York State School of Clay-Working and Ceramics (1900), one of the most efficient schools of the kind in the country.
In 1908 the legislature of New York appropriated $80,000 for the establishment of a state school of agriculture in connexion with the university.
Thus by the New York Code of Criminal Procedure the governor of the state of New York has power to grant reprieves, commutations and pardons, except in the case of treason, where he can only suspend the execution of the sentence until the case can be reported to the legislature, with whom the power of pardon in this case rests.
Leaving Hampton Roads on the 18th of August 1838, it Mopped at Madeira and Rio de Janeiro; visited Tierra del Fuego, Chile, Peru, the Paumotu group of the Low Archipelago, the Samoan islands and New South Wales; from Sydney sailed into the Antarctic Ocean in December 1839 and reported the discovery of an Antarctic continent west of the Balleny islands; visited the Fiji and the Hawaiian islands in 1840, explored the west coast of the United States, including the Columbia river, San Francisco Bay and the Sacramento river, in 1841, and returned by way of the Philippine islands, the Sulu archipelago, Borneo, Singapore, Polynesia and the Cape of Good Hope, reaching New York on the 10th of June 1842.
John Lorimer Worden (1818-1897), had left New York on the morning of the 6th of March; after a dangerous passage in which she twice narrowly escaped sinking, she arrived at Hampton Roads during the night of the 8th, and early in the morning of the 9th anchored near the "Minnesota."
It was removed to a new site on Morningside Heights, New York City.
The New York College for the Training of Teachers became its Teachers' College of Columbia; a Faculty of Pure Science was added; the Medical School gave up its separate charter to become an integral part of the university; Barnard College became more closely allied with the university; relations were entered into between the university and the General, Union and Jewish theological seminaries of New York City and with Cooper Union, the Metropolitan Museum of Fine Arts and the American Museum of Natural History; and its faculty and student body became less local in character.
He was prominent among those who brought about the chartering of Greater New York in 1897, and in this year was an unsuccessful candidate, on an independent ticket, for mayor of New York City; in 1900, on a fusion ticket, he was elected mayor and served in 1901-1903.
New and direct services were started to East Africa, Central America and Mexico; the service to India and the Far East, as well as that to the Mediterranean ports, was much improved; and lastly, Trieste was made the centre of the large emigration from Austria to America by the inauguration (June 1904) of a direct emigrant service to New York.
The convention, was, however, captured by politicians who converted the whole affair into a farce by nominating Horace Greeley, editor of the New York Tribune, who represented almost anything rather than the object for which the convention had been called together.
In August 1881 General Grant bought a house in the city of New York.
His body was placed in a temporary tomb in Riverside Drive, in New York City, overlooking the Hudson river.'
He was U.S. minister to Austria in 1889-1893, and police commissioner of New York city in 1894-1898.
In 1854 Duff visited the United States, where what is now New York University gave him the degree of LL.D.; he was already D.D.
Utica is served by the New York Central & Hudson River and several lines leased by it, including the Rome, Watertown & Ogdensburg; the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western; the New York, Ontario & Western; and the West Shore railways; by the Erie Canal, and by interurban electric railways.
He spent eight years of his early youth with his father in Paris and Geneva, and in 1850 graduated at New York University.
He then lived for two years in Italy and Greece, was a student in the Union Theological Seminary in New York city from 1853 to 1855, and in 1856 graduated at the Princeton Theological Seminary.
He was a tutor for four years in the College of New Jersey (now Princeton University), and from 1859 until his death was professor of Greek language and literature in New York University.
He died in New York city on the 11th of November 1906.
His brother, Charles Washington Baird (1828-1887), a graduate of New York University (1848) and of the Union Theological Seminary (1852), and the minister in turn of a Dutch Reformed church at Brooklyn, New York, and of a Presbyterian church at Rye, New York, also was deeply interested in the history of the Huguenots, and published a scholarly work entitled The History of the Huguenot Emigration to America (2 vols., 1885), left unfinished at his death.
From 1768 to 1775 he represented Albany in the New York Assembly, and he was closely associated with the Livingston family in the leadership of the Presbyterian or Whig party.
He was a delegate from New York to the Continental Congress in 1779-1781, and state senator in 1781-1784,1786-1790and 1792-1797.
In 1788 he joined his son-in-law Alexander Hamilton, John Jay and others in leading the movement for the ratification by New York of the Federal constitution.
He was also active for many years as Indian commissioner and surveyor-general and helped to settle the New York boundary disputes with Massachusetts and Pennsylvania.
The other pre-revolutionary magazines were the Boston American Magazine (1743-1747), in imitation of the London Magazine; the Boston Weekly Magazine (1743); the Christian History (1743-1744); the New York Independent Reflector (1752-1754); the Boston New England Magazine (1758-1760), a collection of fugitive pieces; the Boston Royal American Magazine (1774-1775); and the Pennsylvania Magazine (1775-1776), founded by Robert Aitken, with the help of Thomas Paine.
Charles Brockden Brown established the New York Monthly Magazine (1799), which, changing its title to The American Review, was continued to 1802.
P. Willis was one of the editors of the New York Mirror (1823-1842).
Hoffman founded at New York the Knickerbocker (1833-1860), which soon passed under the control of Timothy Flint and became extremely successful, most of the leading native writers of the next twenty years having been contributors.
Next came Lippincott's Magazine (1868) from Philadelphia, and the Cosmopolitan (1886) and Scribner's Monthly (1870, known as the Century Illustrated Magazine since 1881) from New York.
The New Englander (1843-1892), the Biblical Repertory and Princeton Review (1825), the Ncitional Quarterly Review (1860) and the New York International Review (1874-1883), may also be mentioned.
The critical weeklies of the past include the New York Literary Gazette (1834-1835, 1839), De Bow's Review (1846), the Literary World (1847-1853), the Criterion (1855-1856), the Round Table (1863-1864), the Citizen (1864-1873), and Appleton' s Journal (1869).
The leading current monthlies include the New York Forum (1886), Arena (1890), Current Literature (1888), and Bookman, the Chicago, Dial (1880), and the Greenwich, Connecticut, Literary Collector.
Foremost among the weeklies comes the New York Nation (1865).
Among historical periodicals may be numbered the American Register (1806-1811), Stryker's American Register (1848-1851), Edwards's American Quarterly Register (1829-1843), the New' England Historical and Genealogical Register (1847), Folsom's Historical Magazine (1857), the New York Genealogical Record (1869), and the Magazine of American History (1877).
Children's magazines originated with the Young Misses' Magazine (1806) of Brooklyn; the New York St Nicholas (monthly) and the Boston Youth's Companion (weekly) are prominent juveniles.
She died on the 12th of May 1878 in Elmira, New York.
His grandfather, Frederick Frelinghuysen (1753-1804), was an eminent lawyer, one of the framers of the first New Jersey constitution, a soldier in the War of Independence, and a member (1778-1779 and 1782-1783) of the Continental Congress from New Jersey, and in 1793-1796 of the United States senate; and his uncle, Theodore (1787-1862), was attorney-general of New Jersey from 1817 to 1829, was a United States senator from New Jersey in 1829-1835, was the Whig candidate for vice-president on the Clay ticket in 1844, and was chancellor of the university of New York in 1839-1850 and president of Rutgers College in 1850-1862.
Rome is served by the New York Central & Hudson River, the Rome, Watertown & Ogdensburg (controlled by the New York Central), the New York, Ontario & Western, and the Utica & Mohawk Valley (electric) railways.
The city is the seat of the Academy of the Holy Names (opened in 1865 as St Peter's Academy), of the State Custodial Asylum for unteachable idiots, of the Central New York Institution for Deaf Mutes (1875), and of the Oneida County Home.
Afterwards for a short time he was engaged in business at New York and in 1858 practised law at Leavenworth, Kansas.
He died at New York on the 14th of January 1891.
An equestrian statue, by Saint Gaudens, was unveiled at New York in 1903, and another at Washington in the same year.
The cost of living is much higher than in London or New York.
He graduated at Middlebury College, Vermont, in 1815, was admitted to the bar in 1819, and began practice at Canton, in northern New York.
Lawrence|St Lawrence county in 1820, and was successively a member of the state Senate in 1824-1826, a member of the national House of Representatives in 1827-1829, comptroller of the state in 1829-1833, U.S. senator in 1833-1844, and governor of New York in 18 441846.
In 1890 there were 1,233,629 natives of the state of New York living in other states.
For instance, New York has made large contributions to the population of Ohio, Michigan, Illinois, Wisconsin, Iowa and so on.
The son attended the public schools of New York until he was ten, and then became a clerk in his step-father's store, removing in 1836 with his mother and step-father to New Carlisle, Indiana.
In 1893 she made her first appearances in New York and in London.
In 1902 he moved his studio to New York.
After a short pastorate at Brandon, Vermont, he was successively professor of English literature in the University of Vermont (1845-1852), professor of sacred rhetoric in Auburn Theological Seminary (1852-1854), professor of church history in Andover Theological Seminary (1854-1862), and, after one year (1862-1863) as associate pastor of the Brick Church of New York City, of sacred literature (1863-1874) and of systematic theology (1874-1890) in Union Theological Seminary.
He died in New York City on the 17th of November 1894.
His remains were removed in 1842 to Caracas, where a monument was erected to his memory; a statue was put up in Bogota in 1846; in 1858 the Peruvians followed the example by erecting an equestrian statue of the liberator in Lima; and in 1884 a statue was erected in Central Park, New York.
Two volumes of his correspondence were published in New York in 1866.
In 1746 he was made commissary of the province for Indian affairs, and was influential in enlisting and equipping the Six Nations for participation in the warfare with French Canada, two years later (1748) being placed in command of a line of outposts on the New York frontier.
In 1754 he was one of the New York delegates to the inter-colonial convention at Albany, N.Y.
He graduated at Union College in 1849, and when the Civil War broke out he became colonel of the 12th New York militia regiment.
He had refused the bishopric of Maine when in 1868 he was elected to the diocese of central New York.
It is served by the New York Central & Hudson River, the New York, Ontario & Western, the West Shore and the Oneida (electric) railways (the last connecting with Utica and Syracuse), and by the Erie Canal.
The colonial records are preserved with those of New York and Pennsylvania; only one volume of the State Records has been published, and Minutes of the Council of Delaware State, 1776-1792 (Dover, 1886).
It is served by the Erie, the Wabash, the Lehigh Valley, the West Shore, and the New York Central & Hudson River railways, by three interurban electric lines and by the Erie Canal.
Where the French telegraph cable between Brest and New York passes from the continental shelf of the Bay of Biscay to the depths of the Atlantic the angle of slope is.
Thus are formed the " mud-holes " of the Hudson Furrow so welcome as guides telling their position to ship captains making New York harbour in a fog.
In 1834 he entered Yale University, but soon withdrew on account of ill health, and later studied in the University of the City of New York.
In 1848, largely on account of his personal attachment to Martin Van Buren, he participated in the revolt of the "Barnburner" or free-soil faction of the New York Democrats, and in 1855 was the candidate of the "softshell," or anti-slavery, faction for attorney-general of the state.
Tilden denied emphatically all knowledge of such despatches, and appeared voluntarily before a Congressional sub-committee in New York City to clear himself of the charge.
Of his fortune (estimated at $5,000,000) approximately $4,000,000 was bequeathed for the establishment and maintenance of "a free public library and reading-room in the City of New York"; but, as the will was successfully contested by relatives, only about $2,000,000 of the bequest was applied to its original purpose; in 1895 the Tilden Trust was combined with the Astor and Lenox libraries to form the New York Public Library.
In total acreage of cereals (16,920,095 in 1899) it ranked first (Twelfth Census of the United States), and in product of cereals was exceeded by Illinois only; in acreage of hay and forage (4,649,378 in 1899) as well as in the annual supply of milk (535,872,240 gallons in 1899) it was exceeded by New York only.
He made his way first to New York City, and then (October 1723) to Philadelphia, where he got employment with a printer named Samuel Keimer.'
He visited nearly every post office in the colonies and increased the mail service between New York and Philadelphia from once to three times a week in summer, and from twice a month to once a week in winter.
With John Adams and Edward Rutledge he was selected by Congress to discuss with Admiral Howe (September 1776, at Staten Island) the terms of peace proposed by Howe, who had arrived in New York harbour in July 1776, and who had been an intimate friend of Franklin; but the discussion was fruitless, as the American commissioners refused to treat " back of this step of independency."
So important was he considered that in 1790 President Washington sent an agent who induced him to visit New York.
From 1790 to 1795 he was the private secretary of his uncle, George Clinton, governor of New York and a leader of the Republican party.
He was a member of the New York assembly from January to April 1798, and in August of that year entered the state senate, serving until April 1802.
He at once became a dominant factor in New York politics, and for the next quarter of a century he played a leading role in the history of the commonwealth.
In 1802 Clinton became a member of the United States Senate, but resigned in the following year to become mayor of New York city, an office he held from 1803 to 1807, from 1808 to 1810, and from 1811 to 1815.
Opponents of a second war with Great Britain had revived the Federalist organization, and Federalists from eleven states met in New York and agreed to support Clinton, not on account of his war views, which were not in accord with their own, but as a protest against the policy of Madison.
In addition to his interest in politics and public improvements, he devoted much study to the natural sciences; among his published works are a Memoir on the Antiquities of Western New York (1818), and Letters on the Natural History and Internal Resources of New York (1822).
He then became a partner in a New York dry-goods house.
In 1899 Morton became president of the Morton Trust Company in New York City.
He was governor of New York in 1807-1817; and in 1817-1825, during both terms of President James Monroe, was vice-president of the United States.
During the War of 1812 he was active in equipping and arming the New York militia.
Thus the original native trees and plants were those common to New England and northern New York.
Trade with China and India from Salem was begun in 1785 (first voyage from New York, 1784), and was first controlled there, and afterwards in Boston till the trade was lost to New York.
Others, discontented with Massachusetts autocracy and wishing, too, " to secure more room," went to Connecticut (q.v.) where they established a bulwark against the Dutch of New York.
After more than half a century of struggle, the crown finally annulled the charter of the colony in 1684, though not until 1686 was the old government actually supplanted on the arrival of Joseph Dudley, a native of the colony, as president of a provisional council; later, Sir Edmund Andros was sent over with a commission to unite New York and New England under his rule.
Plymouth Colony, acting through its agent in London, endeavoured to secure a separate existence by royal charter, but accepted finally union with Massachusetts when association with New York became the probable alternative.
During the earl of Bellomont's administration, New York was again united with Massachusetts under the same executive (1697-1701).
He opposed the constitution as finally revised, one reason being that it contained a provision designed to pre vent New York City from having a majority of legislators.
The same year he was elected sheriff of New York county, then a lucrative post because of the system of fees (later abolished), and in 1917 president of the Board of Aldermen of New York City.
The American Museum in New York has prepared a series of monographs on the tribes of the North Pacific coast, of northern Mexico, and of the Cordilleras of South America.
He then studied law in his elder brother's office, and in 1841 he was admitted to the New York bar.
In the same year he was chosen a member of the first state legislature of California, in which he drew up and secured the enactment of two bodies of law known as the Civil and Criminal Practices Acts, based on the similar codes prepared by his brother David Dudley for New York.
The years immediately succeeding his retirement from the office of sheriff in 1873 he devoted exclusively to the practice of law, coming to be generally recognized as one of the leaders of the western New York bar.
Secretary Folger was a man of high character and ability, who had been chief justice of the New York supreme court when placed in control of the treasury department by President Arthur in 1881.
Cleveland retired to private life and resumed the practice of the law in New York.
The city is served by the New York, New Haven & Hartford railway (which has other stations in the township at Glenbrook, Springdale and Talmadge Hill), by electric railway to Darien, Greenwich, &c., and by two lines of steamboats to New York City and ports on the Sound.
It is the place of residence of many New York business men.
Gouverneur served in the New York Provincial Congress in 1776-1777, was perhaps the leading advocate in that body of a declaration of independence, and after the Congress had become (July 1776) the "Convention of the Representatives of the state of New York," he served on the committee of that body which prepared the first draft of the state constitution.
In 1787 he bought Morrisania from Staats Long Morris, and returned to New York to live.
He was chief justice of New York from about 1720 until 1733, was sent to England by the popular party late in 1734 to present their grievances to the king, and was governor of New Jersey from 1738 until his death on the 21st of May 1746.
He returned to New York in 1798, resumed the practice of his profession, re-entered politics, and sat in the United States Senate as a Federalist from 1800 to 1803.
He joined the army as brigadier-general of militia in June 1778,, and served in the New York Senate in 1777-1781 and 1784-1790.
The English Revolution of 1688 divided the people of New York into two well-defined factions.
He summoned the first Intercolonial Congress in America, which met in New York on the 1st of May 1690 to plan concerted action against the French and Indians.
Colonel Henry Sloughter was commissioned governor of the province on the 2nd of September 1689 but did not reach New York until the 19th of March 1691.
There has been much controversy among historians with regard both to the facts and to the significance of Leisler's brief career as ruler in New York.
In eleven cases such enumerations have been taken; and on computing from them and the results of the federal census of 1880 what the population at the date of the eleventh census should have been, if the annual rate of increase had been uniform, it appears that in no case, except New York City and Oregon, was the difference between the enumerations and these estimates over 4%.
In Oregon about 30,000 more people were found in 1890 than the estimate would lead one to expect; in New York city, about ioo,000 less.
His health failed in 1874 and he died in New York City on the 7th of February 1877.
After graduating at Harvard College in 1852 and at the law school of Harvard University in 1854, he was admitted first to the Massachusetts (1855) and then (1856) to the New York bar, and entered the law office of Scudder & Carter in New York City.
This firm and its successor, that of Evarts, Choate & Beaman, remained for many years among the leading law firms of New York and of the country, the activities of both being national rather than local.
In 1871 he became a member of the "Committee of Seventy" in New York City, which was instrumental in breaking up the "Tweed Ring," and later assisted in the prosecution of the indicted officials.
In 1894 he was president of the New York state constitutional convention.
See New York (disambiguation) for articles sharing the title New York.
Thus the boundary between New York and the province of Quebec, Canada, is wholly artificial.
In addition to this, New York includes 3140 sq.
The most notable topographic feature is the roughly circular mountain area of north-eastern New York known as the Adirondack mountains (q.v.).
First come the low folds of the western Appalachians, which, though well developed in Pennsylvania, die out near the New York boundary.
The most pronounced of these upfolded strata in New York form the low Shawangunk mountains, which descend, toward the S.E., to a lowland region of folded strata of limestone, slate and other rocks in Orange and Dutchess counties.
On the New York side of the Hudson the rocks are crystalline, the surface a region of low hills, a continuation of the crystalline area of Connecticut, and comparable with the Piedmont plateau of the Southern states.
The drainage of New York finds its way to the sea in various directions.
Thus New York is pre-eminently a divide region, sending its drainage, by various courses, into widely separated parts of the ocean.
The Hudson (q.v.) is essentially a New York stream, though it receives some drainage from the New England States through its small eastern tributaries.
In the extreme western part of the state is Chautauqua Lake, beautifully situated in the plateau of western New York.
Naturally, therefore, a dense population, engaged mainly in manufacturing and commerce, has gathered around the shores of this harbour, the greatest number on Manhattan 'Island and the contiguous mainland in New York City, but large numbers also on western Long Island, in Brooklyn, on the smaller islands, and on the New Jersey side.
It is supplied by the tidaland wind-formed currents, which are drifting sand from the Long Island and New Jersey coasts, extending the barrier beaches, such as Sandy Hook, out across the entrance to New York Bay.
In general the climate of New York is typical of that of northern United States, a climate of extremes, hot in summer, and cold in winter, and yet healthful, stimulating, and, on the whole, not disagreeable.
About New York City, and on Long Island, the snow rarely exceeds I ft.
About New York City, and on Long Island, the ocean softens the rigours of winter, and through the influence of cold surface waters off the coast, tempers the heat of summer.
Although one of the smaller states in the Union, being 30th in area, New York ranks first in population and in wealth, and has won for itself the name Empire State.
The Great Lakes waterway naturally finds an outlet in New York City.
This has made it easy for the states to the west to contribute raw materials, notably coal and iron, adding these to the natural raw products of New York.
Thus it happens that from Buffalo to New York City there is a chain of busy manufacturing centres along the natural highway followed by the Erie Canal and the Hudson river.
Other parts of the state, where connected with the main highway, are influenced by it to some extent; but away from the great natural route of commerce New York is not especially noteworthy either for it, density of population or for extensive manufacturing and commerce.
There are about 375 species of fish in New York waters (see below under Fisheries).
Although New York has lost in the competition with the Western States in the production of most of the grains, especially wheat and barley, and in the production of wool, mutton and pork, it has made steady progress in the dairy business and continues to produce great crops of hay.
Maple sugar is an important by-product of the forests, and in the production of this commodity New York ranks second only to Vermont; 3,623,540 lb were made in 1900.
New York was in 1904 more extensively engaged in oyster culture than any other state, and was making more rapid progress in the cultivation of hard clams. In 1909 there were distributed from state fish hatcheries 1 531,293,721 fishes (mostly smelt, pike-perch, and winter flatfish); a large number of fish and eggs were also placed in New York waters by the United States Bureau of Fisheries.
Menhaden are caught in much larger quantities in New York than any other fish, but being too bony for food they are used only in the manufacture of oil and fertilizer.
The New York fisheries of Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Niagara and St Lawrence rivers yielded products in 1903 valued at $187,198 and consisting largely of pikeperch, herring, catfish, bullheads and sturgeon, and in 1902 there were commercial fisheries in sixteen interior lakes and rivers which yielded muscallonge, smelt, bullheads, pickerel, pike-perch and several other varieties having a total value of $87,897.
The extensive deposits of clay in the Hudson Valley together with the easy water communications with New York City have made this valley the greatest brick-making region in the world; in 1906 the common bricks made here numbered 1,230,692,000.
The common bricks made in New York in 1908 were valued at $5,066,084, an amount in excess of that in any other state; and the total value of brick and tile products was $7,270,981, being less than that of Ohio, Pennsylvania or Illinois.
From Tuckahoe, Westchester county, has been taken white marble, used in some of the finest buildings in New York City, and a similar marble is obtained ih Putnam and Dutchess counties.
The rock was found in much greater quantities at Rosendale, in Ulster county, in 1823, and the amount of this cement produced by New York rose to 4,689,167 barrels in 1899; the state is still the chief producer but only 947,929 barrels were made in 1908.
Salt was discovered by the Jesuits in Western New York about the middle of the 17th century, and was manufactured by the Indians in the Onondaga region.
There are more than forty mineral springs in New York whose waters are of commercial importance, and in 1908 the waters sold from them amounted to 8,007,092 gals., valued at $877,648; several of the springs, especially those in Saratoga county, attract a large number of summer visitors.
The establishment of a great highway of commerce through the state from New York City to Buffalo by the construction of the Erie Canal, opened in 1825, and later by the building of railways along the line of the water route, made the state's manufactures quite independent of its own natural resources.
The refining of sugar was begun in New York City late in the 18th century, but the growth of the industry to its present magnitude has been comparatively recent; the value of the sugar and molasses refined in 1905 was $116,438,838.
More than three-fifths of that of 1905 was represented by the manufactures of New York City alone.
Niagara Falls and New York City manufacture a large part of the chemicals, and the value of the state's output rose to $29,090,484 in 1905.
From the very beginning of the occupation of New York by Europeans, commerce was much encouraged by the natural water-courses.
The New York Central & Hudson River railway, nearly parallel with the water route from New York City to Buffalo, was formed by the union, in 1869, of the New York Central with the Hudson River railway.